German I Tutorial Other German pages: German Index | German II Tutorial | German III Tutorial

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehr-shtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand. Kannst du mir helfen? Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know. Natürlich

ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ? Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-geh-sen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are... Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German letter a ä e i o ö u ü b d g ch au ei eu, äu ie j English sound ah, as in father ahh, as in fat eh ee or ih oh eh, but with rounded lips oo ee, but with rounded lips b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, doesn't exist in English ow, as in "cow" eye oy ee y

qu s ß sp st sch th v w z

kv z or ss at end of word ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f v ts

3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i
ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee

j k l m n o p q r

yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr

s t u v w x y z

ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset

Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. It's actually a double s. Some people will write it ss instead of ß.

4. Nouns and Cases
All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, schaft, -sion, -sis, -tät, -tion, -ung and -ur. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -ät, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. We see the guide. We give it to the guide. The book of the girl.

Note: The nouns I give you, and the ones you look up in a dictionary, will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles and Demonstratives
Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. Nom. dieser diese dieses diese der die das Acc. diesen diese dieses diese den die das Dat. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem Gen. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns
Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie, Sie veer we eer you (all)

air, zee, ess, mahn he, she, it, one

zee they, you (formal)

Note: Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, and to Become
Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin wir sind veer zint I am ikh bin we are ihr seid eer zide You are (fam.) du bist doo bihst you are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint He/she/it is Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) habe haben werde werden hah-buh hah-ben vair-duh vair-den hast habt wirst werdet hahst hahbt veerst vair-det hat haben wird werden haht hah-ben veert vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den warst varst wart vart hattest hah-test hattet hah-tet wurdest voor-dest wurdet voor-det war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. = I am thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

8. Useful Words
und and oont aber but ah-ber sehr very zair oder or oh-der hier here here auch also owkh beide both by-duh etwas some eht-vahss nur only noor wieder again vee-der hopefully hoffentlich hoh-fent-likh between zwischen zvish-en therefore deshalb des-halp a lot, many viel(e) feel(uh) wirklich really veerk-lish zusammen tsoo-zah-men together alle all ahl-luh jetzt now yetst also so al-zoh noch ein nohkh ine another schon already shone nicht wahr nikht vahr isn't it? schade too bad shah-duh gern gladly gehrn immediately sofort zoh-fort sicher(lich) zikh-er-likh sure(ly) sondern rather zohn-dehrn schließlich shleess-likh finally stimmt right! shtimt überhaupt anyway oo-ber-howpt genug enough guh-nook exact(ly) genau guh-now sometimes manchmal mahnch-mal immer always im-er nie never nee oft often ohft of course klar klahr perhaps vielleicht fee-likht ein bisschen ine biss-khen a little ein wenig a little ine vay-nikh not at all gar nicht gar nikht kein bisschen kine biss-khen not a bit

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.

9. Question Words
Who What Why When Where How Wer Was Warum Wann Wo Wie vehr vahs vah-room vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Whom (dat.) How come Where from Where to Which Wen Wem Wieso Woher Wohin Welchvain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin velsh

10. Numbers
0 1 Null Eins nool ines

e.000 Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig (Ein)hundert (Ein)tausend tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei. 11. 1. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä. e) zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt . i.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths.000 would be 1 000.

Directions .every. Tuesdays. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season). Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month.previous.today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend. use am. nächsten . months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . Austria and Switzerland.next. etc. while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany. vorigen . use im.last (as in the last of a series). letzten . In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany." All days. 13. 14. 12. use im. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays.

... always uses the 24 hour clock.. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain. It's cold beautiful hot Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. such as for bus and train schedules. 17. Um 8 Uhr. At 8.North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time. early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. Es ist kalt schön heiß vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise .

19. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö. e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä.to know facts weiß vise wissen vih-sun weißt vighst wisst vihst weiß vise wissen vih-sun .clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf. ist schlecht klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. To Know People and Facts kennen . er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun.to know people kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun kennst kenst kennt kent kennt kent kennen ken-nun wissen .

However. Riese. Soldat. Gen. unser-our. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. Masc. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. ihr-their. mein mein meinem meines Pl.20. Kunde. Fem. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Mensch. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. and kein-no/not any. sein-his/its. zwei Lampen eine Lampe zwei Türen eine Tür eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. Nachbar. o . Vorfahre. u or au add an umlaut. Neuter Plural den die das die Definite Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). Student. Dat. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Tourist. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. mein meinen meinem meines Fem. Acc. Komponist. Neffe. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. ihr-her. Löwe. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. but neuter plural nouns ending in e don't. Journalist). 22. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. . Polizist. u or au. Zeuge). Herr. Ihr-your (Sie form). here are some rules that can help: 1. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: ein . and the following nouns: Elefant. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Patient. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a.a/an. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. Junge. o. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. dein-your (du form). euer-your (ihr form). Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. Possessive Adjectives Nom. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well.

die Farbe des Vogels . When speaking. In German. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. Neuter Plural dem der dem den Definite Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. whereas English relies mainly on word order. 24. but in English. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. or an -es if the word is one syllable. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . unless they already end in an -n or -s. German only adds an -s to the noun. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte.the size of the house . For proper nouns. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. Usually.Nominative & Accusative mich me uns us ich I wir we du you dich you ihr you euch you ihn him sie them er he sie they sie her Sie you sie she Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. if you were to change word order. you would have to say the apple eats me. Usually in English. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. for example. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. I give it to my brother. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Fem. 23. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. more often in writing than in speech. I give (to) my brother a tie. There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well.Personal Pronouns . the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. Take.

This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie .the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Work and School male worker architect mechanic librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer president priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Arbeiter Architekt (en) Automechaniker Bibliothekar Fernsehreporter Ingenieur Koch (ö. School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä. Plural des der des der Definite Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25. instead I am a person from Berlin. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. Fem. which is Ich bin Berliner. To Do or Make Machen . Also. Neu. German does not use articles before professions. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural. e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä.die Tasche meiner Mutter .to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. because it translates to I am a jelly donut. e) female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter.my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Präsident (en) Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer female Arbeiterin Architektin Automechanikerin Bibliothekarin Fernsehreporterin Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor hairdresser custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer salesperson dentist male Anwalt (ä.

Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. besides Preps. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. an at. or Dat. at.Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. open space. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps. from (country. town or place) mit with. by means of (transportation) von from (person. to (some public buildings) hinter behind durch gegen um für ohne .) die Aufgabe (n) 27. by seit since. that may take Acc. for bei near. on (horizontal surfaces). or direction). that take the Dative case aus out (of). on (vertical surfaces. at home of or place of business nach after. er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. e) Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard Easy Vacation Assignment Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. to.

across. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. The bottles are in front of the door. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. It is under the table. below. legen and setzen use the accusative case. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. before between For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. 28. Write it on the board. It's lying on the table. about under. The picture hangs over the sofa.at home (dat. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. next to over.) and nach Hause .) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. Er ist in der Küche. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa. of the to the through the around the . He goes into the kitchen.(to) home (acc. Schreib es an die Tafel. Er geht in die Küche. above. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. enclosed space. Es ist unter dem Tisch. But one exception is zu Hause . Drive the car behind the house. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. It is beside the house. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. Es steht an der Tafel. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. He hangs the picture over the sofa. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. while stehen. Put the bottles in front of the door. beneath in front of. into (building.in neben über unter vor zwischen in. Put it beside the house. Stell es auf den Tisch. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. feminine or plural countries) beside. It is on the board. Put it under the table. Stell es unter den Tisch. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. Put it on the table. The car is behind the house. among. Es ist neben dem Haus. He is in the kitchen. Note: Stellen. Es liegt auf dem Tisch.

or not any. Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. No. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. adjective) or all of a sentence. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. It is cold today. It is declined as an ein-word. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Ägypterin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch Ägyptisch. It you want to negate an entire sentence. that's not a cousin. Das ist nicht meine Frau. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. 31. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. Nicht also follows expressions of time. That's my wife. That's not my wife. Heute ist es kalt. nicht comes last. Arabisch 30. To and From Countries and Cities . It is not cold today.29. Nicht always follows the verb. but nicht means not and kein means no. Heute ist es nicht kalt. das ist keine Kusine. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Ägypter Fem. Countries and Nationalities Germany England France USA Russia Switzerland Italy Spain Japan China Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland Greece Holland Netherlands Ireland Korea Mexico Norway Portugal Sweden Poland Egypt Country Deutschland England Frankreich die USA Russland die Schweiz Italien Spanien Japan China Österreich Australien Belgien Kanada Dänemark Finnland Griechenland Holland die Niederlande Irland Korea Mexiko Norwegen Portugal Schweden Polen Ägypten Masc. Das ist meine Frau. not a. noun. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. or it could negate any part (verb.

nach To From aus in In Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries.to come komme koh-muh kommen koh-men kommst kohmst kommt kohmt kommt kohmt kommen koh-men gehen .to go gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in gehst gehst geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in 33. The following table is in the same format. Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. können . we. Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t .to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . Nicht dürfen translates to must not. he/she/it runs). Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. sollen . They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb.I'm flying to Germany. Ich bin aus der Schweiz . 34. Ich bin aus Deutschland .to have to dürfen . And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. 32.to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. Ich fliege nach Deutschland . you. To form regular verbs in German.I am from Switzerland. they run vs.to be allowed to muß müssen darf dürfen mußt müsst darfst dürft muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. the definite article must also be used. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. no ending and -s ending (I.to ought to wollen . Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense. To Come and to Go kommen .I am from Germany.to be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen .I'm flying to Switzerland. Modal Verbs German has 6 of them.

then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. Examples in English would be: I wash myself. think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative mich uns mir uns dich euch dir euch sich sich sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. he hurts himself. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article. In other words. not a possessive. 35. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern to get angry sich aufregen to get excited sich ausruhen to rest sich erkälten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) . desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. I do run. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus . When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. we hate ourselves.) However. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework.-t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. such as I run. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe.I don't feel well. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. I am running.I'm taking off my coat. however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English.

sterben-to die. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. helfen-to help. empfehlen-to recommend. add an e before three endings. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. waschen-to wash. sprechen-to speak. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break. schlafen-to sleep. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular.to read. tragen-to carry. Reden-to speak .sich hinlegen sich verletzen sich beeilen sich erholen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed to hurry sich setzen to sit down to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über to be angry at/about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen über to happy about sich gewöhnen an to get used to sich kümmern um to take care of sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. treffen-to meet. geschehen-to happen. befehlen-to command. essen-to eat.

Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5.los.mit. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms. When conjugated." Verbs with Separable Prefixes . to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38.zurückan. Separable Prefixes ab. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37.vorbei." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. but the prefix remains attached. but ankommen is to arrive. have -t for du form ending instead of -st.nach. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of.bei.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb.aus.rede redest redet reden redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form.auf.vorweg. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence.zu. Kommen is to come." With modals.

to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et.is the stem.to translate. therefore gemacht is the past participle. Inseparable Prefixes be. Studieren is to study and studier.to tell. so studiert is the past participle. unternehmen .to undertake. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. and -mach. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to suggest to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to emigrate to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen vorbeikommen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen zurückkommen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to listen to to take with to board to come by to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. gewinnen .ge. and -sag. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked.er. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to come back to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe 39. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. they are inseparable. they are separable. and -arbeit. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix. When prefixes are stressed. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen .abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen vorschlagen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen auswandern weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like. and versprechen . Arbeiten is to work. erzählen .miss.is the stem.to promise. 40. . when they are not stressed.to win. überholen .veremp.is the stem. especially in conversation. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. and übersetzen . therefore gesagt is the past participle.to visit. Sagen is to ask. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes.to overtake. Machen is to do/make.is the stem.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives.ent. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end.to entertain. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . Past participles are made by adding ge.

When there is no other infinitive in the sentence.e.) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. the prefix comes before the ge. However. water halten gehalten hold heißen geheißen be called . I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt. both of these conditions are met: 1. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. I broke my arm. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. then the past participles of the modals are used. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. as well as reflexive verbs. All modals. but aufstehen takes sein. stehen takes haben. 41. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs. For example.prefix when forming the past participle. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. 2. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. From the participle of the base verb. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. The past participles begin with ge. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . whether the verb is regular or irregular. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. cannot take a direct object. the past participle is not used.and end with -en (with some exceptions).I asked my brother.The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. if and only if. Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begonnen begin beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten gebeten ask brechen gebrochen break empfehlen empfohlen recommend essen gegessen eat finden gefunden find fressen eat (of animals) gefressen frieren gefroren freeze geben gegeben give gewinnen gewonnen win gießen gegossen pour. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. The new stems in between must be memorized. such as besucht and verloren. With inseparable prefixes. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. there is no ge. The verb is intransitive (i. Logically. and then add the prefix to the beginning.in a past participle. but forming the participles is much more complicated. With separable prefixes. but a few use sein.

but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt . like all irregular verbs.helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen help sound let. They form their past participles like regular verbs. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems.

42. Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham ice cream jam rice das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. and many have irregular past participles. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride swim be jump climb die step grow become geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden 43. Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink milk egg honey snack cheese das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse .

salad soup der Salat die Suppe mustard pie der Senf die Torte (n) 44. Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. er) der Truthahn (ä. e) das Huhn (ü. a glass of water . minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin der Kürbis (e) olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . All commands require an exclamation point. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake . Imperative of Sein .ein Stück Pizza 46. Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form. The genitive case implies of. so to say a glass of water. e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive. Fruits. e) der Fisch (e) 45.

Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen.) However. She has eaten. wenn er früh aufsteht. While you are in Berlin. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. 4. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. ob-whether. (während is a subordinating conjunction. Und. aber. nachdem-after. damit-so that.) Ich weiß nicht. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. conjunction. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. (nachdem is the sub. weil-because. Some examples are als-when. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. nachdem sie gegessen hat. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. when a double infinitive construction is involved. I'm staying home because I am sick. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. Sie hat gegessen. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. and bin must go to the end. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. bevor-before. following the infinitive. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. bis-until. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. and wie-how. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. während-while. and hat must go to the end. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. and they do affect word order. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. She's coming to your place.du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. . the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. Ich bin krank. Während Sie in Berlin sind. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. weil ich krank bin. I am sick. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. denn . Ich bliebe zu Hause. Er ist müde. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. Hans will call you.for/because. 2. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. obwohl-although. I'm staying home. He is tired when he must get up early. da-since. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. He is always tired when he gets up early. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. wenn-if/when. telefoniert. the prefix remains attached to the verb. während Sie in Berlin sind. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. Er ist immer müde. the modal goes last. 1. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. Sie kommt nach zu dir. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive).) Sie kommt nach zu dir. I don't know if he wanted to come along. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. dass-that. Ich bliebe zu Hause.) 3.

I heard him coming. Helfen. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. After verbs of this type. er) der Friedhof (ö. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. lassen and the senses Helfen. er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. 50. I see him coming. e) das Denkmal (ä. lassen means to let or allow./We're building a house. Like the modals. I helped him. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum church square monument building house die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-oh-tek krahnk-en-house shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-war-engeh-sheft shribe-var-enpharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop bookstore airport garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store die Apotheke (n) die Drogerie (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) das Rathaus (ä) das Schloss (ö. but German uses a dependent infinitive. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) ah-poh-tek-uh droh-ger-ee fah-breek mets-geh-rie booch-lah-den flook-hahf-en gah-rah-zhuh raht-house shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-geh-sheft dry cleaner's die Reinigung (en) rien-ee-gunk der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. er) hospital das Stadion (Stadien) stadium das Kino (s) movie theater das Eisenwarenhardware store geschäft (e) stationery store das Schreibwaren- . er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. Usually. We're having a house built. Ich sehe ihn kommen. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. Ich habe ihm geholfen. e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) das Dorf (ö. English often uses a present participle. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something.48. I'm having my son pick up the mail. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. er) das Lebensmittelgrocery store geschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) library das Krankenhaus (ä.

er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä.. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. es konnte wir konnten ihr konntet sie konnten Imperfect tense of Modals müssen dürfen sollen mußte durfte sollte mußtest durftest solltest mußte durfte sollte mußten durften sollten mußtet durftet solltet mußten durften sollten wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten mögen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. Nevertheless. sein. 52. For the modal verbs.geschäft (e) geh-scheft 51. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t. haben. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). etc. train. sie. this tense corresponds I did. you saw. etc. even in conversational German. Imperfect Tense In English. werden. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. use mit dem and the noun. he cried. können ich konnte du konntest er. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. The one exception is streetcar. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. however it used more often in writing. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest ich du .

er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. to invent). as they are unpredictable. to suffer). travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take kommen-to come gehen-to go sangfuhrfandlasnahmkamgingIrregular Stems bliebbleiben-to stay aßessen-to eat flogfliegen-to fly gabgeben-to give riefrufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schliefschreiben-to write schriebIrregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help nennen-to name sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). e) der Topf (ö.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e. laden (ludst. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. and schneiden (schnittst. Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö.are braten (brietst. 54. to invite). er) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) . e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e.(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e. singen-to sing fahren-to ride. but some do not. You will have to memorize these stems. For example.) Similarly. to cut). to roast). the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. stehen is conjugated without the -e. erfinden (erfandst.(du verstandest. sie. es wir ihr sie wußte wußten wußtet wußten brachte brachten brachtet brachten dachte dachten dachtet dachten kannte kannten kanntet kannten brannte brannten branntet brannten nannte nannten nanntet nannten rannte rannten ranntet rannten wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. finden is conjugated without the -e. e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. leiden (littst. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü.(du befandest dich.er.

auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. die Türkei (f. She comes from the bedroom. countries and cities that have definite articles* I'm going to church. die Schweiz (f. Er geht auf den Markt. I'm going to the bank.). an denotes border or limiting area Das Bild ist an der Wand. bei where someone lives or works Ich wohne bei meiner Tante.). auf on surfaces. The picture is on the wall. comes from enclosed or defined space. specifically named buildings or places. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. comes from open space.dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. I live at my Aunt's (house). and die USA (pl.). He is at the lake. He's going to the market. e) der Rasen alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket. I'm flying to Austria. Das Auto kommt von rechts. I'm flying to the USA. The car comes from the right. aus such as country. . Ich gehe in die Kirche. in building or enclosed space. They are at the bank. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. or at public buildings Sie sind auf der Bank. Sie geht zum Strand.). von particular direction or person Ich weiß es von ihm. I work at McDonald's. Ich fliege nach Österreich. Es ist auf dem Tisch. before name of place or business Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. They're going to McDonald's. * Only a few countries include the articles. the prepositions in. ceiling door garden. I'm flying to Paris. I come from the USA. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. Wir sind in der Schule. When talking about directions or going to a place. yard der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. town or building Ich komme aus den USA. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. It's on the table. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. We are at school. die Niederlande (pl. in enclosed spaces I'm at church. Direction When talking about locations. Ich bin in der Kirche. because they are not neuter. I know it from him. Location vs. such as der Iran (m. zu and people Sie gehen zu McDonald's. an. Ich fliege in die USA. nach countries and cities that have no articles Ich fliege nach Paris.). auf open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe auf die Bank. She's going to the beach. Er ist am See.

Asking Questions 1. Simply add a question mark Invert the verb and subject Use a question word + verb + subject Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement . Werden werde werden wirst werdet wird werden I will fly to Germany. e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag. etc. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). use wohl (probably) with the future tense. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. e) 57. Wir werden Latein lernen. e) das Kostüm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. such as tonight. tomorrow. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (ü. 4. yet it uses the present tense.56. My friend should be home now. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. and uses time expressions. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. To express present or future probability. 3. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. 2. (Expresses probability) 58. in both German and English. and implies a future action. to do so.

den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot Dat. Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich lieb berühmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig high. Fem. Plural keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Nom. wenige (few). and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Neu. Neu. keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. einige (some). guten Wein Dat.59. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc. In the singular. der gute Wein die guten Freunde Acc. thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös bequem besorgt richtig . adjectives used with ein words. The bread is fresh. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. Fem. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. Plural gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Nom. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. Plural die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Nom. 60. andere (other). The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. kein guter Wein keine guten Freunde Acc. Neu. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Dat. tall wide fat. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. and neuter accusative. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. Fem. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. and independent adjectives. they turn into manch ein and so ein). gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. The rest of the endings are the same.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen.

kalt. such as alt. stolz. Irregular Forms Adj. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. dumm. The adjectives that end in -el. 2. followed by als (than). When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. drop the -e in the comparative form. voll and zart. oft. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. t or s sound. add -(e)st to the adjective. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. -en. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending.pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic nett preiswert teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig 61. stark. froh. klar. add -er to the adjective or adverb. kurz.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. Sie ist am intelligentesten. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. hart. lang. warm. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. scharf. schlank. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. German always uses the -er ending. -en or -er. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. arm. o. rasch. grob. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. Hans is the youngest. toll. To form the superlative. Comparative Superlative gern lieber am liebsten . Comparative 1. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. 2. The kitchen is as big as the living room. She is the most intelligent. Adjectives that end in -el. Superlative 1. schwach. Hans is am jüngsten. klug. jung. or an s sound. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. groß. roh. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. / Adv. Jens runs faster than Ernst. krank. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. -t. A radio is cheaper than a TV.

desto besser. e) die Straße (n) der Bauernhof (ö.gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative besser höher näher mehr am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten Je mehr. er) . e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. The more. 62. desto glücklicher ist er. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. Julia wird immer hübscher. Die preise werden immer höher. The more money he has. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. These suits are the least expensive. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. e) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf der Bach (ä. the happier he is. the better. Je mehr Geld er hat. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. The prices are getting higher and higher.

) sie they Sie you (pol. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case). Except when the accusative is a pronoun. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) .) ich I du you (fam.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.) Direct Objects (Acc. e) das Fussgelenk (e) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) 64.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. er) das Tal (ä. even if they seem to take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65.field forest plant city sea bay mountain range das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü. e) das Land (ä.

dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe. that I last week seen have. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. Gen. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. Da and Wo Compounds . e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. Nominative Accusative Dative When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. whom. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. Nom. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. Plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. that through Vienna flows. but must be included in German. der durch Wien fliesst. therefore. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. These may be omitted in English. heißt Donau.words that correspond to who. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. the preposition determines the case. Der Hund. Acc. was Julia's. is called the Danube.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman.brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. that and which in English. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. Wer war die Frau. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. war Julias. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". den ich gestern gekauft habe. it is accusative. Neu. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. The dog. Das is der Mantel. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. e) die Hand (ä. The river. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . Dat. My father is the only person. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66. to whom I nothing about it told have. (In the following example. Fem. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause.

hat viel gekostet. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. I'm thinking about it. cost a lot.as the prefix. The city. worin wir wohnen. However. I'm talking about it. when you need to refer to a thing. Die Stadt. and seit can never form a da(r) compound. Die Uhr. Ich denke daran. Ohne. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem währenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). = Die Stadt. When asking about people. a compound using da. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. mit der er reist. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them Da(r) Compounds dagegen against it/them darin in it/them daran in it/them darauf on top of it/them dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben dazwischen dabei darum over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them between it/them on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. in der wir wohnen. The watch.(or dar. That's why you have no luck. 68. = Die Uhr. has a large concert hall. hat viel gekostet.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. womit er reist. use a preposition and wen/wem. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. in which we live. with which he travels. ausser. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. Animals .

Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. It is always in the dative case in German. I like the room. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. but it becomes the subject in German. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. And of course. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä.animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. To use it correctly. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. Ich habe Fussball gern. nicht gern. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. Das Zimmer is the object in English. Ich spiele gern Fussball. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). I like soccer. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. It literally means to please. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. I don't like the restaurant. I prefer to play hockey. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. I don't like to play Basketball. Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern. lieber. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. 70. I like to play soccer. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. I had lived in Wiesbaden. I like to play tennis most of all. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. The room pleases me. I like Julia most of all. . you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. e) der Wurm (ü.

) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event. the prefix remains attached to the verb.place. the order is subject . Ich habe dir geglaubt. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. wenn-if/when. Ich bleibe im Bett. 6. When asking questions. In most sentences. Wenn er kommt.verb . I want to go home. such as als-when. weil-because. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions.. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. but the subject follows it.. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). However. Als ich ihn fand. obwohl-although.. bis-until. wenn er früh aufsteht. Ich will nach Hause gehen.. Er ist immer müde. während-while.. I believed you. as well as in future time. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). When he comes. these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences.. When I found him. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. wenn ich krank bin. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore.. da-since.time . 7. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. following the infinitive. and wie-how. I stay in bed when I am sick. the verb in the dependent clause is last. 4. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. Then the verb is still in the second position.. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. oder-or. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. Ich weiß nicht. (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes. wenn is used to mean whenever or if. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. 3.. nachdem-after. 72. the modal goes last. dass-that.manner . wann er kommt. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5.. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject.Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. bevor-before. aber-but. Review of Word Order 1. He is always tired when he gets up early. damit-so that. Als. . ob-whether.. denn-for/because. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. If he comes. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. 2.

of course really is it ever well then right now only. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. Wenn ich krank bin. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. If the direct object is a pronoun. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. Ich kann es nicht glauben. He is tired when he must get up early. Er haßt es. Es begins the sentence. I give my brother a tie.Er ist müde. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. someday counteracts negative statement. No one is at home. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. or softens commands 74. and the true subject follows the verb. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. bleibe ich im Bett. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. it's raining). Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. it acts as an element. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. 9. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. Other idioms: . Three children are coming today. Es ist niemand zu Hause. bloss mal yes. He hates not knowing anything about it. 8. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. nichts davon zu wissen. 73. used for persuasion. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. but it is not incorrect to say it. I stay in bed. I give it to my brother. doch ja aber denn gerade nur. just sometime. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. it goes before the indirect object. When I am sick. These words are mostly for emphasis.

Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English. Adjectival Nouns When referring to people.) Alles ist in Butter.Architektin (female architect) 76.the old people 77.gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. the prefix un. (Literally: Everything is in butter.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. and using the gender of the last word. wandern (to hike) .the old woman das Alte . Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between). dritte. adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. das Kind (the child) . just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun.Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. and -ste for 20 and up. and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns.) 75. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers. and achte. Frankfurt (a city) .unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less. She makes her judgments rather quickly. siebte. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. He does as he pleases. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well. das Ende (the end) . The exceptions are erste. der Alte . klar (clear) . (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. Architekt (male architect) .Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. first second erste zweite eleventh twelfth elfte zwölfte . (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun.the old man die Alte . The definite article precedes the adjective. Everything is fine.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place.everything that is old die Alten .

when saying this out loud. you would say am zweiten Februar. Many students will read this novel. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. = This novel was read by many students. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. . On May 18th. Many students read this novel. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden.third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth dritte vierte fünfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste In writing dates. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. Many students read this novel. change three things: 1. Today is October ninth. 78. if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Many students had read this novel. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. On February 2nd would be am 2. *Notice that in the passive voice. = This novel is read by many students. = This novel will be read by many students. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. German uses the number followed by a period. = This novel had been read by many students. Many students have read this novel. = This novel has been read by many students. However. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. Februar.

es is used as the subject. you.) But if another element. Das ist schnell zu machen. es. That can be done quickly.). This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. The stain cannot be removed. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. But sometimes there is no accusative object. while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). . only an implied es. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft. 3. we. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. there would be no accusative object. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. or no apparent subject at all. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. Man translates to one. but if it were turned into the passive. such as a dative object or time expression.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. We can't remove the stain. They caught the thief. That is quickly done. can be put in the first position. Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically. they. etc. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. 80. Avoiding the Passive 1. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. then es is omitted. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. wind. 79. 2. There is no apparent subject. Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive.Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. people and constitutes the subject.

in order to) show the goal of an action. in order to not freeze. 81. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. damit sie nicht friert. That can be done. and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action. 82. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage . That can be done. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. um nicht zu frieren. Das kann gemacht werden. whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. however. She closes the window. = She closes the window. Sie macht das Fenster zu. damit and um…zu (so that. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. = Sie macht das Fenster zu. Commonly.4. Das läßt sich machen. so that she won't freeze . Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel.

. while ohne.. That can't be done. Um. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. Hast du Lust. Instead of sitting here. It takes a long time to drive through the city. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. ohne mich anzusehen. 85. and translated as present participles in English. Sie sagte es. um das Buch abzuholen. we should look for him.rubber band ink pad string das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Wache security guard drive-thru window der Autoschalter der Tresor safe 84. They introduce infinitival clauses. Expressions of Time . sollten wir ihn suchen. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used. Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer (or Computer) der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopier die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86.. zu is used to indicate purpose. It is too early to get up. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. That can be found in any store. Um. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly. Statt hier zu sitzen. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen... Das ist nicht zu machen. She said it. durch die Stadt zu fahren. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well.. without looking at me. He came in order to pick up the book.) Er kam.. but the construction is far more common in German.zu are used with infinitives. (Um.zu and anstatt.

means a different one.both mean another. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. Eines Tages war er krank. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. Three years ago it was just as cold here. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. Time expressions with the prepositions an. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. Last Sunday I stayed home. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. but they cannot be used interchangeably. Ein(e) ander. He visited us last year. and ander.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. In der Nacht wird es kalt. Another Ein(e) ander. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. Noch ein means one more. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht.and noch ein. One morning he'll be late. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. She's going to Germany next week.The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. It gets cold at night. 87. and may refer to the future or past. We must return on Sunday. One day he was sick. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? . in and vor are in the dative case.

There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood.. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. For weak (regular) verbs. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte Subjunctive II brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative..then (wenn.. . For strong (irregular) verbs. adds an umlaut where possible. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative.Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fön der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser 90. dann) statements and conditional sentences. It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle.

sterben. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. Wenn ich Geld hätte. stehen. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. (then) I would have gone to the movies. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. and in this case. Past Subj. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. Kommt er heute nicht. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. werfen. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause. (then) I would go to the movies. dann ginge ich ins Kino. = We would like two colas. nennen. However. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. use the subjunctive II form of the modals.. I would fly to Germany.Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. If I had time. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. Present Subj. wenn er zu heiß ist. bitte. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. then he'll come tomorrow. then (wenn. Moreover. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest er. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries. For this reason. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. If I had money. kennen. brennen. I would go to the movies.. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. and rennen. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. If he's not coming today. If I had had time. sie. except with these eight verbs: helfen. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino.. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. 91. If I had time. (so) kommt er morgen. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction.. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. haben or sein. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. please. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? mögen möchte möchtest möchte möchten möchtet möchten . dann) pattern in both English and German. sein. haben and werden. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen.

e) der Kofferraum (ä. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. although they are important. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) . In this case. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. 93. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. In everyday conversation. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II.92. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. impartial way. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. In certain cases. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense.

In the Ocean scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker shipwreck helm der Schiffbruch der Helm 96. In Space astronaut der Astronaut beaker das Becherglas . kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. they both mean "as if" or "as though." Both introduce a dependent clause. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte. 97. both require the subjunctive II. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. Present Participle To form the present participle. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. so the conjugated verb must go to the end. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. In addition. simply add -d to the infinitive. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut.94.

It will have become dark. Er wird gegangen sein. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). Ich werde es genommen haben. When using modals. 99. It is formed with the future of haben or sein.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. He will have gone. That will have been Rudi. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild . I will have taken it. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. and the past participle.space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem laboratory das Labor 98. / That was probably Rudi.

there has been a spelling reform of the German language. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. 4. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. Dat. Mittag.elf giant tower knight squire der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe sword lance ax das Schwert die Lanze die Axt drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown king queen princess prince throne die Krone der König die Königin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron court jester der Hofnarr minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger die Rüstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schloß 100. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Gen. Write ss after a short vowel. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch. 101. so it must be written as SS. Singular: Nom. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. Abend. Leid tun… 3. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. Spelling Reform Recently. Also. . and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. Morgen. Recht haben. Acc. 2.

Acc. Man Woman Child Nom. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. -r. Pl. Sing. Nom. -er. Sing. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. -er. Pl. Dat. Pl. -e. Dat. Gen. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. Dat. Lion(s) Singular Plural die Löwen Nom. der Mann die Frau das Kind den Männern den Frauen den Kindern Dat. and Accusative Plural are the same. Forest der Wald die Wälder die Wälder den Wäldern der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. then add nothing. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. Acc. unless it already ends in -s or -n. Sing. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. Gen. Some may add -n. 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. -en. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. Nom. Genitive. Pl. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular.) Sing.and end with -e . 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Pl. Acc. Sing. Plural der Vater die Väter den Vater die Väter dem Vater den Vätern des Vaters der Väter Nom. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge.Singular: Nom. -en. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. Gen. the Nominative. der Löwe Acc. end in -el.

and Genitive. das Restaurant. dem Mann den Männern Gen. most masculine that denote living things. die Frucht die Früchte Dat. such as das Radio. -en to Dative Fruit (fem. Plural Nom. Plural Nom. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. . and das Hotel. der Student Acc. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable.) Sing. and Accusative. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. das Auto die Autos Acc. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing.) Sing. Plural die Studenten Nom. dem Auto den Autos Gen. Plural die Männer Nom. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. der Frucht den Früchten Gen.) Sing. Genitive. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. der Mann Acc. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. das Auto die Autos Dat. den Mann die Männer Dat. Genitive. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. Accusative.Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. and Accusative.

Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu.) Sing. may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular. dem Bett den Betten . Plural Nom. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing. das Herz Dat. das Herz die Herzen Acc. Plural die Herzen Nom. das Bett die Betten Dat.Group 6 . das Bett die Betten Acc. Plural die Namen der Name den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 .

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