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Submitted to: Mrs. Maria Rhona E. Sanchez Music Teacher
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF ROMANTIC PERIOD Romanticism (or the Romantic Era or the "'Romantic Period"') was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial I.
Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and natural history. The movement validated strong emotion as an authentic source of aestheticexperience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and terror and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities, both new aesthetic categories. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, made spontaneity a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu), and argued for a "natural" epistemology of human activities as conditioned by nature in the form of language and customary usage. Romanticism reached beyond the rational and Classicist ideal models to elevate a revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl, and industrialism, and it also
attempted to embrace the exotic, unfamiliar, and distant in modes more authentic than Rococo chinoiserie, harnessing the power of the imagination to envision and to escape. The modern sense of a romantic character may be expressed in Byronic ideals of a gifted, perhaps misunderstood loner, creatively following the dictates of his inspiration rather than the standard ways of contemporary society. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which prized intuition and emotion over Enlightenment rationalism, the ideologies and events of the French Revolution laid the background from which both Romanticism and the CounterEnlightenment emerged. The confines of the Industrial Revolution also had their influence on Romanticism, which was in part an escape from modern realities; indeed, in the second half of the 19th century, "Realism" was offered as a polarized opposite to Romanticism. Romanticism elevated the achievements of what it perceived as heroic individualists and artists, whose pioneering examples would elevate society. It also legitimized the individual imagination as a critical authority, which permitted freedom from classical notions of
Technically. azeitgeist. DESCRIPTION AND HISTORY OF ROMANTIC MUSIC Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to imply the period roughly from the 1820s until around 1900. By the early 20th century. the sense that there had been a decisive break with the musical past led to the establishment of the 19th century as "The Romantic Era". In 1810 E.A.form in art. . and Ludwig Spohr used the term "good Romantic style" to apply to parts of Beethoven'sFifth Symphony.T. II. Hoffmann called Mozart. in the representation of its ideas. Mozart and Haydn are considered Classical composers. and by most standards. and it is referred to as such in the standard encyclopedias of music. Haydn and Beethoven the three "Romantic Composers". There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability. the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not coincide with this modern interpretation. Beethoven represents the start of the musical Romantic period.
which are also directly related to the broader current of Romantic nationalism in the arts as well as aspects already present in 18th-century music. such as the cantabile accompanied melody to which Romantic composers beginning with Franz Schubert applied restless key modulations. in order to hymn the . or the sanguinary elements of some of the operas of the period of the French Revolution. The libretti of Lorenzo da Ponte forMozart's eloquent music convey a new sense of individuality and freedom. The heightened contrasts and emotions of Sturm und Drang (German for "turbulence and urge(ncy)") seem a precursor of the Gothic novel in literature. In Beethoven's Fidelio he creates the apotheosis of the 'rescue operas' which were another feature of French musical culture during the revolutionary period. such as the growing use of folk music.The traditional modern discussion of the music of Romanticism includes elements. The romantic generation viewed Beethoven as their ideal of a heroic artist—a man who first dedicated a symphony to Consul Bonaparte as a champion of freedom and then challenged Emperor Napoleon by striking him out from the dedication of the Eroica Symphony.
T.A. In the contemporary music culture. Public persona characterized a new generation of virtuosi who made their way as soloists. Beethoven's use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music. as had been the case with earlier musicians and composers. operas. Pyotr Tchaikovsky's wide ranging output includes symphonies. epitomized in the concert tours of Paganini and Liszt. The Sleeping Beauty and opera Eugene Onegin. showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe. the romantic musician followed a public career depending on sensitive middle-class audiences rather than on a courtly patron. Hoffmann was able to write of the . including the ballets Swan Lake.freedom which underlay the thinking of all radical artists in the years of hope after the Congress of Vienna. He wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the classical repertoire. His later piano music and string quartets. especially. instrumental and chamber music and songs. ballets. E.
encouraged the notion of music as "programmatic" or narrative. Early 19th century developments in instrumental technology—iron frames for pianos. nocturne and rhapsody. and the virtuosic concerto. Hoffmann himself. In opera. more varied tone colours. and the potential for sensational virtuosity. a new Romantic atmosphere combining supernatural terror and melodramatic plot in a folkloric context was first successfully achieved by Weber's Der Freischütz (1817. Amongst the radical fringe of what became mockingly . and created new genres such as the freestanding concert overture or tone poem. Enriched timbre and color marked the early orchestration of Hector Berlioz in France. a concept which would previously have been regarded as absurd. the piano fantasia. introduced programmatic titles. wound metal strings for string instruments—enabled louder dynamics. and the grand operas of Meyerbeer. as a practitioner both of music and literature. revised 1821). an idea which new audiences found attractive. Such developments swelled the length of pieces. which became central to musical romanticism.supremacy of instrumental music over vocal music in expressiveness.
and independently paralleled the developments of opera with explicit narrative libretti. charismatic. of the great virtuosi such as Paganini (d. perhaps ruthlessly unconventional individual artistic personality.1849). in which a ballet interlude retained an essential role only in Paris. The Romantic-era ballet freed itself both from opera. 1828). 1840). 1847) stripped of the Biedermeier reputation unfairly attached to it. 1856) and Chopin (d. Now that we are able to listen to the work of Mendelssohn (d. expressed in lengthy passages of mime. It is the period of 1815 to 1848 which must be regarded as the true age of Romanticism in music – the age of the last compositions of Beethoven (d. Liszt and Wagner each embodied the Romantic cult of the free. the supremacy of the ballerina and the choice often of supernatural subjects: Giselle (1841) remains the supreme example. he can also be placed in this more . inspired. the universal presence of impetuous or ill-fated young love. of the works of Schumann (d. and the young Liszt and Thalberg. and from court fêtes. of the early struggles of Berlioz andRichard Wagner.characterised (adopting Wagner's own words) as "artists of the future". 1827) and Schubert (d.
with Chopin and Paganini dead. to the period ofmusical romantics.appropriate context. Liszt retired from the concert platform at a minor German court. rather. PROMINENT COMPOSERS OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD . Wagner effectively in exile until he obtained royal patronage in Bavaria. and Berlioz still struggling with the bourgeois liberalism which all but smothered radical artistic endeavour in Europe. After this period. Romanticism in music was surely past its prime— giving way. III.
Name Da Da te te Nation Notable works bor die ality n d Ludwig van 177 18 Germa Ludwig van Beethoven Beethov 0 27 n en regarded by many as the first Romantic era composer. famous for his nine symphonies. wrote concertos and cha mber music . ten violin sonatas and piano trios Ferdina 177 18 ndo Italian 0 41 Carulli composer for the guitar. thirty-two piano sonatas. sixteen string quartets.
has significant works for wind quintet Best known for writing Wien Neêrlands Johann Dutch177 18 Bloed. which served as Wilhelm Germa 2 47 the Dutch national Wilms n anthem from 1815 to 1932.Anton Reicha 177 18 Czech 0 36 composer who experimented with irregular time signatures. Nepomu 177 18 Austria his music bridged k 8 37 n the Classical era of Hummel music and Romantic era Fernand 177 18 Spanish composer for o Sor 8 39 the classical guitar who is credited with . Bernhar 177 18 composer d Henrik Finnish 5 38 and clarinet player Crusell Johann composer and pianist.
violinist and conductor. notable for cultivating the nocturne composer and virtuoso violinist. renowned for 178 18 Germa chamber music and 4 59 n compositions for violin and harp . five concerti for violin. wrote the 24 Caprices for violin. string quartets and works for violin and guitar Niccolò 178 18 Paganin Italian 2 40 i Louis Spohr composer.elevating the guitar to the level of concert instrument Mauro 178 18 Italian Giuliani 1 28 Daniel Auber John Field composer and virtuoso guitarist 178 18 opera composer noted French 2 71 for La muette de Portici 178 18 Irish 2 37 composer and pianist.
composer. pianist. Les eer Huguenots. best known for The Barber of Seville and overtures to various other operas Gioachi 179 18 no Italian 2 68 Rossini composer and piano Ignaz virtuoso. one of the first 6 26 n significant Romantic opera composers Giacom composer for grand o 179 18 Germa opera (Il crociato in Meyerb 1 64 n Egitto. known English Pinto 5 06 for his contribution to the piano repretoire Carl Maria von Weber composer. L'Africaine) prolific opera composer. violinist and George 178 18 virtuoso pianist. guitarist and 178 18 Germa critic. head of 179 18 Bohemi Moschel the Leipzig 4 70 an es Conservatory after Felix Mendelssohn . conductor.
piano . little known in his lifetime. known for Lucia di Lammermoor and L'elisir d'amore among others Franz Schubert composer. regarded as the first significant lieder writer. also known for his chamber music. including his four Berwald 6 68 h symphonies are better known today Gaetano 179 18 Donizett Italian 7 48 i Franz 179 18 Austria Schuber 7 28 n t opera composer.composer. but his Franz 179 18 Swedis works.
Italian opera composer.works and symphonies Early Romantic era composers (born 1800-1819) Vincenzo Bellini (1801–1835). the Symphonie Fantastique Henri Herz (1803–1888). Norma and La sonnambula among others Jean-Baptiste Duvernoy (1802–1880). Austrian composer and pianist . French composer best known for his ballet score Giselle Hector Berlioz (1803–1869). known for I Puritani. French composer and pianist Eliza Flower (1803–1846). English composer Adolphe Adam (1803–1856). French composer famous for his programmatic symphony.
also wrote five symphonies including the Symphony No. remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847). a prolific composer. remarkable for her vocal compositions and chamber music Johann Friedrich Franz Burgmüller (1806–1874). music-director. German conductor. and several short lyrical piano pieces or Songs without Words. brother of Fanny Mendelssohn. Franz Lachner (1803–1890). sister of Felix Mendelssohn. Russian nationalist composer. German conductor. . known for his Violin Concerto and the Wedding March from A Midsummer Night's Dream. German composer and pianist. brother of Ignaz Lachner Mikhail Glinka (1804–1857). 4'Italian'. composer and pianist. wrote operas such as A Life for the Tsar Johann Strauss I (1804–1849). German composer and pianist. Austrian dance music composer famous for the Radetzky March Fanny Mendelssohn (1805–1847). notable for his chamber music Michael William Balfe (1808–1870). brother of Norbert Burgmüller Ignaz Lachner (1807–1895). German composer and conductor. Irish conductor and composer. composer and organist.
and a number of Polish dances such as mazurkas. and waltzes (including theMinute Waltz) Ferenc Erkel (1810–1893). etudes. polonaises. a significantlieder writer. Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. husband of Clara Schumann. German composer.Frédéric Chopin Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849). praised by Robert Schumann Robert Schumann (1810–1856). Hungarian composer and a virtuoso pianist. a prolific composer. wrote a number of tone . Hungarian composer of grand opera Norbert Burgmüller (1810–1836). wrote many short piano pieces. German composer and pianist. four symphonies. Composer and Conductor whose early works received praise from Felix Mendelssohn Franz Liszt (1811–1886). his output includes nocturnes. ballades. concerti and chamber music Wilhelm Taubert (1811-1891) German Pianist.scherzos.
best known for the operas Mignon and Hamlet Sigismond Thalberg (1812–1871). French composer. one of the most influential and distinguished pianist composers of the Romantic era Ferdinand Hiller (1811–1885). Hungarian composer. famous for his Hungarian Rhapsodies and other solo piano works. conductor. chiefly remembered for his opera Martha Stephen Heller (1813–1888). known for teaching Charles-Valentin Alkan (1813–1888). French composer and virtuoso pianist . writer and music-director. German composer. German composer. French eccentric conductor and composer of light music. poems and extended piano technique. Russianresident French composer. close friend of Felix Mendelssohn Ambroise Thomas (1811–1896). Swiss composer and one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era Louis Antoine Jullien (1812–1860). highly effected the late-Romantic composers Alexandre Dubuque (1812–1898). king of promenade concerts in England Friedrich von Flotow (1812–1883).
Parsifal among others). best known for his operas amongst which is worth noting Odda di Bernaver and Caterina Howard Adolf von Henselt (1814–1889). best known for Nabucco. Ernst Haberbier (1813–1869). English composer. German composer. Tristan und Isolde. German composer of brilliant piano music Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901). Giuseppe Lillo (1814-1863). Italian composer. Lohengrin. conductor. major German opera composer (Der Ring des Nibelungen. Rigoletto. companion of Johannes Brahms William Sterndale Bennett (1816–1875). La Traviata and Aida Richard Wagner Richard Wagner (1813–1883). and editor . major Italian opera composer. also famous for the widely used Bridal Chorus in marriages. German composer and pianist Robert Volkmann (1815–1883).
wife of Robert Schumann. Austrian composer and conductor notable for his operettas Clara Schumann (1819–1896). Hungarian composer. 1863). German composer and pianist. French pianist and composer Károly Thern (1817–1886). French opera and operetta composer. conductor and teacher Niels Gade (1817–1890). composer and double bass virtuoso . known for The Tales of Hoffmann and Orpheus in the Underworld Franz von Suppé (1819–1895). French composer. Émile Prudent (February 3. one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era Middle Romantic era composers (born 1820-1839) Henri Vieuxtemps (1820–1881). violinist and organist Charles Gounod (1818–1893). Belgian composer and violinist Giovanni Bottesini (1821–1889). Danish composer. best known for his operas Faust and Roméo et Juliette Jacques Offenbach (1819–1880). 1817 – May 14. Italian conductor.
best known for his attachment to classical forms and conductedGewandhausorchester for nearly 35 years Jean-Baptiste Arban (1825–1889). Belgian-born French composer. Swedish composer. consert pianist and organist Joachim Raff (1822–1882). wrote the "Grande méthode . Anton Bruckner (1824–1896). most of them program music César Franck (1822–1890). Austrian composer of nine large-scale symphonies (one incomplete) and two more unacknowledged Bedřich Smetana (1824–1884). German composer. Má vlast and his opera The Bartered Bride Carl Reinecke (1824-1910). German composer and pianist. conductor and pianist. best known for eleven symphonies. noted for his Symphony. French virtuoso cornetist. also a significant composer for the organ Édouard Lalo (1823–1892). French composer remembered for his Symphonie Espagnole for violin and orchestra and his Cello Concerto Theodor Kirchner (1823-1903). perhaps best known for his cycle of symphonic poems. Czech nationalist composer. he wrote over 1000 piano pieces. Swiss-born German composer. Emilie Hammarskjöld (1821–1854).
German conductor. Russian conductor. Hungarian composer Hans Guido Freiherr von Bülow (1830–1894). best known for his mazurkas. American composer famous for performing his own romantic piano works Karl Goldmark (1830–1915). danzas. tumbas. composed The Blue Danube and opera Die Fledermaus. Austrian composer known as "The Waltz King". French composer of chamber music Anton Rubinstein (1829–1894). Swedish opera composer Josef Strauss (1827–1870). son of the composer Johann Strauss I and elder brother of Josef Strauss and Eduard Strauss Ivar Christian Hallström (1826–1901). waltzes. composer and pianist Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869). and serenades. composer and virtuoso pianist Jan Gerard Palm (1831–1906). Curaçao born composer. complète pour cornet à pistons et de saxhorn" now referred to as the "Trumpeter's Bible" Johann Strauss II (1825–1899). Austrian composer and younger brother of Johann Strauss II Adolphe Blanc (1828–1885). . fantasies.
German composer. famous for his working under and of being compared to Beethoven. and Double Concerto in A minor for Violin. one of the leading musicians of the Romantic period. aside from his other orchestral works. two piano concertos. German piano and organ composer. best known for his lieder and choral works Alexander Borodin (1833–1887). and his most influential works include the four symphonies. wrote the opera Prince Igor Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (1833–1897). numerous chamber music and piano music pieces and lieder. Amilcare Ponchielli (1834–1886). Swedish composer. known for Sonata on the 94th Psalm . Cello and Orchestra (1887). Russian chemist and nationalist composer. Italian opera composer known for La Gioconda Julius Reubke (1834–1858). Violin Concerto (Brahms). August Söderman (1832–1876).
choral. one of the first significant ballet composers since the Baroque music. composer and music teacher. known for Coppélia. pianist and an exceptional organist. composer. composer in Russian Five Friedrich Baumfelder (1836–1916). Swedish composer. and Lakmé Bertha Tammelin (1836–1915). numerous concert pieces. German bassoonist. Sylvia. German piano. consert pianist and opera singer Julius Weissenborn (1837–1888). French composer of light music . Russian army officer. Austrian composer and younger brother of Johann Strauss II and Josef Strauss César Antonovich Cui (1835–1918). and orchestra composer. mélodies. Danse Macabre and The Carnival of the Animals Henryk Wieniawski (1835–1880). famous for two concertos and character pieces of exceptional difficulty Eduard Strauss (1835–1916). renowned for his Organ Symphony. French music critic. music critic. Polish composer and violinist. Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921). pieces of chamber music. famous for his Practical Bassoon School Émile Waldteufel (1837–1915). in his day known for his 'Tirocinium musicae' and today known for his 'Melody in F major' Léo Delibes (1836–1891).
part of Russian Five John Knowles Paine (1839–1906). German composer. and Pictures at an Exhibition. French composer of the opera Carmen Max Bruch (1838–1920). 1. Russian nationalist composer known for his intensely nationalist works including his opera Boris Godunov. and Kol Nidrei for cello and orchestra Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881). Scottish Fantasy. Russian nationalist composer and leader of the Russian Five Georges Bizet (1838–1875). Mily Balakirev (1837–1910). first nativeborn American composer to acquire fame for his large-scale orchestral music . known for his Violin Concerto No.
his operas (Eugene Onegin). French composer who influenced Maurice Ravel. Norwegian composer. his Violin Concerto and hissymphonies Johan Svendsen (1840–1911). the 1812 Overture. Russian composer. conductor and violinist Emmanuel Chabrier (1841–1894).Late Romantic era composers (born 1840-1859) Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893). known for his ballets (The Nutcracker. Czech composer. known for the "New World" Symphony . his First Piano Concerto. Swan Lake). Les Six. Jean Françaixand many other French composers. known for the opera L'étoile Antonín Dvořák (1841–1904).
S. known for his works for the organ Gabriel Fauré (1845–1924). English composer known for his operettas in collaboration with W. Scheherazade. and incidental music to Peer Gynt Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844–1908). Italian composer and librettist. known as a composer for his opera Mefistofele Jules Massenet (1842–1912). Spanish virtuoso violinist and composer Charles-Marie Widor (1844–1937). French composer. and the Capriccio Espagnol Pablo de Sarasate (1844–1908). Arrigo Boito (1842–1918). known for his chamber music and a requiem among other pieces . best known for Flight of the Bumblebee from The Tale of Tsar Saltan. Norwegian composer known for his Piano Concerto. Russian composer and member of The Five. Lyric Pieces for the piano. French composer and organist known for his Divertissement for Doubled Wind Quintet Edvard Grieg (1843–1907). French composer best known for his operas Manon and Werther and theMéditation for violin from the opera Thaïs Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). French composer. Gilbert Émile Bernard (1843–1902).
French composer. known by flautists for his instructional work Progress in Flute Playing Franz Xaver Scharwenka (1850–1924). PolishGerman composer. Austrian composer and pianist Robert Fuchs (1847–1927). Romanian composer . known as the 'Father of modern classical guitar playing' Hans Huber (1852–1921). Ignaz Brüll (1846–1907). German-Polish composer and music teacher. teacher of Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud among others Francisco Tárrega (1852–1909) Spanish composer and virtuoso classical guitarist. Swiss composer Ciprian Porumbescu (1853–1883). pianist and music teacher. French composer. brother of Philipp Scharwenka Vincent d'Indy (1851–1931). wrote choral song Jerusalem Ernesto Köhler (1849–1907). Austrian composer and music teacher Ludwig Philipp Scharwenka (1847–1917). noted for seventeen mélodies Hubert Parry (1848–1918). English composer. Italian flautist and composer. brother of Xaver Scharwenka Henri Duparc (1848–1933).
concerti and symphonies. also composed a piano concerto and a violin concerto John Philip Sousa (1854–1932). English composer. Italian composer. chamber music. American composer. famous for Hänsel und Gretel Leoš Janáček (1854–1928). seen as a bridge from them to Claude Debussy Julius Röntgen (1855–1932). German-Dutch composer influenced by Brahms. "The March King" Ernest Chausson (1855–1899). Russian composer. pianist and music teacher Edward Elgar (1857–1934). wrote oratorios. most famous for his Enigma Variations and Pomp and Circumstance Marches . French composer influenced by Franck and Wagner. German opera composer influenced by Richard Wagner. known for his operas Káťa Kabanová and Jenůfa and orchestral pieces Sinfonietta andTaras Bulba Alfredo Catalani (1854–1893). German Jewish composer-pianist who wrote prolifically for the piano. known for the operas Loreley and La Wally Moritz Moszkowski (1854–1925). Engelbert Humperdinck (1854–1921). close friend to Grieg Sergei Ivanovich Taneyev (1856–1915). Czech composer.
Italian opera composer known almost exclusively for Pagliacci Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924). French composer and pianist Ruggero Leoncavallo (1858–1919). Russian composer and pianist . and Madama Butterfly Sergei Lyapunov (1859–1924). Cécile Chaminade (1857–1944). Italian opera composer known forLa bohème. Tosca.
his works include nine innovative large-scale and sometimes programmatic symphonies. Austrian composer of lieder. influenced by Richard Wagner Anton Arensky (1861–1906). "To a Wild Rose" Hugo Wolf (1860–1903). French composer best known for his opera Louise Gustav Mahler Gustav Mahler (1860–1911). Spanish composer. and many lieder Edward MacDowell (1860–1908).Romantic era/20th century transition composers (born 1860-1880) Isaac Albéniz (1860–1909). American composer best known for his piano concertos and piano suites. his works include his most popular short piece. known for nationalist piano works such as Iberia and a 'set of 12 piano pieces' Gustave Charpentier (1860–1956). pianist and music teacher . one of the most important late-Romantic/earlyModernist composers. Austrian composer. Russian composer.
French composer. Mexican composer. operas and lieder Paul Dukas (1865–1935). known for Cavalleria rusticana Ricardo Castro (1864–1907). known for his piece of program music The Sorcerer's Apprentice . Italian opera composer. Deux Arabesques. known for his compositions Clair de Lune (from Suite bergamasque). German composer. known for Also sprach Zarathustra ("Thus Spoke Zarathustra"). and many others Frederick Delius (1862–1934). wrote many tone poems. works include piano music Richard Strauss Richard Strauss (1864–1949). French composer. Claude Debussy (1862–1918). English composer. used chromaticism in many of his compositions Pietro Mascagni (1863–1945). one of the most prominent figures working within the field ofImpressionist music.
Italian composer and pianist. wrote symphonies. Italian composer. Spanish composer and pianist. influenced by Wagner and Liszt Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). Alexander Glazunov (1865–1936). known for the symphonic poem Finlandia and Violin Concerto Ferruccio Busoni (1866–1924). Italian opera composer Enrique Granados (1867–1916). operas. violinist. Danish composer. known for his opera Turandot and his many transcriptions and arrangements of Johann Sebastian Bach Samuel Maykapar (1867–1938). vocal and piano music Amy Beach (1867–1944). Russian composer Umberto Giordano (1867–1948). known for his piano works and chamber music Wilhelm Peterson-Berger (1867–1942). Polish composer and pianist . Finnish nationalist composer of seven symphonies. Swedish composer. Russian composer. American composer and pianist Vittorio Monti (1868–1922). and conductor Zygmunt Stojowski (1869/70–1946). renowned for his six symphonies and concerti Jean Sibelius (1865–1957).
Swedish composer. Fantasia on Greensleeves. English composer. Julius Conus (1869–1942). known for Swedish Rhapsody. Austrian composer and music teacher. his students include Schoenberg and Korngold Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958). works include choral music. Hungarian composer. Russian composer and violinist Franz Lehár (1870–1948). mainly known for his operettas Guillaume Lekeu (1870–1894). and five symphonies Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915). Belgian (Wallon) composer. American composer and conductor. known for his violin sonata Henry Kimball Hadley (1871–1937). orchestral works . Italian composer. his works include nine symphonies. known for works for choir. known for his harmonically adventurous piano sonatas and theatrical. Russian. and for organ Alexander Zemlinsky (1871–1942). composed the opera Cleopatra's Night Oreste Ravanello (1871–1938). and other orchestral poems Hugo Alfvén (1872–1960).
despite a limited number of compositions. Austrian composer. but subsequently developed atonalism and serialism with such watershed works as "Moses und Aron" Franz Schmidt (1874–1939). Austrian composer. "Verklarte Nacht") are influenced by Mahler. whose early works (e. Venezuelan composer.Sergei Rachmaninoff Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873–1943). . known for his Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart Reynaldo Hahn (1874–1947). wrote threesymphonies.g. Russian composer. prolific German composer. conductor and virtuoso pianist. known for his strikingly beautiful and unabashedly tonal melodies Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951). Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini and solo piano music Max Reger (1873–1916). influenced by Bruckner and Brahms Maurice Ravel (1875–1937). French composer. four piano concertos.
Italian composer and music teacher. Spanish composer. his musical style strongly influenced by the Russian Five Reinhold Glière (1875–1956). Russian composer. Russian composer. known for symphonic poems The Fountains of Rome and The Pines of Rome Nikolai Medtner (1880–1951). primarily a composer of operas Ottorino Respighi (1879–1936). known for his piano sonatas and concerti . Italian composer. best known for The Three-Cornered Hat Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876–1948). composer and pianist Franz Schreker (1878–1934). Polish composer. his style is of late Romantic era and nationalist character Manuel de Falla (1876–1946). known for his comic operas Ernő Dohnányi (1877–1960). composer and music teacher. famous for his virtuosic piano music such as "Gaspard de la nuit". Hungarian conductor. his works reflect Romantic era Mieczysław Karłowicz (1876–1909). and orchestral showpieces most notably "Bolero". Austrian conductor.
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