German I Tutorial Other German pages: German Index | German II Tutorial | German III Tutorial

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehr-shtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand. Kannst du mir helfen? Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know. Natürlich

ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ? Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-geh-sen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are... Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German letter a ä e i o ö u ü b d g ch au ei eu, äu ie j English sound ah, as in father ahh, as in fat eh ee or ih oh eh, but with rounded lips oo ee, but with rounded lips b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, doesn't exist in English ow, as in "cow" eye oy ee y

qu s ß sp st sch th v w z

kv z or ss at end of word ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f v ts

3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i
ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee

j k l m n o p q r

yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr

s t u v w x y z

ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset

Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. It's actually a double s. Some people will write it ss instead of ß.

4. Nouns and Cases
All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, schaft, -sion, -sis, -tät, -tion, -ung and -ur. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -ät, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. We see the guide. We give it to the guide. The book of the girl.

Note: The nouns I give you, and the ones you look up in a dictionary, will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles and Demonstratives
Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. Nom. dieser diese dieses diese der die das Acc. diesen diese dieses diese den die das Dat. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem Gen. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns
Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie, Sie veer we eer you (all)

air, zee, ess, mahn he, she, it, one

zee they, you (formal)

Note: Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, and to Become
Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin wir sind veer zint I am ikh bin we are ihr seid eer zide You are (fam.) du bist doo bihst you are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint He/she/it is Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) habe haben werde werden hah-buh hah-ben vair-duh vair-den hast habt wirst werdet hahst hahbt veerst vair-det hat haben wird werden haht hah-ben veert vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den warst varst wart vart hattest hah-test hattet hah-tet wurdest voor-dest wurdet voor-det war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. = I am thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

8. Useful Words
und and oont aber but ah-ber sehr very zair oder or oh-der hier here here auch also owkh beide both by-duh etwas some eht-vahss nur only noor wieder again vee-der hopefully hoffentlich hoh-fent-likh between zwischen zvish-en therefore deshalb des-halp a lot, many viel(e) feel(uh) wirklich really veerk-lish zusammen tsoo-zah-men together alle all ahl-luh jetzt now yetst also so al-zoh noch ein nohkh ine another schon already shone nicht wahr nikht vahr isn't it? schade too bad shah-duh gern gladly gehrn immediately sofort zoh-fort sicher(lich) zikh-er-likh sure(ly) sondern rather zohn-dehrn schließlich shleess-likh finally stimmt right! shtimt überhaupt anyway oo-ber-howpt genug enough guh-nook exact(ly) genau guh-now sometimes manchmal mahnch-mal immer always im-er nie never nee oft often ohft of course klar klahr perhaps vielleicht fee-likht ein bisschen ine biss-khen a little ein wenig a little ine vay-nikh not at all gar nicht gar nikht kein bisschen kine biss-khen not a bit

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.

9. Question Words
Who What Why When Where How Wer Was Warum Wann Wo Wie vehr vahs vah-room vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Whom (dat.) How come Where from Where to Which Wen Wem Wieso Woher Wohin Welchvain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin velsh

10. Numbers
0 1 Null Eins nool ines

e.000 would be 1 000.000 Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig (Ein)hundert (Ein)tausend tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei. 1.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths. 11. e) zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt . Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä. i. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German. tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend.last (as in the last of a series). Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season). nächsten . use 12." All days.every. Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. vorigen . etc. 14. use im. while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays.previous. Directions . letzten . Austria and Switzerland. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany. months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . use im. Tuesdays.

. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. always uses the 24 hour clock.North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. such as for bus and train schedules. 17. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain.... Um 8 Uhr. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. It's cold beautiful hot Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time. Es ist kalt schön heiß vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise . At 8. early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau.

To Know People and Facts kennen . ist schlecht klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä.clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö.to know facts weiß vise wissen vih-sun weißt vighst wisst vihst weiß vise wissen vih-sun . 19. er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the know people kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun kennst kenst kennt kent kennt kent kennen ken-nun wissen .

22. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. Herr. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Masc. Gen. Junge. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Student. Komponist. Journalist). . mein mein meinem meines Pl. Zeuge). Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). ihr-her. Fem. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. unser-our.20. Löwe. euer-your (ihr form). u or au add an umlaut. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. Soldat. here are some rules that can help: 1. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. Polizist. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. and the following nouns: Elefant. dein-your (du form). Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. Nachbar. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. o . Dat. Neuter Plural den die das die Definite Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. Vorfahre. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4.a/an. o. mein meinen meinem meines Fem. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: ein . Tourist. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. Riese. and kein-no/not any. Ihr-your (Sie form). Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. Neffe. Possessive Adjectives Nom. Acc. sein-his/its. However. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. Mensch. Patient. ihr-their. but neuter plural nouns ending in e don't. u or au. zwei Lampen eine Lampe zwei Türen eine Tür eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. Kunde. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all.

most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. you would have to say the apple eats me. 23. Usually in English. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. I give (to) my brother a tie. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). more often in writing than in speech. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. if you were to change word order. unless they already end in an -n or -s. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun.Nominative & Accusative mich me uns us ich I wir we du you dich you ihr you euch you ihn him sie them er he sie they sie her Sie you sie she Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. When speaking. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. I give it to my brother. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. Fem. For proper nouns.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. for example. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. German only adds an -s to the noun. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. 24. Take. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. but in English. Neuter Plural dem der dem den Definite Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple.the size of the house . die Farbe des Vogels . or an -es if the word is one syllable. whereas English relies mainly on word order. In German.Personal Pronouns . for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. Usually.

Neu. German does not use articles before professions.die Tasche meiner Mutter . Plural des der des der Definite Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25. Fem. e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Präsident (en) Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer female Arbeiterin Architektin Automechanikerin Bibliothekarin Fernsehreporterin Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor hairdresser custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer salesperson dentist male Anwalt (ä. Also. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. instead I am a person from Berlin. which is Ich bin mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner. e) female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. Work and School male worker architect mechanic librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer president priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Arbeiter Architekt (en) Automechaniker Bibliothekar Fernsehreporter Ingenieur Koch (ö. To Do or Make Machen . because it translates to I am a jelly donut. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie . while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä.to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä.the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural.

er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. to (some public buildings) hinter behind durch gegen um für ohne . Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. that take the Dative case aus out (of). at.Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. by seit since. on (vertical surfaces. on (horizontal surfaces). that may take Acc. at home of or place of business nach after. or Dat. from (country. to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. to. an at. town or place) mit with. by means of (transportation) von from (person. besides Preps. or direction).) die Aufgabe (n) 27. for bei near. open space. e) Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard Easy Vacation Assignment Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps.

He hangs the picture over the sofa. among. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. enclosed space. The car is behind the house. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. Es steht an der Tafel. It is under the table. into (building. Note: Stellen. Er geht in die Küche. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. Er ist in der Küche. above. Es ist neben dem Haus. It is on the board. while stehen. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. Write it on the board. The bottles are in front of the door.(to) home (acc. Put it on the table. It's lying on the table. Schreib es an die Tafel. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. about under. 28. Stell es auf den Tisch. The picture hangs over the sofa. Es ist unter dem Tisch. It is beside the house. next to over. before between For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. below. He is in the kitchen. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. of the to the through the around the . Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. Put it under the table. legen and setzen use the accusative case. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. He goes into the kitchen. But one exception is zu Hause . feminine or plural countries) beside. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa.) and nach Hause . Drive the car behind the house. Stell es unter den Tisch.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at neben über unter vor zwischen in. Put the bottles in front of the door. beneath in front of. across. Put it beside the home (dat.

It you want to negate an entire sentence. or not any. To and From Countries and Cities . 31. It is cold today. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article.29. Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. Das ist nicht meine Frau. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Ägypterin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch Ägyptisch. noun. Nicht always follows the verb. It is declined as an ein-word. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. It is not cold today. nicht comes last. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. No. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. das ist keine Kusine. Heute ist es nicht kalt. That's my wife. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. adjective) or all of a sentence. Nicht also follows expressions of time. not a. that's not a cousin. or it could negate any part (verb. Das ist meine Frau. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Ägypter Fem. but nicht means not and kein means no. Arabisch 30. That's not my wife. Heute ist es kalt. Countries and Nationalities Germany England France USA Russia Switzerland Italy Spain Japan China Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland Greece Holland Netherlands Ireland Korea Mexico Norway Portugal Sweden Poland Egypt Country Deutschland England Frankreich die USA Russland die Schweiz Italien Spanien Japan China Österreich Australien Belgien Kanada Dänemark Finnland Griechenland Holland die Niederlande Irland Korea Mexiko Norwegen Portugal Schweden Polen Ägypten Masc.

Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. he/she/it runs). Ich kann eine Fahrkarte have to dürfen . Nicht dürfen translates to must not. Ich bin aus der Schweiz .to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen .I'm flying to Germany. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. To Come and to Go kommen . Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do come komme koh-muh kommen koh-men kommst kohmst kommt kohmt kommt kohmt kommen koh-men gehen . Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject.I'm flying to be allowed to muß müssen darf dürfen mußt müsst darfst dürft muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. the definite article must also be used. they run go gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in gehst gehst geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in 33. The following table is in the same format. Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do ought to wollen . English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense.I am from Switzerland. Ich bin aus Deutschland .) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Ich fliege nach Deutschland . no ending and -s ending (I. sollen .I am from Germany. To form regular verbs in German.nach To From aus in In Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t .to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . you. 34. we. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. können . 32. Modal Verbs German has 6 of them.

you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus . Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article.I'm taking off my coat. I am running. 35.) However. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. such as I run. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself.-t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern to get angry sich aufregen to get excited sich ausruhen to rest sich erkälten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) . however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. I do run. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones.I don't feel well. then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. we hate ourselves. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. he hurts himself. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative mich uns mir uns dich euch dir euch sich sich sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. not a possessive. Examples in English would be: I wash myself. desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. In other words.

stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. schlafen-to sleep. sterben-to die. waschen-to wash. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. empfehlen-to recommend. essen-to eat. tragen-to carry. befehlen-to command. treffen-to meet. sprechen-to speak. add an e before three endings. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. helfen-to help.sich hinlegen sich verletzen sich beeilen sich erholen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed to hurry sich setzen to sit down to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über to be angry at/about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen über to happy about sich gewöhnen an to get used to sich kümmern um to take care of sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. Reden-to speak .to read. geschehen-to happen.

bei.nach.rede redest redet reden redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound.auf. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38.zurückan.vorweg.vorbei. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now.aus. Kommen is to have -t for du form ending instead of -st." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3.zu." Verbs with Separable Prefixes . but ankommen is to arrive. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. When conjugated." With modals. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form. Separable Prefixes ab.los. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of. but the prefix remains attached. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb.

is the promise. and -sag. Arbeiten is to work. When prefixes are stressed. and übersetzen .is the stem. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. unternehmen . especially in conversation.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their win.veremp. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. they are entertain. they are visit. so studiert is the past participle. the stem. therefore gesagt is the past participle.abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen vorschlagen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen auswandern weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. gewinnen . The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix. therefore gemacht is the past participle. when they are not stressed. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end. and -arbeit. 40. Past participles are made by adding ge. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. and the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et. Inseparable Prefixes be. Sagen is to ask. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. and versprechen . Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to suggest to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to emigrate to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen vorbeikommen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen zurückkommen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to listen to to take with to board to come by to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. erzählen .er. Machen is to do/make. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. Unter and über can function as separable the stem. Studieren is to study and studier. überholen .to translate. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen . watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to come back to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe 39. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten .

With inseparable prefixes. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. The verb is intransitive (i. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begonnen begin beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten gebeten ask brechen gebrochen break empfehlen empfohlen recommend essen gegessen eat finden gefunden find fressen eat (of animals) gefressen frieren gefroren freeze geben gegeben give gewinnen gewonnen win gießen gegossen pour. there is no ge.and end with -en (with some exceptions). German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon.prefix when forming the past participle. With separable prefixes. and then add the prefix to the beginning. but a few use sein. The new stems in between must be memorized. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. 2.The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. the past participle is not used. water halten gehalten hold heißen geheißen be called . "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. I broke my arm. The past participles begin with ge. a past participle. both of these conditions are met: 1. From the participle of the base verb. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. stehen takes haben. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. Logically. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense. but aufstehen takes sein.I asked my brother. whether the verb is regular or irregular. such as besucht and verloren. For example. All modals. if and only if. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt. then the past participles of the modals are used. as well as reflexive verbs. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes. cannot take a direct object. the prefix comes before the ge. However.) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. but forming the participles is much more complicated. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence.e.

allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt . They form their past participles like regular verbs. like all irregular verbs.helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen help sound let.

er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink milk egg honey snack cheese das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä. and many have irregular past participles.42. Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride swim be jump climb die step grow become geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden 43. Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham ice cream jam rice das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse .

a glass of water . Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä. Fruits. Imperative of Sein . er) der Truthahn (ä. so to say a glass of water. you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case. The genitive case implies of.salad soup der Salat die Suppe mustard pie der Senf die Torte (n) 44. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin der Kürbis (e) olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü. minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. e) das Huhn (ü. All commands require an exclamation point. e) der Fisch (e) 45.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive.ein Stück Pizza 46.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake .

obwohl-although. and wie-how. following the infinitive. 1. He is tired when he must get up early. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. bis-until. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. the modal goes last. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. aber. Während Sie in Berlin sind. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. während-while. Und. She's coming to your place. ob-whether. She's coming to your place after she has eaten.) 3. 4. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. Some examples are als-when. Ich bliebe zu Hause. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. He is always tired when he gets up early. während Sie in Berlin sind. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. I am sick.for/because. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. nachdem sie gegessen hat. damit-so that. and hat must go to the end.) Ich weiß nicht. denn . so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. (nachdem is the sub. nachdem-after. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. conjunction. and bin must go to the end. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. Er ist immer müde. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. I'm staying home because I am sick. Ich bin krank. telefoniert. dass-that. I'm staying home. She has eaten. and they do affect word order.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. da-since. weil-because. (während is a subordinating conjunction. While you are in Berlin. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. 2. Ich bliebe zu Hause. Hans will call you. Sie hat gegessen. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. bevor-before. . when a double infinitive construction is involved. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence.) However. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. wenn-if/when. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. Er ist müde. the prefix remains attached to the verb. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. I don't know if he wanted to come along. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. Sie kommt nach zu dir. weil ich krank bin. wenn er früh aufsteht. (weil is the subordinating conjunction.du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen.

Like the modals. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum church square monument building house die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-oh-tek krahnk-en-house shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-war-engeh-sheft shribe-var-enpharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop bookstore airport garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store die Apotheke (n) die Drogerie (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) das Rathaus (ä) das Schloss (ö. I helped him. English often uses a present participle. lassen means to let or allow. er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. We're having a house built. er) hospital das Stadion (Stadien) stadium das Kino (s) movie theater das Eisenwarenhardware store geschäft (e) stationery store das Schreibwaren- . I'm having my son pick up the mail. e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) ah-poh-tek-uh droh-ger-ee fah-breek mets-geh-rie booch-lah-den flook-hahf-en gah-rah-zhuh raht-house shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-geh-sheft dry cleaner's die Reinigung (en) rien-ee-gunk der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. I heard him coming. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. er) der Friedhof (ö. lassen and the senses Helfen. er) das Lebensmittelgrocery store geschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) library das Krankenhaus (ä. e) das Denkmal (ä. Helfen.48./We're building a house. Ich sehe ihn kommen. Usually. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. 50. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. I see him coming. e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) das Dorf (ö. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something. but German uses a dependent infinitive. Ich habe ihm geholfen. After verbs of this type.

use mit dem and the noun. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. Nevertheless. however it used more often in writing. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. The one exception is streetcar. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. etc. For the modal verbs. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. etc.geschäft (e) geh-scheft 51. Imperfect Tense In English. even in conversational German. you saw. haben. he cried. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest ich du . 52. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. sein. es konnte wir konnten ihr konntet sie konnten Imperfect tense of Modals müssen dürfen sollen mußte durfte sollte mußtest durftest solltest mußte durfte sollte mußten durften sollten mußtet durftet solltet mußten durften sollten wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten mögen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. this tense corresponds I did. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. sie. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t. werden. train. können ich konnte du konntest er..

er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö. sie. but some do not. You will have to memorize these stems. Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. as they are unpredictable. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü. er) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä. and schneiden (schnittst. 54.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e. to invite).) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü. es wir ihr sie wußte wußten wußtet wußten brachte brachten brachtet brachten dachte dachten dachtet dachten kannte kannten kanntet kannten brannte brannten branntet brannten nannte nannten nanntet nannten rannte rannten ranntet rannten wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. e) der Topf (ö. to suffer).are braten (brietst. leiden (littst. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) .(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the befandest dich.) Similarly. stehen is conjugated without the -e.(du verstandest. to cut). er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. to invent). to roast). singen-to sing fahren-to ride. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). finden is conjugated without the -e. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form. laden (ludst. For example. travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take kommen-to come gehen-to go sangfuhrfandlasnahmkamgingIrregular Stems bliebbleiben-to stay aßessen-to eat flogfliegen-to fly gabgeben-to give riefrufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schliefschreiben-to write schriebIrregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help nennen-to name sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. erfinden (erfandst.

nach countries and cities that have no articles Ich fliege nach Paris. and die USA (pl. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home.).). Direction When talking about locations. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. Er geht auf den Markt. in building or enclosed space. yard der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. town or building Ich komme aus den USA. Es ist auf dem Tisch. They are at the bank. Location vs.dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. comes from enclosed or defined space. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used. von particular direction or person Ich weiß es von ihm. He is at the lake. auf on surfaces. It's on the table. die Türkei (f.). specifically named buildings or places. I'm flying to the USA. * Only a few countries include the articles. She's going to the beach. I work at McDonald's. zu and people Sie gehen zu McDonald's.). because they are not neuter. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. auf open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe auf die Bank. aus such as country. I'm flying to Paris.). Ich fliege nach Österreich. The car comes from the right. . I live at my Aunt's (house). Wir sind in der Schule. I know it from him. an denotes border or limiting area Das Bild ist an der Wand. Das Auto kommt von rechts. before name of place or business Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. She comes from the bedroom. countries and cities that have definite articles* I'm going to church. the prepositions in. bei where someone lives or works Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. an. I'm flying to Austria. or at public buildings Sie sind auf der Bank. die Schweiz (f. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. We are at school. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. e) der Rasen alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket. The picture is on the wall. such as der Iran (m. Sie geht zum Strand. Ich gehe in die Kirche. He's going to the market. I'm going to the bank. ceiling door garden. die Niederlande (pl. comes from open space. I come from the USA. When talking about directions or going to a place. Er ist am See. Ich fliege in die USA. They're going to McDonald's. Ich bin in der Kirche. in enclosed spaces I'm at church.

You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. (Expresses probability) 58.56. Asking Questions 1. To express present or future probability. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. to do so. Simply add a question mark Invert the verb and subject Use a question word + verb + subject Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement . 4. My friend should be home now. 2. Wir werden Latein lernen. in both German and English. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. Werden werde werden wirst werdet wird werden I will fly to Germany. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. and uses time expressions. etc. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. tomorrow. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (ü. e) 57. such as tonight. e) das Kostüm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. and implies a future action. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. yet it uses the present tense. 3. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future).

Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. andere (other). der gute Wein die guten Freunde Acc. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). adjectives used with ein words. Plural gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Nom. Fem. Neu. In the singular. 60. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Dat. guten Wein Dat. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot Dat. Plural die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Nom. The bread is fresh.59. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. they turn into manch ein and so ein). Plural keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Nom. Neu. tall wide fat.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. wenige (few). and independent adjectives. keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich lieb berühmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig high. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. Fem. Neu. Fem. einige (some). These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. The rest of the endings are the same. kein guter Wein keine guten Freunde Acc. thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös bequem besorgt richtig . dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. and neuter accusative.

Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. jung. add -er to the adjective or adverb.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. kalt. klar. voll and zart. grob. Jens runs faster than Ernst. groß. stolz. o. warm. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. The adjectives that end in -el. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. lang. followed by als (than). roh. Comparative 1. Irregular Forms Adj. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. Adjectives that end in -el. klug. t or s sound. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. -en. or an s sound. The kitchen is as big as the living room. arm. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. Comparative Superlative gern lieber am liebsten . 2. toll. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. 2. Hans is the youngest. stark. schlank. -en or -er. rasch. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. A radio is cheaper than a TV. / Adv. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. dumm. schwach. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator.pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic nett preiswert teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig 61. Hans is am jüngsten. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. Sie ist am intelligentesten. -t. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. add -(e)st to the adjective. kurz. Superlative 1. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. such as alt. hart. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. krank. oft. To form the superlative. drop the -e in the comparative form. German always uses the -er ending. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. She is the most intelligent. froh. scharf. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst.

Die preise werden immer höher.gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative besser höher näher mehr am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten Je mehr. desto glücklicher ist er. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. These suits are the least expensive. The more money he has. Je mehr Geld er hat. Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. 62. the better. er) . the happier he is. The more. e) die Straße (n) der Bauernhof (ö. Julia wird immer hübscher. desto besser. The prices are getting higher and higher. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63. e) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf der Bach (ä. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä.

e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case). e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü.field forest plant city sea bay mountain range das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) . even if they seem to take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.) ich I du you (fam.) Direct Objects (Acc. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences. er) das Tal (ä. e) das Fussgelenk (e) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. Except when the accusative is a pronoun. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun.) sie they Sie you (pol. e) das Land (ä. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) 64.

therefore. e) die Hand (ä. war Julias. The dog. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. den ich gestern gekauft habe. Nominative Accusative Dative When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. Der Hund. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . the preposition determines the case. Wer war die Frau. was Julia's. Gen.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. These may be omitted in English. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. (In the following example. it is accusative. Neu. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. The river. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe. Plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. is called the Danube. Acc. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. but must be included in German. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66.words that correspond to who. Fem. that through Vienna flows. to whom I nothing about it told have.brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. that I last week seen have. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. der durch Wien fliesst. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. that and which in English. Da and Wo Compounds . heißt Donau. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman. Nom. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". whom. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. My father is the only person. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. Dat. Das is der Mantel. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67.

Animals . auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them Da(r) Compounds dagegen against it/them darin in it/them daran in it/them darauf on top of it/them dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben dazwischen dabei darum over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them between it/them on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. When asking about people.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. cost a lot. The watch. 68. = Die Stadt. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. in der wir wohnen. mit der er reist. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. However. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. a compound using da. hat viel gekostet. hat viel gekostet.(or the prefix. I'm talking about it. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. in which we live. use a preposition and wen/wem. Die Stadt. That's why you have no luck. I'm thinking about it. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. = Die Uhr. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. worin wir wohnen. Ohne. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem währenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). ausser. womit er reist. Die Uhr. The city. when you need to refer to a thing. and seit can never form a da(r) compound.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. Ich denke daran. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. has a large concert hall. with which he travels.

e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. I had lived in Wiesbaden. I like soccer. I prefer to play hockey. I like Julia most of all. . Ich habe Julia am liebsten. lieber. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden.animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. The room pleases me. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. I don't like the restaurant. e) der Wurm (ü. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. To use it correctly. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. And of course. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. It literally means to please. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. Das Zimmer is the object in English. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. Ich spiele gern Fussball. 70. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. I like to play tennis most of all. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. I like to play soccer. It is always in the dative case in German. Ich habe Fussball gern. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. I don't like to play Basketball. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. nicht gern. I like the room. but it becomes the subject in German.

. However. aber-but. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. He is always tired when he gets up early. oder-or.. these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and. weil-because. but the subject follows it. I want to go home. I believed you. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). bevor-before. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. wenn-if/when. such as als-when. the order is subject . 6. the modal goes last. da-since. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. nachdem-after. Review of Word Order 1. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore. . damit-so that. as well as in future time. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes. following the infinitive. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. the prefix remains attached to the verb. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. bis-until.. während-while. obwohl-although. the verb in the dependent clause is last. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. dass-that... 7. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). wann er kommt. When asking questions. 2..verb .) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event.. Als. wenn er früh aufsteht.. Then the verb is still in the second position. denn-for/because. wenn ich krank bin. Wenn er kommt. When I found him. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. 4. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. wenn is used to mean whenever or if..manner . Ich bleibe im Bett. When he comes.. I stay in bed when I am sick.. Ich habe dir geglaubt.time . In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles.Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. ob-whether. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. Ich weiß nicht. In most sentences. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. Als ich ihn fand. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. 72. Ich will nach Hause gehen. and Er ist immer müde. 3. If he comes.

bleibe ich im Bett. it acts as an element. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. just sometime. Ich kann es nicht glauben.Er ist müde. Other idioms: . Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. or softens commands 74. Es begins the sentence. of course really is it ever well then right now only. and the true subject follows the verb. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. These words are mostly for emphasis. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. Er haßt es. doch ja aber denn gerade nur. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. Wenn ich krank bin. nichts davon zu wissen. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. someday counteracts negative statement. 73. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. If the direct object is a pronoun. 8. He is tired when he must get up early. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. I stay in bed. bloss mal yes. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. 9. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. He hates not knowing anything about it. When I am sick. I give it to my brother. used for persuasion. it's raining). Three children are coming today. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. Es ist niemand zu Hause. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. it goes before the indirect object. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. I give my brother a tie. No one is at home. but it is not incorrect to say it.

gives a word a negative or opposite meaning.Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. The exceptions are erste.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less. Architekt (male architect) . (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall. Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between). Frankfurt (a city) . just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19. and -ste for 20 and up.the old man die Alte . first second erste zweite eleventh twelfth elfte zwölfte . He does as he pleases. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English.Architektin (female architect) 76. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. dritte. Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. The definite article precedes the adjective.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. siebte.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place. (Literally: Everything is in butter. wandern (to hike) . der Alte .Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. Everything is fine. adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. and using the gender of the last word.the old woman das Alte .) Alles ist in Butter.) 75. and achte. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers. and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities. She makes her judgments rather quickly. das Kind (the child) .everything that is old die Alten . which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun. das Ende (the end) . klar (clear) .the old people 77. the prefix un.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand.

Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Today is October ninth. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. = This novel was read by many students. 78. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. . Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. when saying this out loud. = This novel is read by many students. On May 18th. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. Februar. if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. However. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. = This novel has been read by many students. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. German uses the number followed by a period. you would say am zweiten Februar. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. = This novel will be read by many students. = This novel had been read by many students. Many students read this novel. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students have read this novel. On February 2nd would be am 2. change three things: 1. Many students will read this novel. Many students read this novel.third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth dritte vierte fünfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste In writing dates. Many students had read this novel. *Notice that in the passive voice.

Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. people and constitutes the subject. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. es. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. such as a dative object or time expression. you.). etc. they. But sometimes there is no accusative object. Das ist schnell zu machen. but if it were turned into the passive. 79. 2. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft. . Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. Man translates to one. only an implied es. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. or no apparent subject at all. The stain cannot be removed. We can't remove the stain. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. There is no apparent subject.) But if another element. Avoiding the Passive 1. wind. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. That can be done quickly. Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. there would be no accusative object. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. 3. es is used as the subject. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive. That is quickly done. the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). can be put in the first position.Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es. while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). Der Dieb wurde gefunden. They caught the thief. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. we. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective. 80. then es is omitted.

Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action. in order to) show the goal of an action. = Sie macht das Fenster zu. Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. Das läßt sich machen. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage . Das kann gemacht werden. in order to not freeze. That can be done. and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. Sie macht das Fenster zu. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. 82. That can be done. Commonly.4. damit and um…zu (so that. however. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. 81. um nicht zu frieren. = She closes the window. damit sie nicht friert. She closes the window. so that she won't freeze .

. Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer (or Computer) der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopier die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive. He came in order to pick up the book. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. we should look for him. Hast du Lust. 85..rubber band ink pad string das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Wache security guard drive-thru window der Autoschalter der Tresor safe 84. They introduce infinitival clauses. um das Buch abzuholen. Statt hier zu sitzen. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used.zu and anstatt. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen.. It is too early to get up.) Er kam. and translated as present participles in English. ohne mich anzusehen. Sie sagte es. Um. without looking at me. Instead of sitting here. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. (Um. Um.zu are used with infinitives. Das ist nicht zu machen. but the construction is far more common in German.. Expressions of Time . den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. That can't be done... That can be found in any store. zu is used to indicate purpose. It takes a long time to drive through the city.. durch die Stadt zu fahren. She said it. sollten wir ihn suchen. while ohne.

One morning he'll be late. in and vor are in the dative case. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. but they cannot be used interchangeably. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? . Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt.means a different one. and ander. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. Ein(e) ander. Eines Tages war er krank. It gets cold at night.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. Three years ago it was just as cold here. Time expressions with the prepositions an. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. She's going to Germany next week. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Last Sunday I stayed home. One day he was sick. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. 87. Noch ein means one more. In der Nacht wird es kalt. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause.both mean another.and noch ein. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. and may refer to the future or past. He visited us last year. We must return on Sunday. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time.The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Another Ein(e) ander.

Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fön der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser 90. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if.. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense.Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89.. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect.. The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. . It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. For weak (regular) verbs. For strong (irregular) verbs. adds an umlaut where possible. and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte Subjunctive II brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. dann) statements and conditional sentences.. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.then (wenn.

Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. I would fly to Germany. wenn er zu heiß ist. please. and in this case. (so) kommt er morgen. es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. Kommt er heute nicht. nennen.. 91. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? mögen möchte möchtest möchte möchten möchtet möchten . I would go to the movies. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. Moreover. = We would like two colas. If I had time. sterben. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. bitte. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. Wenn ich Geld hätte.. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic.Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. werfen. then he'll come tomorrow. haben or sein. Past Subj. dann ginge ich ins Kino. For this reason. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen.. sie. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. Present Subj. If I had had time. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. (then) I would go to the movies. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. dann) pattern in both English and German. stehen. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. except with these eight verbs: helfen. and rennen. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. However. then (wenn. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. sein. (then) I would have gone to the movies. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen. haben and werden. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. brennen. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. kennen. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries.. If I had time. If I had money. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest er. If he's not coming today. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so.

then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. In everyday conversation.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. although they are important. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. 93. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) . which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts. e) der Kofferraum (ä. In this case. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative.92. impartial way. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. In certain cases. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä. The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it.

97.94. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. so the conjugated verb must go to the end. In Space astronaut der Astronaut beaker das Becherglas . Present Participle To form the present participle. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English." Both introduce a dependent clause. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. In the Ocean scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker shipwreck helm der Schiffbruch der Helm 96. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. simply add -d to the infinitive. both require the subjunctive II. they both mean "as if" or "as though. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. In addition.

That will have been shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem laboratory das Labor 98. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). He will have gone. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. and the past participle. When using modals. / That was probably Rudi. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild . Ich werde es genommen haben. 99. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him. It is formed with the future of haben or sein. It will have become dark. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. Er wird gegangen sein. so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. I will have taken it.

Mittag. . Recht haben. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Morgen. 2. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. there has been a spelling reform of the German language. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Acc.elf giant tower knight squire der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe sword lance ax das Schwert die Lanze die Axt drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown king queen princess prince throne die Krone der König die Königin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron court jester der Hofnarr minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger die Rüstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schloß 100. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. Abend. Gen. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. 4. Write ss after a short vowel. Spelling Reform Recently. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. Dat. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. 101. Leid tun… 3. Also. Singular: Nom. so it must be written as SS. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch.

add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. Gen. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. Genitive. Gen. Sing. the Nominative. Pl. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. end in -el. Some may add -n. -e. -r. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. Sing. Pl. Acc. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. Lion(s) Singular Plural die Löwen Nom. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. Gen. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc.Singular: Nom. then add nothing. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. Nom. Sing. Plural der Vater die Väter den Vater die Väter dem Vater den Vätern des Vaters der Väter Nom. Acc. 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. Dat. -er. Pl. unless it already ends in -s or -n.) Sing. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. Pl. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. -en. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. -en. Man Woman Child Nom. Forest der Wald die Wälder die Wälder den Wäldern der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. Dat. Pl. Acc. der Löwe Acc. -er. Dat. Nom. Sing. and Accusative Plural are the same. der Mann die Frau das Kind den Männern den Frauen den Kindern Dat. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases.and end with -e .

and Accusative. Accusative. der Mann Acc. dem Auto den Autos Gen. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. Plural die Männer Nom. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen.Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. and Genitive. Plural Nom. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. dem Mann den Männern Gen. and Accusative. and das Hotel. den Mann die Männer Dat. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable.) Sing. Plural Nom. das Auto die Autos Acc. . Genitive. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. das Restaurant. most masculine that denote living things. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. die Frucht die Früchte Dat. Genitive. Plural die Studenten Nom. das Auto die Autos Dat.) Sing. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. -en to Dative Fruit (fem. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable.) Sing. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. such as das Radio. der Student Acc. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. der Frucht den Früchten Gen.

das Herz die Herzen Acc.Group 6 . das Bett die Betten Acc. das Bett die Betten Dat. dem Bett den Betten . may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing. Plural die Namen der Name den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 .) Sing. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. Plural die Herzen Nom. des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing. das Herz Dat.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. Plural Nom.

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