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Harvard (author-date) referencing guide
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Harvard (author-date) referencing guide
This is a referencing guide to the Harvard author-date referencing system. It is based on the following manual: Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, rev. by Snooks & Co., John Wiley & Sons Australia, Brisbane. Copyright: Commonwealth of Australia reproduced by permission. This referencing guide has been written primarily for the use of students undertaking the preparatory course, STEPS, at Central Queensland University. At an undergraduate level, this document should be used for guidance only. Undergraduates should also consult their Study Guides and lecturers to find out which referencing conventions are preferred for their courses. Documents from the University of South Australia and the University of Adelaide provided the inspiration for the format of this referencing guide. This document can be found on CQU's website. Open the CQU homepage http://www.cgu.edu.auiclick on students, then under the heading Tools for Students click on Referencing, then on Harvard (author-date).
Harvard (author-date) referencing guide
What is referencing? Why should you reference? Should you reference public domain information? What is plagiarism and how can you avoid it? Which referencing system should you use? Principles of author-date referencing Ways of citing Paraphrasing Paraphrase or use quotations? Using direct quotations Page numbers Acronyms and initialisms Difference between a reference list and a bibliography Features of the reference list Frequently asked questions (FAQs) Harvard in-text and reference list models Quick guide to referencing models Hard copy books Electronic books Hard copy journal articles Online or electronic journals Hardcopy-newspaper articles artic1es Electronic copy-newspaper 5 5 5 7 8 8 9 10 10 12 15 15 16 17 20 22 23 25 30 31 32 32 33 34 36 37 39 40 41 45 46 47 48
Other documents on the World Wide Web (WWW) Government sponsored web sites Hard copy government or legal documents Hard copy university provided study materials Electronic copy university provided study materials Specialised sources Evaluating web sites for educational use Sample reference list Bibliography Index
you are required to refer to the work of other authors.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide What is referencing? When you write an assignment at university. data or organisation of material. other print or electronic sources.. articles. This practice of acknowledging authors is known as referencing. tables or structure) paraphrase (convert someone else's ideas into your own words) summarise (use a brief account of someone else's ideas). and personal communications. 'All the world's a stage . A reference is required if you: • • • • quote (use someone else's exact words) copy (use figures. Each time you do so.. Should you reference public domain information? Public domain information is information that is so widely known that it is considered everybody would be aware of its source. References must be provided whenever you use someone else's opinions. Where authors or sources are so widely known. videos. ' My notes: . it is necessary to identify their work by making reference to itboth in the text of your assignment and in a list at the end of your assignment. specific citation may not be required. The general public use public domain information freely. For example: As Shakespeare observed. computers. Why should you reference? References enhance your writing and assist your reader by: • • • • • showing the breadth of your research strengthening your academic argument showing the reader the source of your information allowing the reader to consult your sources independently allowing the reader to verify your data. 5 . You need to reference information from books. theories. Check with your lecturer on this issue.
155) My notes: . Do not cite it.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide The quick guide to referencing Robert Harris designed this simple flowchart to assist students to cite their research properly. 6 . (Source: Harris 2001. Cite it. p.
(Note: Expulsion. summarising or quoting techniques are. 00 not cite it. (Source: Harris 2001. p. Pyrczak. R 2001. detecting and dealing with plagiarism. students have been known to commit offences of plagiarism by not understanding what acceptable paraphrasing.) Regrettably. (These diagrams can be found on pages 155 & 158 of this text.jor some international students. 7 . 158) These flowcharts can be found in Harris.) What is plagiarism and how can you avoid it? Plagiarism is the intentional use of someone else's ideas.j sp?policyid= 198 Committing plagiarism can carry very serious penalties for students. The plagiarism handbook: strategies jor preventing. The following URL wi111ead you to the plagiarism policy: http://policy. Los Angeles. including expulsion from a university.auIPolicy/policy. It is considered serious misconduct at University and should be avoided at all times.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Quote and cite it. This is discussed later in this guide.edu. The best way to avoid being accused of plagiarism is to acknowledge the resources upon which you have based your ideas. may mean having to return to their own country because this forfeits their student visa. Cite it. Central Queensland University (CQU) has a policy on plagiarism and you are strongly encouraged to familiarise yourself with it. words or concepts in your assignment work.cgu.
Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Which referencing system should you use? There are a number of different referencing systems used in academic writing. editors and printers. of whether you When you cite sources of information in the text of your assignment-regardless quote. • • the author and the date are referred to in the text or main body of your writing (called embedded or in-text referencing) all of the resources referred to in the body of the writing are included in the reference list at the end of the assignment. It is important that you use the referencing system required by your lecturer for an assignment and maintain consistency in using that system. Brisbane. copy. rev. by Snooks & Co. The information it contains is based on: Commonwealth of Australia 2002. This guide explains the Harvard system of author-date referencing. Copyright: Commonwealth of Australia reproduced with permission. The other features of author-date referencing include: • • a specific order in which this information should be structured the in-text reference which should be placed (cited) in such a way that it causes minimal disruption to the flow of your writing-this usually means at the very end or the very beginning of your sentences (see ways of citing below). publisher and where it was published. paraphrase or summarise-you should include: • • • • the author's surname (family name) the year of publication (latest edition) page numbers when directly quoting or closely paraphrasing an author's words/material correct punctuation and spacing. 8 . John Wiley & Sons Australia. CQU acknowledges: • • author-date systems commonly known as Harvard and APA (American Psychological Association) footnoting or endnoting systems commonly used in History and Law. date. title of publication.. Principles of author-date referencing There are two parts to the author-date system of referencing. All information is included in this list: author. Style manual for authors. 6th edn.
Paraphrase example Cowie (1996) suggests that unlike capitalism.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Ways of citing There are two ways of citing references: author prominent and information prominent. Direct quote example It has been argued that 'socialism rejected the liberal ideals of individualism and competition' (Cowie 1996. p. Author prominent This way gives prominence to the author by using the author's surname (family name) as part of your sentence with the date and the page number in parentheses (round brackets). Paraphrase example Unlike capitalism. p. Information prominent The other way of citing references gives prominence to the information. Direct quote example Cowie (1996. 91). socialism promotes the good of the whole before the good of the individual (Cowie 1996). with all the required referencing details in parentheses at the end of the citation. 91) argues that 'socialism rejected the liberal ideals of individualism and competition' . Verbs that help with author-prominent state remark maintain agree disagree highlight imply predict justify point out add assert claim contest find theorise question confirm referencing describe suggest affirm clarify contend show offer dispute reason 9 . socialism promotes the good of the whole before the good of the individual.
22) claims that the introduction of the GST in the Australian economic structure has not impacted the price of fuels. Paraphrase or use quotations? It is preferable that you paraphrase (put ideas in your own words) as too many quotations (using the exact words) can lead to a poorly written assignment. p.4 a student submits or presents work in one course which has also been submitted in another course (although it may be completely original with that student) without the knowledge. 3. by an individual other than the one submitting or presenting the work (this includes having another impersonate the student or otherwise substituting the work of another for one's own in an examination or test). Original text from plagiarism policy 3. Plagiarism involves submitting or presenting work in a course as if it were the student's own work done expressly for that particular course when. Specific idea Tanner (1999. Consequently conduct of that sort may result in the suspension or exclusion of the student. p. it is not. 3. such as an essay. Source: Central Queensland University (CQU) 2002. page numbers need not be shown. We have used samples of text from CQU's plagiarism policy to illustrate acceptable and unacceptable methods of using information in your assignments. A general rule in academic circles is that no more than 10% of an assignment should be in the form of direct quotations. If your work does not refer to specific ideas on particular pages of a resource but to general themes mentioned throughout the resource. or prior agreement of the instructor involved. in whole or in part.1 the work submitted or presented was done. in fact. Undergraduate handbook. General theme Studies (Tanner 1999) indicate that the economic structure of Australia today is far more unpredictable and unstable than it was thirty years ago. is copied from another source. Author. or circumventing assessment requirements very seriously. 10 . 50.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means to restate accurately and succinctly in your own words something you have read. Plagiarism The University views the process of circumventing or attempting to circumvent. you always need to give references-both in the text and in the reference list. Rockhampton.2 parts of the work are taken from another source without reference to the original author. Most commonly. and 3. No matter whether you use quotations or paraphrase another's words. plagiarism exists when: 3.3 the whole work.
50). then a direct quote is a better way to present the work. Finally. and still does not demonstrate their own comprehension of the material. in fact. It can be seen. This version of the original is simply reflecting the student's ability to cut-and-paste words from another source. Even if this material had been referenced with a citation this would still be unacceptable. it is not. it is not (Central Queensland University (CQU) 2002. the whole work. that they have done for that course when. Indeed conduct of that sort may result in the suspension or exclusion of a student. This can even be the case if the work was completely original with that student. A third type of plagiarism is when parts of the work are taken from another source and no reference is made to the original author. p. therefore. This is because the content has been so closely presented as to not truly reflect original use of the material. Usually. if the whole work. However. even though a citation has been provided. Why is this an unacceptable use of the original text? This is still an unacceptable paraphrasing of the original. Why is this an unacceptable use of the original text? The words in italics are taken directly from the original source. The overuse of quoting can distract from the flow of your discussion and also fail to demonstrate your understanding of the original material. This is because sections of the original source have simply been reordered and the original wording is still present (those words in italics). Plagiarism is when a student submits or presents work in a course as if it were their own work. some parts of the work (assignmentls) submitted are taken from other sources but these sources are not referenced. is copied from some other source. the wording is virtually exactly from the CQU Handbook and the flow of ideas is also from the CQU Handbook. Although this version could have used quotation marks and citation details to adequately reference the content. In addition. it would have been so cluttered that it would read as poor quality work. this is also plagiarism.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Unacceptable: Word-for-word copying Central Queensland University (CQU) views the process of attempting to circumvent assessment requirements very seriously. is copied from another source. 11 . that plagiarism involves submitting or presenting work in a course as if it were the student's own work done expressly for that particular course when. the structure of the discussion is a direct reflection of the original source. such as an essay. If the concept or wording is so important to retain. produces the work submitted or presented for that course. such as an essay or research report. That is. and a student submits or presents work in one course which was also submitted in another course without the prior agreement of the instructor involved. in fact. The first is when the work submitted or presented was done by someone other than the one submitting the work. it would have been so cluttered that meaning would have been lost. keep in mind that direct quoting should be used conservatively in any piece of work that you present. Although this version could have used quotation marks and a citation to adequately reference the content. if a student submits or presents work in one course which has also been submitted in another course and has not sought approval from the course coordinator to do so. Secondly.plagiarism exists when: an individual other than the one undertaking the course. Unacceptable: Poor cut-and-paste practice Plagiarism most commonly exists in four ways.
punctuation. According to Jones (2004. spelling or gender. 50). in the Undergraduate Handbook (CQU 2002. he [sic] must comply with the school rules unquestionably' . Both of these are unacceptable. or else the student may run the risk of committing plagiarism. This type of paraphrasing demonstrates a student's ability to analyse and apply information to their specific question. It is therefore important to acknowledge where information comes from and how it is being used in an assignment. the alarming growth in obesity levels in Australia can be attributed to 'cendentary [sic] lifestyles. 50). From the discussion in the Handbook. 21). For example: • According to Bloggs (2006. p. Only a small amount of direct quoting was used and this was clearly indicated with the use of quotation marks and citation detail. the entire paragraph clearly establishes its relationship to the original text while not using the words or exact structure of the original. Why is this an acceptable use of the original text? The above example has made use of the ideas and concepts of the original text and demonstrated comprehension. The fourth example given in the Handbook suggests that students can even 'plagiarise' their own work. 12 . Acceptable: Paraphrasing and acknowledging source The Central Queensland University (CQU) takes plagiarism 'very seriously' (CQU 2002. capitalisation and paragraphing of the original writer). In addition. p. refute or analyse the ideas expressed it is a particularly elegant or forceful phrase. The word [sic] (meaning so or thus) can be inserted in a quotation when the original text is incorrect with regard to grammar. Smith (2006. p.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide If it is important to retain the original wording. Indeed. then use of a direct quote would be a better way to present the work. integrated into your text and reproduced exactly (including the words. the Australian government has not done enough to eradicate the feral cat and states that 'mandatory desexing of household cats ten years ago would of [sic] reduced feral cat numbers by 70% in 2003' . spelling. time saving household devices and the rapid growth of the fast food industry'. selected carefully. • • A quotation is used • • • • if: misinterpretation would result from a change to the words a major argument needs to be recorded as evidence it is important to comment on. These range from copying an entire piece of work without acknowledging that copying has occurred. 6). through to having someone else do the work and then claim it as one's own. p. used in context. This happens when a student has written an assignment for one course and then attempts to use the same assignment in another course (or courses). p. it appears that it is also unacceptable if even only part of the work is copied and not acknowledged. 21) raises a contentious issue in the discipline debate with the belief that 'when a child is at school. The use of the citation at the end of the paragraph is still inadequate for academic writing. Using direct quotations Quotations should be used sparingly. the issue of plagiarism is discussed and four examples of types of plagiarism are presented.
The square brackets around the 't'-[t]-are word 'the' began with a capital T. that is. p. like the family home where customs and values have created a spirit handed down over generations'. 89).27 em) from the left margin be in single line spacing use a smaller font for the quotation. As Jones (1998.e. 1. Incorporating a quote as part of your sentence-author prominent The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured. as '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings. '[t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings. Long quotations Long quotations (more than 30 words) should: • • • • • be introduced in your own words begin on a new line be fully indented by default (i. 89) suggests. prominent Incorporating a quote as part of your sentence-information The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured. used to indicate that in the original quotation the My notes: 13 . .Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Short quotations Short quotations (fewer than 30 words) should: • • • • be incorporated into your sentence without disrupting the flow of your paragraph have single quotation marks have the full stop after the citation keep the same font size. p. change from size 12 to size 10. like the family home where customs and values have created a spirit handed down over generations' (Jones 1998.
Double quotations For a double quotation-that is. teaching more men [sic] to read and write will not create them. 89) Words omitted/rom quotations To omit words from quotations. 'The curriculum of the national schools in the 1870s included reading. an ellipsis should be used to convey this to the reader. (Jones 1998. p. 3) summarises the effects of reducing literacy to a set of tools or skills when he states that: [m]erely teaching men [sic] to read and write does not work miracles: If there are not enough jobs for men [sic] able to work. p. The square brackets in quotations Sometimes in quotations it is necessary to insert a word that explains the meaning of another word in that quotation.. p. a quotation within a quotation-use inside single quotation marks: double quotation marks 'The first words of Melville's Moby Dick are "Call me Ishmael" and these words are full of significance' was the first statement in Smith's memorable speech (Johns 1995. writing.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Separate the quotation from the lead-in statement with one blank line. drill [physical exercises] and music' (Cowie et al. Example Friere (1998. use an ellipsis (. When using an information prominent long quotation. and that literacy practices are situated in social relations' . Quotation marks Quotation marks are not used for longer quotations. 43). arithmetic. 4). 14 ... This is illustrated below. like the family home. p. p. The quotation must still keep the same sense. The lead-in statement ends with a colon (:). . Barton (1994. 7) describes literacy as a 'set of practices which people use in literacy events .. where customs and values have created a spirit handed down over generations. If the quotation does not begin at the start of a sentence. 1996.. For example: Students may adopt a more dominant understanding ofliteracy because of the emphasis they place on literacy as a means of achieving . the soul finds sacredness in the ordinary. When literacy is considered as a social practice. Separate the quotation from the text that follows it with one blank line. The church is not the only setting where the soul may be nurtured as: [t]he soul also finds sustenance in more domestic settings. ). the relationships that exist between language use and the production and maintenance of cultural and ideological hegemony are uncovered. 21). the full stop will be included after the last sentence of the quotation before the citation as shown below.. According to Thomas Moore. Place the explanation in square brackets. equality of opportunity and the possibilities of liberty and democracy' (Rockhill 1994. and may benefit most when its spiritual life is performed in the context of mundane daily life. p.
4 & 6 Jones & Mackay 1998. for example: Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) 1999. This includes tables or figures.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Page numbers Page numbers should be used when you directly quote material (word for word) from the original publication. Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 4 Smith 1996. RSPCA. Other examples are NSW. pp. for example. the initialism may be used. QANT AS. Write these without full stops. chapters or sections. p. p. and so on. These must appear both in-text and in the reference list. lof2 Acronyms and initial isms • • Acronyms are initial letters pronounced as a word. both the long title and the acronym or initia1ism must be included. CQU and USA. Example The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) has a policy on removing injured animals. If a work contains numerous references to a particular resource with a long title. pp. and thereafter the acronym and initialism will suffice. Policy statement on removal of animals at risk. The first citation in-text must include both the full title and the acronym or initialism. The following examples illustrate the use of page numbers One page referred to Pages that are not in sequence Pages that are in sequence Pages from a web site Wells 1992. Author. Examples are TAFE. 25-26 Kelly & McWhirter 1997. Page numbers should also be provided for indirect quotes and paraphrasing where the summarised material appears in specific pages. 1. 15 . Brisbane. In the reference list. The RSPCA is permitted to enter a property at any time following a report of complaint (RSPCA 1999).
You may also be required to provide a bibliography. The entry in the reference list must show all the authors. A bibliography is presented in the same format as a reference list but it includes all material consulted in the preparation of your assignment. [sic] c. This term denotes circa and means approximately. The term et al.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Latin Term et alia or et al. My notes: . Meaning These terms mean and others and is used for four or more authors to shorten the in-text citation. This term [sic] appears immediately after the original error. a bibliography presents the same items as a reference list but it also includes all other sources which you read or consulted but did not cite. This is used when there is a spelling or grammatical error or when sexist language is used in the original source quoted. This is used when the approximate date is all that is known. The term means 'thus' or 'this is how it was written'. In other words. It is not italicised and appears in square brackets. is not italicised. It is not italicised and ends with a full stop. Difference between a reference list and a bibliography The reference list only identifies sources referred to (cited) in the text of your assignment. 16 .
Wakefield Press. Ampersand \ Italics for book title ~t Commas between elements except author(s) and date \ Full stop at the end t Elements for referencing a journal article For a journal article. Green or gone. Winter page number(s).Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Features of the reference list Elements for referencing a book For a book. G 1997. D & Sauer-Thompson. 17 . for example.. Book Authors' surnames an 1 Year of Title of book in minimal PUblTtiOO "''1I. if not the original publication publisher place of publication. Kent Town. the following elements should be presented in this order: • • • • • • • surname and initials of author( s) year of publication title of article in single quotation marks title of journal or periodical in italics and maximal capitalisation volume number where applicable issue number or other identifier where applicable.''tiOO Pohl!" Place (city) of PUbl. the following elements should be presented in this order: • • • • • • surname and initials of author( s) year of publication title of book (in italics) in minimal capitalisation the edition. for example.. 4th edn."on Shearman.
) 2. (Do not use numbers. 51. then list them alphabetically according to the title and add the letter 'a' after the first date. then list them in order of publication date with the oldest work first. maintain the order of their names as they appear on the title page of the publication. 3. 'The Australian child' should be alphabetised according to the 'A' in 'Australian'. but when listing alphabetically. 12 pt. 1 I rr Volume and issue number in lower case "'~ Page numbers Full stop at the end Arranging the reference list 1. ignore words such as. 7:30 Report) precedes the alphabetical listing and is listed numerically. Formatting the reference list The title should be References and it should be: • • • bold left aligned in the same font size as the document.g. 7. 1993a. Where there is more than one author of a publication.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Journal article i\uthor's surname and initials Year of publication Title of article in minimal capitalisation and in single quotation marks Italics and maximal capitalisation for journal title Stove. (e. 5. For example. The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order according to the author's family name. If a reference has no author. If there is no author or sponsoring body. even if they are not in alphabetical order on the title page. CSIRO or Education Queensland. 1993c). letters or bullet points to begin each entry. list it alphabetically according to the sponsoring body. 4. no. list alphabetically according to the title. for example. 'A'.g. 'The'. RJ 1999. If there are two or more references by the same author. 1. 'An' at the beginning of the reference's title. 18 . 1993b. Any reference that starts with a number (e. If references by the same author have been published in the same year. and so on. 'Xenophobia: the great local content myth'. 6. Note: headings are neither underlined nor punctuated. The whole title of the resource must appear. and 'b' after the second date. vol. 14-16. pp. Institute of Public Affairs Review.
au/gwo/9712/ceiling. no. Maximal capitalisation Anderson. book or chapter contains a colon. 'Using Desktop Video to Enhance Music Instruction'. Sydney.gldwoman. Australian Journal 0/ Educational Technology. Communication management.) A sample reference list illustrating this formatting has been provided at the end of this guide on page 45. Maximal capitalisation For titles of periodicals (journals. 'or'). Check to see if there is a specific requirement and follow it. Crystal. capitalise the first word and also any other word which is not 'the'. Harlow. Minimal capitalisation Only the first word in the titles of books. viewed 22 May 2000.html Kaye. 'a'. Prentice-Hall. 'an'. pp.gld. M 1994. B 1999. 279-294. A 2001. 3.gov. journal titles and publishing firm names are always capitalised. chapters and journal articles is capitalised. a preposition (such as 'for'. For example: Jones. Pearson Education. Zen Publishing. London. http://www. Discover Grammar. The following examples highlight the differences between minimal and maximal capitalisation. If there is no requirement. Queensland women. Authors' names and initials. 'under'. the Harvard author-date system endorses minimal capitalisation. 'but'. Minimal or maximal capitalisation? Some lecturers/faculties require a specific form of capitalisation in the reference list. (Appendices are placed after the reference list.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide The references contained in the list should: • • • • • be in single line spacing have a blank single line space between each reference (Hint: use paragraph spacing of 12 pt) be left aligned be arranged alphabetically be the final page of your assignment. The history of rock: John Lennon. Minimal capitalisation 'Green light for operation glass ceiling' 1999. 'about') or a conjunction (such as 'and'. 'on'. D 1996. magazines and newspapers). only capitalise if the first word after the colon is a proper name. For journal titles use maximal capitalisation. A & Ellis. 19 . vol. 17. If the title of the article.
This commonly occurs when referencing government publications. Q2: A2: Is the printer also the publisher? Not often. Q6: A6: Do I include the country name as well as the city/town name? No. older publications may give the AGPS as the publisher and this should be adhered to. the manual does state. that you could give the country with little known place names (p. Cite the main editorial office responsible for producing the resource-use the first one listed on the title page. Q I: AI: Why is the word Author sometimes used to identify the publisher? The word author is used when the author and the publisher are the same. check this on the verso page (the back of the title page). For some publications the copyright is held by an author who may arrange publications by different publishers on different dates. Q7: A7: Is the date of publication the same as the copyright date? No. 203). Q4: A4: Do I need to cite all the editorial offices? No. However. 20 . however. Do not use phrases like 'Government Printer' to indicate the publisher. Q3: A3: What if there are two publishers for the resource? Show both publishers separated by an ampersand (&). Q8: A8: Is the author's name the same as the name next to the © symbol? Not usually-but sometimes this can be the case. Q5: A5: Does the Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) publish all Commonwealth Government publications? The AGPS does not exist any more.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Frequently asked questions (FAQs) These FAQs may provide you with information that you cannot find elsewhere in this booklet. To be sure.
Q12: Should I include honorifics (Dr. which do I use? AlO: Use those on the title page. Use the title of the resource to begin the reference rather than Anon. Q 10: If the title words on the spine or cover of a book are different from those on the title page. Q13: Can I use the expression 'Anon' (anonymous author)? A13: Avoid this unless it is required by your lecturer or faculty. You do not have to include this (1st edn) in the actual reference. only 2nd or later editions need to be specified. FRACS)? A12: No. Click in the checkbox alongside Ordinals (I") with superscript to remove the tick. Click on Autoformat as you type.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Q9: A9: What ifno edition is shown? Assume it is the first edition. Click on Tools. Q15: Can I stop Microsoft Wordfrom creating superscript ordinals like 2nd? A15: Yes. My questions and answers 21 . Q 11: Should multiple authors of an individual resource be recorded in alphabetical order? All: No. Prof) or professional affiliations (AMA. click on Autocorrect options. Q14: Should I use Pty Ltd and Inc after publishing companies or corporations? A14: No. Do not change the order. Record them as they appear on the title or verso page of the resource.
Remember If no example can be located for the resource you intend to use. always include details that you consider would be necessary to locate that resource and place them in the order in which they appear in the Harvard system: • • • • author and date title publisher city where published. be guided by the principles of author-date referencing. If it is an electronic resource.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Harvard in-text and reference list models The following is a set of guidelines for modelling referencing techniques for paraphrasing and direct quotations in the body paragraphs of your assignments (in-text referencing). include: • • • • author and date title date viewed URL address or name of database. 22 . and in the reference list at the end of your assignment.
E-book from CQU library e-book resources Hard copy journal articles One or more authors No author No volume number/issue number From a university readings book Magazine Online or electronic journals Journal article from a database Journal article from a website Journal article from course resource online materials Hard copy-newspaper articles Newspaper article with an author Newspaper article without an author Electronic copy-newspaper articles Newspaper article with an author (online newspaper) Newspaper article with an author (electronic database) Newspaper article with no author (online newspaper) Newspaper article with no author (electronic database) Other documents on The World Wide Web Document on the WWW (author/sponsor given but not dated) Document on the WWW (no author/sponsor) Conference proceedings from a website Radio transcript from a website 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 23 . corporation or other organisation No author but a sponsoring body or title No author and second or later edition Edited work-role of the editor is significant Chapter in an edited work One volume of a multi-volume work One issue in a series No date can be established Approximate date can be established Referring to a primary source within a secondary source Referring to two primary sources within a secondary source Author is also the publisher Electronic books Note: The aboveprinciplesalso applyto electroniccopiesof books.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Quick guide to referencing models Hard copy books One author Two authors Three authors Four or more authors Multiple works-same author Works by different authors-same family name Works by different authors-same family name-same year Second or later edition with an author Several sources cited at once Author(s) sponsored by an institution.
whiteboard notes) Electronic copy university provided study materials Study Guide CD Course Resources Online (Library) CQU e-Courses (Blackboard) Specialised sources Conference paper (hard copy) Paper presented at a meeting (unpublished) Brochure (author is also the publisher) Pamphlet Video Movie Television broadcast Television advertisement Microfiche-without a reference number Microfiche-with a reference number Interview on radio Personal communication Email message. conversation via bulletin board or electronic discussion group Handbook e.g..g. drug handbook News broadcast on radio Thesis-unpublished Audio cassette Atlas (with an editor) Atlas (without an editor) Dictionary The Bible 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 24 .Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Government sponsored websites Australian Bureau of Statistics online Government media releases Government report Hard copy government or legal documents Legislation Government publication Government report Government publications and regulations Standards Patents Hard copy university provided study materials Study Guide (author known) Study Guide ((author unknown) Text reprinted in a university resource readings Tutorial/workshop handout (unpublished) Lecture notes (unpublished) Lecture material-non-print (e.
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so test one source against another. 3. 2. free of spelling. government departments. Are references or bibliographies included? 4. 45 . to sell). then it most probably is not reliable. Anyone can place information on the WWW. to persuade. reputable lobby groups. business organisations. If you know the motive behind the web page. punctuation and grammatical errors? Note: It is accepted that some of the electronic information which you use may not be retrievable as it is either being updated/amended or has been deleted. Is there an author/sponsor? If you can not find an author or an organisation responsible for publishing the site. Authenticity is not always easy to confirm. you can judge it better. Is the author qualified to write about this topic? What is the author's expertise? Is the sponsor reputable? Are opinions being presented as facts? Try to differentiate fact from fiction. Reliable sources generally include: • • • refereed articles in online journals articles from databases selected by the university articles published by universities. Is the information well written. The standard of reliability and validity for information on web sites is often not as high as for articles in published materials. When was the web site last updated? 6. What is the purpose of the web site? Ascertain the purpose (to inform.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Evaluating web sites for educational use Take care to evaluate the quality and trustworthiness of any electronic information you wish to use in an academic assignment. To guard against this possibility. How current is the information? 5. Make sure there is no bias evident. print the material you are referring to or save it to a disk so that you have a permanent record. Adopt a cautious approach! Consider the following: 1. Check that the person presenting the information does not have a vested interest in proposing the particular view point. often without any review process.
J January 1991. Elder. Holt. Rockhampton. Author. San Diego.nsf/e5cbOb45f454 7cc4ca25697 5002l7f4 7 /28f203d3e 1Oef834ca25 68a900 13628c! OpenDocument Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1999. Smith. 28 July. 23. B 1995. television broadcast.aulausstats/abs%40. Lanktree. no.htm computers. J. Beaut Books. Interactive writing: composing with a word processor. Business management for the new era.nrm. viewed 6 July 2006. Ockham's Razor. Danaher.0 One infour children do not live with both natural parents. J 1995. H 1998. A. 5-12. Mathematics Learning Centre (MLC) 2004. (online ProQuest). Sydney. Gottliebsen. Pyrczak Publishing. The magic of Australia. Thejirstpersonal http://www. Salinity. Early data on trauma symptom checklists for children. '1964-2004 and beyond'. Rockhampton. Los Angeles. R 2001. ABC Television. 8 November. HJ 1985. no. http://www. Four Corners. vol. The plagiarism handbook. Rockhampton. viewed 6 July 2006. (CD-ROM). 285. in L Rowan & J McNamee (eds). Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1998. 'Disabilities in tertiary education'. J 1999. vol. paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Mulgan. Austin. Byrne. 'Teen suicide. 5. March. http://www. 'Medicine in Chaucer's time'. pp.4442. Central Queensland University Course Resources Online (LAWS 11045). Voices of a margin: speaking for yourself. pp. http://www.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Sample reference list References '1973 AD to 1981 AD' n. P (ed. Author. ABC Radio National Transcripts.gov. sexuality and silence'.. Canberra. Science. viewed 6 July 2006. Adelaide. Beyond the Ferris wheel. 'Transition mathematics 1'. R 2004. Wyland Publishing. P. Harris. EDED489ll Images of childhood: resource materials. Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration. pp.html 'Building theories on sand' 1999.8. Etherton.maxmon.) 1998. Schwartz. (online Factiva).htm 46 . W & Gardener. 31. Smith. Reinhardt & Winston. Regional statistics. P 1962. MATH40236 Transition Mathematics lA.47.aulpublications/salinity/index.net. 1313. Cat. T.aulrnlscience/ockhamlorll0896. R 2000. 521-531. Aries. Jones.coml1973ad. Kendall. CN 1998. Centuries of childhood. viewed 6 July 2006.abc. Hudson.gov. C & Briere. 'Perspectives on "the public interest"'. CQU Press. no. CQU Press. 'Emission impossible' 1999.abs. in Central Queensland University (CQU) 2000. Australian. Connelly. Australian Government 2004.d. Alternative Law Journal. 95.
..edu. Student Learning Support Group and Text and Editorial services. The written assignment. 47 . http://www. North Sydney. Standards Australia. University of South Australia. Queensland University of Technology 1995. Underdale. Australian standard: pressure equipmentmanufacture. John Wiley & Sons Australia. Author. 6th edn. by Snooks & Co. viewed 17 February 2006. Brisbane.d. Style manualfor authors.Harvard (author-date) referencing guide Standards Association of Australia 1997. Brisbane. Flexible Learning Centre. Bibliography Central Queensland University (CQU) n.cqu. Referencing. (AS 4458-1997).auireferencing/ Commonwealth of Australia 2002. Referencing: the author-date system (also known as the Harvard referencing system) 1996. editors and printers. rev.
35.28. 19 issue·5 Issue· 17 c Capitalisation· Chapter· 23. 9 Initialism .34. 20.25.46 D Dictionary .41. 16. 8 In-text referencing· 8.21 Ampersand . 29 Citing·35 City·20 J Journal· 17.21 Brochure . 45 Ellipsis .30. 9 author-date system· 8 Author-date system· 35 author-date systems· 8 18.43 12. 38. 16 Book· 17. 37 Author prominent . 14 A Acronyms . 220.127.116.11. 40. 40 48 . 17. 15 Advertisement·42 AGPS·20 Alphabetical· Atlas·44 Audio·44 Australian Bureau of Statistics· 36. 18. 43. 27 L Latin terms· 12. 5 Electronic sources· 35. 41 I Information prominent . 25 F FAQs·20 G Government publications· 37 H Harvard·8 Honorifics· 21.26 Lectures . 15 Interview·43 in-text referencing .36. 44 Different authors . 19. 43 B Bible·44 Bibliography .22.Harvard (author date) referencing guide Index & & ·25 E Edition· 8.21. 18.104.22.168.44 electronic sources .22.214.171.124. 16. 15.
37. 126.96.36.199.10.31. 39 summarise .30.10. ·43 M Magazine' 23.40. 10.25. 18.14. 20 Publishing companies . 44 w Q Quotations' 8. 8 Reference list· 5. 31 Microfiche . 14.38. 21 43 43 T Television' 42 Thesis' 43 Tutorial' 39 Tutorial handout· 39 v Verbs' 9 Video' 42. 13 R reference list . 23 Secondary source' 30 Several sources .13. 19 Long quotations . 38.32.39 quote' 5 Workshop' WWW·45 39 World Wide Web' 35 49 .33.28. 15.31. 16. 25. 42 Model to follow in the reference list . 26 s secondary source .34 paraphrase . 13. 19 Library database' 32 Line spacing . 28 p Page numbers' 8.41.43. 19.28. 28 Sponsors' 18. 27.35. 5 Summarise .36.29.44 Reference list.34. 8 N No author' 18. 10 Paraphrasing . 5 Publisher . 5 Paraphrase . 15.26.17. .36.35 o Ordinals' 21.28 Square brackets' 13.39 Movie' 42 Multiple works . 8 Personal communication' Personal communications' Public domain .Harvard (author date) referencing guide Left alignment· 13. 16 Standards' 38 Study guide' 39 Study guide.27.
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