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Physical Traits Intelligence Personality Traits Leader Behaviors Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Initiating Structure and Consideration
Production-centered and Employee centered Leader Behaviors Managerial Grids Situational Leadership Situational Leadership Model Contingency Theory of Leadership Path-Goal Model Normative Decision-Making Model of Leadership Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness Choosing a Leadership Style Strategies for Improving Leadership Reciprocal Influence of Leader and Follower
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Explain the difference between management and leadership and identify some of the major personal traits associated with leadership. 2. Explain the limitations of using personal traits to understand leadership. 3. Identify and describe the two major leadership behaviors that occur within a group.
4. Identify some of the major situational factors influencing leadership and explain how they influence group performance. 5. List and describe the major variables that determine the appropriate leadership style. 6. Explain some of the strategies for improving leadership effectiveness.
LEE JACOCCA: AN AMERICAN LEGEND
Lee Iacocca, the son of Italian immigrants, rose spectacularly through the ranks of Ford Motor Company to become its president, only to be toppled eight years later in a power struggle with Henry Ford II. After being fired from Ford, however, he immediately went to Chrysler Corporation and led that company back from the brink of financial disaster by convincing the United States government to provide Chrysler with a $1.2 billion loan guarantee. Iacocca has been heralded as the epitome of an effective modern leader by the authors of a book about leaders. He provided the leadership to transform a company from bankruptcy to success. He created a vision of success and mobilized large factions of key employees to align behind that vision. Almost exclusively because of Iacocca’s leadership, by 1983 Chrysler made a pro6t, boosted employee morale, and helped employees generate a sense of meaning in their work. He empowered them. In Fact, we believe that Iacocca’s high visibility symbolizes the missing element in management today his style of leadership is central to organizational successful. Because of his success in rescuing Chrysler and the highly visible role he played in restoring the Statue of Liberty, Iacocca became a media celebrity and an American folk hero. During the 1988 presidential campaign, many People urged him to run for the presidency. Public opinion polls confirmed his popularity and showed that he was a viable political candidate until he withdrew himself by saying, ‘And if drafted, [shall not run.’2 Lee Iacocca is described as a big man with an imposing presence. He stands 6’1” and weighs 194 pounds. His facial features and personal mannerisms have led one author to describe him as a ‘Florentine prince.” A biography of Iacocca attributed his leadership ability to six character traits: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The ability to break away from rigid, stereotyped thinking and use upbeat, energetic approaches to problem solving. His realism and courage. His devotion to homework by being thorough, careful, and well informed. His aggressive curiosity. His uncommon capacity for personal growth. His ability to surround himself with people possessing strong personality ties without being intimidated or threatened by them.4
In his autobiography, Iacocca describes three key elements that contributed significantly to his successful leadership. First, Iacocca believed that he was extraordinarily effective in motivating people because he knew them well, he expressed sincere appreciation for their contributions, and he provided a vision for them of where the company was going. Second, Iacocca developed a quarterly review system that focused the energies of his people on successful goal accomplishment. Every three months, Iacocca required his managers to submit specific written goals and objectives and then, in a face-to-face, MBO type interview, he required them to explain how they planned to achieve the goals. Finally, Iacocca believed in being decisive. Although he was a strong advocate of being well informed and gathering all the facts before making a decision, he also argued that if you waited until you had 100 percent of the facts, the opportunity would have passed. Although he liked to be fully informed, he was not afraid to go with his gut feeling and he did not rely on committee* decisions. Iacocca’s definition of management by consensus was, “Consensus, is when we have a discussion. They tell me what they want, then I decide.” Leadership is an extremely popular topic in organizational behavior because of the role we assume it plays in group and organizational effectiveness. We assume that the success of a group depends primarily on the quality of leadership. To have a winning season requires a good coach; to achieve a
military victory commander. instead of firing the team. By this definition. whether or not that individual is formally identified as such. Although leadership is similar to management. The successful manager is viewed as someone who achieves results by following the prescribed activities and by maintaining behaviors and products within prescribed limits. An important distinction is made by some between leadership and management. the coach is fired. for example. When a team has a losing season.” In other words. between leadership and the exercise of power described in the next chapter. For managers to be effective. there is a clear difference between these topics. as described in chapter one. leaders are usually credited for the group’s success and blamed for the group’s failure. It has been said that managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. ‘Leadership” has also been used to describe a personality characteristic. above and beyond mechanical compliance with routine directives. however. are planning. However. and a better definition is needed to understand why some individuals are at he more effective leaders than others. and the one we will use in this chapter. to extend themselves and to go beyond their perform job requirements by generating creative ideas. organizing. and to have responsibility for. Definition of Leadership The word “leadership’ has been used in at least three different ways. Occasionally it refers to a position within an organization. however. leaders by our definition use their ability to induce voluntary committee. The most useful definition of leadership. e. directing. “We are inviting all of the leadership to attend the seminar. Leadership occurs when one individual MBO-influences others to do something voluntarily rather than because they were the required to do it or because they feared the consequences of noncompliance. leadership is the incremental influence one individual exerts over another. to influence. The functions of management. To manage means to direct.g.. such as power and authority.” Neither of these definitions is very useful in studying organizational behavior. anyone in the organization can be a leader. they need to be good leaders. informal leaders are extremely important to the effectiveness of most organizations. to bring about to accomplish. and to motivate. and to have a productive work group requires a supervisor. Not all acts of influence.g. Leadership is more narrowly defined. are necessarily acts of leadership.” This distinction is somewhat overstated. well. But it serves to emphasize an Important organizational outcome: the creation of an energetic and highly committed work force that is successfully adapting to the demands of a changing environment and competently producing a viable product or service . it refers to influencing the behavior of others. ‘Our team won the championship because of the leadership of the quarterback. Effective leaders inspire others to pursue excellence. Indeed. and controlling.. Whether they deserve it or not. Although leaders may use force or coercion to influence the behavior of followers. not all leaders are good managers. To lead. There are important differences. It strong is this voluntary aspect of leadership that distinguishes it from other influence processes. ‘Our new supervisor doesn’t have as much leadership as our previous one. since effective leaders do a lot of managing and effective managers need to lead. is to inspire. e. is a form of behavior by which one person influences others.
Origination. as shown in Exhibit 161. Administration. and when they are present. different cognitive and affective skills are required of leaders. Instead. 1. interpolation. and momentum to carry them forward. and delegate work assignments. 3. Interpolation. These critical decisions determine the culture and mission of the organization. particularly during periods of rapid growth or decline. stated objectives. is there a need for incremental influence beyond the routine directives and formal job requirements? Four reasons have been proposed to explain the need for ongoing leadership. their needs and Intel interests change. Administration consists of implementing the policies and procedures tha have been provided to keep the organization operating efficiently. External change. which are simply turned on and allowed to run untouched. Leaders are needed to structuring the tasks. Internal change. The origination of new programs and . These three types of Leadership are typically performed at different levels in the organization and require different abilities and skills. level. Patterns of Organizational Leadership The type of influence required for effective leadership is not the same for all leaders. Origination refers to strategic decision making regarding policy formulation or structural change. leaders are needed to identify the strategic mission of the organization and help it adapt to its changing environment. This ability to inspire and motivate others and transform them into committed contributors to the organization is the function of leadership that has captured the interest of philosophers and scholars and propelled the study of leadership. Motivate and inspire. Leaders help the people they lead to accomplish their collective goals. The fourth reason why organizations require leadership stems from the need to motivate people and maintain their involvement in the organization. Leadership is necessary to solve internal conflicts and settle differences of opinion. Interpolation includes adapting or supplementing the present structure to new policy directives. Effective leadership provides meaning and purpose by creating a vision of where the organization is going. As the external environment changes. they come and go. Three basic leadership roles have been identified: origination. and administration.Need for Leadership Why is leadership necessary? Most organizations are highly structured and have relatively clear lines of authority. Interpolation refers to interpreting strategic decisions and designing a method for implementing them within the organization. 2. The second reason why leadership is necessary is because the organization exists in a changing environment. Incomplete organizational structure. Leadership is needed to coordinate the efforts of diverse organizational units. decide who should do what. Individuals are not permanent fixtures within the organization. Depending on their level in the organization. Why. Social organizations cannot be designed to be like machines. then. The third reason for leadership stems from the dynamics of internal change in the organization. The first reason why leadership is necessary is because there is a degree of incompleteness in every organization design.
and Their Skill Requirements Source: Adapted from Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn. Top-level managers symbolize the organization and what it stands for. leadership occurs when one person influences others to do something of their own volition they would not ordinarily do. since they continually deal with these issues in leading others. 539. which may involve a change in the organization’s structure or a reinterpretation of the organization’s mission. Their Location in the Organization. the follower. p. The Social Psychology of Organizations (New York: John Wiley & Sons. and elimination of structure Interpolation: supplementing and piecing out of structure Intermediate levels: pivotal roles Subsystem perspective: Integration of primary two-way orientation and secondary relations: human relation skills Technical knowledge and understanding of system of rules Concern with equity in use of rewards and sanctions Administration: use of existing structure Lower levels EXHIBIT 16. beginning with leadership traits. Middle-level managers must maintain a two-way orientation by taking directives from hose above and accommodating them for people below. Top echelons creation. 1978).policies. The organizational level of analysis has examined how organizational effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader. leadership studies have focused on the traits of successful leaders. Type of Leadership Process Typical Organizational Level Cognitive (Knowledge) System perspective Affective (Emotion) Charisma Origination: change.1 Three Leadership Patterns. and the situation. like other processes it can be studied on three different levels—the individual. Each level will be analyzed separately. Leadership plays an essential role in organizational dynamics and often makes the difference between effective and ineffective organizations. Successful supervisors need to possess both technical knowledge and a clear understanding of the organization’s rules. As defined earlier. occurs at the top level of the organization. Leadership is an essential organizational process and. These studies have given rise to situational leadership theories or contingency theories of leadership. Individuals at this level must have an understanding of the entire organization and of the ways it interacts with the external environment. leadership studies have focused on leadership behaviors of both formal and informal leaders. and the organization. Interpolation — interpreting policy decisions and applying them to the existing organization—is typically done by intermediate-level managers. At the group level. Lower-level supervisors must be concerned with equity and with the administration of rewards and punishments. At the individual level of analysis. the group. Lower-level supervisors administer the policies and procedures of the organization. contingency theories of — leadership. In Search of Leadership .
Physical Traits Trait studies examined such physical factors as height. however. that university presidents were taller than college presidents. Intelligence . In general. one of the early studies on the effects of height found that executives in insurance companies were taller than policyholders. it reported two studies showing that leaders tended to be shorter. The studies were also inconsistent -the way they measured traits. they interacted with other situational variables to influence leader effectiveness. Because of weak results. and some studies relied on the individuals to report their own character traits. systematic investigations of leadership traits first began after the turn of the century. a higher rate of energy output. Several traits produced a significant difference in leadership effectiveness. it appears that the leaders tend to be slightly taller and heavier. World War I highlighted the need for selecting and training effective leaders. intelligence. While one literature review found nine studies showing that leaders tend to be taller. Instead.Although early writers attempted to describe the characteristics of effective leaders. the focus of leadership research shifted from trait studies to contingency studies. studies of personal characteristics are not particularly interesting or useful. a superior physique. and a more attractive appearance. other studies relied on observers to identify the traits they saw. In some studies the traits were measured b psychological tests. health. since their primary goal was to identi6’ the traits and personal characteristics of effective leaders. others were named by qualified observers such as teachers. Although the traits studies were disappointing. and the results can be summarized according to physical traits. Research on leadership traits should not be dismissed too quickly. physique. weight. Four major reviews have surveyed the trait studies. nor are they useful for training purposes. since very little can be done to change most of these physical traits. especially to researchers who had hoped to develop a measure of leadership that predicted leader effectiveness as accurately as intelligence tests predicted problem solving ability. they were not worthless. A variety of methods was used to study leadership traits. and this variety is probably one reason why the results were so inconsistent. and personality traits). The results are generally too weak and inconsistent to be useful in selecting leaders. To illustrate. which examined more than just the traits of the leader. Most studies compared effective leaders with ineffective leaders or leaders with non-leaders. have not always been consistent. and appearance. some were selected by the group via nominations or voting. however. To the extent that anything can be concluded regarding the relationship between these factors and leadership.’ In summary. have better health. The--studies were inconsistent in the methods used to identify leaders Some were identified by outside observers. energy. These studies are generally referred to as trait studies. Attractiveness and a pleasant appearance found to be highly correlated with leaders among Boy Scouts: but among groups of delinquent youth.” Results of this sort. leaders were rated as more slovenly and unkempt. that bishops were taller than clergymen. and for the quarter century between World War land World War II. and that railway presidents were taller than station agents. that sales managers were taller than sales representatives. numerous studies investigated the personal traits of good leaders. the trait studies were quite disappointing. and1 some were selected because they occupied a position of leadership such as student-body president or team captain. but they did not act alone.
Unfortunately. Studies examining personality integration or emotional adjustment consistently found that leaders were more emotionally mature than non-leaders. Rather consistent. Only a limited number of personality traits appear to be related to leadership. they are too different from and out of touch with the rest of the group. The relationship between intelligence and leadership probably stems from the fact that so many leadership functions depend upon careful problem solving. Obviously. there are indeed some relationships. and administration require significant mental ability. One review of leadership studies reported twenty-tree experiments showing that leaders were brighter and had greater levels of intelligence. knows how to get things done. other group members tend to reject them. interpolation. many other variables besides intelligence influence leadership effectiveness. but again the correlations are small. This list is based upon the 1948 review by Ralph Stogdill were of 124 studies of leadership traits)4 This list suggests that the average leader is use a more social. and they generally agree that leaders are more intelligent than non-leaders. is more persistent. and several studies have shown a positive relationship between general knowledge and leadership ability. Indeed. characteristics of the subordinate. is more self-confident. interacts. Each review concluded that leadership must be examined as an interaction of three variables: characteristics of the leader. and the nature of the task.2. All three leadership roles—origination. . it is not correct to conclude that personal characteristics are unrelated to leadership. Leadership effectiveness also appears to be related to two other variables closely associated with intelligence: scholarship and knowledge.Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between leadership and general intelligence. General information. which create communication and interpersonal relations problems. and possesses greater verbal skills to facilitate communication. An interesting conclusion coming from these studies is the suggestion that leaders should be more intelligent than the group but not by too wide a margin. Members who are significantly brighter than other group members are seldom selected as leaders. Personality Traits Studies of the relationship between leadership and personality traits have examined a lengthy list of factors. the relationship between self-confidence and leadership generally produced some of the highest correlations of any of the personality traits tested Consequently. most of the results have beeninconsistent and even contradictory. Because of their superior intellect. researchers concluded that the effective leadership does not depend solely upon a combination of personality the traits. Leaders generally excel scholastically and receive better than average grades. and most of these relationships are not especially strong. A list of the personality traits most frequently associated with leadership are lead shown in Exhibit 16. displays greater cooperativeness and adaptability. displays greater initiative. and goals. In general. but they are more complex than they first appear to be. After four major reviews of the trait studies. practical knowledge.” Only five studies reported that intelligence made no difference. and simply knowing how to get things done appears to be important for effective leadership. Situational variables were also important: they frequently determined of whether a personality characteristic was positively or negatively associated with effective leadership. it appears safe to conclude that leaders are more intelligent than non-leaders. Individuals with high IQ's tend to have different vocabularies. The support was also found for the relationship between leadership and self-confidence or self-esteem.
i5 This study involved groups of ten-year-old boys who were organized in groups of five. The leaders of these groups. Perhaps the best research on styles of leadership. were trained to lead the boys using one of three leadership styles. all decisions were made by the leader and the boys were required to follow prescribed procedures under strict discipline. group decisions were made by majority vote in which equal participation was encouraged and criticism and punishment were minimal. One of the earlier studies compared three leadership styles: authoritarian democratic and laissez-faire. Authoritarian. Every six weeks the leaders were rotated among the groups so that each group experienced each type of leadership. researchers identified two leader behaviors that were essentially similar.Capacity Intelligence Alertness Verbal facility Originality Judgment Achievements Scholarship Knowledge Athletic accomplishment Personality adjustment Responsibility Dependability Initiative Persistence Aggressiveness Self-Confidence Desire to Excel Participation Activity Sociability Cooperation Adaptability Humor Status Socioeconomic position Popularity EXHIBIT 16. Various styles of leadership were defined as a result of these studies of leader behaviors. the actual leadership was minimized and the boys were allowed to work and play essentially without supervision. another line of research examined leader behaviors within the context of a group and attempted to describe what leaders actually do. however. democratic.2 Personality Factors Most Frequently Associated with Effective Leadership While the trait studies focused on individual leaders. Each group met regularly after school to engage in hobbies and other activities under the direction of a leader who adopted one of the three styles of leadership. even though both investigations were conducted independently. Under the laissez-faire leader. that has been used for research and training. and laissez. Under the autocratic leader. These studies essentially asked whether certain ways of behaving were more effective than others: How do effective readers behave differently from other group members? Most of these studies occurred during the l940s and 50s. the groups were more satisfied . Under the democratic style of leadership. Democratic. These two dimensions of leadership have been to form an instrument. and Laissez-faire Leadership The contrasting political systems in the United States and Germany preceding World War II inspired one of the early classic studies of leadership that compared the effects of three leadership styles: authoritarian. During the eighteen weeks of this study. the performance of the boys was observed in order to assess the effects of the three leadership styles. At each university. who were graduate students in social psychology.faire. called the Managerial Grid®. occurred simultaneously at The Ohio State University and the University of Michigan. Under democratic leadership.
’6 Greater satisfaction with an authoritarian leader was also found in another study of over 1. He expected the results of the experiment to confirm his hypothesis. The factor of consideration involved leader behaviors that showed friendship. the autocratic groups appeared to be more productive Only when the leader was present. productive. mutual trust. However. Some of the statements that were used to describe leader behavior are illustrated in the experiential exercise at the end of the chapter. is initiating structure consisted of leadership behaviors associated with organizing and defining the work. the researchers concluded that the responses were measuring just two factors: initiating structure and consideration. The two leadership factors were referred to as initiating structure and consideration. Since both factors were considered important dimensions of leadership. or desirable as a democratic society. and the goals. they appeared to be more productive under autocratic leadership. Under autocratic leadership the groups spent more time in productive work activity and had more workrelated conversations. Although the boys preferred a democratic leader. or high on one and low on the other. through a statistical technique called factor analysis. a major research effort studying leader behaviors was conducted at The Ohio State University. For example a study of 488 managers in a consumer loan company found that employees who had high authoritarianism scores (high acceptance of strong authority relationships) were more satisfied and productive when they worked for supervisors who had little tolerance for freedom. the amount of work-related activity dropped drastically. Therefore. These two factors were identified by administering questionnaires containing numerous descriptions of leader behaviors and combining the items that seemed to measure the same dimension. police officers. although actual objective measures of productivity were not obtained. The effects of the leadership styles on productivity were somewhat mixed. After the data from many employees had been collected and analyzed. Aggressive acts were observed most frequently under the autocratic leadership. the work relationships. In fact. When the leader left the room. warmth. The results of this study were somewhat surprising to the researchers who had expected the highest satisfaction and productivity under democratic leadership. Some examples of such employees are fire fighters. . Other studies have also shown that democratic leadership styles are not always the most productive. some studies have found that both the satisfaction and the productivity of group members is higher under directive leaders than democratic leaders.000 workers. a behavioral scientist who came to America from Germany just prior to World War Lewin believed that the repressive autocratic political climate he had left in Germany was not as satisfying. This study found that employees who worked independently but were required to have frequent interaction with their superior preferred and were more satisfied with an autocratic leader. and administrative aides. a leader could be high on both dimensions. expected workers to follow standard routines.and functioned in the most orderly and positive manner. The research indicates that initiating structure and consideration are separate and independent dimensions of leadership behavior. the early studies assumed that the most effective leaders were high ~n both dimensions. and emphasized meeting deadlines. This study was conducted under the direction of Kurt Lewin. and concern for subordinates. low on both dimensions. These two leader behaviors accounted for about 80 percent of the variance in the responses. This project involved a series of studies that ultimately produced a two-factor theory of leader behavior. A leader who initiated structure was described as one who assigned people to particular tasks. Initiating Structure and Consideration Following World War II.
Subsequent research failed to support the initial expectations. for example. while the 9.9 leader wants to meet schedules and get the job done but at the same time is highly concerned about the feelings and interests of the group members.1 leader is primarily concerned with production and task accomplishment and unconcerned about people. Five different grid positions are typically used to illustrate different leadership styles. A 9. gave instructions. they were necessarily disinterested in the other. again using a nine-point scale. A 9. while the vertical dimension measures an individual’s concern for people. and structured the work of the group.3.22 Therefore. and to the extent they focused on one. it was Found that supervisors scoring high on initiating structure had high proficiency ratings but many employee grievances.’ After extensive research it can now be concluded that the most effective leaders are not always high on both initiating structure and consideration.9 leadership style reflects a maximum concern for both production and people. The 1. a leader who has a strong production orientation is not necessarily disinterested in the employees. In a study of ~c behavior of supervisors at International Harvester. Knowing an individual’s orientation on one leader dimension says nothing about that person’s orientation on the other. Blake and Mouton assume that the most effective leadership style is a 9. avoided punitive behavior.9 style. A review of twenty-four studies dispelled a popular myth which suggested that supervisors focused on either production or employees. The concern for production dimension is measured on a nine-point scale and represented along the horizontal dimension. This person wants-to get the job . Managerial Grid A conceptual framework combining a concern for task accomplishment and a concern for people was created by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton called the Managerial Grid.. checked on performance. Employee-centered behaviors were similar to the dimension of consideration in which the leader developed a supportive personal relationship with subordinates.9 leadership style reflects a maximum concern for people with minimum concern for production. demonstrating both concern for production and concern for people. interests and inter-personal relationships. and encouraged two-way communication with subordinates. The 55 leadership style reflects a moderate concern for both people and production. individuals can place themselves in one of the eighty-one cells on the managerial grid. such as being high on one scale and low on the other or being at moderate levels on both dimensions Production-Centered and Employee-Centered Leader Behaviors About the same time as the Ohio State University researchers were discovering the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration. These studies indicated instead that supervisors can be interested in both production and employees. .-done and wants a schedule followed at all costs. Those who had high consideration scores had low proficiency ratings and also low absences.1 leadership style reflects minimal concern for both production and people and is characteristic of a person who essentially abdicates the leadership role. The 1. Studies on the relationship between production-centered and employee centered behaviors also found them to be independent dimensions of leadership. This individual is not concerned whether the group a small produces anything. Although most studies show that leadership effectiveness is associated with high scores on both dimensions occasionally other combinations have produced the highest levels of satisfaction and performance.An illustration of the Managerial Grid is shown in Exhibit Managerial Grid® 16. but is highly concerned about the members’ personal needs. a similar research program at the University of Michigan identified two similar dimensions of leadership behavior which they labeled production-centered and employee centered behaviors2’ Production-centered behaviors were similar to initiating structure in which leaders established goals. By responding to a questionnaire developed by Blake and Mouton.
9 Country club management Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable. 8 9 High 1 Low EXHIBIT 16.R. The Managerial Grid® is popular among managers. 5.9 Team management Work accomplishment is from committed people: interdependence through a "common stake" in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. the usefulness of the Managerial Grid® has not been consistently supported by research. it is helpful to think of leadership as leadership roles performed within a .1 Authority-obedience Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.S. In spite of its popularity. 9. this research helps to identify the important leadership roles that occur within a group. however.9 leadership style is not always the most effective. p. and they have used it rather extensively to assess their leadership style as part of a training program designed to move them to the 9. Blake and J. 1. and the nature of the work being performed interact in complex ways that call for a variety of leadership styles. Consequently the 9. The demands of the situation.5 Organization man management Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale or people at a satisfactory level. empirical research has failed to show that a 9. friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. Mouton.3 2 3 4 5 6 7 Concern for production The Management Grid Gulf Publishing Source: R. Rather than thinking of leadership strictly in terms of the behavior of the formal leader. Most of the available research consists of case analyses which have been loosely interpreted to support it. 1978).9 leadership style is universally superior. 4 3 2 Low 1 9. 11. The New Management Grid (Houston: Company.1 Impoverished management Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership.9 style.High 9 8 7 6 Concern for people 5 1. Reproduced by permission. Although the research has not shown that one leadership style is universally superior. the expectations of other group members. However.
Effective leadership requires that the leader’s task behaviors and relationship behaviors must change to match the maturity of the group. Situational Leadership Model Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard developed a situational leadership model that combined three variables: (1) the amount of guidance and direction (task behavior) a leader gives. whether they are formally appointed as leaders or not. initiating structure and consideration are similar to the work roles and maintenance roles described in Chapter 10. the effectiveness of the different leadership styles must be combined with different organizational factors to assess their effect effectiveness.” These two roles are necessary for a group to be effective and can be performed either by the formally appointed leader or by other group members. an informal leader will emerge and perform them if it is necessary for success and if the group desires success. the study of leadership has given rise to contingency theories of leadership or situational leadership theories. The two major leadership roles. Likewise. Psychological maturity refers to the willingness or motivation to do something and is a function of the followers commitment and confidence. and (3) the readiness level (maturity) that follows. Four potential leadership styles are created by combining different amounts of task and relationship behaviors. exhibit in performing a specific task or function. and Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton’s normative decision-making model of leadership. Thinking of leadership this way implies that leadership consists of leader behaviors performed by any group members. An individual or group may demonstrate maturity on some tasks and immaturity on others. 52: Selling. Job maturity refers to the ability to do something and is a function of the follower’s knowledge and skills. If a task is already highly structured.4. . Fred Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership. then efforts by the leader to add additional structure are unnecessary and ineffective. This style is suited for followers of low maturity who are unable and unwilling. Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance.27 The focus of this model is o~ the relationship between the leaders and followers. Explain your decisions and provide opportunity for clarification. Robert Houses path-goal theory of leadership. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP In analyzing leadership at the organizational level of analysis. This style is appropriate for followers who are willing but unable. The appropriate combination of task and relationship behaviors for (oar different levels of follower maturity are shown in Exhibit 16. one review concluded that when the formally appointed leaders fail to perform either of these leader behaviors. At this level of analysis. Maturity is defined as the ability and willingness of people to take responsibility for directing their own behavior as it relates to the specific task being performed. and the maturity of the followers is viewed as the most important situational variable influencing loader behaviors. The bell-shaped curve is called a “prescriptive” curve because it shows the appropriate leadership style directly above the corresponding level of maturity. S1: Telling. the maintenance role of showing consideration and concern for group members may be performed by other group members thereby eliminating the need for the formal leader to perform this role. The maturity of followers varies along a continuum and is determined by two components: job maturity (ability) and psychological maturity (willingness). (2) the amount of emotional support (relationship behavior) a leader provides. Four situational leadership theories have received the primary attention: Paul Hersey’s and Ken Blanchard’s situational leadership model. In summarizing research on consideration and initiating structure.group. or if other group members are adequately structuring the task.
evaluating and rewarding performance. to other group members. It is possible For the appointed leader to perform both functions. Effective group leaders are probably those who can sense which leadership roles are not being adequately performed and either perform them then. Hersey and Blanchard have developed instruments for measuring maturity to determine the appropriate leadership style. S4: Delegating. Support for their theory is provided by the experiences of managers who have used it and a small number of research studies. they do not necessarily need to be performed by the formally appointed leader. deciding boy. providing personal support and encouragement. The other role consists of leader behaviors that focus on interpersonal relationships and includes such behaviors as creating a vision of the organization. Indeed the most effective groups may occur ‘when the leadership rotes are ‘widely shared by many group members. Share ideas and facilitate in making decisions. and supervising performance. it should be done.-selves or delegate then. and they have applied their teacher-student relationships and parent-child relationships. They also have used this model to reinterpret and understand the inconsistent findings in other leadership studies. Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation. . delegating assignments. setting goals and objectives. and creating a friendly atmosphere. but other group members can also perform either or both functions. High Task and High Relationship Participating S3 S4 S2 Selling S1 Delegating g Low Relationship and Low Task High Task and Low Relationship Tellin S3: Participating. providing feedback. Although these leadership roles are important to the effective functioning of a group. High Relationship and Low Task These two roles represent essential functions of a successful group: both the task structuring activities and the interpersonal relationship activities must be performed by someone. This style is appropriate for followers who are able and willing. inspiring and motivating people.INSIGHTS-FOR MANAGERS Research on leadership behaviors has identified two essential roles that leaders fill. communicating that vision to each member. One role consists of Leader activities that focus on task accomplishment and includes such behaviors as identifying the task at hand. This style is suited for followers who are able but unwilling.
more structuring. an individual with a favorable description of the least preferred coworker would have a high LPC score.’ In general.Contingency Theory of Leadership The most popular and extensively researched situational theory of leadership was first proposed by Fred Piedler during the 1960s. more participative. An unfavorable description of the least preferred coworker would result in a low score. If they are forced to make a choice between getting the job done or worrying about interpersonal relations. Fiedler and his colleagues developed instruments to measure each of these three situational variables. Fiedler’s model claims that group performance depends on the interaction of the leader style and the favorableness of the situation. This instrument was called a “group atmosphere scale” and two sample items are shown here. and (2) identifying three situational factors influencing leadership and developing a method of measuring them Leader orientation. suggesting a relationship-oriented leader. the evidence indicates that it is a reliable measure of something. (2) whether the task is relatively structured or unstructured. Leadership orientation is measured by the least preferred coworker (LPC) scale. more goal-oriented. the leader-member relations variable was considered to be the most important for determining the favorableness of the situation. In spite of uncertainty about what exactly it measures. Fiedler’s model claims that whether a high LPC leader or low LPC leader will be more effective depends upon the favorableness of the situation. and describe this person using sixteen scales. Fiedler suggested that individuals could be placed along one continuum characterized by two basic leader orientations: relationship-oriented versus task-oriented. and more sensitive to the feelings of others. Task-oriented leaders show a strong emotional reaction against people with whom they have difficulty working. and Fiedler concludes that “there can be little doubt that we are dealing with a very important aspect of personality. In some situations. however. more human relations oriented. as illustrated in Exhibit 16. The LPC scale is not related to any of the well-known personality measures.” Of the three situational variables. Fiedler’s definition of the leader’s orientation emerged largely from earlier studies in which leaders were classified as either relationship-oriented or task-oriented. Fiedlers major contributions consist of(l) identifying the leadership orientation of the leader and developing a way to measure it. LPC scale. In studies testing the model. Relationship-oriented leaders look at others as coworkers and see close interpersonal relations as a requirement for accomplishing the task. Difficulty in interpreting the LPC scores has been a problem for Fiedler’s contingency theory. a high LPC leader is most effective. Situational favorableness. A high LPC leader is more considerate. a low LPC leader is more directive. and more concerned with efficiency. Leader-member relations were measured using a simple questionnaire with ten scales on which the leader was asked to describe the group. and (3) whether the power position of the leader is relatively strong or weak. When the responses arc summed. they choose the task first and worry about interpersonal relations later. Following earlier research.” A review of 25 years of research using th~3 LPC scale concluded that high LPC leaders are primarily relationship-oriented while low LPC leaders are primarily task-oriented consistent with Fiedler's claims.5. suggesting a task-oriented leader. Individuals are asked to think of a person with whom they have worked who they least preferred as a coworker. Fiedler claimed that the favorableness of the situation is determined by three variables: (1) whether the relationships between the leader and the members are good or poor. while a unenthusiastic low LPC leader is more effective in other situations. .
Relationship-oriented leaders (high LPC) tend to excel in situations of intermediate favorableness where concern for the group members is apparently a necessary prerequisite for motivating them to perform well. 2. Leaders who are struggling may need to be placed in a different situation. The results indicated that a high LPC leader was most effective when the situation was moderately favorable. Although these results may look rather complex and difficult to understand. or their current situation may need to be changed. however. and whether they had been given official titles by the organization to differentiate them from subordinates. Decision specificity: the degree to which there is generally more than one correct solution involved in performing the task. the task was unstructured. The third situational variable was the power position of the leader. 3. and the leader possessed a weak power position. In these situations. the correctness of the decisions can be immediately verified. are more effective when the situation is either very favorable or very unfavorable. however.7. In a highly favorable situation. however. 1. These relationships are illustrated in Exhibit 16. In an extremely unfavorable situation. . and they should be placed in jobs consistent with their leadership orientation. satisfying individual needs is probably impossible. Obviously.6. goals are very clear. Decision verifiability: the degree to which the correctness of the solutions or decisions can be demonstrated and ascertained. A taskoriented leader who simply focuses on getting the work done is more effective than a relationshiporiented leader who spends time fruitlessly trying to build good relationships in an impossible situation. Coal clarity: the degree to which the requirements of the job are clearly stated and known by the people performing then. the personal needs of members are apparently already satisfied and what is needed is a task-oriented leader to get the job done. A highly favorable situation consisted of good leader-member relations. Candidates for leadership positions should be evaluated to assess their basic orientations. there is on! y one correct procedure for performing the task. and there is only one correct solution. On the other hand.The second most important situational variable was the task structure which was evaluated by judges who examined four aspects of the task structure. the low LPC leaders tended to have the most effective groups. an extremely unfavorable situation existed when the leader-member relations were poor. Fiedler examined the relationship between the leaders' LPC score and the effectiveness of the group in a variety of situations. If the situation was extremely favorable or unfavorable. a highly structured task. people want to have leaders who care about them. a highly structured task does not require leaders to provide additional structure. Group effectiveness. whether they could assign tasks and evaluate performance. Fiedler's theory has some interesting implications for the selection and training of leaders in organizations. Coal-path multiplicity: the degree to which the problems encounter in the job can be solved by a variety of procedures. This factor was measured by a series of questions asking whether the leaders could recommend rewards or promotions. Task-oriented leaders (low LPC). In a highly structured task. which ranged along a scale from extremely favorable situations to extremely unfavorable situations for the leader. and a strong power position. as illustrated in Exhibit 16. By determining whether a group is high or low on each of the three situational factors. they seem plausible after a brief consideration. The favorableness of a situation should be assessed before assigning a leader to that position. 4. Fiedler classified each group into one of eight categories.
Participative leadership: consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions and ideas in decision making. The appropriate leadership style . The second function is to increase the number of rewards available to subordinates by being supportive and paying attention to their personal needs. the path-goal model suggests that these four styles can be performed by the same manager at different times and in different situations. however. Leader behaviors. Although the theory seems to predict leader effectiveness. Essentially. the ambiguity over what the LPC score is actually measuring is disturbing. Achievement-oriented leadership: sets challenging goals expects sub-ordinates to perform at their highest level. standards. The validity of Fiedler's contingency theory has been examined in numerous studies. The most serious controversy about Fiedler's model concerns the LPC scale. 2. Path-Goal Model Another situational leadership theory is the path-goal model developed primarily by Robert House. Four distinct leadership styles are explained in the model: 1. the task structure and power position can be effectively changed through job redesign programs or changes in personnel policies. 3. The path-goal model explains how leaders can facilitate task performance by showing subordinates how their performance can be instrumental in achieving desired rewards. individuals are satisfied and productive when they see a strong relationship between their effort and performance and when their performance results in highly valued rewards.When leaders are not successful. 4. Supportive leadership: treats subordinates as equals and shows concern for their well-being. The path-goal model suggests that leadership consists of two basic functions. Although most of the studies have been supportive. The first function is path clarification: the leader helps subordinates understand which behaviors are necessary to accomplish the tasks. Fiedler recommends changing the situation to fit the leader through what he calls job engineering. it is tempting to suggest that they need to change their leadership orientation. For the leader to change. the path-goal theory suggests that if a directive leader discovers the situation has changed and now requires a participative leader. Job engineering consists of changing one of the situational factors to increase or decrease the favorability of the situation. In other words. Directive leadership: tells subordinates what is expected of them and provides specific guidance. and schedules of work. leaders may adopt a variety of leadership styles. This model is fairly well known because it is based upon a popular theory of motivation — expectancy theory. status. Rather than changing the leader to fit the situation. it is possible. and the various paths to goal attainment. and argues that the basic leadership orientation of an individual is a relatively stable personality characteristic that cannot be easily changed. Therefore. The path-goal model claims that the most effective leaders are those who help subordinates folio’s the path to receiving valued rewards. the model explains what leaders should do to influence the perceptions of subordinates about their work. To perform these functions. Expectancy theory explains how an individual’s attitudes and behavior are influenced by the relationships between effort and performance (goal paths) and the valence of the rewards (goal attractiveness). which suggested that leadership style was resistant to change. the personal goals of subordinates. attempts to develop pleasant interpersonal relationships among group members. Fiedler does not recommend this approach. there have been enough contradictory findings for the model to remain somewhat controversial among leadership scholars. and personal needs. The model claims that leader behavior is motivating and satisfying to the extent that it clarifies the paths to the goals and increases goal attainment. For example. and continually seeks improvement in performance. Unlike Fiedler's model.
and (3) the group norms and dynamics. while those with an external locus of control believe their rewards are controlled by external forces. Locus of control: As explained in chapter 3. subordinates are not challenged by the task. Abilities: The ability and experience of the followers will influence leader whether they are able to work more successfully with an achievement oriented leader who sets challenging goals and expects high performance. High authoritarian followers tend to be less receptive to a participative leadership style and more responsive to directive leadership. the model does present a list of situational factors that need to be considered. Individuals with an internal locus of control believe their rewards are based on their own efforts. Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to an individual’s willing to accept the influence of others. The next two situations. Internals prefer a participative leadership style while externals are generally more satisfied oh are with a directive leadership style. This model shows how leadership styles interact with follower . Both situations call for a directive leader who explains the job and helps subordinates know how to get rewarded for performing it. The basic elements of the pathgoal model of leadership axe illustrated in Exhibit 16J. This research has tested the theory’s predictions concerning the moderators of leadership effectiveness to determine whether the situational variables . performance. Likewise. a supportive leader can help subordinates feel greater self-confidence by coaching them and praising their accomplishments. A highly structured task. subordinates have an ambiguous job or they feel insufficiently rewarded.9. situation 6 involves a task that is unstructured and poorly defined. In situation 5. Situational factors. The path-goal model identifies three environmental factors moderating the effects of leadership styles: (1) the nature of the task. or a supportive leader who is willing to patiently encourage and instruct them. may reduce the need for a directive leader and even make a directive leader’s attempt to provide additional structure seem unwarranted and unwanted. 3. Two types of situational factors are proposed—the characteristics of the follower and environmental factors. Repetitive jobs are not as boring if a supportive leader helps subordinates see that their work is meaningful and significant.depends on the situation. and acceptance of the leader. Some simplified applications of the path-goat model are shown in Exhibit 16. Although the path-goal model does not explain how to identify the appropriate leadership leader style. The perceptions of the followers concerning the situation and the followers’ level of motivation determine their job satisfaction. Finally. Research on the path-goal model. subordinates help to create an effective solution to the problem and. An achievementoriented leader will set high goals and emphasize the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards from more effort. Three characteristics of the followers have been identified as significant variables determining the appropriate leadership style: 1. locus of control refers to the individual’s belief concerning the determinants of reward. as a result of their involvement. In the first two situations. These environmental factors can influence the effectiveness of different leadership styles in a variety of ways. However. calling for participative leadership. The relationships specified by the path-goal model have been examined in a modest number of empirical studies. Likewise. a directive leader would be more likely to succeed than a participative leader if the organization had a highly formal authority structure that followed a strict chain of command. a concern for the personal needs of subordinates by a supportive leader may seem superficial and unnecessary in a highly cohesive work group. boring work and a lack of selfconfidence call for a support leader. feel committed to making it work. By participating in the decision making. (2) the formal authority system within the organization. 2. for example.characteristics and environmental factors to influence the personal perceptions and motivation of the followers.
Normative Decision-Making Model of Leadership Another situational leadership theory is the nonnative decision-making model formulated by Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton? It is considered both a decision making model and a theory of leadership since it explains how leaders should make decisions. The path-goal model explains why a particular style works best because of the reward contingencies determined by the environment and the leader's capacity to administer rewards and punishments. ideas suggested alternatives and evaluation from members individually. two types of consultative decision making (CI and CII). These five styles are defined as follows: Al All Cl CII OH The leader decides alone without soliciting any input from members The leader decides alone after obtaining the necessary information from members. ideas. An experiment testing the full pat-goal model is difficult because too many variables have not been clearly identified and instruments -have not been developed to measure them. the leader is simply one of the . These normative decision-making model diagnostic questions are arranged sequentially in the form of a decision tree to help managers select the appropriate leadership style. Leaders need to know when to consult others and when consultation is a waste of time. The leader makes the decision after obtaining information.interacted with the leadership styles in the predicted manner. Perhaps the major contribution of the path-goal model is that it provides a method for viewing leadership in terms of the rewards and punishments administered by the leader. The Vroom-Yetton model identifies five decision making styles: two types of autocratic decision making (AL and Aft). Although the leader may serve as the chairman of the group. Instead. Vroom and Yetton’s classic model identifies five decision-making styles along with a series of diagnostic questions to determine which style is most appropriate. and a group decision making style (GIL). also need to be incorporated into it. suggesting that making decisions is one of the most important functions a leader performs. although they suggest that it understates the complexity of the situation. This model also disagrees with Fiedler by suggesting that leaders can use a variety of decision making strategies. the research suggests that other variables. The evidence seems to indicate that the model does quite well in predicting how the situational variables and leader styles combine to influence individual satisfaction and group morale? However. Perhaps the greatest disadvantage in trying to’ validate the model empirically is that it contains too many variables and tries to explain too much. Briefly stated. Furthermore. leaders must develop a repertoire of leadership styles and adopt the style that is most appropriate to the situation. suggested alternatives. Decision making (leadership) styles of leaders. The leader makes the decision after meeting with the members as a group to collect their information. The normative decision-making model is a contingency theory of leadership since it assumes that no single leadership style is appropriate for all situations. This model tends to equate leadership with decision making. The leader and members arrive at a group decision through consensus decision making. Nevertheless. and evaluation. this type of explanation will have practical applications for those interested in the leadership process. the model has not been-shown to be a good predictor of individual or group performance. such as conflict and structure. As more research accumulates. the available studies tend to support the model. Knowing whether to involve others in the decision making process or whether to make the decision alone is an important leadership issue that dependant upon several considerations.
6. 2. The quality of the decision refers to its accuracy and the extent to which it will achieve some objective. who possesses it. There are two questions that leaders should consider in order to determine whether acceptance is an issue: (1) Do subordinates feel strongly about the decision? and (2) Is individual initiative and judgment on the part of members required to implement the decision? If the answer to either of these questions is yes. 1. lower costs. The decision rules are contained in eight questions that a leader answers either yes or no. 4. does it make any difference which decision is selected? Are some decisions qualitatively superior to others? Do I have sufficient information to make a high-quality decision? Do subordinates have sufficient additional information that needs to be considered to result in a high-quality decision? Do I know exactly what information is needed. These decision rules are designed to help the leader know how to involve subordinates in decisions in a way that enhances the quality and series acceptability of the decision. Diagnostic decision rules. Criteria for selecting a leadership style. such as increase profitability. identifying good alternatives. For example. Regardless of the technical quality of the solution.group and does not decision try to influence the group to adopt a particular solution. given the preferred solutions? These diagnostic questions are used to determine the appropriate decision making style. The boxes in the decision tree below each number . 3. raise productivity. A through H. reduce turnover.10. or increase sales. participative decision making would be inappropriate. participative decision making is quite quality inappropriate during a commando raid. The application of these diagnostic questions is contained in the decision-tree chart shown in Exhibit 16. Vroom and Yetton suggest that leaders select an able appropriate decision making style by diagnosing the situation using a sequence of decision rules. Two criteria are used for assessing the effectiveness of a leadership style: quality and acceptance. represent the questions shown above the decision tree. style is autocratic or during the twenty-second huddle of a football team. and how to collect it? Is acceptance of the decision by subordinates critical to effective implementation? If I were to make the decision by myself is it certain that it would be accepted by my subordinates? Can subordinates be trusted to base their solutions on considerations consistent with the organization’s goals? Is conflict among the subordinates likely. the decision may be a failure if the members are not willing to accept it. The chart reads from left to right and the letters at the top. 5. then the acceptability of the decision is important. The first three rules focus on the quality of the decision. 7. As long as it is accepted. in the middle of a police rescue action. Consulting other group members often provides additional information. but when there are severe time constraints or styles vested interests on the part of the members. 8. Decision acceptance refers to the degree to which the subordinates or might group members are willing to implement the decision. and evaluating them carefully to select the best solution. Decision quality depends on gathering accurate and which tree relevant information.
and female managers are more participative than male managers). If saving time and minimizing costs were not the most important objectives. Descriptive research has attempted to identify how closely the actual leadership styles used by managers correspond with the leadership styles recommended by the Vroom-Yetton model. In half the situations the model recommends either AI. these studies support the model. the participative styles. For example at the starting point all five decision styles are appropriate. GIL. top-level managers are more participative than lower-level managers. The symbols at the far right illustrate which decision style is appropriate for the various paths through the decision tree. one oft he other styles might be recommended when more than one style is acceptable. would be preferred more frequently. GII and CII. among forty-five retail franchises in the cleaning industry. Managers tend to overuse the consultative style (CI and CII) where the model suggests that the autocratic decision style (AL) is appropriate’8 Other research —has also shown that business school students are more participative than actual managers. Each scenario presents a decision situation. All four situational leadership models contribute to our understanding of leadership by emphasizing the influence of external factors on the effectiveness of a particular leadership style. In general. or CI strategies in which the manager decides alone. is the only acceptable method. depending upon whether the answers to the questions are yes or no. where the manager makes the decision alone after consulting with the subordinates as an advisory group. In only three situations does the model indicate that the group decision making strategy. The research indicates that most managers use greater participative decision making than the model recommends. AII. When the manager’s decision style corresponded with the style recommended by the model. and the individual is asked to assume the role of the manager and decide which is the appropriate leadership style by answering the questions in the decision-tree model. In four situations the model recommends the CII strategy. Applying the Vroom-Yetton model. 68 percent of the decisions were judged to have been failed suggest that managers would do well to consider the diagnostic questions in deciding whom to involve in decision making.represent the point where that question is asked. Two studies have examined the question of whether the Vroom-Yetton model actually describes the way managers should make decisions. those store managers who used the appropriate decision style as prescribed by the model tended to have more productive operations and more satisfied employees than managers who used decision styles ~ inconsistent with the model)0 Another test of the model examined whether 4 managers used the style recommended by the model in a variety of decision situations. if the goal was to further the personal development of subordinates. Comparing the leadership models. For example. At the endpoints of some of the decision sequences. and the model suggests that each style is likely to lead to a high-quality decision acceptable to subordinates. Fiedler’s contingency model has been subjected to the most extensive empirical research and has been more carefully defined than the other models. The lines connecting the boxes indicate the decision making path the manager follows. A common characteristic of all four models is that each model identifies different leadership styles and suggests that the effectiveness of the style is determined by various situational factors. the model recommends that managers choose the most autocratic of the styles to save time and minimize costs. These scenarios can be used for training managers to learn the appropriate leadership style. For example. When more than one decision style is acceptable. Vroom and Yetton have developed a series of decision making scenarios that portray how the model can be applied. . several alternative styles are feasible.
The normative decision-making model focuses on decision quality. supportive. as illustrated in Exhibit 1611. participative. and (3) forces in the situation. In addition. The models by Hersey-Blanchard and Fiedler both identify two leadership styles: task-oriented versus relationship-oriented. The amount of confidence managers have in their subordinates and the manager's ability to handle uncertainty are also relevant. The forces in a subordinate include such things as whether subordinates have high needs for independence. The path-goal model evaluates leadership according to job satisfaction. At one extreme the manager uses his/her authority to simply make the decision and announce it. and participative. Fiedler views them as ends of a single continuum. and acceptance of the leader. the appropriate leadership style is determined by (1) forces in the manager. An important reason for some of this difference is that the normative decisionmaking model equates leadership with making decisions and looks at only this function of leadership. and achievement-oriented The normative decision-making model identifies three leadership styles: autocratic. the models focus on different styles. consultative. whether they are ready to assume responsibility for decision making. But while Hersey and Elan-chard view them in a two-dimensional matrix as two independent leader behaviors. At the other extreme. In spite of the complexity. and different criteria for selecting the best style. the theories and research reviewed earlier illustrate the complexity of the issue. Seven different leadership styles along this continuum are identified in the exhibit. According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt. whether they are interested in the problems.However. DETERMINANTS OF LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS Although deciding what makes an effective leader seems as if it should be a simple decision. decision acceptance. and time required to reach a decision. The situational factors influencing the effectiveness of leadership are quite different in each of the models. (2) forces in the subordinates. performance. the models use rather different criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of leadership. The path-goal model identifies four leadership styles: directive. Some of the important forces in the manager include the manager's value system and the value the manager places on participation and involvement by subordinates. Choosing a Leadership Style One of the most popular models for selecting an appropriate leadership style is one proposed by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt. however. the manager provides an area of freedom for subordinates and permits them to function within these limits to make decisions and direct their own activities. and whether they possess the necessary experience to deal with . This model describes a variety of leadership styles along a continuum from highly autocratic have one end to highly participative at the other. Both the Hersey-Blanchard and the Fiedler models evaluate the effectiveness of different leadership styles according to group performance. different situational factors. individuals who are in positions of leadership are still faced with the practical question of deciding which leadership pattern to adopt.
43 Employees who performed well caused their supervisor is to reward them and treat them with greater consideration. 2. Group norms are created by the dynamics of the group. and individual skills and abilities. .Group factors. at the same time. and the absence of available alternatives. the performance of the subordinates caused changes in the behavior of the leaders. The framework provided by Tannenbaum and Schmidt provides a useful way to analyze a leadership situation and choose a successful leadership pattern. Leaders do not have unlimited opportunities to influence others. it is important to remember that leadership may be significantly constrained by the followers. As a long-term strategy. Leadership effectiveness is constrained by a variety of factors. organizations reward managers according to the performance of their group. For example. and the pressures of time. and the availability of skilled followers is influenced by the external labor market. it can limit the leader’s ability to influence the group. If the group is highly cohesive and very determined. technological specifications. External factors. Leadership can also be constrained by a variety of organizational factors limiting the leader’s ability to either communicate with or to reinforce the behavior of subordinates. laws. such as the extent to which managerial decisions are preprogrammed due to precedent. the managers of highperforming groups are highly rewarded by the organization. In this study. As subordinates gain greater skill and competence in managing themselves. the company. Tannenbaum and Schmidt encourage leaders to change their subordinates and the situation in a way that allows them to gradually provide greater opportunity for subordinate involvement. The constraints imposed on leaders include external factors organizational policies. leaders ought to provide more autonomy for them. The forces in the situation include the culture of the organization and its history of allowing subordinates to exercise autonomy. The successful leader is one who is aware of the situational forces and responds appropriately to them. Leaders are constrained in what they can do because of various economic realities and a host of state and federal laws. When we acknowledge the leader’s capacity to reward the behavior of followers. For example. Strategies for Improving Leadership With thousands of books and articles written about leadership. The organization may constrain a leader’s effectiveness by limiting the amount of interaction between leaders and followers and by restricting the leader’s ability to reward or punish followers. 1. One study has demonstrated the reciprocal nature of influence between leaders and subordinates. data were collected from first-line managers and two of the supervisors who reported to them. and the broader social environment in which they operate. Leaders who were more considerate created greater satisfaction among their subordinates.them. the members of the group. the nature of the problem itself and the question of whether subordinates have the knowledge and experience needed to solve it. 3. Consequently.Organizational policies. it is surprising the followers. cohesiveness in the group and the degree to which the members work together as a unit. group factors. structure. we should not overlook the capacity of the followers to reward the leader by the ways they perform. leaders are required to pay at least the minimum wage and they are required to enforce safety standards. Constraints on leader behavior. but. since group decision making is time-consuming and ineffective in a crisis situation. Although research on the reciprocal influence between leaders and followers is still rather limited. Some geographical areas have a much better supply of skilled employees than others. Effective leaders need to understand themselves. Leaders who have unskilled followers will have difficulty leading regardless of their leadership style.
The fact that the results are inconsistent and generally weak does not necessarily mean that leadership is unimportant or that leaders don’t really account for much. These studies focused primarily on physical traits. Substitutes for leadership. Some situations may simply require greater skills and abilities than the leader may possibly hope to possess. 2. A second approach to studying leadership focused on leader behaviors—how leaders actually behave. studies have to shown that a highly structured situation neutralizes a leader’s efforts to structure the group’s behavior. and power. and training tend to eliminate the need.Individual skills and abilities. energy. For example. For instrumental leadership. Instead. The task-oriented instructions from an instrumental leader are simply unnecessary when subordinates already know what to do. and administration. Leadership refers to incremental influence and is s-aid to occur when one individual influences others to do something voluntarily that they otherwise would not do. If the subordinates are indifferent toward rewards offered by the organization. the influence of both supportive leaders and instrumental leaders is neutralized. SUMMARY 1. These variables are referred to as substitute variables because they substitute for leadership either by making the leader’s behavior unnecessary or by neutralizing the leader’s ability to influence subordinates. the results were generally weak and often inconsistent. it illustrates the complexity of the world in which leaders are required to function. and laissez-faire. The leader’s own skills and abilities may act as constraints since leaders can only possess so much expertise. Realizing that there are constraints on a leader’s behavior and that other the factors may serve to neutralize or substitute for the influence of a leader helps to explain why the research on leadership has produced such inconsistent results. ability. While some situations constrain leaders other situations make leadership unnecessary. and personality. interpolation. A need for leadership within organizations stems from the incompleteness of the organization design and the dynamic nature of the internal and external environments. Although democratic leadership created the greatest satisfaction. 3. For example. Although some personal characteristics were frequently related to leadership.4.12. Leadership is an extremely important function that has an enormous influence on the effectiveness of groups and organizations. subordinates who possess extensive experience. Three basic leadership roles include origination of policy and structure. intelligence. autocratic leadership created the highest levels of productivity. One of the earliest studies compared three leadership styles: authoritarian. Although the concepts of substitutes and neutralizers for leadership are a relatively new. may prevent us from knowing in advance which will be the most effective leadership behaviors. early studies seem to support them. Some of the variables that tend to substitute for. The complexity of the situation. democratic. however. Many studies concluded that the characteristics of the subordinate and the nature of the task were as important as the characteristics of the leader in determining success. or neutralize leadership arc illustrated in Exhibit 16. The earliest studies of leadership were primarily trait studies that attempted to identify the characteristics of effective leaders. .
At the University of Michigan the same two factors were labeled production-centered and employee-centered leader behaviors. The most appropriate style depends upon two types of situational factors: the characteristics of the follower arid characteristics of the environment. The research evidence. These theories suggest that the most effective leadership style depends upon situational variables.9. As the may of the followers increases. indicating a leader who is high in both dimensions. and whether the decision will produce a controversial solution. . 6. the appropriate leadership style is first telling. When these three situational variables created an extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situation. authoritarianism. does not consistently support this conclusion. a leader with a high concern for interpersonal relationships (high LPC) was more effective in situations where there were intermediate levels of favorableness. Hersey and B1anchard developed a situational leadership model that matched different combinations of task behavior and relationship behavior with the maturity of the followers. The Failure of leadership research to identify leadership traits or universally superior leader behaviors resulted in the development of four situational theories of leadership. This theory is derived from expectancy theory and suggests that effective leaders must clarify the goal paths and increase the goal attractiveness for followers. Three of the most important follower characteristics include the locus of control. whether the task was structured or unstructured. These two leader behaviors appear to identify leadership functions essential to the effectiveness of a group. however. whether subordinates will accept the decision if they do not participate in making it. and the group norms and dynamics. The three leadership styles include autocratic decision making. At The Ohio State University the researchers labeled these two leader behaviors initiating structure and consideration. 5. Vroom and Yetton’s normative decision-making model is also a situational leadership theory since it identifies the appropriate styles leaders should use in making decisions. The two Factors have been used to form a matrix called the Managerial Grid which places a concern for production on one side of the grid and concern for people on the other Each dimension is measured on a nine-point scale. The most extensively researched situational leadership theory is Fred Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership. Research conducted simultaneously at two universities identified two similar leadership behaviors. whether the subordinates will accept the goals of the organization. and whether the power position of the leader was strong or weak. supportive achievement-oriented and participative leadership styles. The decision titles determining which style is most appropriate include such questions as whether the leader has adequate information to make the decision alone. Fiedler used the LPC scale to measure the leader’s orientation toward either the task or the person. then participating. and personal abilities. for highly mature followers. 7. delegating. Four distinct leadership styles are proposed in the model: directive. The path goal model is another situational leadership theory. However. especially the characteristics of the group and the nature of the task. and group decision making. then selling. consultative decision making. The most appropriate leadership style was then determined by assessing three situational variables: whether the relationships between the leader and the members were good or poor. 9. The three environmental factors include the nature of the task. 8. the most effective leadership style was a task-oriented (low LPC) leader. and finally. and the ideal leadership style is considered to be 9. the formal authority system within the organization.4.
and handsome. one extremely favorable and the other extremely unfavorable. Although most of the literature on leadership emphasizes the influence of the leader on the group. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. the influence of the group upon the leader should not be overlooked. describe how a group would need to behave in order to create a punitive. and the two group roles discussed in Chapter 10: work roles and maintenance roles? What does this association suggest in terms of essential activities for group functioning? Apply Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership by identifying two extremely different situations. initiating structure and consideration. the leader or the group? Using the principles of operant conditioning. authoritarian supervisor or a rewarding. Who do you think exerts the greatest influence. How do you account for these results? What is the relationship between the two leader behaviors. 6. 2. What is the relationship between expectancy theory and the path-goal model 0f leadership? An important difference in the implications of situational leadership theories is whether leadership styles can be learned or changed. 3. and individual skills and abilities. Other variables have been found to neutralize or substitute for the influence of a leader. participative supervisor. group norms. 4. The relationship between the leader and the group implies a reciprocal influence. Studies of the relationship between physical traits and leadership suggest that leaders tend to be tall. Groups have the capacity to influence the behavior of their leaders by responding selectively to specific leader behaviors. The influence of a leader can also be constrained by several external factors. such as organizational policies. What is your opinion about the possibility of significantly changing an individual’s basic leadership style? The relationship between the leader and the group invokes a reciprocal influence relationship. and explain why a taskoriented (low LW) leader is most effective in each situation.10. such as the skills and abilities of followers and the nature of the task itself. . 5. dark.
well-being. Leader behavior that focuses on clarifying and defining the roles and task responsibilities for subordinates. Leader behaviors. forces within the environment that supplant or replace the influence of the leader. House’s path-goal theory. Each factor is measured with a nine-point scale. Managerial Grid® A matrix that combines two factors: concern for people and concern for production. LPC scale. Initiating structure. sometimes called consideration or employee-centered activities. task. Subordinate. and Vroom and Yetton’s normative decision-making model. Contingency theories of leadership. Leadership theories that recognize the influence of situational variables in determining the ideal styles of leadership. Leadership. Four contingency leadership theories include Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. Fiedlers contingency theory. a leader who shows a strong emotional dislike for his or her least preferred coworker. Task-oriented leader (low LPC) According to Fiedler. The two leader behaviors that have been consistently observed including task-related activities. Path-goal model A contingency theory of leadership based upon expectancy theory which suggests that the characteristics of the follower and environmental factors should determine which of four leadership styles is most appropriate. Substitutes for leadership. called initiating structure or production-centered activities. interpolation or adapting the structure by middle-level managers and administration or implementation of the policies and procedures by lower-level supervisors. Relationship-oriented leader (high LPC) According to Fiedler. a leader who sees desirable characteristics even in his or her least preferred coworker. satisfaction.GLOSSARY Consideration. . Neutralizers of leadership. The incremental influence that one individual exerts upon another and that causes the second person to change his or her behavior voluntarily. Forces that tend to destroy the influence of a leader or make it ineffective. Or organizational factors that decrease the importance of leader’s influence. Three leadership roles include origination of structure by top-level managers. and need fulfillment of subordinates. This scale measures a persons leadership orientation. Leader behavior that focuses on the comfort. The kinds of behaviors that leaden actually perform in a group. such as the information possessed by leader and followers and whether group members will accept the decision. Normative decision-making model A decision-making model that is also a theory of leadership which suggests that the roost appropriate decision-making style for a leader depends upon situational factors. A questionnaire with sixteen semantic differential scales that are used to measure the least preferred coworker. and interpersonal relations activities.
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