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Foreword

Freehand drawing gives us five main advantages: 1. First of aII, th ings that do not as yet actua Ily exist can be ill ustrated al most as if they did. When drawn freehand, planned buildings, rooms, landscapes, pictures, motifs, scenes, etc., become immediately visible in three-di mensional form. The advantage of the "artist's impression" is that all our ideas can quickly take positive shape by means of the freehand sketch. 2. A comprehensive and accomplished freehand drawing can illustrate and "demonstrate" an object far more clearly than all other techniques. In an age when we are being force-fed with TV,film, and photography, the drawing leaves a more lasting impression and is often more pleasing to the eye. 3. The sheer pleasure of seeing the visible result of our own efforts as a wholly personal act and achievement, one which is permanent, lasting, and frequently beautiful too. 4. Our powers of perception are greatly enhanced: freehand drawing compels us to sort the essentials from the banal and hence to see things more profoundly. 5. Our entire way of life is visibly expanded and enriched. Our powers of observation are enhanced, the visual memory strengthened, the imagination trained, the feeling for form and space is heightened; we learn to see the essence of things-i.e., our ability to abstract is better trained. There are many substitutes, but even in the age of advanced photographic, atomic, space, automation, and production technologies, we simply cannot do without freehand drawing. The rapid sketch will always assist and expedite the exchange of information in a discussion,and many an expert will assert that one drawing is worth a thousand words of explanation. Freehand drawing can capture an initial concept or idea for interior designs or designs in other fields, e.g., mechanical engineering. In the environment, freehand drawing can awake our interest in many of life's little details which we might otherwise overlook. As we learn to draw freehand we learn to look at our surroundings more intensively, to perceive things more clearly and understand them better. • Drawing and freehand drawing have for thousands of years been techniques which man can. and has mastered (look at the cave paintings over ten thousand years old). The motivation came from a need for ornamentation, the retention of sensory impressions, or the transmission of rnformation pure and simple. The portrayal of self and surroundings has always been one of man's elementary requirements and manifests Itself In many different media and ways (including freehand drawing); the specific medium will be determined by such factors as environment, education, and possibilities of self-development. In previous times, for example, one's own half-timbered dwelling, with its carvings and color scheme, was a very personalized object. Today, on the other hand, the sole individual form of expression is often only the choice of color for a house picked out from a builder's catalog of ready-made homes. Freeha.nddrawing opens up a whole new area of personal freedom which can captivate us as an -ntensive hobby to be pursued passionately-and one that is also inexpensive and uncomplicated. Freehand drawing can enrich and broaden the experience of a holiday or journey. And if there ISno picture, photo, or brochure handy, we can quickly draw or sketch an object we Wish to show to someone else. There is no doubt that the modicum of effort and patience needed to learn to drawfreehand will be rrchly and diversely rewarded.

Karl.Christian Heuser

Sketching a three-dimensional view (step-by-step construction of a drawing). The book is also laid out in step-by-step form.

1.0 Freehand Drawing-It

Can Be Learned

1.1 Drawing
1.

Step 1.

Draw horizon at eye level (straight across from left to right).

In the modern technological era, the ability to convey ideasclearlv and convincingly is more important than ever before. While problems and concerns can be succinctly conveyed through concise speech and unequivocal gesture, technical and structural problems can often only be explained with the aid of signs and symbols drawn on paper. This is where freehand drawing can have a special part to play, and it is no exaggeration to claim: "Anyone can learn to draw freehand provided he's willinq!" Of course, a modicum of patience is required to carry out the exercises, but it is no great difficulty to reproduce as a drawn outline what one sees. Nor need the sketching of objects on paper have anything to do with so-called "talent" or even "art." The sole requirement, in fact. is practice in observation and awareness of everyday life and in the handling of drawing materials. Drawing can mean sketching the outlines. During the Renaissance-and even in the Bauhausthey said things like "Good draftsmanship is part of an all-around education." Today we might add that "Good photographs may be very beautiful but we should never quite forget how to draw." The ancient Persians, Egyptians, and Greeks were excellent draftsmen and such good illustrators that today their achievements are known as ancient art. Photographs are no substitute for the more differentiated drawing, the photograph is usually a poor substitute since most photos include all manner of detail extraneous to the actual object. Apart from the object itself being insufficiently stressed (what is it a photo of, exactly?), the surroundings and background, etc., detract from the central impression the picture is supposed to convey. A clear-cut and concise drawing that is kept free of superfluous detail can even enhance the aesthetic quality (beauty?) of a picture. So far as modern photographic equipment is concerned, there is little doubt that any merely photo-

vanishing

pomr

of the "depth

horizon

I.

tmes

graphic representation becomes meaningless the moment that a camera's easy handling turns critical selectivity into snapshot mania. Just as with drawing and composition, really good photography is dependent upon the patient and concentrated observation of the subjects to be portrayed. "Drawing" can be interpreted as "making signs and symbols of something," a process in which the essence of an object is sketched, emphasized, and brought out. As a consequence, irrelevant matter must be omitted since it merely dilutes the major point of information. In certain instances this can even entail leaving out the entire surroundings and concentrating on the essential features only. Personal style and "artistic" flourishes are not absolutely necessary unless we wish to highlight specific features. This means that drawing gives us an opportunity to practice and sharpen our awareness of the essentials, a fact made clear by any good caricature. And as our experience grows we will find it easier and quicker to reproduce forms, buildings, and structures. Our choice of motifs will also teach us to see specific sections of a view: we will learn to pick out drawings and pictures from an overall scene and arrange the objects in skillful form ("composition"), Finally, a thoughtfully selected observation point will do much to improve the pictorial composition as a whole. The student should soon overcome his initial feeling of having to cover the paper with firm lines. A little practice should teach us to visualize the finished drawing as we begin the very first stroke. Before we can speak a language we must learn the vocabulary; in terms of drawing, this means that we must learn to see and draw lines-not a hard task for anyone with a little courage. The aim of this book is to teach the student the basic manual skills and to establish his confidence in technical execution. As his experience and skill grow, the freehand draftsman will discover his own techniques in accordance with his temperament and personal preferences.

Step 2. 2.

Determine the vanishing point on the horizon (an eccentric position avoids uninteresting symmetry).

9,aund·lo-eyedlslance
(aoPfQxlmately15mj

Step 3.
3.

Draw ground level at distance of ground from eye (approx. 1.5 to 1.6 meters) below horizon line (3 height divisions) = a.

cetlonghe'ghl
doorhe'ghl ~

a

8"50cm

:~~ W .iL_
;,

9roundirne

Step 4.

4.
proooruon-cfenqth breadth (I:bl

Draw in door height approximately 2.0 m (4 x a)·and ceiling height approximately 2.50 m (5 x a = 5 x 0.5 rn),

1 m(approxlma!e1y)

honzon

Step 5.

Draw left- and right-hand room limits and the doorway, estimating the proportions of height:width.

Step 6.

Draw in the "depth lines," i.e., the lines that lead to and from the vanishing point in this frontal perspective.

Step 7.

Once the main lines and dimensions have been drawn in, it is easy to illustrate the remaining detail.

10

11

1.2 Drawing Materials-Where

Do I Start?

8. fountain pen 9. ball-point pen The width of the stroke should always be kept as even as possible. PenciJand felt points should not widen too fast and should certainly not break off! Evenness of stroke can be achieved by rotating the instrument.

2.0 First Essentials

The line and the drawing are what counts, not a great outlay on expensive paper or materials.

1.2. 1 Drawing Instruments
It is essential that our materials allow for a flowing, even line and stroke. Avoid anything that broadens the stroke as it gets longer, or which can easily spoil the paper, such as too soft a pencil or charcoal stick. For the beginner, wash and ink materials are just as unsuitable as ball-point pens, since minor irregularities, blurred stroke ends, and uneven line widths can form added "features" that are unsightly and certainly unintentional. A sharp school chalk on blackboard often makes for better stroke quality and overall results. If one were to classify materials in terms of their suitability for freehand drawing, the list might look as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. thin felt-tip pen pencil, medium pencil, hard pencil, soft charcoal india ink chalk

2.1 Free Strokes (Exercise One)
Drawing with a soft pencil, charcoal, or chalk has the great advantage that one can create stroke thicknesses ranging from wafer-thin to fat simply by varying the pressure on the instrument. The correct movement of related 'muscles in fingers, hands, and arms is an absolute necessity in drawing. Begin by loosening up the hands and arms; hand and arm positions and sureness of stroke will improve after a few sessions. There is great pleasure fn seeing one's very own first efforts on paper. We should spread an inexpensive sheet of paper on the wall or table and start by drawing free and relaxed loops as we move the arm back and forth in gentle swinging movements. The back of old wallpaper, unused wrapping paper, or similar material makes an ideal host for our initial efforts. The paper should be about 50 centimeters square; refer to Section 1.2.1 for drawing instruments. Before actually putting pencil to paper itis advisable to go through the motions of drawing the complete form, then apply thin strokes as soon as you have familiarized yourself with the outlines. Strokes should always be drawn smoothly and briskly, and if at first you don't succeed, use a fresh sheet of paper. Erasing, correcting, and adding more strokes should be avoided, since this does nothing to increase your confidence. So begin again on a fresh sheet of paper. You should also avoid getting into cramped hand and arm positions-all movements must be followed through rhythmically by the body. Your first circles and ovals will not be perfect, but don't let this deter you! Keep using fresh sheets of paper until the whole sequence of movements which produces the strokes has become steadier. In your efforts to overcome that cramped position and to draw the strokes briskly-and this should come right at the beginning of your exercises-some comfort may be taken from the knowledge that almost every drawer has been faced with the same problems at one stage or another, and has managed to overcome them. Now and then you should take a long, hard, critical look at your drawings from some distance away (two to three meters). This will help you to identify areas for improvement in terms of filling the paper, light and

dark, distribution of different surfaces, expressiveness, legibility, and depth differentiation. This ability will of course grow with experience.

2.1.1 Free Strokes (Continued) If possible, stand before a blackboard and draw the strokes shown below-or your own creationswith the arm held slightly bent to execute some generous free strokes. Once completed, each line should be left alone! Strokes should not be drawn over or into one another. If you need to start a new line, then begin

1.2.2 Drawing Paper Most types of paper are suitable for freehand drawing and sketching provided they are light enough, absorbent, and somewhat coarse on the surface. Very smooth, shiny paper is unsuitable since pencil strokes will not seem dark enough, while other materials may even slip and smear. Heavy white Ingres paper, letter paper, or watercolor paper is eminently suitable for freehand drawing. The paper should rest on a solid, firm surface, and since drawing requires both time and patience, we should also find a comfortable sitting position.

Lines

Loops

Bows

Ovals

Spirals Figure 2.1

Circles

13 12

Figure 2. or felt tip but must be the decision of the draftsman alone.3 Line Continuation Rlghtl Corners and edges are emphasized dots! Round Figure 2.7 "Continuous" 14 Strokes 15 . If for any reason you have to interrupt the line. try to draw parallel lines horizontally as well as vertically. lack of concentration. Your new line should start 2. stand at your table and draw the same strokes with hand and arm swinging back and forth over the horizontal paper. or 4 millimeters away from the end of the old one. misleading Begin by trying to draw a single straight line. • Surfaces should be dotted evenly and with a sense of balance. don't draw yet! It is vital that you draw the whole line in a single stroke from start to finish without stopping in the middle. The thickness should not be dictated by the pen. I r . or one-half centimeter on paper.4 "Corners" in Drawing Figure 2. after practicing on wall and table one should try to make the strokes more disciplined and precise. Figure 2..5 Dotting Picture Areas Figure 2. then more briskly later on.6 Starting New Lines . So far as the thickness of the strokes is concerned.2 Line Quality artificial and . 1___________ wrong wrong wrong wrong wrong correct Figure 2. Dots must be really round! • Deliberate smearing or rubbing of pencil strokes are not the proper techniques of good drawing... Long strokes of even thickness can be drawn by turning the instrument frequently. . pencil.about one centimeter away from the existing line (on a blackboard). After practicing on a blackboard or sheet of paper pinned up on the wall. / \. wrong . This will make your corner quite clear and unmistakable.t:»: Wrong! Short strokes In all directions. don't ruin it by starting the new one on top of it." a sure sign of carelessness and a superficial approach on the part of the artist. Even kings and presidents have their pens and paper tested for evenness before signing important documents. you must decide exactly where this line is to start and end. You will never achieve a satisfactory result by piling strokes one on top of the other. don't worry! Success can be achieved even without a helping hand. When making corners it is advisable to draw a deliberate cross. freehand drawing means applying simple strokes to paper without the aid of ruler or T square. it might be useful to take a sheet of graph paper or paper with ruled lines on which you can happily draw individual straight lines from a conscious beginning to a deliberate finish. one should leave nothing to chance. rather take 2. Wait. It is important here to sway with the whole body without supporting it on the free (nondrawing) hand. Dots should really be just that-short strokes that are meant to be dots are very ugly and look as if they have just been "dashed off. so please have no fear of crossing over lines. the resulting differences in stroke thickness will look awful. right .2 Lines-Strokes-Dots At some stage in your life you will have tried to draw straight lines freehand. These are signs of superficiality. overfill the paper. Finally.. Remember-never a fresh sheet. It is not that hard to draw lines evenly over their entire length. To draw straight lines the hand should rest firmly on the paper and only the hand and forearm should move across the drawing-slowly at first. If not. Also.. and slovenliness. 3.. in order to achieve this. You may have been fortunate enough to have had an excellent teacher who made the lessons so interesting that you have absolutely no fear of drawing freehand. not good correct Practice all circles from left to right and from right to left. With every new pen or pencil you should see whether the desired stroke thickness is maintained and how the instrument has to be held To assist in practicing. After all.

immediate success cannot be expected. The different directions and line lengths have a disturbing effect on the eye.0 line Exercises And now for a little practice! On the following pages you will find large exercise spaces for your first pencil exercises. Each stroke will give you added confidence! This hatching was drawn very tight. superficial hatchings (all wrongl) String I Line remnants' Figure 2. any irregularity of hatching in terms of line continuity. The main thing is to draw each line correctly and thoughtfully. but minor irregularities caused by initial lack of practice or by trembling of the hand from the beat of your pulse should not deter you.9 Use of Drawing Board Edge as Guide for Straight Lines Normal spacing in relation to area size. and you should try to reproduce the same lines with the least possible deviation. or crayon. and is bound to give the impression that the same "can't be bothered" attitude carries over into other areas of drawing.11 Hurried Hatching Figure 2. This means that hatching must be applied as evenly as possible. and your eye and muscles will gradually acclimatize themselves to straight lines.8 Parallel Lines Very unsettling. especially those which intersect the main line at a very sharp angle and leave unpleasant "leftover" areas.3 Infilled Areas Now and then it will be necessary to fill in a large or small area to make it appear black or very dark. Broken threadsl All different d. the uniform direction of the strokes. Evenness of spacing will need some concentration.rections ' Lines not drawn right to paper sdqe! Board edge IS gUide stop Hatching too widely spaced in relation to the size of the area. Just take a look at newspapers. with different line lengths and Here is something else for you to try: drawing straight lines parallel to the drawing board or table edge by steadying the hand on the edge and using it as a guideline. by restricting the number of Figure 2. Figure 2. You will see it is not that difficult. it looks unsightly and is not good enough for any acceptable standard of drawing. The left-hand pages have been drawn on for your guidance. 3. Hatching should never be done in a hurry. This will require a certain amount of patience of course. then the most satisfactory solution is "hatching" with narrowly spaced lines. magazines. spacing. If a certain area i·ssupposed to look darker than the general background.4 Hatching and Diverging Lines Hatching has two particular features. or books. the evenness of strokes and their spacing. etc. bearing in mind that too wide a spacing will sacrifice cohesion. Diverging lines should be avoided. Far too hurried. like design. The slight physical tremors that can occur following great physical exertion will affect the results on paper. One should always avoid monotonous shading with the same shade of pencil.12 Line and Optical Impression Nonslip. dimensions. . 2. line exercises 2. firm base. The body should be relaxed for drawing.charcoal. Uneven spacingl Pleasing Impression lines and angles. if done well: 1. Hurried hatching is yet another sign of carelessness and untidiness in the draftsman. or direction is immediately noticeable. good Figure 2. take a sheet of plain paper and do the following exercises until these too have acquired confidence and self-assurance. and 2. Turn the book square on its side and draw parallel lines from left to right across the page. directions.Just as a natural stone floor can be displeasing with its slabs of different shapes and colors.Once the initially uncertain and perhaps shaky stroke exercises have assumed more discipline and confidence. and so we can conclude that a restriction in the number of directions and the avoidance of very acute angles will have a visually positive and pleasing effect in just about any drawing. possible errors. areas covered by all sorts of different lines look just as unsightly.10 16 17 .

i Ul (!) ....And now draw your own lines.. Here is your exercise space: / ·u .~ QJ c o "d c E o o 18 19 .... £ . QJ )( c.c . Turn the book through 90 degrees and draw the lines right across from left to right.

soon achieve the same technique as I and everyone else who has made the effort before you. Here is your exercise space:. 20 21 .

22 23 .

This e.ard the given PQ[ln~. The object is to' difalwlilles from any dill'ection iliiow. 25 24 .)(allmple' willi t!est your sureness of eye and abilliw!o malintahill.gii1venline direcHlol1.a .

• .. • 26 27 .

<J <J <1 28 <J 29 .

.

.. ' .DO I I I I €IElSY. ------------------------------------------------~---~ 32 33 .I I I I I I I I.!".------[ ~~.'7 o o o· C> {> 12 1> lhfl!folll'Qw~ngr.. Ii I .DDD.---~J L. ~ l> (> t>l> i> C> t> 1> bl> [I.I I . _ I..4!!r~:s CgrefuUy a rndvery ev<enl11y your exerel SEl 5pac!Ej. 0 I~ 0 I~~=~J 'V7 ""7 I . ~ I II ODDDOODOODaOOODaDnCD~onn ~ ~ .isesshow~lhl<llt y{)llJJlr eve isal~regdyc(jlpalbll!e of antici.. -_ _. - - I ... on I...epea~ . try to ~eDe._~ . gg gg BEl lZ\ DIDO DO DO.. doesn't il? B~t j~~t. _ . I .-------'J .-.. . .. I I I I .u the vaFUous Ug!.-_J . ] ~itIOQks 50.--------"l~:g. .=--. iPsl~liiflg and visua h zi 119the caneet Iines ~r'la:dva nee.e)(jen.

oll. \' ''[inl I _ III' - ~ .I' il'.-----.~' 1@11 . -II I I I I r----' III~ I I J I I @{II . III .and will give you f much enjoyment. .hexercise you willi become aware. I " I II 1 I ' " . I} I . U.. II I I . ( I r .. I IIi I I~\ I[~II .ies willi !lOW rapidly 'gmw .With e{'. . ' ' I I I .. I . . I II - '\\ . I III - .l I ... I I I ~r I ~~ I I II I.L:] I.\.\. '. of the countless posslible v~'riiiilllf'Ons. I I : And hi ere ~s Sam el space ~orVQuto deve Iop slimHalf rnotifs onvo ur own: 34 35 . I r~1 ..llr~ee choice orf these possibili~. I - jll I ' 'I .'ll'rll~. Y.

ollra n. best beHu n by . Stalr~ in ~Ihecenrter and dralw wi both cII. is. 36 37 .!)ckwise and !cQunt:erclockwise in tight spir.g 001Is.I)r<l Wi Flgi c iircles.a:lls.

Draw the ispiralscllo<.a no lry ~ @ e 38 39 . 'the f1 fro m the LJ outside lin. You wiill see th~'dthe last spilrals <irebetter than the ones you drew first. rEH'lill1QI ferearm 0'1"11 the board and rnaikirr1'[1 cilwc lar metiorts with thewrilst.i s exe rcise space.then countercteckwise.lk.wise. Now d FQ'VI/ y'ou r O'WO $jpi1ra is Iin tl'i. start frolm me center. IR:ea ly coneeru rate U see the finished sprral on p:(!!ptlr-th.en stan to draw_ .

B:E!JIlllS . -- - 40 41 . it S. Yo·1lJ ill soon see w it is no·! so· difficult to do as. Exercise space (start from thle outside]: ....-=_ ........ time. the spiralls have their centers displlticed to one slda.-...~hat T1hi~. ....

_ d "if'I exercise' \tOU :S. .O'rlCEl' _.' IJlig.~ :_ ....step further.._ your d awmg -IIl':H'L v •. Exer _ Aiestget throug"11 t h-g-I' difficull'ttile pap.er >ii!ndw III aCIlI(\H/e a. '.you .r c -'.. -II ~ . draw the Cllf'C e!:i f"eelv1.. cise space: fO ·0 o o o o 42 43 .t ~n t. I' _ .

'YOUlshould noW be able to dnllw circles rel.ily.'3 o . A circle can be thou.glht ete s beli ng e ne Iosed ilnside a sq IJ~ re.· 808ClOQ° 00 .oli of c~l!1t~C11 nts are very bri0'L We' ca nsta j'~ by d'raw- i111QI a tneoretica I hem isp here wh ich is then com pletedto forrn the whole sph eire 'ciifCI~l.f'C.dll ccnta ins aqua rter ot~ the curve of the Ci.each Quarl!er O'f 'Whi.0 44 45 . iP.ativ'e~yeas.hil.

48 .

w wavy i 9 . ~iRes.oo it to' IlIO'. il 'fe.h and every !iltrdke' wil'! be exh ac:tly' wher.By now you 1iI~'v"ead so much pn~IGtlicetha'tea(.~ you wa nt INow practi.

50 .

fo - - ~I ~ 53 52 .

PI!']a 00 n owe! 0':111 rectertstle tea t u res before putti rlI.opposute (>age.AJruJi finailly.llar h) those shown Of! the .II \ . ~ryto dralW lines simi.glpencilll 10 IP·9iper cha I 54 55 .

~'~~~': ~. Hatching is normalHy used at pll1ace:s where oth er de\i'ice~ or representations of the material's (Jualility are una IXepta'b lie beea use (i:f proh ibitive' eHan Or GO mple'xi. _) L_ L.1 I! / l / Glass i F~gme4..~...1 1IIIIugtraling Malt8rial~s 57 .The 'Various types of pertern shown hel"e should encourage you to have fun by drawipilg some ideas of your ownThesa Inay of ecurse prooucs spatial {i.:.. With ~ncre..ty. which gnOW you h) see "into" the patrern.JOLt 1/ II . l~~inte nsity r oithe sinadi FlIgl must ~tlere'fOIr'ebe in halrmony wi'lh the area's meaning...niia'li\l'ely by the use of bladk/whj~e or co.illll:. for d instance.n~·. ~uan. I..llte. I~~:~i·~·.l/~~~:.• thn~'e'~~'rmensi()pilaU ef.1 A. l_______._ r: ___].re'til Inf. 'fects.::.eater weight etc. We must remember however 'that hatching cain \I~ry rapidly become I. )~~ Natural Slone Masonry l ( ·---:~.. Clllrpe( .DCJC j . r d' 4. we' interpret g.ll1typical for the drawn object 9 ivi ng a ~ a bS"1act impresslon.e . 'l J )1 . I I' . 7 T~lesimpll'est wav to draw an area also a coherent unit is by hatching ~o'ii'!.~orcorrtrast with the' background wne}..glsingl arkness.c=:L_::JL ~~~ " L__jI~' .p=JQL.

sct repn~$ented~de~er" mines the qua. baliilk.irig. morganrc and orqaruc Most a res s a or 'Iheir surroundings by black~arlld-whjrte. figure 4.re p~'alne.a n importail1ltpa 1'1in this process.hensiibl'e clarity ano g'ood drawir"g qualily can he improved by the judici.---~ Compre.eily .a:ce qU<lIHty or the appa.anrance ·of the mateIfiall which makes up the surface we ara diiaJwi..i material SUIF(ac-es we d ils.awn in a manner that is ty"p. su. The b(H.3.e is efte n enough 'to ident vty d~nere nt surfaoes.I i'mlear li'dentliilicati on of' the area's boundary j's only one possible: way to identify ti'nat area: the other iis to mil in tlie verieus a reas wi1th 9 raphicdevices..ali!OriS 01' drawmgs Of nearSVmbo Iic nat ulre .e clarity.ghm u is a good irlIdicatlon of the m..or col(Ired eptical de~imita'bons. we' shading.try cOlllsUucti'ol) or rna nuf. Dmerenrt effects (a wjlndow in a eoncrete waU or wh ~h~ sheet 'o~palper nn ~I wh i te t.adn sf ot hers I'ACiUiRE r TeX[UFe faCILIh Ground Plan I"i 9 tl'r€ 4j~ Dli~gr.Oj re " Textu re . SklIitiChes h'Wmt3:uy and Layout mil BUNIdj I1g in Oeeasio rlaUy it willi be necessary to' draw a U sorts of hilllls" eminences..i·ca I precess).(illeri..g.posed Sl.IIYS. 4 58 .arE)'sl¥JtoH .TlQsi 11k-.1l'whi ng rand Cross(liiirectiolls. Illnth is ca se the preble m ca 11only be h.on of two Or mom superljm. and these ShO'lJild' be reprod uced as exacdv or true' to !life as poss~b~e." 3il'id so on in a sio. a nd for tl1ll.S. b I.ti ng u i1S!1 b~tween: • Slnu.Jlrfaoes of diffe'iiillg size' and shape on a sil11gl'e: pictu.gle p. The' $ud..reproduction of d iff.pre'$e~ltati.rair1l.l •.porat. I' woven surface trearec no sudao~s .ure (add~d by subsequent treatme rn).2 Surface limits A praci saly dl' a WIl Hmi't Irirn. rnda rles of very bright su rtacas ca Ii [POSe'problemls 'to beg i nwith.ciepti on: The VisuallitzatlQr! SulPerlimpo\S!ed Levels of In disenssicns of technical problems or aspects of urban planning it m.ous incor.jth <:Ielua. ca n use contour h nes. line. and perspective ..I' quality '(porHs. me obj.ng p!i.. by comparisen wuUi rea.It the eoonomli:cai use of a few d'o~:sal the sutiaoes' edge's a nd corners calf] rmprov.a c:ture.) and pernaas of III e type of sUitfalG~ us well.cflll' f the mateo frljia er . and ---------------------- o Ufwiear almost I j mea 115 t j C pie tu re. • Fach.I'alile.e a J10lG in the IEill1'leto~.altcihing) dra'wn lin alternating properly solved by the u Sf! 'of n. Ev--enthe' 'thickness of a Ilimit. an exaCt re.8I..abletop) ShO'Uld be dr. The me r.joFl of the materiel' $1: 11(!IHlcteri sties ~ nto repres€i ntatiorjs of areas and surfaces. (det'l:lrm i ned .elring s U rfaces. 4.its (! ppea ra nee .o glive. One Ex. which jus~:goes to p mve mat liinl\:s with rea I ity h'ave not been 10Sl.lity of a good 01"" bad .ay be neeessarv t.~deh1!rnlli oed by a natu r~1or c In elfll.anlllliatlic BOld 01)111 'le-Iooks 1Ilr.ag..j. [ ---. elc. The effect is similar to whalt happens a~ th e edges old iff'e1nml areas irl' overexposed or underexposed photos (alienation). W.rlace 1 Clearer outlines IsO matr ic IJ r1lWI ng 4..~ity-iLe' .Ma'Q'Oified jilhlSlr.

m Uw paper. Illefore comm iUi I'Ig peneUto.Ib. paper.II~~~cul b!iJ~.9: fi rmllyfiixedi ~n~he mind's .I . si ruple.e~D eS:I. I.l1 ~.obta ~n ''I l.le fllluiher ha~v. big Un.eye.lpl~tt UP o. I 'lo:~~!fbI~ 1$'6\1 !t6 "o/:t. your desilired section$.si:er iiJ'we S'la!1l: hv SP\~i U~l1lglU:prhe IIIrle l willi! f~ku dots a nd ~i~.ssedatwve_ [) i v~dl'lilgal ~SUlf1ce il!n~@ d Slevelil or n ine~q uali. MiDlJII"Il:a ins..alrl:.ra!ttic..ces.e::nSlec:liolns (Dr lie ng:lhs w~ at~i rr:st seem cl. Ii P.ell.1'!lllybetwe.hilgl WI ill d'lrvh. Elevail:ions.:eIN.ta!TII.1'III Ipl.elf8S'ollllfle' dis~<lfil(lle .jj ~J J J L II .illl be able to . ~ t .tei3 ~Iifllll il~tG e'ighteq~.e '9xac~llywhere tht'!:ca !'II11. trytQ viewtne ent ~r\'l 8ifea or both eoos of thie Ilineand~lrIen :!.Ul. :&! ndse fon'h.less wui~iI1 'the eye nl:@wI~O'!T'!glthe'thilfd • ~ to' ~! .~ r.1 r 4.I. Pr.~ I ~ ~ .. if! ~(3 '~ ~. I .weeril two POh11Ui IS f'!IO..e'xI1:end this !fUfoceS"S bV ha. Wilh 101'19 Illi Ies you sihouid ~ake 'vou~'Ume.At ~Iiume p. or lengl!ill$ slho"".e ~s" r Wltha ~ Inl.e' win soon~@:IiI~ilril:ce you that divh:::U>flIg ~lilj1leS and! ereas ijnto .!alft~rS Sinlp1li' b~ trua~vingl tw.11d 11:1.~ -'I '1 ill . I I 'I 'II -I' . .!'i!lrIldrhe!'l! star~ draw.~~e~n $'Lj bdiVildi ng Li near DiS<U!lllIlreS. alre in fac~. <l1ii'ldi lie''l!'IeI:s 1 }3.I~..lce which wm come with prato ~iDe'.. . eql~a I pO!1iGf1Is.wew. With ~he. Hallvilf'lg the dis~anoe bet.ea~Hvobta Ined bva PlP1yi ng the! hal~vingl me'tihoo disGu.c!eit >cent r.Fig.. III I 'I I •.. I~ ~ I !/1' ~ llr '7 ~171'7 r '7~ 17 L·· 1..s. whi." Repr~.iI!rnglthe r3 ~~3: I I' 1- .lr!I'~llrl Iii f I~ II III .. and' so on.0 61 ..l:rmil~i1.e ltllne Le. i To divide (! I~ne ~!'l~othlfe~ equ~1 parts. -I ·11 I!~ ! !I I I 'I I II II. liol'lm~.eqlll'1iI~ Ip!lIr.jjcJ{!. !E\ilien IDlivfts~on byll!!'ye (!I": IllJino a lI1I.'11 I jJJJ II IJ J J . estulllll!alt~ the ~ ~Ih ilIrds with your 'eye.e connd:er. Aga in." w@ul!d' be.et of pa pe r righ[ 8'wl'lIy.[liSneces" S~:1Ir1i ..~g1~'$i 6.fita~iQn 'Of ~ml$. • ·HI ~ I :1 ~ II -I II .p~lic~llly i inlto. II J .tS: ~S no 9 real .e sol ~lt~:(lI~S I...I n I~ I I' I I d~visions. the.sec tiems is eOl:!.:1 A: J II Top view with contour lines.1·. I! 1l.~re' 4.. '11 I -.!! n.imale h{lw s'houl~d be.Iwa'yJro.~r-."e is m>a:gI1IMied "~or fun" and l!JVoe tnen ny~o' dIeU.l~fl-.a.5 llhe. WfJ.awts of Dis..eW1 OOIF'reClin9 rf:!lPid~y we as 19:0'. Six ~qua'il p:ans ea n !be .t: difficuH eithe':~J~\Hl'.I ·11 I I.aJctk::€''~n a she. ~1..l_I~' '. 0 Wffitih pracboo WQ' should be O\lbr.! s tlIbd r visions Filgme 4Jll ~.I .dA'fiSI IDMdifog enareaer I~ne rf!!to .en 'tille t~ Un~ ends.o ' IIng t~ e ha lves. d~lst~HlI..!1 8iec:Uons.

jI:$ e'r'e h mens. two reasol1l is: If YO'L!are as yel 110d raiVl.! View 1 o n ed. of dUllenslOns forooourt i j r o Round top 0 0 .4.atnd spa ees wiU'li ctea If.eJ o 0 .idsa:l1d spaces.__ Wall .ep're"senting Solids and S.iiI two-di mensionatll p~ctUire pia n:ill •. I .11 I . wl1iile indiv.. there is a very ~imple method 10 help you achieve this: drrawing the indiviichJia IIside's Qf 'the sol id or space as sep:aIn'He vII'eW$. I 62 . and maill'\ axes.e Simple Vi. which are the rna irl di· can be amplifi. eehesive. ll.e. 4.from and 'to which pOint is the liimerllying dli8t~l1Ice 8GtIU1i! Illy mre~sul'oo? These end po id:s must be easi Iy rec..til'lg structures and buill'c:lings.6 R.i:calsollids ..'jwS f Q I'r!f..important. and flat-folded eievations .ed alii d ilm!!! nS'iions shou M ~ ollIe rmost in tine drawill'lgl. lhi sis a n ..lc:! tla t. TIl e moSl .be nee- by the addUion 'of typical t detail dimensions Over. Tine: thickness or ai'irange= tme'l'!Il ().f the d'itml5nsion llnes shou~d in noway diseurb the drawi ~go~ co mptM:e with it EqlUaiIIV important are the' dimension endpoints: i .ll('!cedi further in wwalrd the object. Gemlral VI'W ~3~ IFigul'le4..a g€holl'd method used pa rt i. 1" to provide data for 'Ihe censtructien of a butldlog or the produetion of an olbject.ions.tiIorning slke'lches e'6sBlry for ~H'id elellaltions mav.~~~~~~~~~~~~ awtJct-only and 1 Sldf.og n izabl.12 'Confusinij and Correct Dimensional 65 Deta.latiol11tships wi'thin .l'perspective to show thme·dimensional re. GhHdre n in their il nnocenca easl IV tend to dti"a Vii WP.Figure...I. b LJt you stiilllwii sh eo draw :s{ll. Eve n. ' 63 .p'aloes by Drawing Onlly Three' or MCl'II'.e:wingl l Planes UI nable Dimen. or 2.cIl.!itlarly in theatdvanced civiliza~itons of Pel'sia'aif'ld Egypt. mactQ..il Better arranqsment ± I .. 10 give a better idea of the actual proportions of e)lis.<e.i:duCiII dimenslons are p.

So always go ror legibility. and Ilegilbmty (IIf fthew-ay Uilus'troti on s Clarity is Hirst achieved by drawi Iigl the. t 4.. .ea$a nit i't is to I'ook.'j! nd s.l' .ext.(I t a dress patte rn. not '10 iHitat.a~.ut IPlaI'll ('Page 6 l..H ~[. SIk'e'u:i1es ~ntended for SiT! alii discusslo III pro LIP..ing relati 0 nshlips i~the size of drawi 09.. select and an... ..! Ileft blank as white surfalc!esso as.. r s.ion give n by the gen· era IIIvilew .is sketCh.holJ.!~1 ~..i.eiralll'y of O~rental drawing. Just as one llstens t"O ether people's poilrn'l$.!..It a " cusslons..d i e nee.••..of v~eW' in di'scl)s~ion.i.tration and specta~dW is ..Sind proportion.e hallC hIng. should be' kept-sma liltas weill.tancebetwe0n illus. .l. J J .e the optica I nerves too much.pace'5 are suggested by 5i mpl.wa I'd a i'ld . 15 64 65 .•and meetings wile'n the session is g nterfupted6y paop lie jumping up to take a close look at one' s ske~c:h es and drawi ri!BS. 80 the dHllftsman s.."dlividuallines -.9 Exterior B uUliling E levartioons Ught wan colors...•. 4. . It is.d trne hatchinQllli:nes be drawn threuqh the letters.. .hould bear in mn nd hi So potentia I a u. vitali to..~ws determine the flavorot~ th. dark window areas. ..41. Eye level Ar~a5.erent sheets of paper an!! .. ~.•. for exa m pie..loaded drawing. .. IJluSt think how LInp~...100 Size. overall con!.allways .8w1<. ~I!'lLllilolir !ili. ~or i11sta nee: the maze can onlv be u nravs UeC!by sta ri ng at the pattern and pursuing i. Care s hould a Iways be take flI to atta in satisfactory and pleas. At ~ least one-third of the' srees in every dH:llwiing snc)ould bi. seatle. aceeunt sncu Idl be til'ken of 'the' gr-ealter d. Care should be teken to provide optical and 9 ralpohi points of eonta ct.comp:lletely covered.ernbarrs ssi ng in diils (II in wn lch '~we ntieth ce rlItury urba n p lsnning'is decided 0'11 the strength of loyHke models (aImost ma whb ox si ze] 'l1li0 uId be fun ny were it not sotresic. I n terms (If information ic density we should add that several sketches on d iff. ChJllI"ily •. whill'e for lectures and large di sc usaion g'rou ps. show that the drawing area is fanF fFiom .tlot of pag.mill ways bettlilr tha rJI a single oV1€!'f.. f i!'IWII~'~ ~-~j~II~U'~ r WU.e 63). talks . At the same time we must ensure that fe~ r of ove dOB ding 'the' paper does net lela d to hnv postage-stamp drawliinij$ Or! huge sheets of paper. Many examplles espe.. _ ..8 0 rlient'8lion layo. since this willi affect le:glit)ili~V (see' drawi flIgl ..ange letu:lfIing ~haJt does not destroy the impreSS.ure 4. and'sl'llad..lNlor s. . ligiTter and somewhat detached sl(e'tche5 of the bllJllldings ~ nthe backgrolllAd are neee:ssa ry to diffel'lentiate the va rious masses n Fng.

Ca Illed "Firl.inates the area. lea rn.sion Wltl'1 cant ra ctor . This is usefu ~for rna ny teehn iiC<lil drawiing s and trades.av frcm theml1'Jlnd be make one's Q'Wnfreehiilnd drawings in aecordanes with ene's own speeiflc PI. Disordered .Eiitn&r IiIfeless g.OIfTlPne nt parts. stra~gtl·ts.a:oo a nd sluiace dr.(a In'l(lst) lhours and to "feel" each snoke in the miind.Hi $factory res !.ible·1io eonstruct asketc ~ in ~~is way. Iln.g and wea.o OOinrlll1l1it eboveexa rnples of the ~alyolUtand arrangement to' memory.between the areas helps.angemerrt·of equal SLJr~ faces around one 01' more axes seldom 9"yes ·s' S. 11: will also' be U$leful to .les.indiiividua I: group ~IS kept q'lLlite·distinct.+--~~---l' The arll.@r I1Idinte! riilor view'S ·ai:Jov€!.nanged !.' and . Unco n:5lr icted ·'!Free'· Form ArrClflgledl Around Axes 66 67 . promnnent The reg'lLllllar re. One good trick 1'8 the e·xplaoatory method wh ere .ctice it wi 1111 possiiblie 10 getaw.and 'ev.l1t tha n the leries and pnntexhibits for oompositionand . wiU.rim vu.angerlflent Q·f freehand drawiri:Qls and s'ketch es a sheet of pa pe·r needs 'l'O be cons: d ~ ered.hllidy the! WOlrkS o~ good rna sta rs in gl~ 1- 5. a 1'iI.ach other. a ground plan. Edg!.er~.i3J small! s.g.illlidiUl<'l11 sections and 11'~nglths and by 8. !'ili nee iit Js on IVgO'V'erned by purely 'f(irmal pril1lcilp. ther. Nlil u! ing"s statement.fS 10 asserts in why a particull ar Sit rake wa s made at a ps rticu~ar place. The additiol'll of e:xp'llfmiill~ory e~~iI sketches to a d drawing.4 A. 5. 5. its good and bad sides) has improved. Fre~ha nd d rawingls shou Id a iways rna ke use of theentire sheat format slnee tiny drawings on large sheelsof piillper IIJsut'll'ly leek curiGusly lost. It is e'V'engood alnd notal! <1111 to snUy observe al c\. mOIr'E) or less url~form statsrn em I!puri·ty) of indivild 1J03 I Ii nes fwhe~h€!r on lvares.s. Here again.mtition of identical gwou pling~sc~ln bEi' u sed in e~lI.d uno'ersta!!:d a~ once.i.abl'e t.eB Ule drawling one 011" two d'ays later you will f. and everythil1l·g elise ap~ pears of seconda ry sligoljifli'canoe (fo'r sp.e·cti'OI1 of the view is~ddllld as . ~he ground' plan is placed in thlaeenter of the shea a rnd the va rlous exterior iii nd inte.ind that your judgment ~the·drawilng's strCH'I. any mannerism in freeh iillnd draw~ ng is dubious.rI.3 I' mset si d ocu me fit fer dl SCU S.nposesand motifs. '~iI·~.II03ti~ 0 do m.sido n' Rows You could be f(lr'!ii'ven for thinking that the "freeform' de~ pe nds (Iii the l!o~a'i a bse I'IIce of lilllY of the' criteria SQ far menl~Qr1e~:L realitv how-ever the In st.Ill.aw~ng)'. Use your criti ca I pOWlii. to .r m Ii s esse mially determ iined bv th e red p:rocaI proportion S of ind. 5. is a I'egit:imate and eensi stent inrort1rllzltive' device. area typicalll occurrenee Inour technol~lical age. Framed I ~ III fr"'-~mjlll i I.""""'~.ateme nt made by the free fo. especi.ews ·alr€!a rra nged arcund it. 5.'.0 •• -.- . ".avoid con~u si (J. pr:a.ig'Il. o A certain equilibrilum be~ween the various area sand therr graphii c va Ilue:s ((.].. etc.i.s. on 'The picture ils (j'ominated bV C harac~.9 Usualll Ana!nglement of 1:he' OnJwing Sheet ·the C ustom whe'n the 9 round IP~ aln liin tine lower part of the paper with tl'ltil asscclated e'x~. It i$~d\li$. mliOlI Ong'I181 $tm '5!J ~ 41 em .!.aUy if they are meant to be looked at . a 111giles.1 igh:ung one of its c. It will seldom.k points.o'rms. e.icallforms shown above are easy to work wit h. others.e. andan adequate' a me U nt of space '~whille!~.11 uated by Qithers ll'a~er 0 n.an equaUy a logii:c:all but rather di'Uer·enl manner. drawi ng solids a As a genera I ru Ie liil:ha s become no spaces ·t·i) put One illllLls~.ar~ ra ng.eiment.l..ptica I weiQlht j is: desirable.cepb<onal eases provided we make sure' that the typica I f~·till fie of thl!1!.Free Co·mpo.ened bv rnakl ~g one rru M IMi !!Ii IWi[ rJIll1 ~r more prerni m.7 Aggllomennh:H11$ (Ordered alnd D'isord'elt\edlj The tension between two fiileme nts (poles~.imi~lalr thiliflgs .!IIl indklaHOii1 of potential co~s·truction.l ot Paper :UIII. The monotony of a row can be eve rcorne by h.lin a row. Ground plan <!il1Id few <i O\e·I. USIUa I'ly a:l"ranged psrpendie u Ial' tit) e.owms si that recur at given inte rva ls. If you ca n go back and S. a nd the imporumt statement is fr·eq'u:entlv suffoeated beneath the forma I i ssn of such e illpty slli'mmetry. be poss.. : I.g" strueteral sections. dielt@rminesthe drawOrden~d a'gglomerations. a So..I11"·ound xes A Ihe aH.fervgood ·drawi ngfor . IR'ow:s 3 TIle ~'tabllmer1llt is ciie'termin·ed by the repetiiUo'!1 of ide'lntical or 'Very s. As with <III creative aldiviltiEls.r(mps ca n be enl iv.!e' F. The typ.i.eri$:tticallndl mila r f.

Jew ! Se Im~ SIFlI) [I)i!u I jenl AlUlTlln urn Vv'lndm ..etalillHive's the ObjHct more suostenee and the need for . Dela i I S ea (fiI a lso be pJalced on the sa me Shset to QJ I.lIt a i dS)I. .....6. rn IU st be "Qual it y a lon e C101t1vli ncesl' Apart from anything else..exceptioill_ In reamy.llwliIYs more hi 9 In Iy judged t ha n G ne or more in(jICC u rate drawing s or r.(jlrg. One tasn lena b I. and can slso give a very pIO.1iION Oem 58 69 .ccuracy and Outline 111 9 u idi ng pr i neiple III rile hi E!U'l.ap hj sket-. primary task isla show the In~iF1lobiect and its outlines (as accurately as possible withOl.e ('I rtis.er- oranother may aehlsve . Countersun S(.d a (1 1'1"1 8 SEClIl(ilIN wI~h COl Unit window ~21 . but trus is tile .. the greatest pcssible acculFecy in dmwing is . Hum the more importa fit deta IIsean be shown. External concrete fillrf1)C blocks _ d Hail for Sunblinrl AJr Condition Roorn GI<:I£i("l~ d Glass 1:.1me in mh Mourned on lellellrng hoqanv . Facrn ~ln Air Gap responding Eli:VA.er sea Ie provided '€lnou 9 h space i~ le'h for them. "artistic freedom" leaves little roam for untidmess.shuffiil1g Seve ra IIdifferent sketches is eliminated.recogni~ion for lila quick (()Ug~l sketch...0 A. (1) and SlIPPOri' block. this means that.aSI'Flg f.eet: tile d.. casement 1 .he's.><:ln~S Seal----I\}L1"1r1I .

it. Figure 1. AddliHonal nnf.0..ore Or I~s:s [~ueto. '...nOl'l 114 .1f3{Io:. 16000 tfl'Xit however c~rn hrighlighl. ~ '=! r::: .gs._ . .n::r I~ r'r' :1. Ii . rits own fordITlrl~ arn:d svmbollS:. a sl'go lalnguage usedlO . liefl.ey feel. (:l>r €Imp h'ais' lize ~ih€iima.e lnstruIm~'l'IIlt hn drra'Wi rig a nd letta ring.t the memo:ry. .dd~d . arnditih €I lUl'liai rnted lila rns:mrissi:Ofi of the info:rmati. must find.supe~fh.s.gllobe (~p:prox..{s UlOfi8 ~.Q ' ~"' .5..liE!!::t AlTlc'h~tects and interi or des 1 Qlll"lers prefer block let.]n ~' SviI~b.and milsull1d~rsulnding.~n j ""' ~ t a.Adequab~ l'egijb1lit. !1!lfIId the drtiwirn. f ArchalG Sllmllrl~n .. ~.. 'Of can ruin it by inferlj'or 'QualitV.l.s. !oj :s. burt ilt. ~ Q: . h. .China.!l:ence.\0 sub. loned. mannered.abstlra:CIied.. so we rRuS'tusedle 'Sillm.orrnation can be .Hl. :$U!lIIldarrd ~:eue'~illl'lgi pr~e rred by ~Iech n:icialns ilIlI1di 'eng j~ neers h~sElheflJ(j$th:lui:c c!hall'.v short. shouldl be avoided_ We' live In an (. 31mOS1 e!!>Se'f'iil:h~llPalit any drawof ing. that ilsperhaps too.ge a news!papell".essence lies in its legibill ~ i~. " C ~m ~I S'~.01nit .given a (~ihin&se look.ils.'Ii'<1!IIIS.rlJ. !M.c ''"\<1110 . r~'IiI'i.~ .ri.er imiivrdu.upEl'rimposedl) ~ii1l wfilluen inrf'Oflmafion by mea ns of COI1lII~"~tc:tiofils_ Th.en ." t 'i' P i{ TV.0.c!har..ally or in pad ilcurlalf groups.e wer~ sketched m.e' ~iume. '1' " [rom • hou.uirty..J{$':J( ~JY cfGfIG&' ABIC'D'E:F LMNOPQ ~cOJuw/Mnr~"fV" "I'l..jJn a I'll olLll.y.:J.tress often '91ii)OUl:gh at a rc'l'ea r.Ig€' A r l!.cll.'D'ElsiQIf'i'of a leisure areato a SGa..es. V~I FIEI '!do:~111 w.l) ( g] S -R~mals~~. . Illiglht or too sma III is 8rIW.' "1-11 Hill to Fig lIrle "..e' wallh ather paoplhr!' or to assh..."I'lllfly I)lil G"m~a ..calpis tura and imp>t!ft iinforma~ionr and inlforJli.er~'<lIFi inllflrl.in . Wlilrich relPres€i1!t infcrrnaricn e. . u~~at:er b on they becalm.rn (10' 'the ex(.1':. suited 10'our IPIJ~POG1il1S:. lletl out. an." lit is quite .callil .d'rawingl.t'" r T '1 . ~ I ~ .it ie .ast}...' t m lin the lbeglinl'l!it19'. and hence .a. f _. s: I~ ~ to be wrong.M.-Wi~eda nd ingl tllarefor. oOli'lsomidalil1l. 5i 111 it a lse Iinfluonc.. Wlli'i~ ilngl f rs.Siide' si'glfl in the." " . ENATVS f (" J oM" JOX.es 'the f.C1 . J. fmm it This mu.l em:lillrg:ed in tlilrr.main.AS~yfl.t be d'eterm ined' ~noe. r. It' . previouslv impa:ned ilnfor mation cain be r~(:gi'lled a I1IdrBvlived. 'comJl8nv.~ ! 1"1 r1 * or "0 'r"4'.e(lI~I. '0 ~ ~endsti( "E Ir~S¥~iI A8Cl:lr 1 uio Lettering.eglfa!j'pallrt .. " .'(9IEf61~1 n MII!l~m" AI'(.IS!l allways be leneuffi in iink.A.IF J I .re 1IIie 'the sa m e '9lr'ade of PiE! pe'r ill..Qr:l!'STUVW)(Y. 70 :f go Js '-' Q r:!!I .imeil1tfoi' Irelared d.aUantion may be draw.-.already found..lEl' . alndl si m pie tS'>l:tt beUe r bV far t ha n d ils· . . and slk_e'llchE!S. sellf~evidelll~ wmdS: shorurld be..y.'''' II.l:ies willi des~roy the plc:tum's UIi'I~tV'. [Iile observer's . ~t1ieri ng shOll! Id jpOSS!essa bahllilced siizeand space rellationshlip witi'll 'the background.1 1f . IioII jj..wev.wilngshould onlliy be Ileuel'oo in pen/cU_ 'We c~.t.".on eentent .he IBM h.of .si 'itrono Irran '~hlp two n n~s e~lo ij~ g 1(1)"91' j.. Fashij.. . I:.q ~ ~ ' . and possibl:v eadmo confusion .acter Of a Ch ine$lQ r~SUU.Z "'(>ilHI '$~ Geneii' arHy sp:ea~ing.J ~ f' " . di:s:lurb the .t):. j ~ r~awnlw) I "'I GH'IJlClMI>IOP.oler.simple and unadulte... can 811so' blfl done by dilstonion" FOIl' examlple •. H 1.2 oJ.1 'the 6' RAT'""1ERBV ETVERHYM6.Just as i. J.a.1'I 'ot n ~. (E~rmp!ie: '..'" u ~-oOj ~ t:r..l~ 1:50. ~Iif'e..r..IVlT figun'l{.~. r t!'n e 'Qutwa rd ce form-of what" is wriMlil'rl!.s..of 'their . macH'S thai." ~ ~~ c '= u a.hie drawing added Sl){pressi:on.affected lettering. alndi has . dlist~ Unc[. . I~s . 1 Y' < <'( A. 'OrrdralWiing.. '" .~IT ltJlT'QI A .ooidi styles which alPpelu a li.ft ~~~~Im:ll"n I'WJM ..y.!'llc:lalwa:V5 avoid using rllll~ colfIsh!:le.and lirmproye a ~~' 14~ I . ililtetrior..er.(lII'phalbelJ: hat has be. or s:Ila.iiiwhnQI therefore iMl.sire!lJe ~Virn porta rll'l 'e~!ements.l)o'lJs. it 11i!if' ni 1"11 ~~ c a .atilol1l in tum I~S!J. I -1"T I'" ~j L L ME 0'019 =:. . which th."'.. a 4 A.n:!lj.. a pencil drs.also.~h'1l"n Ath n.3 OJtJ~1s !\LIm!l!'fllf'llPll rn.t .. ": PlI()(""')f: n 1!.IS indiv.2 s ~ :.sed~Qcomrmunicart.ali. IE 1 HElH(AIoU. 1'0.ering.. lIhe len:erilng j.nd '[he f same diiiliwilng uns~ri.erea'tion$.l'!.'1 lben'el'ing can lend t. 'r ..0 l. This. or 1:1ll1Xl. and Eg'yp:t.hii 0(1 :5. I~'" n . IS 4-1 J... such ab col.of a lily lion.. whlcl.adequate !'f 'I... . 'x: 1...' NFl RI NC . II ..ec:t:s the ele. "J il111US11I wm lettering..echQi~ SEa III or ~be tillie f'ol' 8r Do>ok on Gothic: art.ical~~!ealr E. lai.8!. hl1l~d:!l lurnll'ii! " . "" tl ~ ~ .cienl: stvles. is'N::a!S. (I H' '1..[..eijght. "Wrilt~l"ig" O(!1ns!is.liIcter ot "frozen" handiwriting.ableth:arn 't:e!Xtthat is 'loo big.~u'OiTi..he ske:lclir is '€Illiltitl'ed "leisilin'! all'le{.t.gl·s SUU. the objec~. t "'Gothrilcized" Ie-uelr vng ca ii1I prglVide the date of Ii) hi.~C'e-j "e...~nd ingthe t(i'xt One slholl.!l!IIIOOiln'tern . A~ handwriUng call b311us much aibotirt his allthOlr" so le1~:ering e ilt ba.rarwin.by hil'tteri ng 0:11 Ul:e menu Or ..o:~'ullbl:e ~ie-uell: is usuallll. text n..n~" vr« o. l~ "\' '" L-. Cunei ~ 'ronn wriUng is a good @J(ample. the' dr-a'II'Ii~!"Igis~~n~shed b8'fol'lellldl:::l~ .e symboiliz:edand .l '" :::. si lineEl'diffel'le I'll tones.idual' QJ IleUell"s oir figllllr..r. .h...en to the drawing linst~d o~a fl! iUl'lt.esopo· tarrn. H N I Ii.llra~.000: years !)Igo):in .s.~ y~ PA T.p ~ t t U'(lli . and leUer'tll'he'lI:· ness ..cw~9 "1i'JIt'l ~. u ." An ink dr.lJ. ~he Il'iIIlorf:!r important objee'[S in li{.. d81iJi'a:l.lI.I'Ii •.

h 'Wi I:h its simple. iIIh'~ Salme' 9 OtiS for tha 1"1 umbers as well. . The s. ~) ls dfawnwith afull s. en( 'typestyles on the sam·~ .rs~i1okie ' sho'uldl be half 'the lenQith of the uplfighl.es an area wi~h the' superilm.~s(slra iglhr and curved) .i. hould be inscribfilld wlthm two sqlJ8r. . The line snO~ll'd be k~Pl short.widlth rerio of 4.DDD 72 . ~ II'e~· 'I. K occu. A pelrfec.iln g.)EiS of iJlncle.:w.. [II~ so:me'tim'~s even leg~lb~e p us upside down to the p IrSCH' oppesite you.an'l.l~:erIilfle of tl:i1.!back9.gII'H..oHn.e rea:der. the proportion s of tne induvidua ~lell.!UIn u mbew~F1g.~#.: ~.• E is iln5~rlili:ue.ew l. The' ne'~d few good.. 111e $u~ilnctr'lflss and cJf.(If al c.7 ~ [f@:~ ~~ '~]S] ro2 ~ H C§ . b~'Halsl~ngl~Y and .M H H Try Ii'lO~losbml the leners or add I'imde flourishes 01" other trlfles..oonsi.ectan9~e wiltl.' .. It:s two ebllques .3 and a. LPRS Q 1 .ers and I'IIUmb~fS ean be elt!isi~v rned wit ill a siUlple Ilea dia. F'F [Q2* .c:i~cle. 'CionS~f I. ~.f a sq:u~~e.aneousiillddliUons.t face' is a.pi. the IJI p~~ght Ul>Ill!lener C consists .alrtS.ele cilrde. The oll.I Figure 7.f heighl~ .rld IlIlcle:ar ~(malll'Contra s. one on w.of U.aw.~rcle.p8ge ~Ir. one s on tep of U'ie .Uy clear and aI1d readable tx. lis v~lnl sil'npl. Us two th bars m US" be of .ilS.components.. must occuPl/' the aeea Q. The bar should be al: I.i'cred of sUaight lines.1l!. J is iriii'icribed in an uprigiht r. fiflisi'ead~ ~ng Irig'lilries•.· ti. hOlriW. .!lthri. . ~ H :s~:am~:5 I'll 1iIi '\i'er~k'.s.s-rem sketches onthesi'. pelilpelii'iidicu'ar capi~:a'I:s.Exact~vhalfwav up ~iI1e righm·hand side o. AI_three joiflrs siholUfdend in short line.:mgll e of ~I tili.t pag~s cl~~~~i~~ :sillow that in principle' al.roupl$. and devi.. ~ .d'€!g riess.. -12: '. is es:senrjia~and most coownClnglo th. enS!!.<llndlcarel'ess pl8y.1h th:e numbeiIFs land 4. @D .[ ~I ~\i):~of dilfrer.h'~ ~en~er . Dots a nd serifs n 'Sh(l'IJld K~cc.owe.poSOO sq u..e juSt a's bald as ~iClO .:3 .ons 'C~lIn'Or! Iv be' billdi.goo~Eltrica I I'in.igirt level. o.es.f COUf$ • Anyone whQ has expel"ie'nc1i1!id 1:he di ~e .e.eh ~e'i!'ed with silnlple' .cilrl::~.fo.mer G should be' a in all most compl.lrity .ing wi.olPl:ieli!Illy perfec.eh atsc ecrresponds with the h~light of ~. and which overpowers 'the out drC}lwinrll· .f UUaih~Uer.s only of a near-semiclir.@.olLl~d.5 Styles 0" Lettering BIOC:k Ilrlrue~jng' aiti proven '['0. The I~ower pa'rl .nltam bars i'll leU ~rs 'S't'M)ll)lld cerne at 'the same heigh'l-i.lQju:e !"U.le it: hlj 1:0keep tax'i and figures c~ea.'t spalci JiI.)air is .:3. Ihis is d!ol'llll'bV puningl 10l'llghorizontal c~nm1lleC1:iQns the upright to.t w.!}le.gl makes it absoI u luliy vitali to glive' SoITU~ brief notes. . hElre .alme' as E whho ut the bottom balf.p @i[ tho' other.lh e II. and 9' willi know 5.e.im'1 wh leh line' til icklil~SS is marched to Ileue.en dr.f ill ¢.Us crossb8lr ca 1"1 onl~v come ifII the !'oll. ~nd it is illTiptll!l'l.g!l"alfH.aimlld or 6..equall ler)gth: the ends of 'the balrs must b~ Ipredsell'v ali'9l1f1ed.lhilfiig .*~ D.R "'B< 7. h1 addition.a.1l. same lel'll9~hes the othse ~WO. S. e s.ell i l'Iec[. 1234567 890 . TUVXY BEFK ' 2- DHJNZ ~~ .ra'ctlice.• BBBLQ)E ~AR~ _C i .1i es. dear Ilene'fin. Tile 13.ld1:hratio o~ 4. the r~:'1 W An A.U~E ..3 110ri.(j!" ho1il'f '!he' I'e~tel" height.. irh e ~en.:omla I Iine is driilWO from the Circle I'ine ~1111te ti~e center.11'0011<:5 of place.move up .g a.QO narrow or manne'ri:S~'~Q~Hy 'Wlide.elr oOlllsist.•..rill1gS'10yld come 'eas'ily wilth a ~iU~\e.o' !.er.i:th Uilii.~ be avoided.ermidll'c:le' Sind sho.eI.b'll'.irde.!1Indl own rer d ~pecti'velv from haU letter height a~ an angle' of 45.'. .. Any 'l!lixtr..horiz:ont~1 h. The [1'eUelr II is j ust a vertncat~ '~i ..llretha't 'the c~ntfal 'r. and l'eUe. hescurves ijlfe' an~so. F .lj ~d ~~()ik subs~~nhail..i\ler thwr(J--(Dlh €II" '~orms wiU look too wide Or 1:00 thi'n.al~ he.wa no si ffi[ple.htn. -. whi.(if 81teXUjal~ $~altemen'l. be qui[(! adequate.diI'll two 'squmre's:.eigh~.e~sewilW tend to be' .and any. jng and mnSCiiliibill'l91 various: 11 xtual." V R .AibOV{l aIL lu'e'memberth. .:3. how sensible and sa.ma lilY diHemnt :hi eighu.exactily the. A~A~~.}i~qIUlla~h3:r.¥.!i 1.

the Figure 7. e 811 tli:.3 Irati CD recta ngll'E!" For ~h1es.a Sl.llln~'~h«!jl:~iileU! iW.liUVil' i~:s basicgeome'tricilil cO:llISU'lIIiC1:ioo.oerrort. t!he leUler ~OUlrSie a is.sa semr.5'stop ~ef-t~ha'i'1I:d rn usi allw.ciirel'e . lit is .s X.s the dgrl'ig!l!!i'~ if done' quih"kly" 'oi cQlilfw~.~.co:nIllE!:rof t!he~lheo~ rB'ticallsqua!!IIrI9J. illS taliil i~ . one.a~415.ion wilth 8.cle' flew a ~n. rawn al~ dlegfeil.S 0/f1iVV0 c~!'Ic!le:s---<ome albove the' othe.ensure that the' 1:W'O' c'utside uprigl'ns Hehand l'iglhtlaJro aibsoiliutely verticlllL The Ileuer NI ·81I1Illsoinseribed jn 'the! 4:3 ralti.aditOi'lisaibte ~o .!s .y side.~ elea r 1e)(~:1'1" The letter 0 ShQuld thus be.ees.\/. /11 ~ 11' You :shou~dnow be . to'lal U!'I!mi:stalkabiliityUIS e!s:sel'lltilal facalii 'to'.i1dso drawn .ist Qftwo.1. Carre' should be tak1ern to .ilres6 a. an alng le of 45 degrEH~S 1li1h figulm 1 e mi:gh[ be m~staJkenf'Qr <II 1.pele:ss ovaili~should allwars be r.pperto lower . hili I ctrclss.a se.I"!Uid Ilines IiiliI'kling iit ro 'the 'Upright alt ~he '~~ and "it haU P to' eaeh other. (iiS!~ili~'Ii'i1Indff.ey the. imJn'es~ sion~liialttllTiel ailIJU"i o. be The 2 ha.ecfed inf:avor of the 11l1IJ1i'0 fctrllir! of the e. Mak.i f. lowe~' ha I~--~!heto. . The' 3: omly has SinaiII"'(. The 1~jgi. side I~.. r. .efigure' 8shoUild cons. he l:eM~ S eenl sitS.or's Cgflll'Qijl1ls fl[!!j<lf 1m num" ers ~ and 1 do run p '" MlOflCa nd amllln: Since I .:! rself: U!1~s ~ seI.alke o~ "eharaejer" o'lJ'Iesnould r'eme. Numbers of rh'eSilme type.eas.nslator s not 'fhe' a ulh.gll'l} M<dih "WI j)51rCb3 !here IS 1110IC?Oli usron ~ 111 1 aecc mes 61'Ssie r ~~'wever' 'when we ViSU!i.•.a~: ~he'~:o.\! e i~lI1ersidle.a.othewfoJill! willi i"I!~ll!Jral'lv iMply IPOS. With s numbers.r~~Qse Ilinesare not .!'idly' d 45.lis now .pe. is balsedl on ill heightwidlh ratio of .of .degree:s ErOIin lhe! II!enelrcel'll~er. Y.ovall and 'lo use ithe full eirele fo.acte.2.sedc rn ffi'rOmtil .r.i!illi~s. li~is •i ra. Sind its 1 up.edllu o hlo:rii~~nl!all base by'alll oblliqlUiill .circle as beilng dbl'iqrue.03dd'!.al sUicci net chili r.Siif1ld rcs of (II circle.V. on lOP of mhe oiher.r thiS 'fligure.mieilrc:le: ~l't'the benom with two lIt'e'liticaI I nne'.and Z are constructed withi 111 the 4:.isls af stra i:gll'lt Iliners at. of "0 ~revent oonfu slcn betwee !1iJ3 and 5.p cons.are Q'overned by the same rules: Stranght lines .o' Slila.s. V' iS1Jlgarin lill'lOO'flPomted in1iO I:he 4:3 1I1pright IJ~C:- W.nd9 should coo Tha R can be see 0' C:lS an exte'i"llSion of P..fthe' Il'eufll!1ing Irea~lv' hasa or eteer concept in mind. SOldraw a h arllf 1'1ilg'ht .:sib!r~ 'oonfusion a nit enor. Aln.micin::11e with hori~(J.6cma ng'le. heil3'ht baSEi'd 01111thlie! 01. Whh~lhe numrber11.The h9'tWr Mllis wrin:e1l'1lso 'that lit OO!:cupies. alway. The Iletter 50ls often 'the ca U5Je .mbe~' 10' mO'like' the leg of the: Y obmiql!Jl'!'tiils all'lex~.el'llsion of'liletGp Iriglht-band a rnil~. The' only 1'~t1!er h!.ilIlY:S ~el!)ilabslill U1te'~~ I'ilil'le be l ye~licall.n'lJinoing alild wdl eOil"lv.abh~!'~O work OIJl~ ~hreconstruet~OI"lS of the Iremah"l~!lg II~nelrs 'for VOl. tts 11 s'lroke :should not be rst hc~i!2iolfl~allbeeause iii: co~~:d tifllke Ii1i~Oral 7. be fl'xf!cllIJted by "Iirst drawing al hlllil (uncoilllpressedj circl~ them adding rheWiils at ani ~mglle' of 45 degrt!o!!s tOllilg.a ~ uiillFe fi'elid. 'the' .8 FiGure 1_9 15 .: geQmetricallliV" it must be horizontal.aI barat crt r.upe~fl ueus forll1l'ls 'willi s be !'IJiQlie co. It i:s.~Oi imago iine' themmsitionfrollii u.av.llt gets wider iis the ~ 'whi~h cOl11sli's'lS two 'V's drawn immediately of b.s'enui na diHi(lulltv in attemp~s 'to is cl'iiev6: . a-illS u.erltiallr\l'10 the cin.ile.: 45 degr.p onlilem.ppe1r'flf:el'dmusr be fulllV '(ilosed_ 4 ends at the top n riI a ~'rilaI1I:gl8poillil~. eods: ~lIlttle! lbottom l!1i9ht~hall'i1ldl.(lwJ ng zew a san .I' (WfOnglrv fe~d numbers I'ead to misunderstood data and Illenell: ~.: .cQmple~et\/' cl!osed. Otherwise there' Is. a complete elrcle.1l 1111' I".:ri'~ont. tanglle.nlsy te seell'lail 'Ole Ileller.r part consilsts or.actl. iilh.

..77778'8888'9'9999000'0 IIP~ea:seotelhlTlt wide and narrOw letters ~lnd n numbe'rs rsq Uli re dliffe rent spa c~ ng. be'tw€:en letters and numbers...F GGGGHHH'H'HH ..M N.8....'NN'IN 000 OO'PP P'P'P'P'. s~~~ ~~~ ~~-~ A~ .I!J'JJJKK.-. ~ B.Fig ulre 7..AABBBBCCC'CC.~~..XX yyyYY'ZZZZZ11111 '1222 RRRRSS55STTTTTUUUUU VVVV'VW\y/WWW 333334444455555666 7.. CDD'DDDDEEIEEEFF'FFFFFF.1510 equalize the internal d'i'stmllces to. W~'_~~_~ 12 2~4o~'·.10 Mode I for Lette'rlll 9 P'nIctice AAAAAAA... al rn at equalization o:f gp" tlca I bala n ce.~ •• ·•... KKKKLILLLILLMMM. 'G~~~~K~_~ Of\lfV1 IR~~_ X XX.. 76 77 ...(~:.. each accc rd.ing 'to its graphic weight In your further exercises... V~_.__._....· ~~~~~~ Take care ..."I..QQQ'QQ 1 ABeD C~~~~~~~.--..

.. (goocla rnd bad exa mp.lble rrusunderstand Il1g lrueriors Onlwll"Igs 78 .. -. and well'l-ordered spaces 'that will f'elalx and compose the eye. Prsli fill n.or sllaHches.ed ell ci . wlh:iite. . ca b i nets. planning of . I ~ " cmrect line '~hlcknes5. but where re the rnterrors? M<lha 7'6Travel Sketches P'f~JIrn i na ry Sh~(j iest or p rOJeCl .:l'Ierlng -Fitted Unrls :-6···.NU' I~' A' ~'I I~ ~iI3iIl" ift""" "iI"OoJ letters correctly spaced too closely spaced These examp. for tetter helgh-balane.StanCil 'i Lettenng ~ I~.1 es gh(esome idea of h@w 'moallrnll !]. w~ GA~N 78 ¥f unbearablv mannerist scripts G c. letler. .ss.ilIwings.~rystudy for. Pleas!!! work wi~11large. . Lenelring of freehand dralwilngs. sta ndard lettennq Th eat€' r I nreri 0 r Working Drawllligs I e rs. title palges" postetc.ing should start in the bO~1!Qm left corner.of dir.."1 . doors. . F." ~ ._.2 .lles).go leUeri!l:QI or titl es 011a II 'types . LETTERS too laint LE'nERS" " r .' ~01e:Letering should convey information and nO! be the C' lise of fIO. ct Pi u re ifjltle I' s ~a. d a rd relt>[!nn 9 for n mechanical e!1ginee to outlmes too t un better.

eadby p~ss·ersbv ~'I"OIma dis:t~n~e. ~!!rl1IPitlsof leUenng (iromMeusr.lntl1ri()!' E A.€I('en~ iry. " infs'Ior 'of U'lIE! mOIre 'prof..ths to' 11 QII. l' Colors COIOts WCf Bh. 11'3.iIl1Q:sin mei cha !'iIiea I'fllngi meeri nig.sometrv on gfounds .€')!.c·hirect!.l!I!I'e 'f'OUf tvpicaillme~h. eddll fI dish Yel'llo Yellow IFigUf18 8.and "u".e a natuta lim pressiersto a 'VGPI Iilmilted .U of which di:5..J.essionsl andi more tll!l:pressiirlle pe rSlPect~ive dra wi ng. This meU'Iod Lette.fl eSre m etihods 9 i '!I. Wiesbad'on) / lomelrv .i"lilFlgl in shlop 'window!>. A. Thhi is why thG' mQ:stfn~qluenUy lJISiool isomeUie:8: aire s<howfl O!'i!ly brie'fly herl€i. willi . The more demal ndl'i'fiIQ.tort dep.(ids •... ' sh 0 uId be Iill rg.€HiiUH or IB'sseli diegln~e'. di:sp lay eases.fe· a'nd DIN.e SUiteb'lle method is to Red .ll'm old and dr'll /' I •• ~ Or <lIJJ1" dryOlnd warm Figme 1.e~~I.lingles..n:~"!d- i!ik~1Jtn \l'iew$ . . Thelrl€i . on the o~iher ha lid.of i.e e iI10ug hto be ~.mpf€!.).of solids sind spa'C1!!!s ~r·oll'!ld jff.~.pe· rie'i'I\coo drafts ma n..le-Gm rI and cOld Axono rnatn c Pr lee"IIOn 'relet y~jjo~ . I!Of''8)pli!Hdli:ory dr.iyellv iIl!aU alndllllot·so·de~aliled pans~f s SQHds· iii nd s·truc(y roes. VJ[]lel ts especia Illy useh. ete. BlIlu'IIe·rlllllg.." 1- For r.ign.i.. liiUIDe' il'iltlUlilliW11 sindl illilaglili'i~lticm w~11 pJI"oveth.cision .!'t t.•and iscrnetries have prOViiiiii'! ttl be' o~·mmense· liIallue.aw.~9jem i.axte I'IIt. \IV.. VoL 11.d fo'r v(!lrv ralpidl drawill"lgs . o..

iil.e.ati(!..alrdillg pers.3.rnel1lil O'f this type of dr.ine st.e hortzon.al. a 'fact which will be ife·!'IIIIlized wil~h Oil littlethoughdul observ.l"]ingis: that the sightl.he i drawing of pr. - \ B.[railway-track .g1. Sound proofing In 101nt ca 'IfIti.PoSH'I01'I 01' bUildlflG Williis Exterior re ianve to eac 0'1 ~e' Pnnct pis of sound attenuation In J.:2 Slgh'tline' and Pictu. . -'. t Coustfllction 01 FrofJ'ta'l Perspe.3 82 .'ive 8..eff.c.re .ctiy par.H'11d level.e .cl..) lies eiC..2 .plaine of mhe per~pec~i\l'e is always pe'rpelil:chcuIar to gro'l.pecli1ollE! iFl:sofar as it is IJsefull 'fm 'h'. T.ether at a var'lilisn" ing point somewhere in the disranee .Plane The' . etc.hls vanishing point airways liIes on~h. -' " -" Alii hori~i.1 Horizlrm SOtind1oroollrlg With vanous dlUl"lrent WOlrhl'ilg thick- nssses and W Igl11S ThI1l s'ight :hori~on is ~akei1 to be alii around us at eye i\li~\lel All ve:r:ti· .s an absolutel'y vertical wall at rig hit a ngll'es_ The: pi ctulre' pia ne .1lwn meRits" 8"2.Idrawing block.es 8... paper.I r duct w~ shallil Gornfi neou rselves to a few basre comments r~g.allilel to the wal~_ Th~ pictul".iI. or gTids cornie tog. and e-n'll. p.rike.icular I.al~s{pe'rpend.icture surface. buildings. Drstance \\ -.)nt:allines of wallis. flol?f.ojects.eet). ~.ines) willl:llso appear in the drawing as \]\erli'cal.~e'I!H'Ilnd drawil'11.es:senhaWele. .Ifl.

dh ieved by' puuing people' iln the for. w~ shouid assume a st81ndpojtnt il1l th~ e'liitr. In orderte avo'i.ill.lhing that lprojects.1l!seen wid1.- tl-3_5 [Jrij'win!J DeQ'sily.. or less reali.serv.illed ·ll)owlR 'COP'Y ~I I 1'- [ 10 P13n/layou J - I~- r-'~ Ground • By eOYlll'le\llell we mlea n tl'le dll S'lalWlce b e·twee n '9lrQUIndor fl.ut 115deglree's.order for 81 i rn t.!his llIiuw·.J!S Things close to us are 1llways ciealrillv visiblle and ~'!fI S~ ~. also IUSII~' 81.eground and liil'iliddle 9 rou nd o~ nl'e: pgcture.s.of an e'xismiingl I'\Qom.I:se' of ill desIgn.all comiVC!!l~.!ctS elir.e same levell . s!inCiealny. G. .s.. d. lance frOITl the drawnl obj~ectas the dr. lin· [)(UII'IS IOSI !MIll ! ncraa II III' 9 dAplh.~ su fi tlhcrt OiJ r i UUS~ ti'atiOlns am 'of things which llie'w~rhin ~his fi41!!ldo1: viS'ion.ook mlore. o'il.p . o'Utsi:dethe I full! f11!l! room. 85 .o. '91f1oumil or in 'lhe blackglf(HH'U. be [he sa me di s.ioln of '~he hUrt'i'ili'" e'ye' onl'!!' reo1lc. rlIl IlJIlleohlSE!II'Ver stiol!Jl'd.of vi~.A. dep. 10 ge'l as IfiirllUch linto 'the and 'fi.uidelines.$ eye.e~elo~e dralwill more ~~. .re>c Y be Iisel.' ob. Ilbe "dlilsta.~'IJ'tI Ourlln.llItmlll CO HIler .e first priority is '10 dl'aw ii1 'the hQrizon.3'.e 41.' r '~-~'~· ~--.er·. bfl rroPi'lta~ hr5.til in picrllJ~eand space.Of 111"1he! C!. 2 Field .i)Ver8.essiolll of deplh alndsca Ie is all so a. lin . their heads mus:l be Ool'll th.f yj. dra wi ngl to I.ail'lsmaln h inlselif 'when e.lg:e in . people ~nandingl or wallkilrlg hmlJ. : .xecuti ng hi S dlral~ fll:g.°r ~ .d va rushil'l'il poim. Dr 'U1'i!'n Propm lions . I~n dr.econd Vn nis.tweE!n the eye {standpoint) and the picture plane. l.t :Smlil~eal'l v. alnd wi'~h more detiliL As.B.7 mle1:~lrs_W!1 e n a drawl rig is to i!lei ude people <liS weill as thingls. On the .11.l"l'ce'" in this case IS thaI be.ina.lle·mive.of Vision lit is we Ii knOW!il1 '[hat 'the norma I 'field . SC.ey~ leve'l} t'l1.i:iw· our ilngs" the retore.i\Q a n eve level of bet~ en 1. .d ulrndesirab!e distortions.hef' s&de 0. 'ngangl.ge.irfespectilV8 o~ w'hoetll'Ullrlihev IiIlre i11the tore.6 alnd '11.ou~ di:~klnion.S<aIV.tI ing Poi!'lt (dlagl(l.ilon_W*lh:in .IIallii'ldthe' heiglnE of the' 00.oo.An impr.5. Figll!lfrII 8.~ Ilell'tl.. poinih1 are alw-avs 011 the horizon [at .eld of vision as possible. we must malk. liln U'Ie1ory'.tiles: toab~. Depth'" Clo'se'-t/.h.ltle:vond it willI look 1~ll11l~e.s.:antshi n.' ~hea)!is.

F$t:endiIIfiQrof stro'ng a nd weak optica lim pression S makes it pessible to a. One should start by dn11wi1Q the I esse nna Is. The outlines of objects shown at different depths sli.ils worUnwhUe partly closingll1e eyes for a second in order to deW rm ~ tl. locrticerus (as an {lxample) FOf. spa ti all drawi ng: slllj1ect a drfa wing that you .P~h bV g~ia ilGdevlces.regtf)fmd-Middle Gj'oundB'8Clcgrouna-P'ictu.es that are close-up..Couto'un.eground ~~r.87 .Jrll!':hlng 01 R:Of.aU cred ibi I'i'ty as a replresentation of rea 1ity.ra '!.(both in we.Iii!rycase beware of mindl'es!> DOp¥j1ng j.f\eases.7 0:1agonJ.. of spaces of glFe-flit depth can be divided ir!~Q ~lhefDlllowi ng areas of ~rGeptjbi !Hy ~ nd reprQ(hJcibiJIity: foregrOIJlr1d. attain more' 'f~eliilng for fraeha nd.a' Illi e is at a palrtic!l!J~aw n place Or wh'y the Iiineis of a p-ar. 1IIIUS:tr.. as does ligh!: ami celcr intsnsitv.!Vi ng. ""~ 1'- _.. and background.a II QbjeC'ts must be dnlwn lighter . askvoU'rs-elf why . mliddle gnwnd. .. e Ir'(')aHy .rc Dept'll .1:1 re not su re ot d'ralwillng Dh the correct outllnes or shadows.l~ 8. / / // POints Pnc hoes .3.essentliia I loudi nes wiUi str.ight and color] and with th n nner I jl nes.~:E~_ 86 . If you .lltiorl'lS.. VIifl' $LJgge. You 'should of course takle OJ) critical look at eaen line aod its meanling _ For insta nee.oulid never run into El'8 chi othe-r but should end (lit iii distanGe from imal9.s~: ~e fo~~'()wi t ng method as a temporary aid to. i~..F. th:is means thatas spatla I depth im.6 ..lI Vanishing POint Or! Horizcn ii . V.. 1 Arc Contact Figure 8..cJ'Iieve the appearance 'Of viuyil'l!ll de.n freeha nd d.jll lose .t1j'c'ularqua~ity.creases.~_~~. One'should nn <. ()~jherwli the i HuSH<l'tion se w.dmilre' and trace it Iline by ~iliile.oF / If there is sHIi Some doubt about threedi mension ad draw~ ng.o. A proper grasp ~'IIr'ld lmde. so clarity and sharpness of ol!Jtllinesdiminishes.oIllQ' ne ccntrasts.

.d solids.c:t...: ·1 .ca'$e:~i. in consequence .e and SO olnain s.dilllflenSionall rs those s. willi be' n.iI"lQ. lhe' sM:doW' irs cast alcrordilfl'lg '~o ~lli)eIPO'Sition . hodlZ\o:nlliine .€! . w.ilfl'lce edgesllham run completely p.om Illh.of the sun or Illight source.I$.u<llliello ~he pic- When 'W.the p.f light pl\1S a Ipa.to ~he Ipicture plane of back towafd tho v.lf the' sun ilslbehind us:" we ilust have too ·i1IIS5.~light incidence. line$ fOIFI~I'ii! QuUine of the slliadow.of' 'fml1l'LiiI!I'PEHSpe:c.and pr'QCeed aQoordlilngly. 'that run CgI~t shadows.ecessary tiC '~Q dr~w 'shade in Qrde~' eHe.llIwn pilutlilel' .lIWaV .doWiI"I ~o 'the horizonlino.olim II'hil'e):s.ed'g. :Shade 'O!)iiJ- .tivel--whlilch is often the ture plane '01. BS . These :surfaces lie in sRilalde. to a val1llshing point 't!1teslhadows ofmJirlQs.tCUjlf~ plane (above the hO:ll'iO!:.'1hit~he sp<lltio'lilllusWl-' tij.thle theolit'l'ti1cal sun ..alIso be dr.OJIn ilosen. . we c.il:s ffiruS:l <.c1es.urfa.tmnoe the sun isfl\lcing I!.S.j !'nlp!'y bV d ra wi ng the' perlPelliidici!. bi.' .. into .. which bellQngl to the ulllulII1rinm1l3..aifl'lli. If 'fo'r liln~. .'iliII'1llish ifIIgllPO~nt~Qrtih'~ :shadow li.Ilwhich are .ell'lh:aAOB [t"lree ..on .llirnple vS!lnis:ih.e then leeate the \!.!ll'~ r from.umea the-O'F'etlctll soh'llr point below ~he.arctualllV aver~ed "r.slililllgt po:ilii1t..

ation..{ol~//..nd GWS In shadow .area s (almost hole·lik0).ordark an buil'dings seen fr'Ofirilthe' outside....:I·· ~ \ t. surfaces light '~ l----:-------_~ Figu re' 8. . / I /1 / [)~pel!diing on the direction of illliumin.rry bniig htlv llt facade the windmvs a1ppears a:s da. 10 'WI . As a 'genera I r u le.azed surfaces: . lies pardy in shadow.rk . ina ve..area or window only partly lit bV the sun and which d'lUS. Special Case-Cast shadow on gl.Central Llg:ht Source :: 'r-~:.appecar lighter than sunmmding wall 90 9] . glazed areas appear as Ugh~.snd must be d'ralwn accoirdilil'giy..edl. A simjlar ap.pmacl'n apphes to a giaz.

I S" .of the minor.eel a.erel1llces in b:rii. 11i!lve 92 .nly Iperceives.o:fs S'I. the' iII'lJsUaltion ofa brighitly iJIIIJmina1led obj.Mu ror on V~~{lI1i MirUi'ors p!1odll. U'n'i.rpalrt name'l).oif Ile'rv fllll1flil'i~lr Il!velryd1ay oojec:ts..g~1tne:ssfrom sunli.IIlrm f.glfOund ~D1iglih:t 0 r storm cl!olud's.l irf. As._r__ .II'iu:! I the Im~rmr's axis.!.Another im'Blre.llight are the silboue'ue in EI)(tI18Imecounter light (sunlight'.llce atme to lli'r:e ij m:i.1I. Ii'll~ase note-that a scene <lili'itj its mir.or image' a '~i(immOII1 VI..gainst a daJ.t 1.rker baJck.--1'- ~-- - / (.ct for itseif and o. When observing the picture.arMicia._ete.sting case is 'the marlk. Two special eases resuhjng from very Ii1larlked diff. f. 21' a ~m flefloc(lon.. ' alnd its count . o'll1lE!lr words. r Offill' .ge turned about rWHic<I I rmrror I'lh. lit.ing of the briqhtest-Ilt edgies '1l1rough the Ipartia" omission oW ~heir ouUine.orm and brj'ghtne:ss. iii rule 'these alH~ drawings..ght 01' .11 ilshirig point. the !l'ye comlpl'~t~5 'the obi .aoe reIPrOOILlOeS'things in ~heijr rUUural' diimensi'Olns and distances ln rel'ationslliptQ the given pilsn8 .

rj n g Dr.!')Iiea r that we cain hx a panicull'a r .The picture's horizon plane as seen bv the eye should aliso be horuontal in real life.. the surface o~'t.:lwn / .an·~ One impo:rtHrU step in any introduction to this subject iis the se ~ectliiorn . so never draw w.il(Hii for th e horiizD 11. 1r1! this eXalrflple tli':le rnirror's surface is.8 ·a'gaimI and note ~iheIiQr.1 m 1'1":dr. n upright surfaces ami S!ol'ids~as w~11as their van- F.11 Mann ..~xalc:t loc<'lIt.xllm for H-"e person drawing -G U II Ho nzo 1 or tile p e rso rlCira". 17 94 .nwiIQus.il~on ..~i es.w~ pa per. ng Hold up the paper witih arrn ouest retched in the sig'hdline.. alternativelv.dll per )IIO!"! wish to draw has the right size and properrions. We can now proceed with the remalnlnq steps just as confidently.et her the perticular d~t.ig'l:lIre 9.jim:!or.. holld up yQur pEmcil in the line (jifsight 10 find an .of a sl mple" see -at-a -gl ance motH .ing sigohU.an Qbjiect IPlerspective). A!II di- mens ion s a nd length! s a re ta kenfmm U1 Ire.. it is . From what we have ailf~!l!dy said in p.he water. the va nlj'shing' poi.inil! ~ Whe rnd ralw~ng.Flflld' UlVISIOri Fiigu re 8. as the Reflection on INat r (horlzomai mir 0 pl.l ohe ' 9'.0 Centlll'al ~!jlctsalF'ldi 'the 11• 'foll'ded''' th ro IJgh the give 11 minor plane to make' the mirror iir1fiages_ IP.awi ng the horizon.dpoint and given length with our outstretched arm _ Hold up ~he dorawi ng pepe I" 011 (.in ce'l'illtn'.sealile the' pictu r19 on th e ba sliS ofo u r fixed 'fur ~ta!1.As un lo'Ve-lyas svm rnearv so oh:er1I i $.ith a faH.ll erspective this is 'the p mlse'tli n 9 poi nt for all vainish ~!!lg Iiines ~n Ule d istance. sections. then "tak:4ll' bearlnqs" over the edg'es 'of th! e po'll to see wh. it ca n not be iigr1.e'rs.ored in Irtlirror iimalges. provided \!\Ie thhlk about: the mea."~..pectiv'eI' (frontall likeness of . you should be .1:11 dis'lialflCehOill a the dmwn object that corresponds to the size of yoO ur dra.a.The next step is to !rnarill:. the iii r~n 'frOI'ilIUi I ish i ng .

objects whilch do.J 96 97 . '-1L.in Ireal~ ity-one shou Id be skeptica I.1i'gain.ees. Th e r'!1!SU lti rig symmetry lis borl 119 in mOSI cases.. 2 113. . Y' When d ra wi ng a bu ilh::lng by itself i it shou Id n ot neeessa d~yo be rig ht nn U"Ie m oddl e of th e drawi ng. ~ '_ - _ •••• I . _ ~ n.. __ _. . located more to OIlIe siide or another.e for the best IliHreness.~ Fiigure.eavym grade paperor eard of suitable size that f'ully enCI(lSeS the finished picture 'format. ~~-~~: 1. not as yeilexi:st . Hold it out {u arm's lengttl and use it to find your exact motif. 9.ew$ ef QnIi. a sa nse of imba lance !nay $00 n form in the nil ind of the observe r.(jlr'the maljQl'hy of outdoor 8irchihorizon can iie on the 1ili11l~ of the bottom 'thifd..9'tC..r designed obj.3 --I.ects-Le.. 'Which leaves the top two-tbl rds ot the d'rawi ng area ava ililable for the tectural dra'Wling~the sky. Cut out a ~Ii"a e from h. l)i1ffenmiilhorizon levels wiUof course produce diffe ra nt vi... th e first sol unon does no't neeessa !i"iilly rna k.. Malke a rnentel note o~reference pelnts SlH::11 as horizo n level' and ..- vou wish to dra W'.e !'uld the' sa me obj ect. <Ill horizon Ilevel 'fa.l!ibalr~ a l'I. _. F.' This visual diseq~iiibrium can De r'emediied by pl~ dng a cou nte. If the' building is.A small]1 trick rna 'If assist wl1 en selecli rlgl the' del:<lliI ' .... When choosing.edg!eS~ thatyouwiilll <'! Iwa ys be a ble ~o fi nd the deta iI .lleft·ho'i! nd or IF iglt'U -ha I1Id .cling de~a i1 from thle 'fmeground or with other object~ ~]r....

!lwing pencil.bjec1 Galre-h.1. the n beg iin to rea nd prod uce on papile r whi~l:t on e sees. 9. dth s. You willi soon see which points h aVfl n01 race ilved suffic ient strenuon.i n'9 r)lrf ind ivid ua I . Look at th e U is most ilmpor[a'rlit to brea k down eompcs ite forms into primary and secondary forms in order to understand how the v<l'ri. it is.engths il.5 The Who.1 @) (~) 98 ~99 . design.!~llyfor pro.9 .I. a . In the same WallY."ind d vlmensions in thumb wJdths {o!JJtsu.. followed by the seconda ~Y'{lOrns. propo:rt.a!liIy perfect and b ea lnifulliy executed. To stan wHh oneshou Id draw guide Iim~s-lthey are nothing to be ashamed of and should be left (l'S wOIr'iking aids.y erasing or cerrectlnq Basilcalily one should first look. HUFf!sc Attem pts Rough Sketch '\. .( hi3lrdlyimprove the quality of the drawing. at an object from all sides a~d try to 9'l'a!5p its character: structure.engUl of thl~ dw.le Drawing object agsliirlJl nd b'!lkJein the details a fore.by mea. vita me morlze he ight and wildltJ. Th is ca n be ove rcom e i . ID'imensiiol1lS and Guidelines 3 Students are often afraid ot drawing the wrong sozes onto the picture p Ia rile. Hast. purpcse.sur.o!JJs pro. 111e main outlines should alw<:I'Vs be drawn before conoentraJt:iing the detail Is.'. wil a nd data il s. a (1. 'then cl ose yu u r eyes for a few mo~ mems and til')' to vlisualize 'the object in its essentia:I'components.d ClOI~·~'en~. Wll draw the main form f rSl.I it-He~fi'ck CBIII help: look at til e g. he'~g~'1rt~. even iff the latter are on tec!hin h::.ponions.ion s.l)ortions Irel'He· I to to each other. depths. r As~e 5511"lg Prop 0 n Ions wm . Now dose the eves agalin-this you mussed betime you can see th~ object much more crearly and completely. Here'<lga in...etched arm) or in frachons of the .

the step and 9 ridfa F' SiC F'g ping off IfliU.e. 6 I parts I The next :stap is {O indicate ~'he va nishii ng Iiflies hl the Irna. This is a rectangu. d 1--. Pa rts that I. 100 1m . there must be no . the door..Point Figme.i'llnishinglil1l.change in standiing or siUiing positica. rn ust a Iways tctl ow the sa me s ilghtlins.g Lines And so lit is with m.llar area witl'i an apprQ)(~lmate height.('I FIt. a id of a rete re nee size (til u mb wilc:hh.5 Vanish'in.refe re nee points and the. Take a loo'k at the sidle wa IIIof' yo u r room from wh.ont Doolr j. Lang th wll~~ aporox.ld'dy shoes.apparent 10.1 IExamph:l.4 Main .ar"CYlt dim~lrnslions alod proportions (0 iiUu$tlifat:e' the step-by-step ClonstructilQl1'1I central or trentsl of pe [spective. HlIl~ position OIfthe main point and perhaps adda vertl cal Iline th .2 The f ret steiP is ~ draw the horizon line ~t eye leve.2 HOfiz. ( 3lhumb· J Widths from top of sheet '1' o.- I 1 4 parts ] APR FOX.my Qthl r th ing s wh ich are e foreshortened by perspectli'lre. AU comporltHds are arranged (I n th El pli cture pia I]..!'Qh obviou s.!~r bigglec. wh ich va n lshes to the rna in po~nL We now .liplot .and widths are almost alwavs far too I'atrfge".. _ Now we insert the chief oudines of the main 00jeer. 1. been . Q.e. 1"1'i1 e dli sraace betwee n th eeye Oil rid the aloOf is su chi that the im portant parts of 'the object ar'eat a certain distanee from the edge . we s ug~ '[Jest th at YOi. oif Plersp ectiV1e .Ou!1iife still uneerta in about jl udigi ngfore.ong the We select the pa rti euta r detai lfroma p05s~bi~ ide's.s~ nee eq u allltv between the left. The Sl'G'Pseq uenee is as follows: t o.espeeia:lly nn tile wOrik of begiflners.of the drawinQl block.drawn pans should be e heeked n ow a nd ~gali n for eerrect proportions.$horlie~ed II.engths.and prctm'e plane in central persOOC'tli'll'ealppf.wnd~h ratio of 1..]. INext we fix.1 n a~ to ori. '.~v. _l ca 1n00PYn o ----- . Si mil Ie fly. etc. inserted it wi I'I be We shouldstress here tl'uu the utmost care <lind a tte ntion should be d!~vo!ed ~oreeedi ng ll'engths" LelllgtM . This ratio should fi1rs-t be cur'~hlilly estimated wiIUl1h.:.~ eye or with the.lind measure '[he va rious Ipans of the apperent image' with 0 utstretched arm.entral We. ru Iii! w~dth. net t:he drawing's lintended sterement Vertical line lhrough 11)011 n pornt and the sense of it would not be . If Y.in point.110.ialiely falsify HII@.1 across the paper from len to rilght l@Ji1glh wp!h r ill ppm. l Sym met ry is avo ilded iin lhi s i1lL$~~nOe.anel in such a way that a II the essential details comeh.ile para ~h~itc dll~ dra'~'1i'trftg' .you IPIFeiparoyour freehand dwawi'r1I~!.n C.:jtJ Une' Figu r~ 110. iltustratlon. is worth me nt i ening: your drawililg s:talnd.es h.[)evia'bons.and right-hand halves of the picture is.4. Dimensions and spaces in me .10.Fe ng looking: ttley actualilly are very narfC\iw but are ff~que ntlv dra wnfar too Wide.hCiN'l.1.point must never vary wih~I. 1 va ri 0 us Picfure Detail m.~ (drawingl pll.dly within the pi cture . 1..5: 101' 6.ere yQU are now standing or sitting and see just h(IW wlide the doors appea r in '[he' wa II ·a111o wh leh you a. '1'. the eye's.0 ILIg hi the rna iin poi fit SJS .1-J. fracti 0 ns of pe nel II length.draw in the spatial dimension. .+- i I t- fJQS'S i bJle to outll inetne enUre the :~t mngth o~ these new .enta. AnOlhe r po~nrt thcH.i\e selected this object with its relatlvelv cle. ha\. in sta ndpoi 1"1'[ 'Of si 9 htline wlilll immed. L~. . estimated Il1!ngth and heiqht of the ea nopy.3 ~. Once all v..

awing:$.l $tep' in this exampl..iii I11d e.awi ngs.i I ~""'-..7 10:. Our deliberate description of the vari'ou8 steptS in the creation of 81freehand drawing has me'ant: that the fina.. however... The sbadow must ill aoy event be cor".$ . 10'.epresen~a'tlk.r· ~ . here (llgain..'or fl'.... lions to a drflwi ng sh 0 uld a ~SlO a\l'oichl'~t und1er be' no circumstanoes should na~ge shadows be added a.. an ·BXicess Q~ deta..7I1epmducoo in serles.ilnlliii 10 be we II d ra wnOl1f sugg ested..i n6: shaldow$ we ry good d . We sta ted atthe btlg ilnn rng that drawing ca n a lse mean leiQving out much-or all-extIFan:eous.ional ilmpri~ssion. mat- ter.gh 11(1. ·'. end So lit is permissible to corapa re ~:hi vs ri 0 us possi:b ~e e sh~dow pesltiens in rough-sketch form (shadow leng'th a·nd width) to find tile most SUi~albl'e ontieal location...ee(fclI1n than a phowglrapl'H. Surfaces should 'thel'efo:re be filled out oOlrnpletellly only ifill 'the ra rest in sta nees.6 Shado w Ca$l by Sun 0'.!lr.aceslumed away ·frorll th €I ~ig ht a I'w-avs gppill. . BUIt.cts ..e of too maliiy comrasting effe.. till!!! eye wi II provide its o. A...linQI that you are usingl shadow Sti adows cast iin l1a I photographers often wait 'for hours for the sun to reach the' right PQSiltilon be~ore tak. i=iguw'e'~10..1k..ecUy eenstructed and .e has been .i. bUI: bewa. 0:. t..xtrethree-diimens.al give n ..u dalrker .rea..jexture.Fi·gure 10.2 t:hrolJ.s10 draw 'the sun shi'ning fromthe north 011' to provide northerly views with deep ~ht'ldows. 1.e~'the fee.. faGlIU.Jig hit ean he addedw tne drawing' .wn in'fil'l for the residual brilght arees.iUdetarl. to Gmu:eal weOlknesse:11 or de 5~9 n de'fects or toa~ ~ 'tract pa rtliicliia r <lltt~nUon yo UF1se tarer add ite IIf.even ~IhebeS'l dr.. 1. 1'02: ..epresentation 011 shade on all solidis and surfaces..henever a drawi ngl er s. Normally.drawn ill 'h."' .i .i A. 1t cali be awkward if oerscns 'Viewirng the picture g.!)iioa I areas m us:t be dlr81wn in hi ~ll w. I ~.s Delalils and mar..:"""II 1....8S true to life as possible .tes lhat~. liig nt ton e of 9 ray can be aeh ieved by very light hatclh iing.mpona nt With dra wi n9 o'f C()U rse we have rather more f.lction ct the scene or" if ne{:essarv..<'3lrity_ One co:mmon error Ii. Sljrf.{hen i e no (1:g111 f.l'~ structure. 8 . This ilfIlista lI::eca Iii blil avoi ded source ~md the ana'ng'emel1lt of shadl)w$ is wry i. Shade 7 A further complement is the . by vefil~vjng me correct geog ra ph ica I reteranees I:poiint~ of the compass~.lhe position of the light to.ueon of the surface which lisllyinQ' in shade. M UGh patience is needed to deter m..1 " -L.rtiftciaJ Light through eX<lllct repwdl... sn ijirdli ~gl ca na Iso be sl'nmMrft by Ui'e c le'. ~ . the prtincipleshould be "all thiings in moderation..ing' a shot O'f some' architeetural views .or ttl ~ marg ins of .' si!'1lc'ean excess of subsildiary limormanon wiUde:tlract from clarity in . II~.ill can befatigtlJling for 'the spectaltor .etchis passed OnfQf jn~ formation or intended fur wIder pubhcatlnrr...f'terward 'to "improve" cj.Derails and Margina.llI r r. Professi (I by the su I'll or artificia I . Tbis irii:tiC(i!..

!fIdi i theore~jcall' .ould normally . B~'siG"dly sp~aklin9 •. Figure 1O_B 10.eat3I'1gies.poi'nts.$ sam ewh.points. With (II little observation you shouldhnd thls type of S~lre'et scene .ald rev'els must also clii'mlb. each buildi'ng has its own W f'I ish iI'1g PQil~ndepelndi rig on its place iin tlh€ street.sti nlIgi . its pa j". of the gll'Ound and roof lines and in tile dia'9'Qnals_ street ThiiS eXi3J mpie' ls b~sedl on the ass uITilptionthat tlhe conti nues on the sa me leve I. With drawings like this one must a IWi! 'IS ensure tha1:th e Ii m ~ge is wi1:11Ii the norm alii i Held of vi 5i'0III and tha t lit is a ~wayslI~ ewed he nzentally . panicllJll'ar example the' observer's sta n~po~ nt I. Silllce the road climbs slowly away into the diistanc.shlng Pomt A more cornelex we picture.aI.1 divide' ~p aU se(:t~ OIlS of Iroad and la ndscape into rectanglles and then identify th.aJ~h ilg her 81bove ~he foremos~ II'evel (at foot crf picture) than w. all' val'1li:shing points !lie on the hori zen.e the' vall'i15hif1g points (l'f 'the .e hori- HOrizon = vanot..8. S V<)r1IStll n'Q pOI nts zons and va n i sh irig' .' _.ile. The charm of the :pictu re lies in the sweep.all'a lel grollJlI1dand roof edges.@n~shll"lg pomts of the various road 'Mels leading upward Raised Vam. \i.(of the various buildmqs] be possj. this..•particularly in Oldwwrls.lishing . wh ieh i:s deterrn ined by the sighUi n~.. fi .l!. As can be Seen from line ili1dieatedV8I"11ishing Ilili'le'$and van- .. Alii pBrpendii c u la r Ii nes i"ema in io'enicaL Wid. one' after the other. In this.ble. of the sa e.(iI:ssumed m.:t liCE .

ifficult 10 dmw down s'taldI1Ca:ses which 'turn Ileft or rligh~..unclh'lilld amlll'~'1.I I I l.3 A Stail'case ha." A Staircase Leading Downward (Page 1(8)1 2 It m ~g~\tSll: fil. Whe n decidi ng 0111 :pictu re Siiffi and sightl'i ne.~f~ 'feet here is that ~he stali rea se lea ds horn be l1It'l'i:iIUl the horizon line upwardtlbol/€ the horizon !line.9.. All other pe'r~pecbveconlstrlUctjons can be done Ii n aecerda nee with the' pri no i pille!.iing poinils of .• --.10.'1 1 shows a simpler staircase gOll1g upward.ay as. FiQlure 10.. I .ightII ine..~t~ndpo~l1itThe particular .. horizontal s.i ca. S hews I. 1D. vertiea I wa IIis and lilnes ea n allilhe dra wn j US! Ii! s b efore ..~-'_J .ar tJuough [he main point Ithe breakthrough point betw~en s:ightliifUi!' and p.It isn"t much more d. .llbe wllthin the field of vision.1wa Ills and IlliIIIes should no~ be drawn paraillel to each other.ard flgu re 10.st appeal r as lif th~ s cou ~d not be drawn a~ a IIIer tbat the ven... -1 ______1 . . ~ OWQ'\ier.J _ ~..icture plane]. ~t~d ObSeni€ir'. lin the sQlme w..--J r--" 'r---' 100 . fine \I~nislh. tlfi eoretl ca I horizon.ding Upw..1 10 a n 0 utside stai rca se of a ca sue d rawn from an elle\.2 .>alii r'eady drscussee. Figure ~0.. . The tact is that the froetal persoeettve.__ . it is vitali to ensure that tl1le fimshed draWling wdl.!ll.1\9~ surfaces 'wi II al ways Iie 'on the '!Iertlimll Hme that is dra wn IperIDei'ldicl.

10.2,5 .AI

(JoVltn

Stairca.~!"'J

Turning Right' (o'r l.elfl CO.nstli"uG,tion is si m.ila r to Ui,e
preced i ng exa rrilp,I~,.but thi e va n-

ishii.ng pOlirus sh ilft 10 It'1l e r~ghVlleh as the IlaF1d. g ~wi rigs. n

Figure

~ o, '11 3

1O.2J3 A, St.aiN;;a~:e Leading Upward Lln Ii ke' the dlQwm1 sta ircases, otllr COni trUC'lions:and s ilmag:es !'low drift above the horizon Iii ne .... AII va rni shi ng pOI riFts: once glg~,inr conve rg:e on the ve"lica ~ljne through t~ e malir) poirrlt.

-=-_=~-

-:::::~~~~~~-~-~~ii~~~~~
.

-

~~~~~~

KE

1m

S~cond Vanishing

\

POint

Figure 11.3 fi~i;jre t if. t

'r

P'OM,. "',~,~'",

"""

fi:gun;! 11.4
Distance

Gr"ound Plan

11 .S fh~ld of VwsioA

1111 Angille Vi,ews with Two ..0

11.3 Ma,in IPolint H
Tn.€!:rnaln poi rn H is the tarqet of the mainsi'g~ltIIine a nd d'~h:l'rm im1!Sthe br.eakU"m:mg!:J of the I illne'

Vardishing Points

.As we have al ready sa id,. U''IE)' eyes can only see sha rpiy within 15 to 25 degrees around ~he centlr~lllim1! ,o~' vision. If a

p81rticul a r object is pe~e'iv~d to be outslde the 'field of vision, \110 IJ must sJhiftvollJlr st<lmldpoint or ch~'!1g,eyour sightline. in
wh leh ease the prevli eu S I i lie of vision disi§! ppea rs si rice it call

only be lj5edf~l'F one a nd the

samle drawing. The objects wh ic h a~'eto be .ora WI'! must always be k.e,pt wiUlin the fueld ofvi sion ,(Fog. 11.3).

11 ..1 Cons'tuicting

a Perspective w,ith Two

V.allnishilng POlints 111 type of pe rSIPtlctlh.re 11s two van ilsh ing poi,mlts,. is a As we viiew the edge of a cube freman ~ngle, the lO,p 8' nd boUo,m Iines 01 the left ·halnd faee of th e cube oonv,erQ'eupon the leU-hand va.nii'silingi point and tli1ese of the Iii 9 ht -ha I"I,dface cmw€llrg'e UPO,11 th e right -ha rid vanlsh i ng poi rrt jbothva Il!,ishi n9 poi nts afa on th fl horizon). The pictu re pl'ane is agali Ii perpe I"Idic I,Jlar to ~he sightllirle a nd ca n be 10eared any d'esi r-eddepttli! n!1 th ree-di mensuO!'il;li1

of vision 'l.hmugl'1the picture p,llalne·.All the' horiZ!Qnta lines of a re;c~.aIl ula r Hrlid will f nd ~heir I n vanishing points on the Ileft or ;ri'ght ,(If the herizen. Alii true vert lea I Ii rilles i n pers:pecti\;!\(1!wi III .8111.50 p" a pear verticall' in the dir<ilwlil'lg.

Image Plane

As wit h fHmta~ perspsetlve

,.the

eye level should beta keenas 11.6 meters abov·e ground' revel
(F"iig. 111.4) ..

11 .4 HOlrizon
The horizon (ci rcle of vi sien) He's a II ani ~nd us at eye levell, ana So should be shown in this way in

D "I -

11 .7 Diistanc'e aln d Stand p,oi At
Illnperspective with two vanishir1191 loil nts, the di:st~ nClE!beJ tween the eye of 'th~ observer I drahsrn.aln and the pletu re p~ 8lne' lis important insofar as the vanish i ng po.! iilhl! m oV\e '0 ~twalrdto leh or right as the dist:ane,e inGU!Ii§! as, So much So i!l f~H;:I: that s tile v~l"ishing pOlints <'liredi{-fi· cult or ·eVtilr1li'l1f1lpossible to l locate.
This can be oveli"Come iby bringing the sta !1J;dpoi cleser tc ~:he I'1ll object 'Ir,eduction (1m distance, 0'1

the drawing.
Alii-around HOrizon

space.

a'

11.2 Sightl'iine and Pictur,e. Plane
Sta nd p 01 n l The size of

the

pictun~: pllane and it~

distance

frorn

the oDsenfli iii!;! eye de~ermi ne wh leh pertion oi Uile overall viliew the observer wishes to draw. The dista ness be/tween pi cture Iplane andthe sides o,f
solid booies are alwavs dlifferel1lt .. For ,6 more outsta nd. ng p~ct u rews usually 861eet a va riet:y ·of d iffereflll.lllngles between picture plane and object sides. Symrru~l'trv in tli1earra/ngement of ~he two vanishiing points: is not benefdcia,~ or particularly

,expre.s~iV'e .

FigIUln;~ 111.2

to D2-Fig.

111.5,). allthougnthis,

110

1'11

r
I

f

r
./

/
,/

f t
I

may (]If f~Qurseput the 01)j'9m once aga in outside the fiel11dof vision, in Wtl leh ca se the on IV a ~swer is to Illat!eraI,IV shih Ule standlpoint fro m A to B ~Figl" 11'.16.}" orto nnn[he dbj eet -itself , (a rilgl~lea tmt~~n obje·c:tt~nd picture p Iiai'IIE! changes b)a, ngl!O I3-l'=ig, 111,1)" Wh·en selleGtling ¥Ul!Jlfsta ndpoin'~,talke steps ~Qen$ur€ tha~ the I~;nlllral~alcesoi[ine Qbjec~dio not. assume an ,eq'u'a ~Width in thedll"aJwil!lg-a:a {Flitl 11 "8},
Unevlln lengUli S sh~ y 10'be

1 ~"S Examlple: PelrSlPeGt~ve of all'llE.nua I'1IC,@ with Two Vanishing Pio'in1l:s

hill pri[l1ciple, ~lhe dra wi ng is st<1n~d by dete;rrm linIn9 the hor~:zollll:ine, j ~Ma$ pr~\l~O!,lis'liywit h th (j! flFOnl I ~ door .examplle In $e,mion 10. The !l~t'd step isto

dr~wa prom ~Im'l'!"n icali ~hi!ea~ an eptiea II refervort enes poi nt,

t

./

..-

./

""

FiguI1e 11.6

r~-s-.') '_.-J'.

D1Spl'O'lCQ-mtglm

ach ieved by shiirhi ngl the sta rndpoh,ft-i3 :b---'~ogllve the right impures.s1io n of lengt~1 proportions (.Flg. 11

.9l

....
/"

.-.

- --_.
.,r

If

/'

»:

."

tr~'i
~.

-=

--=-,~

---~

[L~
~ I
Er:.d or wall and, 5ay. post _,....--as prOln.llen. feference uomts:
Fn<ly a lso deterrrurie scale.

I
-"\
I

At least 1 van~shlng
should be 'i'1cludled

pOint

Figu re '] 1.9

1'12

of tf; e: aWmling, reta ilni n 9 wa I and plant tub are then indicated with a Ilin:le' concentralion. Only tile WlidU, proportions are plotted. WiiH'I ~I Iittle cO.f1'l~ielFli1pl,"jition e rn ust now w try '~o irna gline where the vanishing points lie lief! and ri'ght the

Til e p roporticns

t

horizon ..The precise palms,
drawi,~gl

can be checked by

on

rizon and ,['lllw,alIYS ths same poil11L U the' 'Var'ilish~ to irlg" point lies off l;n.epage',. then the vanishing Hne~ willi have 10 be inserted approximately, bearing ill1 mind ~ hal~ foreshor~eni rl9S C;EI on~ybe proportionn1I atelly as big as th,ey !i"eGeq,etnto the depth of the picture (Iindicated here Iby fifths).

construction is ili"ftplli'Jce w~ ca n beginto i nsert the shadows; aid'dedl €'x:pression and det~,H lis achieved by drawing iii materials a no environr:nB fit,

o nee th f! ba sic

va nishin9

Ii nes

a !Jove a r'! d below

'[he ho-

Draw rhenrst

varushmq

li 'ltl5

and cbec ~llog.lh"

1

rat edges and .

.

'

......_

-~

~~~~~~~~~--_jl,----~~~~~-

Fit1lure 11, 14

115

located in ~lhe immediate toregJround an.up-thi s is clearly seen from the Irn:Q i. the indication of mountain ridges. a ISQ irn pcrta nt for flQwin1i{lland continueus.with their shade sllIggeS'ted by accompanying eorrtcurs ben'eath . by i"Un[l'1ing 'these lines together .lnce. The 'grround between the stone walls. ue on the hOlri2!on•.oCiglted diirfil"erenee in ~h!e q U8lit'll . Only dlose sto neG.ied Illhading..esor w~te!" surface.the suggesl~on of wale r withOlJt a lily indication o.~lhoseo.ckg[HHH'Id they become just IGrinldy Ilines that .are used to represent th e ston es iln midd Ie gHJI!Jlli1d.isHc:s that are ifrurli.t.jhe repl\esenta~iol11l of sollidls with simple lines without al1!Y spelcia I EHTi phaslis on shade or ca st shadow.~lI1d to one side j nstaad ola deta i.gles~.eI[ilnes iIi'III 'the lJe.alfact that should [rnake ilt easier 10 a rra Itg.of drawi ng o:f th iings nea rand fall".alilowing When n'!illtesenJt~ng contour IllinliEls(e~'SVly rGcogn~zwalls).ldiate.evelriltualilly ta iI . '~ . one' .! aocura~elly dlir.shQuld II able here OIlS stone' retaining dils. can '-1 I .' Figure U .ressi'on of 'gma t. WiUlil 'Ih~s ~'\I'Peof drawing i't is. As has be'en stated befowe . depth a nd the a 5s.. .e the wa lis wWh tn. re member that IhG' va i'IIlishi!'ilig poi nts of P([! Ellllel f wallll~ always. WI"ilile in the ba. in natura I fash lc nil.lj! that light ~!1d very~ light areas oil tne dl~awiing plane'snoulld be left untouched and white.t. ing points.'[ I II I ~ m ''':::) I ii: m \1 II \ 1 In Fig Ull'e 1.2.ly <iIP:pal"ent the .!i nta in r'idge~.!.edby slopingi Iliines.iimp.f Wi'!I'i/.en r va 1"1iisl. liFllereagain we can se.1 ~Ihere a re certs in eha racte . eV'l1!nat the minor illl·aClC!Jftwi!es to creep lin.off inte $.f .i F1gl.he ol!JtI~nes of more dilstant .ry 'fa r 'Ii tile lines to be fisk: o.. ~I~e topography SU{I. The size of the' stones diminishes rapidly with increasing pietoria I depth: only si mple outli nes .'!wn.fobjeclS tha t a If\e mere c Icse .objlects snmJld never touch .

wing plants we aliso must . All plants possess a structural skeleton w~lich is deve Ilop-ed l!lc>corrdii to .~ nto lei ~ns" sysng tem. out the dii Ueri n g delgrees of ciarkness and also conflrrns whtU we stated at the o~ts.et'IIl.amDIII~.I I LEE~ tltt "1 "111 Trunks. IFilrst a rid 'fo'l'lemost WG m ast ora Wi imI other words.v~d Ii! nd me morized. ~wigs.th) artd spaces.ew moments. the inftuence of excessive romarnlclsm or graphics or of a precious insistenCE! on . and se forth.cy nd "true-to-tlte" Ire· a produetion. 0:1' We can onl.ew dens and short stroke's are perfectly adequate. closelv obse. SUrfaees.are.emand s on Uelle draftsman's POW@I'F observation. Mg grow Figurf.ying..eIOC!.prilma:ry side 1'llxis. ere . blades. Drawings donein nalti . In trees.a sized-it is OIl1CG a'gain advisable tol1alf dose the eyes for af. geneFli!lIiy and d~\i'fJlopaIIIOof1g fm:ldng limes. we are 'O. in any Ii ne$--a nd hsnee emph. ' Juxta- 13.aIS .dnllwing means simplify. ot eve ry daY th at we come n acress a scene as lin this example_ Stilll.ft pia iln..obse:ifVH and evaluale 'the V8f'imJs mrainalnd seco. When dra.x.u1ar $ubj..(llre drawi. Even so we stil Ilg ilvelhe prnprsss ion th et these areas . 110need 'fow prr".e· elsa soil f'€!!:Iltures. pits.ISOo carries the saiD' is.on wiilll help 'fOuto pick.)liid bodies. it il$. j. etc.e .1 so rns.siblle to sUlllrt drawing: from the mriddlle outward .alr€ best le. e. wi dth.! 13.ants in freeh alTldl draw~ngj places gre~ t d..ect scene and dewhl ilcl1 s urfacesareto be dal'lke ned by ma re actuallv land rather than sea or skV_ Unforillmately it il:1. bios-n~1 its sheu lid never rna Ike '0ILIIr rrawilng s d 118 119 ..i'licea gn in d r(llwi n.!) Illi es. leav. g'F liepll'e. In middle gwund. The convi niCiIng rep resentati 0 II (:i'f pl.senting spatial sequences. IFina Illy. should cenrra c'entr~ueon plliThllts and their sunoundilngs only.[]I logli ca I . 8eco'n1lda'~y s. '.• mai:1flI a Xii!>. and th'ils should be practiced as often as possible .fo.lirr'a. The OV'llif'· a II Ii mage iC$ best 'grasp~d iifniie stru GUU Ii! I skeleton w'h i dii a. (.fomground by sll-glgested irregularil~iles (holes.0 Dralwling Plants When selectilng c iding a partic.]: but as p lc rum depth irtc reases there is.ndary di me nsions~th r swi III '~al ni Halr Ilze LIS with the pror portions 1(11 th. embm:idering. a f.ing.ide axis. branches.tlys posiUons._ I~~L. d{lp...ng it is essential to look for and find successfu~ W.e$. twig s. while beyond these the .be gliven 131 degr'G'~of character in the. n and Sol.1. a nd super i m pes itiiens.alt. perfectly pO$. hei ght. avoid s'lavish Ciop. The re'sultilng blurred ilfi"npressi. a ndIru CO'U ess form So (I'f branches.y state ttlle most importGi nt pri nci pies of drawi'ng iln nature'.

alwa. 1 One Spt1:Ciallvpe of cross-connection is.a n..ing. Veg.st thi ckness com panJd wit h :i!llalUnDra ne h as and Gons~lraiiflts of scale and time' necessitate a cliirtain deglree of si mpl i~ication in pl(.. One method that has crept into USBIn recent yesll"$ consisrs in ~nd!icarting trees simply as pl. and cast ~hadow obviolJls~V .of ...e:s IIst try to m aua in a closed form with·~ mere Fj'glb!. e'Ven when iiinooirporated i1iI1oa r1clhi il~J3!ctu IIvi @W~ o.II1!€!s..illl not betrue 1ionature and wWI seem unnatural {..)1 dra wJ n 9 w.. whether contour.ilnk .FliH. and from thi$ we can concl udJethal<lH i mersecti rlgi Iines are Uglyt'Hlid unnatural.effo:fif. i. ena racter istic pains sind l'iigll1llnght them illl the draIVl/.albout the relative value o~what you see (iI':"najnfea~uresalind SJeCloru. tYlpica IIfe.it is lillonh :studying the din. ahade.. W. to pick out typic:a I.(i! ~ t bra Hehes that gmw~ogedle'r with o~ners at their ends siimply do not exist in nature.espec!i.aln.after .. line" surface. and lines shoull'd 1111 t ercss €llfldl o other a'rbi~r8IrHy.. since you are.SIlook unfamiliar.am faced with the eternalll sIrl.. .'J'tweenthem SQ' that the impr~ssioli1ll .ea r pmfi le.4 Lines are typic{ldsymools for grass..av an important part lin p Iiant dmwi IiIQ' a nd Co mlP~ I us to si 1mp'llify depth iIIu strauens. Whi Ie U may be 9rapl1licaI'IV acc€!ptable to $11 ow srna II pia nits . and so there wi!'1 be few branches projecting m uc h beyond th. hetterto draiw actual (lutJlines and structures.lloVIIS that 'lOll must rIIl.crossing lii'iles does not '8iven arise.1. Grawiog well-knownl 1'!'~HlJI phe nOlfne na.and "supp.ar~ ee ntral . etc . after alii. <1il1di crown. The tree tnmk has the 9reate. HIli EVE:'!1rthing we have so fair written regarding perspe~tive.). lselatad t..r ra when drawilng landscaped areas. lNeverfhel'eS5 tions. As a rule. 13. .~Wol4\\Ua. trunk.d a rtlst ie rep:resen~.phii'c ~a uage ..s~.• twi gs. ~~ Figure 13. he topmost bra nches freque rid'll poi nt heave nwa rdl wlfll i'I'ethe lower branches.apphes eo the se IIiIClim'ilof p~arrt subjects. i resentatlon that is most appropriate.a maljol' inf'lluel'lce on the form.etatlion can then be' shown iin the mannl3'r us~dI i'lI'1 Fiigure HL21 (p..h'i ee. Figure1S.e indeed cena ib'i U iii i~lOrmities in practilGiill'ly i[lvery scene.tin nature.idl these p. 'Va!rious brancbes decrease with inclre\~sedlbranching. Under no Clircumstances S~lC1l!I'd resorts of' your the .eweri3lnd thinner lines should be dralwn than ae'tuailly exqs. must and Ilere we . n Generally spelliking.larrts: we see' more the indivlidiJal leaves ra~her than the !.1 & .6 ""IIlII~h1iff/IJIMh \~! .aIUywhe 1'1 dea ~i wiith a Ii1I exng tremely small scale.ary to mallie e)iiCleptiuns.:· and so tlhey ccnsalnrte an appar.l!::tli<i:.gl lion.The di a! meter of the. The ~'ines: e draw should .3. pelnfillitted Ihowe'ilelr: 'Cross ·11'ikiing th ro iJghi bit urcauon. gllow almost horizontajlv or droop 121 'lJ) .II"l1't drawilllgi. for ~m. iii was uperficia I norteo fussv i~ detaiL Garl'ands end sprays that look too si mil'airr in . Proxi'lIrliity and distance.j1aIPI"nflOrmation~ and albou t the type of rep.a xisa od ~ym metl'Y Ion alii sidl1l$at roots. f.ly .and int'el'pret the ovuralll context From this it fo. oOImp'lle~etihe picture •. wUlll many rarni'fications.lf\e.03rt ureS.!:gg Ie between 'gra..ain . It is esS>!'lImjalnot to ruin a 'freehand drawing by using too InClny 9i'alphlica'l tricks or nalive symbols. The eye of the spectator who has !'lot seen the ori'9li n{'ill wi U subseque ntl\!. 1]49). I II ~ The re is no ha r m iln re ilt0n"uing some basic G riteri a.5 "aerodynamic'" outline to protect them against the wind. det8il. epticailly multilp..m 13. or h@ltchhlg. howHllef. Neverthel~s:s it ils sometimes nectlss.as circles or Ibush~$ alScurves lin architectural eleva- ILea\l'~sget simla Iller towQlrdllbra nch a nd spray 'Ii ps because they are younger.lj. it is.drcles {whiite dli~C5iinstead of tree. Ipl. galrdens:. Wirld and weather naturailly have .ys have' w al minimum of space l:u.lifl of the leaf axes and the IPosiitii0 n of lesf surfaces to discoverthat the re a r. . \I. something that can be of gre~ t help to th e drafb~!fIlan. dralwing fiIIowers as crossesslOd bushes as tria ng les mea n s tnet wealre 9 eUD fa r ~Iwayfwom ng 'the uue natura I scene. e rUly hapha:Z@cd su rfa ceo .e.J!lderlying br<lnches .ly the lines.

Uiav~s a no flowe.0 es as In e sxterna IIp roflile <'lHl a ~somewhat n sparse iil1di·caUon of a tree trunk.FiglUre 13.ukslhadow edges on the Underside olf the' crown.! nt bira nc hes is on e of the except ions.eaves (like the shading on a sphe re~. to ~ .. Two.ie~ {IIike the s na\d i ng on a H uecvIIinder]. With ma ny trees the lower limit of the' crownends ~evel_ in '~ye Our d ra wi n 9 wli II' turn out v. th.ent ways.'.projlec~. ~ FilQl!Jlre 13. f. In southern latitudes especially..I~.e season.iis possible._. .~~:~ t' .ably Iarg eil in ra IaMoOst·of these plants 123 . v·:·~t EV!.1 e to.~ .eand di.~l..pe rmost pains of th e tree aapea r brig hte r wl1 iIe thle undersl deof the erewn has dark areas of shade.~. we U.12 ~iloi'ilto the overaU volume.am co i"I s.J ~"' !{Ii.ing branches inthe upper crown.~#~.Ubstalntiallly inntmnk and bratlcl'l lengths... whiloe suggesting very d. i nd ica1e roundness .!duall. Fast. from tile $U n.. 11 _. The sun and daylig'ht make the up..Ii' ..ame1.--:7·::'·:2~j~ .. draw horizonta IIri ngs srou n d the tr u n'k to.tree's structural elements.sl'uglhdy _ Thi e we·ep iing wililow wi'll..a t heart ra m ificatlons.@Jr their mown. and iil su m m er.s. we ca n Us ua By onliy see the outlines of the crown and trunk at medium range..!. there are m.. !Most trees possess roots simiila"r in.!irything we saldabout treesapplies equally to th ese pi a nts as.In winter when the leaves havehdlen we have an SlXicellentopportunity to study and draw the. growth fonTl.ery dHfere nrtly deps nld~ ing onthe type ottree. ~ . '~' ~\\. . distance. on the other ha IlId.".. ~ 122 . h1oweVl'lf to opt for si rn p~ifications that s how on Iy outf n es at ~. or with lfee' trunks ea n a lso be drawn in d iHelr.o·f trees it lis possnlt.neto p ·and individlJaHy .' ~- _. i~spend. wi till the fol'llowi n 9 excepttons: 0 '""" 0. Witlh soma type. and lighlilng . s'iz. 1. .rs .and slow·grow~ng trees dU'ffer s!. j. and can be arnplifiled by the addition of other diiH'erelltiated and variously spaced Iiir. rees can be represented either by simple outlines many il1div.ider. -.my trees wh i ella !low Ilight to fa III through lne C((lwn beoa use of its sheer inte rrlsity a rid t me 'gre..

e gwa 58 <'lind sll1lliu bs.om:mitdng a :single stroke to p:a.cone. Typiical ty. other graphi C li~ch nlque~.lizethe finished Iresuit in the. (me slhioukl make certal til that the ~nd'ii\i'idal prou files reneet a certain similarlrty 01" uniforrr. Evelil if plants are represented by oLltliine alo. on the. t tri.atiolil'(e~~hertrunk and bra'i!'lches er salids and vo.fl~ i. $0 th at the n.ra pezl~um.en reproducing ma.1lilwing dioes not have a ecnfus iing e'ffec'[ 0 n the . of au m mer 81 wi rille r 911I'1ee'f"!lery: th and withou t forid wi Iii1li'ge_ e d'.. with the oveli"aU intent and purpo~ of the draw.sa rid lengU. no vj~s· ible' trunk).nen seen '~ogeth0T-'f.begillllte branch cut from 9'round levell U.ing.xp"ession..speetator.e.awing taehniq LJete be 'elriflploy~d.Architectural .s'~ ~ 12'4 '125 . trees should be' si rn riar to lin form of' e.le. compe I' the draf'~sman to st iJdy e. Stn. one' shouid adways contina oneself to a distinct typ~ of tdrawil'iH in each liUustr.~le' com.pes of braneheaand their le·~f roots. !Gwups of plants of vairying hi eigh~.ally '~i. mind's eve.alYs taU within a closed geometrical form ~'sphe. recta ngll.i nil 9uidel ines calrrl assist in the dra wi ilg olf 'flowers a rid wij n hardly impali r the quality of the finished product Ei'asiii"19 the' 9uidleli nes could ~e'a vea ba dim pression. ether h6nd.lumeJ. round' form of'fering as HUI. eyl'indelf.idelrr'..g' hese t ifeanne:s in good drawi l'igls. f!ll.~s. ova~. egg ·sha. po~'ygo'rn.awing Trees In pll)f1Is and artists' iimlln~'ssionsshQuld suggest something of theil' wormand nature.and visua. and petl'. dtl'V'€'lopsfrom ~Ihe.ealraost learn it by ~leart-.ellile for SO.". wiU.re. Plants and blooms become lighter> and more adry upwa rd and outward. In simple' terms. ISQlla1~ed by~hes .ages often develop eentric.e b:lleli rn.e.[toward the tip.rld it Ii'S possible to' summa rize a f'ew ru ~esat this stagle which should help to f!':lciliitate all IJl1derstanding of th I[l form s involved and he nee of the dr.ses. just as.ity. as well as extra I arg e I'eaves andother pecu Iia.Df.e wind resistance as pos.orm enclosed spaces. Stallks. The genelr. SUImens. s Con sliihne Hg ~\1It SloHds <lll'l1dw.:tlllgll'e).cen~er OI!J~.ah'el'ddr.lChlrreS are freq uent Iy more 0 r Iles:s~yiti m et'i'cad.llation to <II point or axis).alch I~ neca wofully oefo're c. leaves.r.pe.eg1ree {'if d6~. The st ud"~nt shou ldspsnd some ti me studyi r~.lls nanow .sib.allim.possibillities.avthat the rouqh outlines alw.(ihe practtiloed d raftsman confines himslelf to a uniform expression. thereare the :IW(I . leach other lik.n'e. F'ol[rna Fly ()Iflhe' phenom e 111<11 encountered in this area we can s. use may be rnalde of arcs o·fcircles or ellip. \. Despite t. Ihmre are howeve r ma ny :shrubs a nd bi)J~hest ha t 9row allCl'ng the giround 0 r have other ine'9 ulair expanding shapes. Pl:ant$ In .he irrnfinite variety in the planrt w'g.!lIiI must be in hOIrmony lJ.nre.wa I'd with a sh 0 rt.itj._~_:::i:-.often have a structure wliiich jlnke trees.tits from nature Ii1 is aldvisabl'e to study the chosen Sc.per_ WIlI.ci:rcle..

0 Drawing Boats and Ships The V8Fililshin'l9 lines o. Ships in theilr dominating attitudes and often tsola'ted position s on ea Im seas ca n h <'lIve'9Ire~l~ cha rm and am action as s.ap'pea ranee. It is s u rprisdng..HlI.Thill n mirro r axl s is the water level!1 .slffi [jIISW wate rcraft.l't drawing boats and Sflip's is not so.supeose tha t the ce nta rs ~. therefore. perp endi c u 1<1to di~e Cleob:~rline.avfj' an important pa.s im.C'lion in his.peds.F I' j I .rfmass a nd 9n~lvlity ...port1!lntto beCOmC1l fOjimuliar with tile obj. Then one must decide on t~eV'es. Generally .it i. !BefiOrestarting to draw.ubjects for our drawings. Even the qUliclcest and be'5'tdraftsman irnp reSS6S the. 'for exa m pie... 117 126 .r. Land venielss and aimraft havesimilar characteristi es Iin the.""'" . Us~ng the geneHll. been studien II'!IlO"'~close Iv it w'!llll:ie found 'thi~. eve.ur o!.!ltv'llafd .ect-the dlral~tsman should "experience" it bv walking [or saillingl around it. wh i ~e h uqe bulk carriers a!"e buill: ellmos. we can imagine fluli!'s wir~h transverse <.. overalill cons'l."y huH has afore-and-aft axis (Genterhne) which ils usually an aXlis of sym rnetry.. Once the la tby ite ter have. The streamsned terms of lighter wale reraft h.1 rules of perspective. then visualizes .ercrafl mQly make irt.it can bsassumed ~. drawing. a nd so title sa me rules appIy to In.115. Finatlly.eof .ess selids that aI'e' 9cn.h<H almost.o~ safety flFOm capsizing gnd sinking.a r boxe s..e I need to be as rene. hard.and para 1lelepi... renee'~iol1lS ~n the water CO'l GO mple'le ~he pdclure . but thev are nevelrlh~l.jp8rlhaps in asplit second I the threedi mens ilon.erned quite def~ 11 Ilaws. fr'Oml the vie'wpoi nt . Our knowlledgll.tnple geoml1ltrica i body lines than with cubes . drawn Onl If the upper pa rts of the Vfi'$SI.. rni nd.f'the vessel and as lowdown as possible.ctions on the' walter. .t like' lonQl raetalllQlui. to real'izejiust 11 rectang ula r ba r'gles olr ta nkers ca n ow be.f w<ll.lctur(ill brealkdown.ai i'm'l)Iications. we can aliso. more difficult to perceive their exact and si.lixes nunning hard. U should not btl so r 'to capture a vessel's <lUilude in a To. side a rile! 'front etevatiens). become "aoclimatlzed" lit is advi'sablle to tUll9'in wHh orthogonel drawi rngs {g round pia n.perspective willi help us !!o d ra VII toresh or1iij:n~ ngs 81nd the entii re body of the vessel.sers three-dimenslcnal and stlnl).r~to pJay.til re OIhen i n the center a.

es.l'e to 9 rasp ailll eontn iJ rs.lhicl. etc.g~y .'W. cyli nd!i\lr. .ic lila r n to each o~her can pese pfobl~mi. espe.efe'rence m sha pes ~sphere" cone. ~lnmdalF IFng. Closes study "'ifill'-tllw~I'VS reveal ra f.awing' Other Forlm:s of Transport The better . and so it is Irequentlv advi~HI'blti) entally toinsert . beioi'iflsetting pencil to paper.one ilS a o.ciailly the vanishing lines.~XOIS for' t h B 129 .e.an.3 rd s h Sipes.ii. a nd m !iifi na vessels wi III be. Free c u rV0S which do no!~ he i1"1 IPI.· '16.re n ce rn 0 e aw.0 Dr. the ibe'Ue'r one's dr1'llw.) i ~ lito the voiliumo a nd ~Jhendeter m i rte ~ihe bou nda ry ~i nss a ceo rdi r.ings of land ve.~es that aim perpend. a~:rcr..

hape ca n be a ssumad for human bodies-in rouglh terms-s-and this.alUl U"I'e'for'ehead.eter. lin th e lower pairt one O'f 417 dii<lfli.Tine neck for e.atCh~d to human req u ire rnents for ana ina b iiiity.. thi s wi III a 1150 he ~p to avol! d 810m e typica'll rn ISla kes . 17.f paperand eepvthe divli sion s LJ nti II n'El h as f x_edth'e seetiona I strum ure f rm Iv in h !IS mind.and garden scenes are a Iwa ys rno re s. The sp~cifica'im of this section is to prevent othtl'rwise successful ge'olmetl'ical dralwings f'FOm beilng ru ined by the inc! u s i on of deter rned hi u rna n shapes .s been customarv to divide I!Jp the 11Ui11.englth and e nds ea ht 2/7 above the' chin. T11. A w~dgla s. express ive whe r1I they v ncl ude hi u meanhg ures. The' mouth is. streets.K~Hi'i e III u st be set.should a:lways be m. parks.al· billity. repress Pit one -eighth.iorn'ed a b(l'\le~h e body whho.0 Dlrawing Peoplle 'We shalill conf neou senti a I pri nc i p Ile. The following proportions are im- p onant: the h a i1"1 comes at 1/7 downfrom the i ne Crown..21.$.1 11 d he U9 in I. followed by 2/7 head l1... In 'the UiPD~ pa rt a r circle of 5/ 7 is drawn. begins at shoulder heilgntflFom around two'ej'ghtlns of the evera II h. C~ rn me rrts to tile most es- Ii" Travel sketches.e. If we assume a certain uniformity litl human statu re We rnav eonetude that the imi iv~du al parts of the h u man body ~Ire of unMorm di menslon . suit..above the bottom seventh (see Fig. loeated slightly . The length of the head from Crown to chin to. a nd Ilandsc1lip~s.and memorized certein proportions .si(:I n.an proeortions imo eigh:l equal pans. In many sketchesth e head ea 11 be si m ply pos ill. adequaev.allso . a ecessjbl Iitv. sketches on this p~ge 'QlivGa rough indication of the main refer'ence points.The entire head is subdivided 'from top to bottom i n seven sections. artists' and srcbiteets' impresSil(H!1I street . etc.en The torwa rd the 9 re U rid. Our eyH level determines the actual human di- mension for all our activities wi[hin the man-made world_ BudidiII11Q's.eiight as theforehead and t:elrr'iiplles_Ey-etnows and the root of the nese corn e im rned i at~lly be ne.ereader is advised to take a sheet o. na rrowi ng ra p ildIy rnav ge!l !:lli"iilily be taik. Drawing heads should not cause too many worriesonce OIU! has studi~d .i9 rn. Since aflbqulity it tla. Th e Fi9u'r'~ 17. with certain p18rt's ~'r the booty locered at each subdivi. in such ifi pi way so U'il\U the head does not sit directl'y ontne shou Iiders.ut any in ~ te reOnneeti n9 Ip nes. 0 ~10Sieis ~bout2/7 13'1 . structures.117..

tr. Hera are some Hxamples of ~igl.1 Iii nes (if 'the ng u re should be. BegHHll8r·s exetClse OJ Slmplfl ho~ Experienoe S~''H)WSthat be9lir1ll'llers ChoOSE! fa..ectangu~arl' fac{lloes of hOlLlses. PQt S.!S !po'ssible shou Id be d Ii"Q.es. Once . Led Dimensions t -t 133 .i1jwilOgfr·onm:lionhogonal (r. section: accessible measurements <I no rnam dim nsions most b i ndlcatf!(i._ ..Uion scali's (sense of proportion] <Iilod a certain dttgree of expression. " -+-. .).lOO difnc:ult subjeets. areas need not be filled in. tea pot!:'l.e"Qi half-timbered. highliigh'ted and stressed.s: as few lines O'. Archllectural I Jl Figure ~t. shown in outline.• - o G\ ~ 1& --r-". mode ~s. only the typica. !Estlmr. -. Firs.10"» On€: should 811""'<1.'-_.J!r.__ -----'f- ~4 .~method o~ f13ipresentung people liis most S uiMbl'e wtl'en t he en ief a~m of t tle~draw~ng is.l exereises sn 0 U Id be dr awi ng s of s mall boxes. omit unnecessary detail.1 __- On@-Yea'r-Old and that sort fOLi r.. Next we shoulld pr<H~'tice d.e. g lasses.Yea r-O Id Oif' thing.ons to ga!n trainl11g In control and scale..wn.again 'tile 9 m u nd ful. to show objects. in whlieh case tile fligures should I'end the' illus.'5> enter the main proport. bottll as. fhi's :slimpl."2 132 (.

l e')(l!@'rnOl! ~ su rfaces ~ the vie. The feW-la'rhe . and side e.ctme of wflil-drawo objects.onl"l$:_ A.'" 1 I .Iii es drawn..cl'ear-'f. .' i _' .- \0 o 13<11 135 ...alS one otfcu r C possiblle .CG me r axe e.leval~iloi1l. Another useful between uprights 1:1 id is theta ngentia I [)r~wii.!~ Id ilriflen $11 ons. ot eross-sectlonalprcfi les whic tl a re otheww~s.olinrs s heu ~d·a~wal1i'Sbe pre..i nner. but it sheu hj eo me fa ~ eas i I'll' wiith rly a HUie practice irlI obse rvii 0[.1 and irl 'Ul e d ra wi 119 of circles and ellipsi'!$.point of the line is.ng co nt~!line rs may see m rath er d if-fic u 11W the beg. Sima III secti o 115 made iln the 'fr. illn theexp lana tory sketch meets th e a rc o'~the eircla.~ inlel~$ectii Q ns. second the proportions.iew Ii n the fo r m o. spa ti a II v.. To beg.8'~drawing can provide useful iinformation a's details (G.ceded b:y dlraw~ng~ of ground plan.2 Quick Sketch of a Very Household ObJ. a nd thi rd a ny com pl ex IIi n. Front View IL_..wl n c -' c --' J]J ~.in with it is best I[Q draw gllid@!lines in thetarrn ot helight lines and and herizonta] circles and ellipses. Shade should . contact 18.aH pi.ect ShulPllle and lew-but The objects to be ijlllu8tnned should show 'typicall .{ ~ per specnve dr<'llwi ng wi th two va nish ing p. In this way the onlooker wi'll immedi. The tUlf'n1i!'1!g . t n Ula bette ra no more convi nc i og wi U be rh e (liver.g".where the dbtt~d a xiis. 'from elevation.811150 be sparselv indicated. A typka I d rawi ng sh 0 u lid atse indieate overalrl and individ I.3l:ely :re. Q.---.'J . +23+ r ~.esee n on Iy .coglnizeflirst the dime-nSil'H'IS.(ln'l.

.-··"·r-----~_~ '!I Ii.aU irnpression.. Like marks or symbols.C:~E) ee re nt somat .5h.s.rity is pii'~vig~d by olVeraH and $1n:91llle dli menS~OiIH. II I I ~ Teflon '·. Thulesrus 51mple Iiin~ slkE~C~e$i.'_ ~.rest II I ~ Dowel ~~ '. co~o(r$" a nd' sUff~oitt f nishes.rd of the •'C a sa d ella Kathtl rina.tm~te rials.i (wp vi ew) srna Upe rspectlva view Qfthe Qve rail! obJect.~!ectOGuilidact ua lilly be haJlIildmade wiU.~ ~~. F utr!:hercla.ca nfaCi tate ~ihe understandi ng of structu ra~ pains sl!ld structuralll reiati(H''1:ship... """"-01 ~ ~I ---LJ I ~ I I I 1 .prese mad clea:r~"!.good (}\!'E)r.. a nd can be s LJpipl'elrne riI~ed bv e)(pla ns tory irrf'ormaHQril I(deta iJs~regard ing rna I~ struetu re 1lI1 by nd fQrm~II' state ments.I '7 .~ . .l.ails can 03180 be adeed.i n Slo[ View -+ i1 8 . they !mpri hel p I1lt to.. Df~ wi I1IglS(If objecls a Ii'ilda:rU~aets shouh::l be done with s. it on the memory. F~1 !.!I"act:faken 46 born a Leotu!I'1e Ii• r I I 1 Post Omlllmental' well 111 the outer courtya.. 0 ~t too rnuch ef'foift Mal~1l \lli1ews fro'mthe from..4 Ib1l. ~t is {J Iso <'l!divis<'lbll'e to add ... the side" a nd a Vi'@iw·fmm a bQiV'e sno uld oonveya . Flo or Level h~lgh~ 72 a~ 70 em GflneraJ SW£lI Pin ~-~~-~3'" I nse rted . ~! r.!n:l1 VIIi nigs oa n be madie inIIl th~f:or!TII of dlIT'a n()W~ ng free hi}l~dI skie~:c has. [)al~e..~ - .. subj eet rifllaltter and DO!~\iel .!...." S i e nn~_ Prawn d LlflOg <l trip to It<liy on 9120/1963.. oonvex the ba..:'jl rel <:lllilve IV si mple '[)b.- Seat Support ~::Jr~. ----. I 'IiJ'1 '" Bottom Comij'r Ja!ll! 136 1'37 .II ~ TOp Corne! Joiot 8aCk... ~I~ Awh i:~:eC'I>l..a~d Otn(\!f ·1'JIt1erndl@jI~'U det. D.place'.Jiffi.. 44 j FII ~!shed DIB.I~.

- Intlll rr.. the oudines O'f the seetions can bfil drawn thin and wi th the sa me til lckn ess a s ~. Since this strength i:iialiso distributed mQre (Hi . a rid \IIi sible s u rtaces with rell atilve Iy rouq h stroke s.jhe Genter of the circle {tre.[3IYs. is too ca n ioe' reprod UGE:ld in a draWling.are drawn about that central point.e ha'ldl ung Ii nes.y .j s us Uti Hv t IIIght in ~>ol'or-with dots to irnalrlk small 'grains Q~ iliand and to give a se nss O'f SGa Ie to the crosssectlonai area. 138 ~39 .gn~'i"Itstrength of metals me-dins that their sections will be' verveloselv Ihait. esse ii1J'~ja include the b<illckgrrn . Tlmber glrain can only be Fra ~-...venly' over the Whole section.ciing of the ri ngs in a tree trwnlk willi varv from year to year accordin 9J to th e weldl'l~ er.Ih.e.e trunk" can be lak.5 Deta iIed Sectlon throu 9h Frame as (II 1111 limbe r Cross $ectiicms thro lJig~"I'th ~ wa rend.ched.rough a tree trunk.!Ij (]I sxrrnum Swell and Expansion Pan I PI! lonque ChIPboard-~ r'vwood'~ Veneer b fillet Comer Jo mts Scar 18. The . wh ide act uaI edges shO'lIld be drawn so.. snd U. its $UUC'IUire.er~ ng es n be illi'lldicaled by IIig 11 a reas-s i nee pllasts r . Glued -On Panels dr. IQlf teehnica] 'QlJ!idelines d. TIle spa. i'ldj~cent falc!jl$· (where visible). Just a few dots are enol.u<l:d nts Oof a o. ]0 n arcs represe m an With QI€Hlera I ~!11ddeta:i I sect i OIFlS il ls a IW.t''it!y indica ted.lless. as q.g IJ! 1<.mewh<ll. H~uching and grtllin lines in the timber should only be Ii g.['j act IJ<l I cro~s sectli on Un. Qlraphic density C~n be used [0 represent the rna'~elri<d:quahties at least appi"o)(imale:lly.awn lin the background wher'e this does not cause a loss of ICI~UriIW or Ilegibilil.1 nes an ...e. I to md. Cross sections th r10ughi ti rnbers are best sh~wlf! as q ua rter tim ben.. With recta r. 'Dependingl (HI the type of materiel.-i .i rc lie Hlied i 11 with r.i-gh to SLIggl9St the presence gf .s surface. M ase nry IF~n~sih Th iis:exa rn p:I'~elearl y demon stra tes how o ne ca n qui cklly sketch rinai~e'riiaIs.hen circular lines .Wood and IllS Uses In BLJllrllrig Construction/Notes tn an A3 BlocK Hm-ForgetJ N.t Irnher GO astructions..1 r tirnb sr sections.rawn Ilightl'y.and strcength.en as beiln!) at 'one cOlmer. more he-t'lvily.

'-. .. and heavy strokes. a Then Corn.mwing aid with symmeuically constructed objects=-as is the case here-irs the axjs of symmetry whilc:h. fO'l) -.O'!lJs. ~aIGes.1 8. s always. {h. r. call be used to locate th eeorrect poi'nts for the ind ividua I I[i es wlith n the lise' of further scallilil!J.a rule. The teet. The honzon line is p:lot1~dfir1rst. . 1780 li10 141 .e va nis h i ng ~Ii nes cOl'llve'jjge' Ie~t and !riigI1t on com[t.. 1 2e. for the various.chair J Versa riles Vol mng Cabmet.Whe'r'~ UWf'9i is S.e The structural cohei'iOiQn and eventual appeara nee of a bu. _------ Berll'1 Biederm!!ilf'lr SeCfEtlalre I·· J Bll'lderrn(lll.e t!he verticals. exa ggera~ed aceuracy.lf Lt:ibQck. Iiines.I'lQnV1'l[ n i shi r1IiQl poi nts en the houfiz'oli_jf~hese v~lnii s~ I[ng: r:u.d[nts .Irefirst measured off and drawn [infree'l.ilding or other ccnstrucnoo can often Ibe instruceion freehand_ An almost realistic effect is achieved by th~ eorreet use of emphasis en Iligh1. The praetlced draih:sman will be able~o USia th iis tech ni'q118 to identlify ami so Ive wider problem a rea s as well.75~ 6. + -8.ad:eor cast shadow. we ca n l~ se sea Ie Iiines 10 ind icate the eerrect va Ii iSh[i n 9 li ne direction..111'2 . which also provide height-to-width proportions.2/3 FiW (I R .M 2. pr'ljvided dicated by means g:fa sk~tch. i§.points of interseenen have been drawn.~..e fUn:!liture has more or less closed forms.5.4 .it iis rela tiive'ly SiimlD'1 to hi I i'rll title rest of th e (:0. th.._ =-6.a~'d or liigtltly with . Liege.= .11~ This mskes no 'great demands on the draftsman.~1.6+ '" 34. "6 ' 17.' &.16 F[reeha nd COrlls'Ulu:::tiion of B[Tjrnibelr S1l:aircas.~. the tli'lnbe'r faces can be pTovided with dwawn grahn.<3l1rr'e' LmaJUi:I iioable. Ar 183( . FI 'Z]. cncefeund. 'willi also rnerease drawi~'gl speed. r'l i[qU~" which cam d'o withourttecJi. Another d. ._ GROUND Empire Secretaire.. The main outtlnes l'." " or el~. Once t:he rnein lines of re-fe'Ii"-' ence and .

r Th ese exa m p~ess!tlo:w that j us~a few b'eeihsndi strokes til ra e r!oOug. Church cl St Jo an.ch itE!ctu re These are routine example'S of typical historical styles and were drawn in the lecture hall'.II iLactt! re 011 'the Not !. he has alreadv seen and experiienced.etc hes fro m (.of an object and then to sat thel1l down on pillper in a velry short space 'Of time.a IIof H'llis type . stroke is dra wn twke_ The IjI nes ean be i nterr upted at corners.£i:jstri. U'rlch.etiveeglula1tion. Shaldow and detail are lJInimpOf'tant Ii"IIH lines are siiITIlp.]ernatives are ~nterms of cost-cuttmg Dr' r.s.llain to a client for insta nee.'!VI. or wlhat the posspble al. si nee it is typ. bOI. for whate-ver t reason. but this wiill make Ule outlines alii the clearer.rong beeeuse olf the 't~ ickJless. •. repetitkluS features sucll as rows of de'l.hemost conspicuous parts {):f th e str I!JCiQJ re. Iii iS't!CHrY . h ce llurvl Castle Chilion III 00) on Lake Gl3fl(1V<'i Si. etc. .l. A lot 0'.1 8.of i Uustration" If o~ e needs to make a lot of small sketches 111ij'.ffects or f nished alPiPea ranees one iisO!!imingfor. ~h ilskind of skerc his typifPed by its concennat iOln on ~.:8 Slk.nyonle has the same powers Oof i'll'nagli!1i:'!tion. 10 2Zl Ch pel. and with Some buildiing or design plroj'ect:s it mav prove diffi.ie. Sma II11 det<'lliJIs rnav be' overlooked in the process. rlOI ance ( 1(109) 142 . Mos -lIe P Figure 18.ail need only be partially shown.1l to co nvey a uilative IVa ccura te lmpresslon of inl1erio:r space.cul~11O exp.and confident No.of Ar.e bol!d. Go~I3!r' ( 1050) Casrle Ell? ('I. rapid e')(ecu~iOn1ll.ehis.The spectator will oomp. SctJwablsch-Gmlind MaLiI bronn v1Ion<lstery {1' 4.alfidth~ total absence of any ··USE!" !i3'SS" ing'n1!dienl. The talct that m a ~y na rts Oil sma II sketches seem 'too :st. wh ich ~p{itia I e.lelli! the picture Vltith details. 'One willil eve rnua Ily tear 111 ID IJ ie k 0 L1'I j us-t the essentials . of the stroke should not worry the beg inne r.

.13 Front View GIOUI1·d Plan Streei Cate blilmpJe of a very rapid seleh that might LIVing Room and erracs have been made in a care on li1~ back uf an e rh'1'! lope. drawi Plgi f rst the ir verticall and then their ob Iiqjue lines.. ~~ ~- FigurelS.d$. which lie in shade or shadow can be da!lk· ened by hatchiing. Surfac1es.3. (to . To give t.iIS ~bl III su rfa cas. NIil~)(twe deter m ina the prQport~ ens ·of U'iie vs rio us V. \. iii u man figqJ res complete U. '1. the first step lis to plot the: verti-cals a IrId the herizon line <lI~ shown in Figure '18.eless imaginZltiv. e sketch by s ~g. gestling scale' and size.110 EXI€ilriolr Vliews ~i~ a Shop and Cafe With this mori€l intsrestinq but rather di'ffi.12 U44 1'45 .18. Gllass as a buil!ding material require's little or no lindi.ati(l:1l lin this type of s. IFigur~ 18.kewlh.tit 1$sornetl rnes useful to add .!h.e viewer a better idea of the suesta nee and vohJme of the so~j..cul't job.a s rna ~[IifC)olH"I d P~ami i none Q corner of the drillwi ng.e. go ~ 6 ..

ta.1 8. the I!amp gl~obe8: hould <'. FIllants. dark gJray.e 8:tlFoke .iWln wltih d.ne aliso close~hatchedW IInciliC<.iJnner'.II'e~ff6ct is freo q l!G!1tlly dcbs~rved illl1lbri9lh~ d!avl ight and e'speGia Illy j n bu i. ~tChi fiJ.!lllsQ IIeft p!l.:ilfi..alrk leaves (dots..g. st ructl.____--These ca n be drawnfreetwmdveryea Q·~~theIr of1e n h UQI13 dli me ns s.llte dalrllmes~.. IOho:n COn1ml5llices" a nd tlhlefii rst thi og i 5.rn9lacomp~ ete ilIJld uniferm ~1!'!flaHe as achiG\ll3d here by generw a ~~V'Husrr ati n9 wit h Iir:Je~-i~~'ere a r~ ne coenIi DIlemhl blackarsea Hate ~~ng "epl'acBS SIi.a'~!l s be agaitli. 1111 Ar1. The cverha ngli ng bira nches and fol iagle fra me the bui ~ding a nd IIend a sense of depth to the drawu n9. filng 1IIIy.~.aUI windowswiithilfl i1IIIu ili1l<lltlt!..e WlIliprGSerlit:ed by texmre. lhe aim of ob.[):r'~)er nd ~h. ~~g AU htgifa y.l. Alii the of J] 147 . a nd hatch j n9_n"e C()'!i'IItrast b~twe-en IIig ~liila nd darik a reas is ~ ntendedto glive t~e plicture a certa In demlsHy dind! substa nee. This bui~dilngl'swindows ..I!1e $hl.d m surfaces are best reprase n~ed by alark...n olf scale.i'l'1Idsh. . t u re.1I:3 ptic~.s~thelilf back.31 plrQper vlsaa I ~ meresslon befo~e eonstn . The' choice of a scalle tlfnl'lIt corresponds wi th tliile h u mOl Ii eye level wi II prod iLJceadeq Uglt"e exprsssiens of sollid sand spac!!!. butt Ilo'se th ei r sll1~'rD ness wilthi .iS'I':8.lis besttn leaJve til! e sky loll!'ll11kaga.i.aph pe!(llf blrrig~nalgainst them.a de a nd or Slimlp j. .irlaee de· ta 1111. ami stones i11 111 ~oreglHHmd e calf) be shl own IiIII gn!3t deta 1111.lldilngswillhout cUlr~ali 111$ atthe wRndo~.and Illiri'll~app~y. G~a~ed areas ZllI1Idsm.1ir.g foun d. .a nd other tona ~ sh adas .i riI.1wth. r~t ions.~n l.c'IIO's. It .ilc8ide wi ~IItheml. the bull'd ~lflg~.st til ~ II~inms 0 n tlwtr.~11 SiPit~ yin rules pe rspflGti ve of II19 .tIMe preciseoesi:g n of aliiI parts of the buHdhllgl..fac.. Imp res silon.. ofa Project B uilld irng Alil exterior \lilflW s hou~d 9 lve the cltJemlil.ee" the tme trunk. To 9 ive!he ~.ther(l is a n a ppropriats €!Fl~HlnGe a rid huma rnfig u res to 9 reate rn g~V'e aril impl'es. 3 ih e b ~illdiing is 9 ~vernsubstance b. ltl e trees Irlilthe background are $tll'{. lih.sicl. .~l!1cr!3O'ilsi piGt ure dept IT ng lhe strokes 3.y the eomrast betw€!e Ii1l surfaces Ivi ng in d~ ract su n IIIghtend others inslhade..rftg!ler~:~Olrey lilidIng bow II voll u mG ~ ga lnst th!3 brig sky beyond. 9 rass. and tl1eilHildelrgn.

pl~ns it wi'U be easv to see where blUild~ ings mie located and walill structuresaee posltro.i. In contrast.l. The' Ilayout isg...iven .e ba slie expe. la ndscseed areas should be' close. With ..Hglh't Cast shadow is shown <:111'0 two ng sides of r.and eX1!eri (lIT' spaces in s~m.ar buill'dings depending 011 theli~r elevation.~fe~ ling of substanee by the illtlchHl~'onotsha dows cast bV diago!'1!~11'11' incide nt SlHlI.!"ii~ nee in the reading Q'F .ue\a~ billtween exte'riors and iiI"irte'rio!fS.is iit is irnpcetant to pick '~ilJt:thee'~~ential strucn. '" l. An Oll.e ih.Figll.14 Ground IPilanof a Chemis11fY CoUeg:e The various moms are 1.o Illege When sketehlnq lavouts lik. The' trees are shown as plai'll circle's.er i nd !cat iOI1lof glreen spaces callll well 0.1:1.nt 118.1lJ Iiltll.. 18.avout 1:100001 C> " " :'!l Vi -.ilnes.1' ur 'the overall irnpressilorll of the blLllildil"lg i'tsel'f. res .20 '" is en 148 1 ~9 .n:ion: willi fail to idl!lll1tify a glive'i11 area a S! ~nteri or or ext!!!lli"i r.hatched.Corl'ii dors a "e elose-hatc hed for grlid added' Clarlty.rrangedwith ~heir appropri'at!lioomm un i cati ng mutes w~~.ph~1 I.l'1al SJza 29 ~ 1Gem Figure 1'. 0 2 c ~ c '" ~ m ~ Q U z- '" a! _c E u '0 c Q: iIj ~ C Cl 2 3 E r-.ej ust s ha rp 111 outlliined-llhei r floor areas are left pia in asare roof Oil reas.niffl 1a.. while too sparse an i:ndic.1h e a id of an th ori e rft'~i31Hon . 1 3 laytl ut of a Ch emistry C. TIle buHd i~lglSa !f. Ort .ectanglu.il EngilneeringllProjecl:-Pll.Irificatlon Pla.1S Ol".j'i~dl.llh~ C rrtical zone' of the drawi ng! l:ji!tlS in the transitiona II.

ally diminiSh as dista nee ilncrea ses. freedom and heaviness of line wi III1 i'!liltllr.rkhori zort. We ~h1e:n have 10 study the curves and bends.· wa.l.11.. or U.II'IIfIlilng poi nts ami' sk.ckglro!.1ilI'OO.eir 'U. and most appropnate reproductlon ot terrain and vegetat.cogni. if' req1. .tingl to dralw a. It wiilll be useful ro maks a few attemptsat the edge' of the sheet or try 'the' va riouafcrrns of !.e.23 The eh ief d i ffiCIYUy tH~m is to re. '9:"g.~ Oof :so!lids. needed to ull lustrase th€l Jandscaped gmen sreasaed trees.l' 8:.a ppea.rd.f gray ill re1aiiW.4 150 1151 . '" . and grl1len spaces.8.Y9:~lhecourage to leave whl i~ean!a s (Wh ~ch rna y perha [:IS . The u'UllflOS~ ccnce ntratlen is.tfil great depth of pelrspecUv. Contrast between very Ilightand velrv dark areas willi give sufficient indieati on of th e Qultlines (Iimits. rna in point. the wJdthi of tne stones.J Flgllue 18_2.." conerete]. to begli n WnU~ 'One shoul11dfVwstiig ~i1l Y' tina rll< in the di· _ t visions and then do.anal. lhedeg rea Olf de'lSI i l. plotting lh.s it is easi er first of all ~o m1:l. ..~ethe foreshortening of roads that lead away into the distartee.very deta il.~'iI ci aniS'lli:c i representation before achii'lliving the best.a. he' should h. Even withl these' freehand drawing.5 Dr.e~ch i I1:ga I'ilkene~s..ion. wi. a liUle carreetien wo:rk .lIrap. In ~~esG' pauicillJ!'ar exa lit! pies.. bu ilei· ij'I'9S.l! rid.'1l! exac~ position o~ 'the crashi-barrier suoports are things 'that can cause problems.illwingl Mlajor Roads Figure 1. The draftsma'n sho'uld 1iIlso refrain from a nemp. he fOW8-' T sh orta n i ngs in the ba. and wid[hd iviSdons on Une p leture pia ne.

!Many nd an QrVe..~ g $Ilketctli a i.e!mlera. fine s:t~Hildpoi riI~ is suchmat weca n see intolhe !]id!e fi51(li ng th e pub I ie.Qu$e W~ en d.:) at th at wiill haveto be t~k!5r1ll onthe merits of eacn case.OIiT.m I'~y only e!<~pewle.-. and thei ~symbo~s_ of olf tf1lis particular exa m ple of oil Srna detached restdence.i on of the co ncept.n-()f-plaoe m:ornslll"osit:y-might 11a \!"e been avoided if only 8l01l1lfleol1e hadtaken the trc U· ble t. i~.{!.~(.lIYQ!iJltfor a D eta checl H.1 8. the p LIblie.llly in-· sipi ~e~'by ~F1e's ·11 mag 1111<i!tion..ed the snaldow$ of bu~lldings.Q ma I\:e an alec: I"lI rate dl'awi ~g of Ul. Th!il decisien Q n wheUler Of f10~~O inelude ~hadQw ~n Sigiil rden layolUlt lis one n ~nl liB.!(jver OJ) very risky "de\l'e~oper's g. m<lnIy va dedfo rms of nature.l~ Iustrati OInshou Idl a IwalYs be based on t~e hi um:O'm scale and Ule liiium..116 Garden ILo.) ca n IJSIl.dilme wHy H~ IirT!1 the s:i m~.s. Wilt 1m the task a nd its .lflce b!JIHdlilog. at ud ienaes.:ij round cl~ rity means th a~ W~ have t~ assume am u nna tE.s.!phiCOi!ilry goodl d!espilte l Ule. TIm is: lsa tyPIIC.li'.t'lwi ngJa g'i1lJd'en !"llawl one i~8r'lIa lur.aJ~ eye ~e\l€t slnce peQP~e~pe· desrria ns. Tlhe atrractton S we h .ualllly hl'gih.et c Figure 18. ~7 Mo del of G'E!lrm o.t eyg h~v.I~!yOUt6 es n oJ COU rse a lso be p rovi d.e Hk!e1'1" nn lshsd product from (. but ~hie lavou t $111OUld neve rtha Iless be ole'itllf a nd 'gin.ame·· to \lllsua~iz:e :Ol. G'~.ii1i . involve a 9 reat loss of essent iflill infolFfIfl3'tk)!1.if$lilZ!ed. and bllS~t3s.hfti'catiio n the~~orlms.a limpre'$'$lion I from at very ~ ig h lowerou hel iicoplieL It is nOl{!. etc .gl~)ono~pts f~oltinalbllr'~f~·eyev~ewall@ne_The i.med a~ glivi ng the on looker an avera II~impres.llild..sfrom 91fOU level.lilOPavill~on EXPO 70 in Osa!k.27 1152 153 . evan unrealistic st<Jilndlpoid for this exa"mplle: one could (lii1lllyglaJIn ttl IS Iltind o'f vl. The nG!!!d fow <l! Im··. lh is Wo tilh:i nat. trees..

Wi'th spheres and s.a~ely play13d down so as not to mli.circumf'e'rem::.dliWcult form s. of ba nlks. The' po~ntIS en U"rIe domes I~ndli(.of People can only be shown on a very small scale: dots for heads and Squiggles for bodiPI1J's S. /' 1154 155 .l:11 aocoun~..ei r own.s of thl~ struet U res a ra e)(prres:si~e . 2'6. r ll!oi\ers. the fo.e.appearance o·f <IIbru. Even t th~ bend in the river Imust be aecuratelv shown: just a few minimeiters of lnaccuracv ill1 the lines wi U Q.pherical solids this can often only be' achieved by p:loUing .e mba nkme nts and natural environmen~ iiI!"!he ilillustrartion...€! ~lhe oa nel of j udge:s as a 111 ihe aid t~ malking theilf'decision.i br~e r Iiightni r1Iglrods. h ig hwav . " 8 '1111 usbation of a R oed IBlridge for !.al'ity.'8s toO Sent.Apart o from halving a thoro ug h knowledg:eof perspective techn ~qu es.al1I'il"lple shown in Figl.ered precisely ln cards. the dl'aftsfilfla n .ta.on and tree trunks.eget~ti.e ilmpf1€lSSI n of the I:nojlect . the shadtiwiii en U'Jol~ g. Transparent Text rl~m Picrurefram.es 01 D ssure set as ef11ergenq.:i .Ii Competition characteristic . DiPeIi1I spaces.jve a fah.The ISim"Qund ing s 011 ~e not shown.a v\iilng.~ma nd a.ex.Ufflilare eient. h is permlteed to use more pronou needand di rect contact in d'nledlf.enough 1 :8.should aliso be versed ln freenlSl!l1d drawing. etc.nces. lB. In !"e. rr ue sense 'Of sea te and ~xperii'enoe ~n the.!sultili1QIca st shadows a r'e de Iii be:r..e In the event loss J .e lines at equall dllls. too. with c~mstlnJc~!lve perSipectives. 'Th0 seque nHa~Iy .. With mo're complex and .alpld repres€Jll1t:alIUon of v. d raWlO ~ro m specific sta ~dlpoi rrts . d.The' perS1peGllhieshQU Id ta'ke' ca ~'e'h. veh ie IE!$.llvvis.authorlitij'9s wi II Ir'e~ q u ill"etheilncl USDOr.llaH!ddesigns are ~ilrst en~.. r.rm'. i~ S esse n· wa tial bl capture the unusual form 0" the! buildings.r struciu . more typica I 9 ILi I'delines.o.sle'ac the viewer. All "Iingrediel~ts" such as fi 9 u res.at!e: the h..dge -should be drawn as rea IliS:l:ica as possible 'h'lr Gompeti'~ ily ~ion plUlrpOs. The n!. ptarrts. The' engi nee-red and cal'lom. To m~k"e the picwre as natura I as poSSibl. since tne observer's 'eye win fin lin the rtilst of d"rl detail . of the' eleVf!ltio:rq~of mad and tenai~.. .1lI rra nged strue'lures d Isph!lY out ~jnes which StllO U Id not Com e into on d.In the . sl nee e .round are blurred by a ml!Jlltlirtludie factors.

and stones in lhe for.a B intc tne dr awi rng_We have a Ir'e\ady sa id ~h". .e: best. (.. A tree on both sides {~.regwQund.rulrlrlernded Figlure 18. bolank.s" YOI.4..8~ve R epr.~ .d good dr._ " .I - . -.. structure before dseid- :in the 'fo.d. The mali iii thi n'lg is toiind'icafe prom ilfler. .eh and rightl' wotll.!: 'lOO.32· that the dr1':llftsmantryout over the basic perspective' iing on 'th. easier ~:obaa r... .1 9 Exce's. detalil COllin soon OOS(a11If\el ~Iho overalll ~. l I ! ". however...pp®iarance and Uln~e·dimelisionlal:1ef'r1ec:tc)'f a scene.u:coHHing to thesun IioghtRenec1:ions lin water should be indicat~dI. much! The re. it is r'.1u m ps of giftl SS. Lealves.olk:e. So beware of dirawing~oo much-too few snakes !lIFe mud. various detailed finishes..a me" it may be' u seful to shew a tree or siirni 1~1f objectto cne si.re' the liikelihood of adverse crrticism.ke.lt it . Depth and tocus are ac h iei\ffl'd by a Ii 9 hter backgrou nd a rid more d'~la iI wil~hin the foremost meter.eSElllit:aitlo n by "T QQ Mlany . Ib~t you do n 't haveto Pl. .Here are some 'tips vou should memorize: m:!my a reas can be le'h.!!! may see a looto~' deta illl.and overloadiing a drawing with too muc.de. .e the picttlr'l1l with a "b.awing also means elitminatilflg il1lsj'9I1ilfiicant distai'I].s u I't would be a ~lF'JfIO$l stagel j. be juS.eco. tics at partlcutar places. !'Io • I. To provna.::l. 10m in imi. 'thereaf'ler the scete-rap idlly di mi nislhes . Shadows must be cast at the cor~ rect a flIQ:is E. Sb.egmund indica'te image' depth . ~ ~8." -. U i~ atdviisBblle to include a rsterence figure to' give sems ldea of the location of U1e horizon.rt £eatUlr'es. deta ~ a nd eh jjJ raerertsIs..

.118.. It the verticals have been drawn too long.35 . up rna rltilng in the wid'[h:s ~nd e'levabions. e n'lISlI1g the $LJ rplu s is qu i te unneeessa ry. IOi'llidi'll1g the drawing paper.a1 Size 21 ~ . 50.Figure 18..r. 158 .29.S"·". and stressing tile verticals can be done both quickly and aecuratel V by s:tall"tII1g with the ve rtic('d lit nes..d.lt lllc'ertain attraction ill the finish ed picture.::-...llify lin a me1anlingful way. .Ie' rna stsred the tech 11 i q ue of . Ma rked blY' end Oriented 0 n Velrtlc8111s Once we ha \.'they can be teft ad one and are hot wi'tho'l.fk~.n.33 OrIQ... iit:does not matter . :. Or'gmal Sill'! "I '" 2 7 em f Orientauon ·'Manl:mgs·· IFiigure 18... a.: ~U....a 09.t'!d Sketche's. Once H'H~' widlths have been ploued we can draw in 'the horiacntal lines. :' ..· wli after some practice we can beglin '1'0 simp.'.7 em 159 .20 Fn~eha...

HOW8VeliI' romantic or 'fascinating it may be. On[I'y the a ppa rentlv da rk. r.1!lltmes: b Ilu9' sky. marking in of the horizon.g.f the soffit that projects "Hit over the' lilatu rail stnne pi inln. wide-ope n space.tr. The woof pii~ch is abo ut 3D degr~ecs. It is best to start d'ralwing the f. The cast shadow should be shown mere di.n. thin eentour lines are sufficient.!f'!8tllfa nts. Of other' simpll~fiijed device's..B.U illusmrt~on is f. Some p~lr~:s. you ea n ---- begli nI tos:k:e1tc~l i~'S\f~ ri mJS pa rts hi s()hemal~)iic ft:mnfl" Thill overa.ike the lett I hOInd roo~ support.!!lrfaces. deep-bl ue sky iis· rnalrked hy close hatc[hing_ F'j9l1F~ 1 B. Once YCI'!Jhalve walked a round the strliJctu rei)a few ti mesand nSlve glraspGld .e.g reas nk wh ichalre 'V"El'ry b rilg I1It. and the propernons as aids to drawing.~ .-------- 18.er.ved at the chi.e wallis can The snowarea ShmJII'd of course be left unto uchec as it is_ ihl e sa f11 e appll ies to the mountaii I'll formation. 7 3 160 161 . ~ a no talct ure (wirt'[1 wood gTa i'n.S.2. Ski Cabin Th e ove .thlll: vertical subdlvlsions.iitsgeom strica ~impl it::1'lINo'Iii.e to ccnstruet.1111.s..alilly' impese Ot'. provided j1t is eeterrn ined by cubes.fUinEl.stinctly.t Ephe. SUlrfalCE!swhlicl1lie in cast shadow Imust be etose-hatched to show darkness. a nd ~[I'I mest blinding snow. th e {n iekness of stroke UiSed wil:l nau.11I. then put inthe e haltchilnQ accordiJllg~y.ilne de~ail' where there is shade or cast shadow.al most white iin the sunshinQ.erm ned th e way iIi1 i wh! ic n the sheet W{:lIS divided !. natu rail stone courses. and this can be cleady ami typic~ 11)1' illustrated by showi rig the buHdin10 materia[ls in 6111 :heiu structure..l1nney stacie The panicullar design of the su~:c~ lure means that for onc€!:the two visibl.al~ewav had had 10 be reconstrueted frern rubble after .. ii~is betl:elr ~D leallle S>Om~th ing out ths n to p ult iIi'n 100 m uch. draw 0 I thi emailnQI).c:~iflIglg[1 i3ISS.cle~lirly shows the.one slide' of the cabin Has in cast shadow. The Sire of the a nlglle COl n be see n at the gable end-tile roof pitch canalso be obse. I . texnire. Th e si ze of the c<'llbir'1 c-an be q u~t0 ea si 1)1' p[[loUed wilthl its length s Q nd iJ roporti 0 ns.re'easi ~yrlehl'ted to saeh other. and arcs. d ra wiling it is advisable 10 ha Ifclose' the eyes from time to time to check on the' darkeat and tl1l b ri'g htest parts. it is quite legliti mate' to.eslign fora. .simplly omitted-sma. ) Those sl. the ~oll.8 III impresslon de~. lin this instance it was lirritating to find that the g.lel61 vi ng lb~'al those . Note these esser» ~:ia fe. I I I I ThilS examnle aliso .J p .more or le~~the' same le'ngth .. a rea 5" etc . refle.u t rne richll[y dJetai.su Iii 1!!ll!fW ._ Bo:th vanislling points are outside the picture_ The herlzon line roughly colncides with the underside o. On the gable wall[ wi'ttl the weathe.ldaces of ~ihecabin whdclh ~ietn U''1'esunlight shou Idlonly i ncl ude the barest indication of the propertles 'of 'the mra't'ewlials.!se wlith its naJh. i ca n only be shown bysl10rt Ii nes. .1 Preliminary D.HS[[ mate rla lis forms a do mi na nl cannast.22 IFh~[pid Sketch of a G. the background is .uion at the same time" One should try to represent the d1arker parts g s tvpica!ly as possiltd. dots.$. £ Iimbers.rt Qlnd unilfv the illus.aiV a.jght a.a~rly slimpl. Wa II[ length and bu i[ld Ing he. .furst.2.~e8.000 years and that oertallin parts were either rnissing or e'xJ:ensivel[y damaged SiO that rille spectator mustcomplete the lines in h is own mi nd . this lis adeqIUlal~~ly done by adding a stroke betwsen the outlines of ea c h [boa rei..iltew. For vewy smalU S<l. make t he srna I[I[s h~ldow ereatota Illy bllack..ec· tan.as this will SglVe·effo. Here aglsdn. Wi th this ki nd of.l!edlpro'We:s sFi! u Id not cause a FilYpmb le~1f!s.r:boards. th e mountai n sunsh inil! has m ehed the snow on the be shown a.

g techniques deal~ with iln this baole Perspecti lie. The aell/ll1tag€' 0" th IS IS that we rave clear detail ot ®llfour walls. Central perspective-ewe 10 k down into the room Irorn above.IHctj'on. 1.x-Irl:lme IOI'es 11 one n i rig hl®S to b ~ t a~@111 into ace ou n t IhlS resrricta the drawing"s quality somewhat. n C e nrr a I pers pee t!ve seen i n to th e Worn throug h a Side w~11 nils standpoint 'lens us litHe about Ihe fourth wall.3 9 \tVhe n lookrn 9 d own I nto a ro om h om . e~'C a re aU HIustrated ~n a successt u I dind pleasi 11191 . The impression of space and depth is 9 !Il.-38 18. t 1. Fii'91U1 re 18.o. howevsr. veg.23 Jlapanese Tea H. shade is ~a dow. i~ The ovemillimpression is limportant~xalct detail will follow later. with room lines to sllustrate and c 1.24 Smj. 162 16~ .• hol'idalY IpiGWre that was ~xecutoo durn ng a tri p ~D the IFar Il:ast or perhaps in <'II large' municipal park.9'SSion This drawing inoorporates plractically alii of the dnlilvil"!.!iI11 Cafe A ra p.e w.8.1)fV mom pia ns. Iref.alper napk i n d ming <'lIn ilWli iia I pw'Ojec." with Iorashortanao height "b".a bove.use~a HoUday ~mpt.ehrtiilo n.11~s WIll be rnuc tcreshorteneo (compare true heighl =. Hoorn perspectws from above. Figur~ 1B. E.I __ .t discus:s~0 n. .id s:kelchi.i\en by fiixiing <II centra I vanish nng poi nit at eye Ilevel.on a beer malt 'or p. This t·OII1Ji11d e al b sketch don e .

it.. h"'~lsbeen ea pt!lJred aesthefi.'~iolil.m.utihenorrn in let us hOiPeth~'l Hflel'lH of fnil·eha ndd".ilUer ij 1.ew{)lli"~d"fhe re~pon$:lbll ily for a better eililvi m n me nt in the future rests wilH us .a nd lilrlr"llpire$:~ic'll'elyIiiii draWl ng sfor rna lIny cerlitu rile's.fk con- tr® s t Sbll'tcti 9 FOU nd p I~n IS f)()1 <1!W1}r'S suf'hcierHly legible m c I ea r to the I<wma n_ iJet!N€€IFl surf .ma..s .a bille to . Here fm mstancethe curtain rir1Q. fit lis man ~rims0lf who is disfiiglt!i~'i alnd! d!e$t royinglthe I1g worild. QUIIi" envir1!)!'Im~ri!t. No wondelr sma~:ler wo:rks trn reartel"l!ect ces.bei Horn In Hlj.armlful~ to our bedies. and m'alt'lilma ~s have IIIOI$~ r anne heahlhy IiIh~H. Eveiry.'1111 .9 away a plastic bagl ina wood 0 r i'moa river .ou:se It:more intere's~ ~n a bf. w13ll~ -tormed envi renment willi he ~p us a r.Entr)j Ifs tho: same wilh any d raw~ng.Wem U$~ d!eveloD a l~ermni\l'G:S! View It)W ~be rocrn as mior- mzj u \le' sketcn. Lines should neadv never touch each other.Upponing' ~hei envi- ron ment a nd a re on t:ii!reverg. 10cats typical lin~'s and edqss fI rst of all. NaHll re '5 ba~~n(.c. Some e:X_ilgg~ra· lion rn hnl'i Huckness and spa c i n 9 can hel p to illusrrare the' srtuatron. ~o 'the: P. o"iilli"e ng' eaten .aJs. It heg in~ by caretessl y and ih 0 ug hitl essly llhmwi 11.1J00S.aU. the statue a lind nlearly of art are kepts~fe lin air~ig'~ilshowcase. And wha~ can we Itu~q'uEla'tlhh) (I ur descerlH.~ngleshort strokes C l)PJI[')S Cl'I n PUB n a ppea r unce rtarn and inaccurate. th i ng we ca H"bea utiful" is 'gl. say.Illone cross each other.s.and cultural lalmldscClpe'.ng chi idre Fl iln~:othe worild see rns m u ch e. The eye automatIC. This.. Ma ny spec las 'Q~ fish.made townseapes.y Qrld.ge from envi:wo!1lrmentarl lilnnr~en~ 164 165 .a$iier m a n1l ofh}ri rlg! them .. LO{]k for lighl-da. ex. mreclIly or Iindin~>cUy.:i!WQiy by polillu~ . cwealted ever thou sa nd~ . fOp "Srcle oi Masanry of M!<'ll!rcs AIij INllli us irl' Rome: isalso u eveiliYw~ ere cathedrals a n:d stone seu Iptures. !boU'1the beautYClf natul'eand main . Or it cam sto:!I1I1 tJy som'eoo:lfI€: charng· i n9 hiils·calli oilll and allilowi ng 'the ollrd 0 ill 1)0seep awal¥ into the soi I. forest.a to!l!erarb:l.I~~. These exa rnp les are in o! 9 n~at wo~'ks craft nor arethev rnVmded to b~-the maifl th~f'!g~s to be a b Ie 10 rna ke rllip rd yel convinci ng sketches for.! II y .n· era'tlonWiiU be . Ather1lsthalt had~o b~ clessd to the publle becau518 o~ the nisk of dJa.experienoe a nd i~ hJs~:r~lte only o:! frachon of aesthetics Uiy pleasililQl rnarh.e marg ins of c i~y.adru~'llly disapDGarllng •. W PerhJo"i!p~ Ul~11fI mi. The Ili"esult iSl'llllw~ys th~ ~me.'Ia rlts:? B'FIilng i. d'llil=y ilflClrear$i ~glIVtalkie away wn<llt nature' Just thri n1lkof the entranee and rna In have.s too !I bei 11:9 S ewdoo fI!llo-rel'lrndl mere.e atmosphere.1i11y tt~ms the lines InW forms and outh nes it hOi s seer) alG<l1n i and again in real IIfe_ a 9 ill i n. consultancv purposes Here ~tJsta tew hnes can make rm !he most clanty <lInd expression. bi rds.eof exti fH'J. and field.'l IiiI m igil1tspendl more of h is energy o~ prO'lect~ ng a ne! plreservil ngthe ef'lrVlin) mI merit..of ye. Of! dleslroyoo eli1'Vli'rOFi ent mea ns a lower qua lily CI~ m m:e_ Poiliulted water ami air ar~ not just h. sa me' envilwn rnent is under such eenstant and Illn~en8i\l'€ til rear every dialy that the nerx. le~ .a no enrjs i rTl u n$~ghtly r ubblsh dumps em t~.awii ng and th~ pdvill!ege o~ ibelirng able-to draw wli:tihun a harn10rll lou s. and so everythl og which wetaj(je p~ea$u re iFl drawl rlI{)lw-ili have to be sought after mOlli"e<'llndl more'.pe nance sh O'"w'S th OIt Ge'nera I VIOIw o v er the ground plan devl'iloped with vanishing point.tire dr'awi~ as s.t gle.