German I Tutorial Other German pages: German Index | German II Tutorial | German III Tutorial

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehr-shtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand. Kannst du mir helfen? Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know. Natürlich

ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ? Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-geh-sen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are... Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German letter a ä e i o ö u ü b d g ch au ei eu, äu ie j English sound ah, as in father ahh, as in fat eh ee or ih oh eh, but with rounded lips oo ee, but with rounded lips b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, doesn't exist in English ow, as in "cow" eye oy ee y

qu s ß sp st sch th v w z

kv z or ss at end of word ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f v ts

3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i
ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee

j k l m n o p q r

yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr

s t u v w x y z

ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset

Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. It's actually a double s. Some people will write it ss instead of ß.

4. Nouns and Cases
All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, schaft, -sion, -sis, -tät, -tion, -ung and -ur. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -ät, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. We see the guide. We give it to the guide. The book of the girl.

Note: The nouns I give you, and the ones you look up in a dictionary, will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles and Demonstratives
Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. Nom. dieser diese dieses diese der die das Acc. diesen diese dieses diese den die das Dat. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem Gen. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns
Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie, Sie veer we eer you (all)

air, zee, ess, mahn he, she, it, one

zee they, you (formal)

Note: Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, and to Become
Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin wir sind veer zint I am ikh bin we are ihr seid eer zide You are (fam.) du bist doo bihst you are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint He/she/it is Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) habe haben werde werden hah-buh hah-ben vair-duh vair-den hast habt wirst werdet hahst hahbt veerst vair-det hat haben wird werden haht hah-ben veert vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den warst varst wart vart hattest hah-test hattet hah-tet wurdest voor-dest wurdet voor-det war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. = I am thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

8. Useful Words
und and oont aber but ah-ber sehr very zair oder or oh-der hier here here auch also owkh beide both by-duh etwas some eht-vahss nur only noor wieder again vee-der hopefully hoffentlich hoh-fent-likh between zwischen zvish-en therefore deshalb des-halp a lot, many viel(e) feel(uh) wirklich really veerk-lish zusammen tsoo-zah-men together alle all ahl-luh jetzt now yetst also so al-zoh noch ein nohkh ine another schon already shone nicht wahr nikht vahr isn't it? schade too bad shah-duh gern gladly gehrn immediately sofort zoh-fort sicher(lich) zikh-er-likh sure(ly) sondern rather zohn-dehrn schließlich shleess-likh finally stimmt right! shtimt überhaupt anyway oo-ber-howpt genug enough guh-nook exact(ly) genau guh-now sometimes manchmal mahnch-mal immer always im-er nie never nee oft often ohft of course klar klahr perhaps vielleicht fee-likht ein bisschen ine biss-khen a little ein wenig a little ine vay-nikh not at all gar nicht gar nikht kein bisschen kine biss-khen not a bit

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.

9. Question Words
Who What Why When Where How Wer Was Warum Wann Wo Wie vehr vahs vah-room vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Whom (dat.) How come Where from Where to Which Wen Wem Wieso Woher Wohin Welchvain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin velsh

10. Numbers
0 1 Null Eins nool ines

1.000 Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig (Ein)hundert (Ein)tausend tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei. e) zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. i. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths.e. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä. 11.000 would be 1 000.

use am.every.today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend. Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. Tuesdays. 13. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays.previous. use im.last (as in the last of a series). Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season).next. use im. letzten ." All days. Austria and Switzerland. nächsten . months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany. 14. etc. vorigen . 12. Directions .

. Um 8 Uhr. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. Es ist kalt schön heiß vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise ... At 8.North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. always uses the 24 hour clock. It's cold beautiful hot Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau.. such as for bus and train schedules. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time. 17.

to know facts weiß vise wissen vih-sun weißt vighst wisst vihst weiß vise wissen vih-sun . e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä. ist schlecht klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö.clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf. To Know People and Facts kennen . 19. er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun.to know people kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun kennst kenst kennt kent kennt kent kennen ken-nun wissen .

such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: ein . Possessive Adjectives Nom. Riese. here are some rules that can help: 1. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. and the following nouns: Elefant. Soldat. Masc. However. euer-your (ihr form). Journalist). Vorfahre. u or au add an umlaut.20. o. Junge. Herr. Ihr-your (Sie form). Fem. Komponist. mein mein meinem meines Pl. Zeuge). Mensch. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21.a/an. Polizist. Kunde. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. o . mein meinen meinem meines Fem. Tourist. dein-your (du form). Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. Dat. 22. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). unser-our. Student. zwei Lampen eine Lampe zwei Türen eine Tür eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. . Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Acc. ihr-her. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. Gen. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Nachbar. but neuter plural nouns ending in e don't. Neuter Plural den die das die Definite Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. Neffe. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. sein-his/its. ihr-their. u or au. and kein-no/not any. Löwe. Patient. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all.

There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. Neuter Plural dem der dem den Definite Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. I give (to) my brother a tie. Usually. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. die Farbe des Vogels . you would have to say the apple eats me. Usually in English. if you were to change word order. When speaking.Personal Pronouns . Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does.Nominative & Accusative mich me uns us ich I wir we du you dich you ihr you euch you ihn him sie them er he sie they sie her Sie you sie she Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence.the size of the house . unless they already end in an -n or -s. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. Take. but in English. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. or an -es if the word is one syllable. German only adds an -s to the noun. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun. In German. For proper nouns. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. whereas English relies mainly on word order. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. I give it to my brother. Fem. 23. more often in writing than in speech. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. for example. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. 24. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable.

German does not use articles before professions.the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Neu. To Do or Make Machen . You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä.my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . Work and School male worker architect mechanic librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer president priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Arbeiter Architekt (en) Automechaniker Bibliothekar Fernsehreporter Ingenieur Koch (ö. School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä. which is Ich bin Berliner. Fem.die Tasche meiner Mutter . the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural.to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner. e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Präsident (en) Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer female Arbeiterin Architektin Automechanikerin Bibliothekarin Fernsehreporterin Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor hairdresser custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer salesperson dentist male Anwalt (ä. instead I am a person from Berlin. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie . Also. e) female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. because it translates to I am a jelly donut. Plural des der des der Definite Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25.

e) Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard Easy Vacation Assignment Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. or direction). to. by seit since. on (vertical surfaces. Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. on (horizontal surfaces). for bei near. or Dat. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps. an at. by means of (transportation) von from (person.Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü.) die Aufgabe (n) 27. from (country. to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for. besides Preps. open space. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. that take the Dative case aus out (of). town or place) mit with. er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. at home of or place of business nach after. at. to (some public buildings) hinter behind durch gegen um für ohne . that may take Acc.

28. Put it beside the house. above. Drive the car behind the house. feminine or plural countries) beside. next to over. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. below. Note: Stellen. The bottles are in front of the door. Es ist neben dem Haus. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. Put the bottles in front of the door. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. of the to the through the around the . Stell es unter den Tisch. enclosed space. Put it on the table. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. Er geht in die Küche. It is beside the house. Stell es auf den Tisch. before between For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction.) and nach Hause . But one exception is zu Hause . and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. legen and setzen use the accusative case.(to) home (acc. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. It's lying on the table.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home.at home (dat. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. Write it on the board. into (building. It is on the board. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. while stehen. beneath in front of. The car is behind the house. across. about under. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. It is under the table. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. The picture hangs over the sofa.in neben über unter vor zwischen in. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa. among. He hangs the picture over the sofa. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. Schreib es an die Tafel. Es ist unter dem Tisch. Er ist in der Küche. Es steht an der Tafel. He is in the kitchen. He goes into the kitchen. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. Put it under the table.

but nicht means not and kein means no. adjective) or all of a sentence. That's not my wife. noun. Das ist meine Frau. Heute ist es nicht kalt. Heute ist es kalt. not a. To and From Countries and Cities . das ist keine Kusine. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Ägypter Fem. It is cold today. It is not cold today. Nicht also follows expressions of time. that's not a cousin. Countries and Nationalities Germany England France USA Russia Switzerland Italy Spain Japan China Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland Greece Holland Netherlands Ireland Korea Mexico Norway Portugal Sweden Poland Egypt Country Deutschland England Frankreich die USA Russland die Schweiz Italien Spanien Japan China Österreich Australien Belgien Kanada Dänemark Finnland Griechenland Holland die Niederlande Irland Korea Mexiko Norwegen Portugal Schweden Polen Ägypten Masc. Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. Das ist nicht meine Frau. or it could negate any part (verb. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. nicht comes last. It you want to negate an entire sentence. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. It is declined as an ein-word.29. 31. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. No. That's my wife. or not any. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Ägypterin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch Ägyptisch. Arabisch 30. Nicht always follows the verb.

Nicht dürfen translates to must not.to come komme koh-muh kommen koh-men kommst kohmst kommt kohmt kommt kohmt kommen koh-men gehen .to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen.to be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen .I am from Switzerland. 34. To Come and to Go kommen . To form regular verbs in German. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. The following table is in the same format.to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . können .I'm flying to Switzerland.to be allowed to muß müssen darf dürfen mußt müsst darfst dürft muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. they run vs. Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t . They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb.I am from Germany. the definite article must also be used. Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense.nach To From aus in In Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Ich fliege nach Deutschland . he/she/it runs). no ending and -s ending (I. we. Ich bin aus der Schweiz . Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. Modal Verbs German has 6 of them. Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it. Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. Ich bin aus Deutschland .I'm flying to Germany. And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. you.to go gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in gehst gehst geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in 33. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form.to ought to wollen . sollen .to have to dürfen . 32. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence.

Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. not a possessive. think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern to get angry sich aufregen to get excited sich ausruhen to rest sich erkälten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) .) However. Examples in English would be: I wash myself. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. I am running. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article.I'm taking off my coat. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative mich uns mir uns dich euch dir euch sich sich sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense.-t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. we hate ourselves. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. 35. In other words. such as I run. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject.I don't feel well. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. I do run. he hurts himself. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus .

empfehlen-to recommend. Reden-to speak . sterben-to die. add an e before three endings. waschen-to wash. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break.sich hinlegen sich verletzen sich beeilen sich erholen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed to hurry sich setzen to sit down to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über to be angry at/about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen über to happy about sich gewöhnen an to get used to sich kümmern um to take care of sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. essen-to eat. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. sprechen-to speak. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. geschehen-to happen. helfen-to help. treffen-to meet.to read. tragen-to carry. schlafen-to sleep. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. befehlen-to command.

When conjugated.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of.vorbei." Verbs with Separable Prefixes . Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form.mit. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5.auf. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now. but ankommen is to arrive.zurückan.zu.bei." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37. but the prefix remains attached. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms.los. have -t for du form ending instead of -st.vorweg.aus. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38.rede redest redet reden redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound." With modals. Separable Prefixes ab.nach. Kommen is to come.

to tell. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix.to overtake. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . and -arbeit. Machen is to do/make. . Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle.ge. so studiert is the past participle.is the stem. therefore gesagt is the past participle. gewinnen . Studieren is to study and studier. unternehmen . Inseparable Prefixes be. especially in conversation.er.is the stem.is the stem. and -sag. 40.to visit. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked.to win.is the stem. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end.to translate.ent. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables.to promise. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. they are separable. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. Arbeiten is to work. überholen .to entertain.veremp. and -mach.miss. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen . appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to suggest to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to emigrate to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen vorbeikommen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen zurückkommen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to listen to to take with to board to come by to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. erzählen . watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to come back to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe 39. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. When prefixes are stressed. they are inseparable. Past participles are made by adding ge. therefore gemacht is the past participle.to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et.to undertake. when they are not stressed. Sagen is to ask.abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen vorschlagen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen auswandern weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. and versprechen . Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. and übersetzen .

then the past participles of the modals are used. The new stems in between must be memorized. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. 2. All modals. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. the past participle is not used. With separable prefixes. as well as reflexive verbs. Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begonnen begin beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten gebeten ask brechen gebrochen break empfehlen empfohlen recommend essen gegessen eat finden gefunden find fressen eat (of animals) gefressen frieren gefroren freeze geben gegeben give gewinnen gewonnen win gießen gegossen pour. and then add the prefix to the beginning. The verb is intransitive (i. but forming the participles is much more complicated. the prefix comes before the ge. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. whether the verb is regular or irregular. With inseparable prefixes.prefix when forming the past participle. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. cannot take a direct object. Logically. but aufstehen takes sein. both of these conditions are met: 1.I asked my brother. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes.The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen.and end with -en (with some exceptions). 41. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense.) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt.in a past participle. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. However. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. there is no ge.e. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . I broke my arm. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. if and only if. stehen takes haben. The past participles begin with ge. but a few use sein. such as besucht and verloren. From the participle of the base verb. For example. water halten gehalten hold heißen geheißen be called .

helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen help sound let. like all irregular verbs. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. They form their past participles like regular verbs. allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt .

Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham ice cream jam rice das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. and many have irregular past participles. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink milk egg honey snack cheese das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä.42. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse . Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride swim be jump climb die step grow become geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden 43.

Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. er) der Truthahn (ä. so to say a glass of water.ein Stück Pizza 46. e) der Fisch (e) 45. Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form. The genitive case implies of. Fruits. Imperative of Sein . e) das Huhn (ü. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin der Kürbis (e) olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake . e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä. a glass of water .salad soup der Salat die Suppe mustard pie der Senf die Torte (n) 44. Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive. All commands require an exclamation point.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case.

Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. obwohl-although. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. (während is a subordinating conjunction. ob-whether. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). Some examples are als-when. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. He is tired when he must get up early. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. .) Ich weiß nicht. bis-until. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. Ich bliebe zu Hause. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. when a double infinitive construction is involved. weil ich krank bin. I'm staying home because I am sick. während-while. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. Ich bin krank. aber. the prefix remains attached to the verb. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. 2. Er ist immer müde. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. Ich bliebe zu Hause. the modal goes last. damit-so that. wenn er früh aufsteht. Er ist müde.) However.) 3. bevor-before. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. She has eaten. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. conjunction. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. wenn-if/when.du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. (nachdem is the sub. Und. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. and they do affect word order. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. and wie-how. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. telefoniert. following the infinitive. He is always tired when he gets up early. da-since. 4. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. denn . nachdem sie gegessen hat. nachdem-after. I don't know if he wanted to come along. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. and bin must go to the end.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. 1. dass-that. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. weil-because. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. She's coming to your place. I'm staying home. and hat must go to the end. I am sick. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. Hans will call you. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. Während Sie in Berlin sind. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. während Sie in Berlin sind. Sie kommt nach zu dir. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. While you are in Berlin. Sie hat gegessen.for/because.

these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. Helfen. After verbs of this type. Ich habe ihm geholfen. er) der Friedhof (ö. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. I'm having my son pick up the mail. lassen means to let or allow./We're building a house. We're having a house built. I heard him coming. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. er) das Lebensmittelgrocery store geschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) library das Krankenhaus (ä. e) das Denkmal (ä.48. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. 50. er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. but German uses a dependent infinitive. er) hospital das Stadion (Stadien) stadium das Kino (s) movie theater das Eisenwarenhardware store geschäft (e) stationery store das Schreibwaren- . e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) das Dorf (ö. lassen and the senses Helfen. English often uses a present participle. er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. I see him coming. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. Usually. Like the modals. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something. e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) ah-poh-tek-uh droh-ger-ee fah-breek mets-geh-rie booch-lah-den flook-hahf-en gah-rah-zhuh raht-house shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-geh-sheft dry cleaner's die Reinigung (en) rien-ee-gunk der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. Ich sehe ihn kommen. I helped him. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum church square monument building house die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-oh-tek krahnk-en-house shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-war-engeh-sheft shribe-var-enpharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop bookstore airport garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store die Apotheke (n) die Drogerie (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) das Rathaus (ä) das Schloss (ö. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence.

they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest ich du . können ich konnte du konntest er. For the modal verbs. train. 52. haben. Nevertheless. this tense corresponds I did. etc. etc. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. Imperfect Tense In English. use mit dem and the noun. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. sie. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. The one exception is streetcar. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). werden. even in conversational German. however it used more often in writing. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. he cried.. Mögen changes the g to ch as well.geschäft (e) geh-scheft 51. you saw. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. es konnte wir konnten ihr konntet sie konnten Imperfect tense of Modals müssen dürfen sollen mußte durfte sollte mußtest durftest solltest mußte durfte sollte mußten durften sollten mußtet durftet solltet mußten durften sollten wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten mögen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. sein. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t.

e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. but some do not. stehen is conjugated without the -e. er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö. You will have to memorize these stems. laden (ludst.er. 54. leiden (littst.(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e. to roast). House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü.) Similarly. Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). For example.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. as they are unpredictable. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. e) der Topf (ö.(du befandest dich. and schneiden (schnittst. es wir ihr sie wußte wußten wußtet wußten brachte brachten brachtet brachten dachte dachten dachtet dachten kannte kannten kanntet kannten brannte brannten branntet brannten nannte nannten nanntet nannten rannte rannten ranntet rannten wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53.are braten (brietst. finden is conjugated without the -e. to invent). to invite). erfinden (erfandst. to suffer). er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take kommen-to come gehen-to go sangfuhrfandlasnahmkamgingIrregular Stems bliebbleiben-to stay aßessen-to eat flogfliegen-to fly gabgeben-to give riefrufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schliefschreiben-to write schriebIrregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help nennen-to name sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. to cut). Most verb stems do add -est in the du form. er) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. sie.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) .) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d.(du verstandest. singen-to sing fahren-to ride.

Es ist auf dem Tisch. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. Er ist am See. in building or enclosed space. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. because they are not neuter. I'm flying to Paris. town or building Ich komme aus den USA. the prepositions in. die Schweiz (f. such as der Iran (m. They are at the bank. bei where someone lives or works Ich wohne bei meiner Tante.). e) der Rasen alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket. I'm flying to the USA. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. It's on the table. von particular direction or person Ich weiß es von ihm. or at public buildings Sie sind auf der Bank. Direction When talking about locations. Er geht auf den Markt. Ich gehe in die Kirche. comes from enclosed or defined space. zu and people Sie gehen zu McDonald's. . I know it from him. I come from the USA. yard der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home.). I'm flying to Austria. aus such as country. die Türkei (f. Das Auto kommt von rechts. and die USA (pl. in enclosed spaces I'm at church. She's going to the beach. auf on surfaces. Wir sind in der Schule. Location vs. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. comes from open space. I live at my Aunt's (house). I work at McDonald's. They're going to McDonald's. The picture is on the wall. Sie geht zum Strand. I'm going to the bank. Ich bin in der Kirche. He's going to the market.).). an. ceiling door garden.dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. He is at the lake. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used. countries and cities that have definite articles* I'm going to church. specifically named buildings or places. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. The car comes from the right. die Niederlande (pl. We are at school. auf open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe auf die Bank. nach countries and cities that have no articles Ich fliege nach Paris. * Only a few countries include the articles. before name of place or business Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. an denotes border or limiting area Das Bild ist an der Wand. She comes from the bedroom. Ich fliege nach Österreich. When talking about directions or going to a place.). Ich fliege in die USA.

Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. etc. e) 57. Simply add a question mark Invert the verb and subject Use a question word + verb + subject Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement . 4. and uses time expressions. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (ü. Wir werden Latein lernen. 2. 3. (Expresses probability) 58. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). to do so. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. Werden werde werden wirst werdet wird werden I will fly to Germany. yet it uses the present tense.56. Asking Questions 1. such as tonight. To express present or future probability. and implies a future action. e) das Kostüm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. tomorrow. in both German and English. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. My friend should be home now.

Neu. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. der gute Wein die guten Freunde Acc. they turn into manch ein and so ein). keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc. and independent adjectives. wenige (few). Neu. Plural keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Nom. adjectives used with ein words. In the singular. The rest of the endings are the same. The bread is fresh. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Dat. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. Fem. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. tall wide fat. guten Wein Dat. einige (some). thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös bequem besorgt richtig . gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. Plural gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Nom. kein guter Wein keine guten Freunde Acc. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Fem.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. 60. andere (other). mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich lieb berühmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig high. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. Neu. Plural die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Nom. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article.59. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). and neuter accusative.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. Fem. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot Dat.

such as alt. / Adv. Comparative Superlative gern lieber am liebsten . oft.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. warm. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. 2. roh. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. kurz. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. drop the -e in the comparative form. klar. krank. Comparative 1. jung. A radio is cheaper than a TV. grob. t or s sound. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. dumm. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. Jens runs faster than Ernst. schlank. rasch. The kitchen is as big as the living room. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. add -er to the adjective or adverb.pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic nett preiswert teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig 61. Superlative 1. followed by als (than). or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. Irregular Forms Adj. German always uses the -er ending. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. stolz. hart. The adjectives that end in -el. arm. scharf. or an s sound. -en or -er. froh. 2. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. toll. -t. Sie ist am intelligentesten. Hans is am jüngsten. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. lang. schwach. kalt. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. She is the most intelligent. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. Hans is the youngest. stark. voll and zart. klug. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. add -(e)st to the adjective. To form the superlative. o. -en. groß. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. Adjectives that end in -el.

Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. The more money he has. e) die Straße (n) der Bauernhof (ö. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article.gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative besser höher näher mehr am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten Je mehr. The more. Julia wird immer hübscher. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. 62. desto besser. These suits are the least expensive. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63. The prices are getting higher and higher. e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. e) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf der Bach (ä. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. the happier he is. Je mehr Geld er hat. er) . desto glücklicher ist er. Die preise werden immer höher. the better.

Except when the accusative is a pronoun. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) . e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. e) das Fussgelenk (e) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun. e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl.) sie they Sie you (pol. e) das Land (ä. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. even if they seem to take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65.field forest plant city sea bay mountain range das Feld (er) der Wald (ä.) ich I du you (fam. er) das Tal (ä.) Direct Objects (Acc.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) 64. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case).

while the gender and number are determined by the noun. Da and Wo Compounds . These may be omitted in English. but must be included in German. Acc. heißt Donau. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. Der Hund. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. that I last week seen have. was Julia's. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. whom. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy".words that correspond to who. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. Neu. that through Vienna flows. The dog. it is accusative. is called the Danube. that and which in English. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. The river.brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. den ich gestern gekauft habe. (In the following example. Wer war die Frau. the preposition determines the case. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . Plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. Gen. Nom. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66. therefore. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. My father is the only person. Fem. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. Nominative Accusative Dative When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. e) die Hand (ä. to whom I nothing about it told have. war Julias. der durch Wien fliesst. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. Das is der Mantel.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. Dat.

with which he travels.(or dar. When asking about people. use a preposition and wen/wem. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem währenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). in der wir wohnen. ausser. Die Stadt. womit er reist. Animals .if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them Da(r) Compounds dagegen against it/them darin in it/them daran in it/them darauf on top of it/them dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben dazwischen dabei darum over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them between it/them on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms.as the prefix. cost a lot. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. = Die Stadt. The watch. Ohne. hat viel gekostet. Ich denke daran. hat viel gekostet. worin wir wohnen. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. has a large concert hall. and seit can never form a da(r) compound. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. hat ein großes Konzerthaus.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. in which we live. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. I'm talking about it. = Die Uhr. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. mit der er reist. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. That's why you have no luck. The city. Die Uhr. I'm thinking about it. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. a compound using da. when you need to refer to a thing. 68. However.

you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. I like Julia most of all. I like the room. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. I prefer to play hockey. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. I like soccer. I like to play tennis most of all. 70. . Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern. And of course. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. It is always in the dative case in German. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. lieber. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. The room pleases me. I don't like to play Basketball. I don't like the restaurant. I like to play soccer. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. I had lived in Wiesbaden. but it becomes the subject in German. e) der Wurm (ü. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). To use it correctly. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. Ich habe Julia am liebsten.animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. Ich spiele gern Fussball. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. Ich habe Fussball gern. Das Zimmer is the object in English. It literally means to please. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. nicht gern.

. wenn er früh aufsteht. Ich habe dir geglaubt. such as als-when. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore. Ich bleibe im Bett. nachdem-after. 6. weil-because. Wenn er kommt. 4. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. If he comes.. However. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. ob-whether. When I found him.time .verb . Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence.. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. .. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. the verb in the dependent clause is last. I stay in bed when I am sick. He is always tired when he gets up early.Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71.. but the subject follows it. bis-until.) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event. obwohl-although.. When he comes. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. wenn-if/when.. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. denn-for/because. following the infinitive. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. dass-that. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. 2. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. I want to go home. bevor-before. When asking questions. and wie-how. Als ich ihn fand. the prefix remains attached to the verb. wenn ich krank bin.. damit-so that.. Als. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. Ich will nach Hause gehen. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). da-since. Ich weiß nicht. as well as in future time. Er ist immer müde. the order is subject . Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. Review of Word Order 1. Then the verb is still in the second position. 72. I believed you. wenn is used to mean whenever or if. während-while. wann er kommt..place. oder-or. 7.manner . aber-but. (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes. the modal goes last. In most sentences.. 3. these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences).

9. He is tired when he must get up early. it goes before the indirect object. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. I stay in bed. Ich kann es nicht glauben. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. No one is at home. He hates not knowing anything about it. These words are mostly for emphasis. someday counteracts negative statement. Er haßt es. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. If the direct object is a pronoun. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. 73. and the true subject follows the verb. 8. it acts as an element. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. nichts davon zu wissen. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. Es ist niemand zu Hause. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. or softens commands 74. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. used for persuasion. bleibe ich im Bett. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. bloss mal yes. Three children are coming today. but it is not incorrect to say it. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. Es begins the sentence. I give my brother a tie. of course really is it ever well then right now only. When I am sick. Wenn ich krank bin. Other idioms: . just sometime. I give it to my brother. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet.Er ist müde. doch ja aber denn gerade nur. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. it's raining). Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence.

Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers.the old man die Alte .Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English.Architektin (female architect) 76.the old woman das Alte . first second erste zweite eleventh twelfth elfte zwölfte . dritte.everything that is old die Alten . The exceptions are erste. He does as he pleases.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. wandern (to hike) . Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. and achte. siebte. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall.gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. and using the gender of the last word. She makes her judgments rather quickly. das Ende (the end) . Architekt (male architect) . der Alte .kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between).unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less.) 75. Frankfurt (a city) . (Literally: Everything is in butter. Everything is fine. das Kind (the child) . The definite article precedes the adjective.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place. (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19. the prefix un.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well. and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns.Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun. and -ste for 20 and up.the old people 77. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. klar (clear) .) Alles ist in Butter.

you would say am zweiten Februar. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. = This novel was read by many students. . = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students had read this novel. Many students have read this novel. when saying this out loud. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. On February 2nd would be am 2. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. On May 18th. *Notice that in the passive voice. if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. Many students read this novel. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. Many students will read this novel. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. = This novel had been read by many students. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. German uses the number followed by a period. However. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. Many students read this novel. Februar. = This novel will be read by many students. change three things: 1. = This novel has been read by many students. Today is October ninth. 78. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden.third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth dritte vierte fünfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste In writing dates. Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. = This novel is read by many students. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden.

while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive. people and constitutes the subject. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. they. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. .). Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. you. then es is omitted. Man translates to one. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. We can't remove the stain. Das ist schnell zu machen. such as a dative object or time expression. 3. That can be done quickly.) But if another element. The stain cannot be removed. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. but if it were turned into the passive. we. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. They caught the thief. But sometimes there is no accusative object. Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically.Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire. 79. etc. Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. there would be no accusative object. only an implied es. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. There is no apparent subject. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es. 80. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. es is used as the subject. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. or no apparent subject at all. can be put in the first position. 2. es. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. That is quickly done. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. Avoiding the Passive 1. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft. wind. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb.

whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action.4. That can be done. um nicht zu frieren. Das kann gemacht werden. = She closes the window. damit and um…zu (so that. = Sie macht das Fenster zu. so that she won't freeze . in order to not freeze. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. Sie macht das Fenster zu. That can be done. and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. damit sie nicht friert. 82. Das läßt sich machen. She closes the window. however. Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel. Commonly. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. 81. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. in order to) show the goal of an action. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage .

. ohne mich anzusehen. Instead of sitting here. (Um. sollten wir ihn suchen. without looking at me. we should look for him. Sie sagte es. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. Hast du Lust... durch die Stadt zu fahren. That can be found in any store. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German.. and translated as present participles in English. while ohne. It is too early to get up. Um. She said it. It takes a long time to drive through the city.zu are used with infinitives. but the construction is far more common in German. Das ist nicht zu machen. um das Buch abzuholen.) Er kam. That can't be done. zu is used to indicate purpose. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. Um. 85. Statt hier zu sitzen.zu and anstatt. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well.. He came in order to pick up the book..rubber band ink pad string das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Wache security guard drive-thru window der Autoschalter der Tresor safe 84. They introduce infinitival clauses. Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer (or Computer) der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopier die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. Expressions of Time . Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used..

and may refer to the future or past. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. Time expressions with the prepositions an. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. In der Nacht wird es kalt. Noch ein means one more. and ander.both mean another. One morning he'll be late. Last Sunday I stayed home. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen.means a different one. 87. She's going to Germany next week.The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. It gets cold at night. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time.and noch ein. He visited us last year. Three years ago it was just as cold here. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. Eines Tages war er krank. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü. in and vor are in the dative case. We must return on Sunday. Ein(e) ander. Another Ein(e) ander. but they cannot be used interchangeably. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? . One day he was sick. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc.

and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte Subjunctive II brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense. It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle.. For strong (irregular) verbs. . Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. adds an umlaut where possible. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fön der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser 90.. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. For weak (regular) verbs. The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative.Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89. dann) statements and conditional sentences.then (wenn.. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect.

sein. Kommt er heute nicht. es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. If I had money. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen.. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. kennen. If I had time. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest er. If he's not coming today. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. If I had time. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. I would fly to Germany. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. werfen. wenn er zu heiß ist. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? mögen möchte möchtest möchte möchten möchtet möchten . (so) kommt er morgen. please. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. dann) pattern in both English and German. haben or sein. If I had had time. and rennen. For this reason. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. except with these eight verbs: helfen. stehen. However. haben and werden. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. sterben. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause.Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. Past Subj. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite.. sie. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb.. (then) I would go to the movies. Wenn ich Geld hätte. 91. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. Present Subj. dann ginge ich ins Kino. I would go to the movies.. brennen. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. (then) I would have gone to the movies. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. nennen. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. and in this case. Moreover. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. then (wenn. = We would like two colas. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. then he'll come tomorrow. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. bitte.

which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. impartial way.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. In everyday conversation. although they are important. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II.92. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. In certain cases. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. In this case. 93. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. e) der Kofferraum (ä. The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) . the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II.

It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. they both mean "as if" or "as though. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. Present Participle To form the present participle. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte. simply add -d to the infinitive. 97." Both introduce a dependent clause. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. In addition. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. both require the subjunctive II. In the Ocean scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker shipwreck helm der Schiffbruch der Helm 96. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. so the conjugated verb must go to the end.94. In Space astronaut der Astronaut beaker das Becherglas .

Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild . Ich werde es genommen haben.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. / That was probably Rudi. It will have become dark. It is formed with the future of haben or sein. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. That will have been Rudi. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. I will have taken it. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). When using modals. Er wird gegangen sein. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him. and the past participle. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. He will have gone. Es wird dunkel geworden sein.space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem laboratory das Labor 98. 99. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen.

4. Mittag. . The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Also. Recht haben. Morgen. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. 101.elf giant tower knight squire der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe sword lance ax das Schwert die Lanze die Axt drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown king queen princess prince throne die Krone der König die Königin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron court jester der Hofnarr minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger die Rüstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schloß 100. Spelling Reform Recently. Acc. Abend. Gen. Singular: Nom. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. Dat. Leid tun… 3. 2. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. so it must be written as SS. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch. there has been a spelling reform of the German language. Write ss after a short vowel.

Gen. Acc. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. Nom. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. -er. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. Pl. -er. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. Dat. -en. end in -el. Pl. Sing. Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. then add nothing. Lion(s) Singular Plural die Löwen Nom. Sing. Pl. Acc. -en. Gen. den Löwen die Löwen Dat.) Sing. Sing. Forest der Wald die Wälder die Wälder den Wäldern der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. -r.Singular: Nom. Plural der Vater die Väter den Vater die Väter dem Vater den Vätern des Vaters der Väter Nom. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. the Nominative. Dat. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. -e. and Accusative Plural are the same. Acc. unless it already ends in -s or -n. der Mann die Frau das Kind den Männern den Frauen den Kindern Dat. Pl. Some may add -n. Man Woman Child Nom. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge. Gen. der Löwe Acc. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. Pl. Nom. 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. Sing. Genitive. Dat. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German.and end with -e .

den Mann die Männer Dat. Genitive. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. das Auto die Autos Acc. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. Accusative. Genitive. and Genitive. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable.) Sing. and das Hotel. Plural Nom. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. Plural Nom. -en to Dative Fruit (fem. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. der Student Acc.Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. dem Mann den Männern Gen. such as das Radio. der Mann Acc.) Sing. Plural die Männer Nom. most masculine that denote living things. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. das Restaurant. dem Auto den Autos Gen. and Accusative. das Auto die Autos Dat. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable.) Sing. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. der Frucht den Früchten Gen. . die Frucht die Früchte Dat. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. and Accusative. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. Plural die Studenten Nom.

Plural Nom. dem Bett den Betten . das Herz Dat. das Bett die Betten Dat.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu.) Sing. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. das Bett die Betten Acc.Group 6 . Plural die Herzen Nom. des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular. Plural die Namen der Name den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 . may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing. das Herz die Herzen Acc.

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