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الجودة فى مجال الرعایة الصحية

الجودة فى مجال الرعایة الصحية

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Published by Hosam Abd El-Galeil
المستشفيات تمثل جزءِ آبير ومهم من النظام العلاجي والصحي في العالم
فقد قام العدید من الرواد والمسئولين في مجال الجودة بالاهتمام بموضوع الجودة في المستشفيات
بمفهومها الحدیث
المستشفيات تمثل جزءِ آبير ومهم من النظام العلاجي والصحي في العالم
فقد قام العدید من الرواد والمسئولين في مجال الجودة بالاهتمام بموضوع الجودة في المستشفيات
بمفهومها الحدیث

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Published by: Hosam Abd El-Galeil on Feb 05, 2012
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04/15/2013

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Quality Improvement in Hospitals
Submitted by:
Akram G. Ghabbour
Certified Quality Manager (American Society for Quality)

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ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﻢﻴهﺎﻔﻣ :
ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺴﻟا دﻮﻘﻌﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ نﺎآ ﺎﻤﻋ ً ﺎﻣﺎﻤﺗ ﻒﻠﺘﺨﻣ ةدﻮﺠﻟا مﻮﻬﻔﻣ ﺢﺒﺻأ ﺪﻘﻟ . ﺖﻧﺎآ ﻲﺿﺎﻤﻟا ﻲﻔﻓ
ﻧﺎﺼﻤﻟﺎﺑ ﺎهدﻮﺝﻮﺑ ﺔﻄﺒﺗﺮﻣ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺔﻤﻠآ ﺔﻄﺒﺗﺮﻣ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺔﻤﻠآ ىﺮﻧ نﻵا ﻦﻜﻟ ﻂﻘﻓ ﺔﻴﺝﺎﺘﻧﻹا ﻦآﺎﻣﻷاو ﻊ
وأ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻣ ﻞآ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻄﺸﻧﻷا ﻪﺝوا ﻞﻜﺑ ﺔﻄﺒﺗﺮﻣو ةدﻮﺝﻮﻣ ﺎﻬﻧإ ﺪﺠﻧ ﻚﻟﺬآو تﺎﻣﺪﺨﻟاو تﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟا ﻞﻜﺑ
ﺔﺌﻴه .
ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا ﺔیﺎﻋﺮﻟا لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻓ ةدﻮﺠﻟا :
آ ﻢﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻲﺤﺼﻟاو ﻲﺝﻼﻌﻟا مﺎﻈﻨﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻢﻬﻣو ﺮﻴﺒآ ِ ءﺰﺝ ﻞﺜﻤﺗ تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﺖﻧﺎآ ﺎﻤﻟو ،ﻪﻠ
تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ةدﻮﺠﻟا عﻮﺿﻮﻤﺑ مﺎﻤﺘهﻻﺎﺑ ةدﻮﺠﻟا لﺎﺠﻣ ﻲﻓ ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺌﺴﻤﻟاو داوﺮﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪیﺪﻌﻟا مﺎﻗ ﺪﻘﻓ
ﺚیﺪﺤﻟا ﺎﻬﻣﻮﻬﻔﻤﺑ ) تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟ تاودﻷاو ﺞهﺎﻨﻤﻟاو ﺐﻴﻟﺎﺱﻷا ثﺪﺡأ ﻖﻴﺒﻄﺗ يأ
تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﻖﻴﺒﻄﺗ لﻼﺥ ﻦﻣ ﺞﺉﺎﺘﻨﻟا ﻞﻀﻓأ ﻰﻟإ لﻮﺻﻮﻟاو . (
نأ نﻵا ﺪﺠﻨﻓ و ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﻣﺎﻨﻟا و ﺔﻣﺪﻘﺘﻤﻟا لوﺪﻟا ﻲﻓ تﺎﻴﺠﻴﺗاﺮﺘﺱﻻا ﻦﻣ ﺪیﺪﻌﻟا كﺎﻨه
تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺾیﺮﻤﻟا ءﺎﺿرﺈﺑ مﺎﻤﺘهﻻا .
ءادﻻا تاﺮﺷﺆﻣ Performance Indicators
مﺎﻈﻨﻟا ةءﺎﻔآو ﺔﻴﻠﻋﺎﻓ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻰﻟإ ﻪﻟﻼﺥ ﻦﻣ لﻮﺻﻮﻟا ﻦﻜﻤی تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ءادﻷا ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺗ نإ
system ،ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا ﺔیﺎﻋﺮﻟا ﻲﻓ ءادﻷا تاﺮﺵﺆﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا لﻼﺥ ﻦﻣ ﻚﻟذو performance
indicators ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا تاﺪﺡﻮﻟا وأ تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا جرﺎﺥو ﻞﺥاد . ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻞﻣوﺎﻋ ةﺪﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا ﻦﻜﻤیو
ءادﻻا تاﺮﺵﺆﻤآ مﺪﺨﺘﺴﺗ ﺔﻴﺝرﺎﺥو ﺔﻴﻠﺥاد . ﻞﻣاﻮﻌﻟا ﻩﺬه ﻦﻣو :
ﺔﻴﻠﺥاد ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ Internal Factors) ( ﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔیرادﻹا ﻒﺉﺎﻇﻮﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻣ تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘ ) ﻞﺜﻣ
ﻞیﻮﻄﻟاو ﺮﻴﺼﻘﻟا ىﺪﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟاو ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺘﻟاو ﺔﺑﺎﻗﺮﻟا .
ﺔﻴﺝرﺎﺨﻟا ﻞﻣاﻮﻋ ) Factors (External نﻮﻴﻨﻌﻤﻟﺎﺑ ﻖﻠﻌﺘﺘﻓ Stakeholders ﻰﺿﺮﻤﻟا ﻞﺜﻣ
) ءﻼﻤﻌﻟا ( ﻦﻴﻤهﺎﺴﻤﻟاو ﻊﻤﺘﺠﻤﻟاو .
ﺮﺥﻻ ﻦﻴﺡ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻬﻤﻴﻘﺗو ﺎﻘﺒﺴﻣ ءادﻻا تاﺮﺵﺆﻣ ﺪیﺪﺤﺘﺑ مﻮﻘﺗ نا ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺐﺠی ﻚﻟﺬﻟ
ﺴﺘﻟ ﻚﻟذو ءادا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﻣزﻻا تاراﺮﻘﻟا ذﺎﺨﺗﻻ ﺎﻀیا ﻚﻟﺬآ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻠﻟ ﻰﻠﻌﻔﻟا ءادﻻا ﻢﻴﻴﻘﺗ ﻰﻓ ﺎهﺪﻋﺎ
ﺐﺠی ﻚﻟﺬﻟ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻣ ﻞآ حﺎﺠﻧ ﻰﻓ ﺔﻴﺱاﺎﺴﻟا ﻞﻣاﻮﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ نﻻا تاﺮﺵﺆﻤﻟا ﺪﻌﺗو ﻞﺒﻘﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا
ﺔﻴﺉﺎﺼﺡﻻا ﺐﻴﻟﺎﺱﻻا ﻞﺜﻣ ﺎﻬﺘﺉﺎﻔآ ىﺪﻣ ﺪیﺪﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﺜیﺪﺡ ﺔﻴﻤﻠﻋ ﺐﻴﻟﺎﺱا ماﺪﺨﺘﺱا Statistical Tool..
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ﺬﻟ ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﻰﻟإ لوﺪﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪیﺪﻌﻟا ﻲﻓ تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟاو ﺔﻴﺝﻼﻌﻟا تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪیﺪﻌﻟا ﻪﺠﺗا ﻚﻟ
دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا
دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ Accreditation Programs
ﺔیﺎﻋﺮﻟا ﺰآاﺮﻣو تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﺚﺤﻟ ﻚﻟذو دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺘﻟ لوﺪﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪیﺪﻌﻟا ﻰﻌﺴﺗ
ﻻ ﺖﺑﺎﺙ ءادأ ىﻮﺘﺴﻣو ﺔﺘﺑﺎﺙ ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻤﺑ ماﺰﺘﻟﻻا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا ﺖﻗو ﻦﻣ وأ ﺮﺥﺁ ﻰﻟإ نﺎﻜﻣ ﻦﻣ ﺮﻴﻐﺘی
ﺮﺥﻵ . ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﺪﻨﻋ ﺔﻴﺒﻄﻟا ﺔیﺎﻋﺮﻟا ةدﻮﺝ ىﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻲﻓ فﻼﺘﺥا يأ ثوﺪﺡ مﺪﻋ ةﺎﻋاﺮﻣ ﻦﻣ ﺪﺑﻻ ﻚﻟﺬآ
ﻟا ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا ةﺪﺡﻮﻟا وأ ﻰﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺌﺴﻤ .
مﺪﺨﺘﺴﺗ ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻩﺬهو ﺔﻴﻤﻟﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﺝﻼﻋ تﺎﻤﻈﻨﻣ ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻬﻌﺿو ﻢﺗ ﺲﻴیﺎﻘﻣو ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻣ كﺎﻨه
تاﺪﺡﻮﻟا ةءﺎﻔﻜﻟ سﺎﻴﻘﻤآ ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا تاﺪﺡﻮﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺔﻣﺪﺨﻟاو جﻼﻌﻠﻟ ىﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﻟوﺎﺤﻣ ﻰﻓ ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا
ﻰﻤﻟﺎﻌﻟاو ﻰﻠﺤﻤﻟا ىﻮﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا و .
نﻮﻜﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﺝﻼﻌﻟا وأ ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟاو تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻞﻴهﺄﺘﺑ مﻮﻘﺗ تﺎﺌﻴﻬﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪیﺪﻌﻟا كﺎﻨهو
ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻣ و طوﺮﺸﻟ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﻄﻣ Standards ﻌﻟا تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻩﺬه ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ َ ﺎﻘﺒﺴﻣ ﺔﻋﻮﺿﻮﻣ ﻩﺬه ﻦﻣو ﺔﻴﻤﻟﺎ
ﻰﻠی ﺎﻣ ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻤﻟا :
• Patients' family rights, organization ethics
• Patient care, emergency care, baby friendly hospital
• Nursing services
• Safety :
- environmental safety
- clinical safety
- infection control
- sterilization
- employee health program
• Medical support services
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- pharmacy
- laboratory
- blood bank
- radiology
• Management of hospitals
- Housekeeping
- laundry
- kitchen
Accreditation tools:
ﻖﺑﺎﻄﺘﻟا ﻞﻤﻌﻟ ﺔﻣزﻼﻟا طﺎﻘﻨﻟا بﺎﺴﺡ ﺔﻘیﺮﻃ ﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟا لوﺪﺠﻟا ﺢﺿﻮی :
Standard
• Hospitals have a specified list of procedures for
which consent is required from patients or other
authorized person and the list includes:
- surgery and invasive procedure
- anesthesia
- use of blood
- - research
Not
met(0)
Partially
met(1)
Fully
met(2)
Count
Score
Total

• ﻄﺘﺗ نا ﺔﻴﺝﻼﻋ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻣ ﻞآ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺐﺠی تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﺎﻬﺘﻌﺿو ﻰﺘﻟا ﺲﺱﻼﻟ ﺎﻘﻓو ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻖﺑﺎ
ﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﺼﺤﺘﻟ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﻄﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ تﺎﺝرﺪﻟا ﻰﻠﻋﻻ لﻮﺻﻮﻟا ﻰﻟا تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻰﻌﺴﺗ و ﺔﻴﻤﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﻴﺝﻼﻌﻟا
ﺔﻘﺑﺎﻄﻣ تادﺎﻬﺵ
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• ﻩﺬه ﺔﻌﺝاﺮﻣ ﻢﺘیو ةﺪﻤﺘﻌﻣ ﺔﻴﻤﻟﺎﻋ تﺎﺌﻴه ﻰهو ﺔﺤﻧﺎﻤﻟا تﺎﺌﻴﻬﻟا ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺢﻨﻤﺗ تادﺎﻬﺸﻟا ﻩﺬهو
ﻮﻜﺗ ﺎﻣ ً ﺎﺒﻟﺎﻏ ﺔیرود ﺔﻔﺼﺑ تادﺎﻬﺸﻟا ﺔیﻮﻨﺱ ن .
Monitoring System:
Developing a monitoring system for quality is a long and tedious
process. It will consist of a series of interdependent steps including:
1. identify key aspects of care in public facilities that are worth
monitoring.
2. identify indicators and important clinical criteria for monitoring the
important aspects of care;
3. establish thresholds (levels, trends, patterns) when possible that will
trigger evaluation of the care;
4. develop data collection methodology: identify data elements and
sources of data;
5. develop automated modules essential for quality improvement program,
such as infection control, drug use, utilization data, and discharge
summary;
6. develop routine reporting system;
7. monitor the important aspects of care by collecting and organizing the
data for each indicator;
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ةﺪﺕﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘﻟا Feedback
ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﺪﻌﺗ Feedback ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﺎﻬﻧأ ﺎﻤآ ،ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺮیﻮﻄﺗ ﺔﻟوﺎﺤﻣ ﻲﻓ ﻲﺴﻴﺉر ﺮﺼﻨﻋ
ةدﻮﺠﻟا ةرادإ ﺮﺻﺎﻨﻋ ﻦﻣ يﺮهﻮﺝ ﺮﺼﻨﻋ ﻚﻟﺬآ ﺪﻌﺗو ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﺮﻴﺱ ﺔﺒﻗاﺮﻣ .
ﻩﺬه ﻞﻌﺠﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔآﺮﺘﺸﻤﻟا تﺎﻋﻮﺿﻮﻤﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ ﻲﻠی ﺎﻤﻴﻓو ﻂﻴﺤﻣ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻟﺎﻌﻓ ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘﻟا
) رﺎﻃإ ( تﺎﻴﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا :
ً ﻻوا : ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻰﻓ مﺪﺨﺘﺴﺗ ﻰﻜﻟ ءﺎﺒﻃﻻا ﺮﻈﻧ ﺔﻬﺝو ﻦﻣ ﺔﺤﻟﺎﺻ ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘﻟا نﻮﻜﺗ نا ﺐﺠی
ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا .
ً ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺛ : ﻟا ﺔﻴﻗاﺪﺼﻣ ﻦﻣ ﺪآﺎﺘﻟا ﺐﺠی ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘ
ً ﺎﺜﻟﺎﺛ : ﻟا نﻮﻜﺗ نأ ﺐﺠی ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘ ﺔﺤﻟﺎﺻ و ﺐﺱﺎﻨﻤﻟا ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻲﻓ Valid
ر ً ﺎﻌﺑا : ﻞﻤﻋ ﺐﺠی Benchmarking ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ لﻮﺼﺤﻟا ﻢﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻋﺎﻓ ﻦﻣ ﺪآﺄﺘﻠﻟ
ً ﺎﺴﻣﺎﺧ : ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻌﻓ ﺪﻴیﺄﺗو ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺗ ةدﺎﻘﻟا ءﺎﺒﻃﻷا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺐﺠی
َ ﺎﺱدﺎﺱ : ءادﻷا ﺮیﻮﻄﺘﻟ ةﺪیﺆﻣ ةﺪﺗﺮﻤﻟا ﺔیﺬﻐﺘﻟا نﻮﻜﺗ نا ﺐﺠی .
ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ مﻮﻬﻔﻣ :
؟ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻮه ﺎﻣ
ه ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﺔﻴﺒﻄﻟا تﺎآﺮﺸﻟا وأ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﻖﺒﻄﺗو ﺎﻬﻟ ﻂﻄُ ﺨﻣ تﺎﻃﺎﺸﻧ ﻲ .
ﻞﻤﻋ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﻩﺮیﺪﺗ عوﺮﺸﻣ ﻦﻣ ً اﺪﻴﻘﻌﺗ ﺮﺜآأ نﻮﻜﺗ نأ ﻦﻜﻤی ةﺪیﺪﻋ روﺎﺤﻣ ﺞﻣاﺮﺒﻟا ﻩﺬه ﻞﻤﺸﺗو
ﻲﻤﻟﺎﻌﻟا ىﻮﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ظﻮﺤﻠﻣ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ دادﺰﺗ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ نأ ﺮآﺬﻟﺎﺑ ﺮیﺪﺠﻟا ﻦﻣو ةدﺪﺤﻣ ةﺪﺡاو .
ﻲﻠی ﺎﻣ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﻞﻤﺸﺕو :
• ﻤﻟا تﺎﺴﺱﺆ – ﺔﻠﻣﺎﺸﻟا ةدﻮﺠﻟا ةرادا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ TQM
• ﻞﻤﻋ تﺎﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ Teamwork ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣ تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻣ ﻦﻣ – ﺔﻴﻧوﺎﻌﺗ ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ
• تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺝرﺎﺥ ﺔﻌﺝاﺮﻣ - دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ accreditation programs
• تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺐیرﺪﺘﻟا مﺎﻈﻧ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺗ – ﺐیرﺪﺘﻟاو دﺎﺵرﻹا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ .

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ﻲﻟوﺪﻟا ىﻮﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ةدﻮﺠﻟا تﺎﻴﺠﻴﺗاﺮﺘﺱإ نإ ﻞآ وأ ﺾﻌﺑ ﻞﻤﺸﺗ نأ ﻦﻜﻤی ﻲﺘﻟاو ﻰﻠﺤﻤﻟا وأ
نﺎﻴﺡﻷا ﺾﻌﺑ ﻲﻓ وأ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻜﻟا ةدﻮﺠﻟا ةرادإ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻖﺒﻄﺗ ﺎﻧﺎﻴﺡأ تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ نأ ﺪﺠﻨﻓ ﻖﺒﺱ ﺎﻣ
ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻞﺥاد ﻦﻴﻌﻣ عﺎﻄﻗ ﻲﻓ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺗ ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻖﺒﻄﺗ . ﻖﻴﺒﻄﺘﺑ مﻮﻘﺗ تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ كﺎﻨه
لا ﺔﻴﺝﺎﻬﻨﻣ six sigma وأ عﺎﻄﻗ ﻲﻓ ﻪﻘﻴﺒﻄﺗ ﻦﻜﻤی ﺎﻀیأ لا ﻪﻴﺝﺎﻬﻨﻣ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺱا لﻼﺥ ﻦﻣ و ﺮﺜآأ six
sigma لﺎﺑ ﻰﻤﺴی ﺎﻣ ﻖﺒﻄی DMAIC
DMAIC
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control DMAIC refers to a data-
driven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of
the company's Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC is an acronym for five
interconnected phases: Define Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
Each step in the cyclical DMAIC Process is required to ensure the
best possible results. The process steps are:
Define the Customer, their Critical to Quality (CTQ) issues, and the
Core Business Process involved.
• Define who customers are, what their requirements are for
products and services, and what their expectations are
• Define project boundaries the stop and start of the process
• Define the process to be improved by mapping the process flow
Measure the performance of the Core Business Process
involved.
• Develop a data collection plan for the process
• Collect data from many sources to determine types of defects and
metrics
• Compare to customer survey results to determine shortfall

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Analyze the data collected and process map to determine root
causes of defects and opportunities for improvement.
• Identify gaps between current performance and goal performance
• Prioritize opportunities to improve
• Identify sources of variation
Improve the target process by designing creative solutions to
fix and prevent problems.
• Create innovate solutions using technology and discipline
• Develop and deploy implementation plan
Control the improvements to keep the process on the new course.
• Prevent reverting back to the "old way"
• Require the development, documentation and implementation of
an ongoing monitoring plan
• Institutionalize the improvements through the modification of
systems and structures (staffing, training, incentives)
ﻤﻋ ﻦﻜﻤی ﻒﻴآ ؟ةدﻮﺠﻠﻟ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﻞ
ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺘﻟا تاﻮﻄﺨﻟﺎﺑ مﺎﻴﻘﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪﺑﻻ ،ةدﻮﺠﻠﻟ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﻞﻤﻋ أﺪﺑ ﻞﺒﻗ :
• ﻞﻣﺎآ ﺺﺤﻓ Environmental scanning ﺔیﺎﻋﺮﻟا لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻓ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا عوﺮﺸﻣ ﺔﻴﻤﻨﺗ ﺔﻴﻔﻴآ ﻦﻋ
ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا
• فﺎﺸﻜﺘﺱا ﻣاﻮﻌﻟا و ﺐﻧاﻮﺠﻟا ﺔﻟوﺎﺤﻣ و ةدﻮﺠﻟا ةرادإ ﺎﻬﻘﻘﺤﺗ نأ ﻦﻜﻤی ﻲﺘﻟ ﻞ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟ ﺎﻬﻋﺎﺒﺗا
ﺔﻴﺤﺼﻟا تﺎﻣﺪﺨﻟا ىﻮﺘﺴﻣ .
• ﺲﻴیﺎﻘﻣ ﺔﺱارد ءادﻷا ﺎهﺮیﻮﻄﺗ ﻦﻜﻤی ﻒﻴآو .

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ﻰﻠیﺎﻣ عﺎﺒﺕإ ﻦﻜﻤی ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻞﻤﻌﻟ :
1 . ﺔﻴﻧﻮﻧﺎﻗ ﺔﻄﺥ ﻊﺿو Set Mandate و ، ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟا ةرادﻹا نوﺎﻌﺗ ﻦﻣ ﺪﺑﻻ top management ﻰﺘﺡ
ﻞﻤﻋ ﻰﻓ ﻦﻴﺒﻏاﺮﻟا ءﺎﺒﻃﻷا ﻰﻠﻌﻓ ﻩﺬﻴﻔﻨﺗ ﻦﻜﻤﻣ ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺘﻟا ﺢﺒﺼی تارادﻹا ﻰﻟإ ءﻮﺠﻠﻟا يرﺰﺝ ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ
ﻦیﺮیﺪﻤﻟاو ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﻰﻓ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺗ ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺗ ﻦﻜﻤی ﻻ ةرادﻹا ﻦﻣ ﺢﺿاو ﻢﻋﺪﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ لﻮﺼﺤﻠﻟ ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟا
ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟا ةرادﻹا مﺎﻬﻣ :
• ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺘﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺚﺤﻟا
• ﺔﺤﺿاو ﺔیؤر ﻖﻠﺥ
• عوﺮﺸﻤﻟا ﺔیراﺮﻤﺘﺱا ﺪﻴﻀﻌﺗ Sustain Improvement Results
• ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻا ﻞﺡاﺮﻤﻟا ةرادإو ﺔﻌﺑﺎﺘﻣ
2 . ﺪیﺪﺤﺗ ةدﺎﻘﻟا رود leadership ﻰﺗﻻﺎﺑ مﺎﻴﻘﻠﻟ تﺎﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻰﻓ :
• ﺔﻓﺎﻘﺙ ﻊﺿو Set Culture
• ﻞﻴﻤﻌﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺰﻴآﺮﺘﻟاو مﺎﻤﺘهﻻا Customer Focus
• تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا Rely on Data
• ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻖیﺮﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا Rely on Teams
• ﻊﻴﻤﺠﻟا ﺔآرﺎﺸﻣ participation
3 . ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﻟا دراﻮﻤﻟا ﺺﻴﺼﺨﺗ Allocate Funds
• ﻠﻋ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﺎﻬﺝﺎﺘﺤﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﻟا دراﻮﻤﻟا ﺺﻴﺼﺨﺗ ﺔﻄﺥ ﺮﻴﻓﻮﺗ و ﺔﻌﺑﺎﺘﻣ ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟا ةرادﻹا ﻰ
ﺔﻴﻨﻓ وا ﺔیﺮﺸﺑ وا ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻣ ءاﻮﺱ ةدﻮﺠﻠﻟ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا
4 . ﻞآﺎﺸﻤﻟا ﺪیﺪﺤﺗو تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺗ Gather Data and Select Problems
• ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻠﻟ تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا تﺮﻓﻮﺗ ﺎﻤﻠﻜﻓ تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﺮﺼﻋ ﻰﻓ نﻻا ﺶﻴﻌﻧ ﺎﻨﻧا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﻰﻓ ﻚﻟذ ﺪﻋﺎﺴی
ذﺎﺨﺗﻹ ﻚﻟﺬآ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻰﻓ ﺐﺱﺎﻨﻤﻟا راﺮﻘﻟا ذﺎﺨﺗإ ﻰﻓ ﻢهﺎﺴیو ﻞآﺎﺸﻤﻟا ﺪیﺪﺤﺗو
ﻰﺤﻴﺤﺼﺗ ءاﺮﺝإ ﻞﻤﻋ ءاﻮﺱ ﺐﺱﺎﻨﻤﻟا راﺮﻘﻟا Corrective action ﻰﻌﻨﻣ ءاﺮﺝإ وأ
Preventive action
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5 . ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻖیﺮﻓ ﻦیﻮﻜﺗو رﺎﻴﺘﺥا Assign teams to problems
• رﺎﻴﺘﺥإو ﻦﻴﻴﻌﺗ نإ ﻞﻴﻜﺸﺗو ﻦیﻮﻜﺗ ﻦﻋ ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺌﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ ةﺮﻴﺒآ ﺔیﺎﻨﻌﺑ ﻰﻈﺤی نأ ﺐﺠی ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻖیﺮﻓ
ءﻰﻓﺎﻜﺘﻣ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻖیﺮﻓ . ﻖیﺮﻓ ﻞﻜﻟ نﻮﻜی نا ﺐﺠی facilitator ةرادﻻا ﻦﻴﺑ ﻞﺻﻮﻟا ﺔﻘﻠﺡ نﻮﻜﻴﻟ
ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻚﻟﺬآ ﺔﺑﻮﻠﻄﻤﻟا تاءﺎﻔﻜﻟاو ﻢﻬﺗاﺮﺒﺥ دﺪﺠیو ﻖیﺮﻔﻟا ءﺎﻀﻋأ رﺎﻴﺘﺥﺈﺑ مﻮﻘی ىﺬﻟا ﻮهو ﻖیﺮﻔﻟاو
ﻰﺘﻟا تﺎﻗﻮﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻟازإ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻪﻣﺎﻬﻤﺑ مﺎﻴﻘﻟا ءﺎﻨﺙا ﻖیﺮﻔﻟا ﻪﺝاﻮﺗ .
6 . ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺗ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻰﻓ ءﺪﺒﻟا Implementation
ﻖیﺮﻓ ﻰﻟإ ﺎﻬﻨﻴﺴﺤﺗ داﺮﻤﻟا تﺎﻋﻮﺿﻮﻤﻟاو ﻞآﺎﺸﻤﻟا دﺎﻨﺱﺈﺑ ةدﻮﺠﻟا ﺮیﻮﻄﺗ ﻦﻋ ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺌﺴﻤﻟا مﻮﻘی
ةادا ماﺪﺨﺘﺱا ﻦﻜﻤیو ﻞﻤﻌﻟا DEMING WHEEL(PDCA-Plan-D0-Check-Act) مﻮﻘیو
ﺎﻬﻨﻣو ﻰﻠی ﺎﻤﺑ ﻖیﺮﻔﻟا :
• ﻞﺤﻟا حاﺮﺘﻗإ نوﺪﺑ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻒیﺮﻌﺗ
• ﺾیﺮﻤﻟا ﺮﻈﻧ ﺔﻬﺝو ﻦﻣ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻒیﺮﻌﺗ
• ﺎﻬﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻤﻟا تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﺢﻴﺿﻮﺗ ﺔﻟوﺎﺤﻣ و ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻒیﺮﻌﺗ ىأ تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ دﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻا .
• ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻘﺡ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ
• ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ءﺎﻘﺑ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﺙﺆﺗ وأ ﺔیﻮﻴﺡ وأ ﺔﻤﻬﻣ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ ﺎﻤﻋ ﺢﻴﺿﻮﺗ j تاداﺮیﻻا ﻦﻋو
قﻮﺴﻟا ﻰﻓ ﺎﻬﺘﺼﺡ ﻦﻋو تﺎﻓوﺮﺼﻤﻟاو .
• ﺔﻘیﺮﻃ عﺎﺒﺗا ﻦﻜﻤیو ،ﺎﻬﺘﻴﻤهﻷ َ ﺎﻘﺒﻃ ﻞآﺎﺸﻤﻟا ﺔﻓﺎآ ﻞﺤﺗ نأ ﺐﺠی prioritization matrix
ﻞﺤﻟا ﺔیﻮﻟوأ ﺪیﺪﺤﺘﻟ .
• لﺎﺜﻤﻟا ﻞﻴﺒﺱ ﻰﻠﻌﻓ ،ﺔﺴﺱﺆﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ةدﻮﺝﻮﻤﻟا تﺎﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺘﻣو ةدﺪﺤﻣ نﻮﻜﺗ نأ ﺐﺠی ﻞآﺎﺸﻤﻟا
" ﻰﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﻔﻴﻌﺿ لﺎﻐﺵﻹا ﺔﺒﺴﻧ " وأ ، " ﺔﺼﺡ ﺔﻀﻔﺨﻨﻣ قﻮﺴﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻰﻔﺸﺘﺴﻤﻟا " ﺔﻴﻓﺎآ ﺮﻴﻏ
ﺢﻴﺿﻮﺘﻠﻟ
• ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣو ﺖﺙﺪﺡ اذﺎﻤﻟو ،ً ﻻوأ ﺎﻬﻤﻬﻓ ﺐﺠی ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻣ ىأ ﻞﺤﻟ Process ﻚﻟذو ﺎﻬﻴﻟإ تدأ ﻲﺘﻟا
ﻖﻓﺪﺘﻟا ﻂﺉاﺮﺥ ﻞﻤﻋ وأ ﻢﺱر ﻖیﺮﻃ ﻦﻋ Flow Charts ﻲﺘﻟا ﺐﻴﺗﺮﺘﻟﺎﺑ ثاﺪﺡﻷﺎﺑ ﺔﻤﺉﺎﻗ ﻞﻤﻋو
ﺮﺨﻟا ﻩﺬهو ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻩﺬه ثوﺪﺡ ﻰﻟإ ﺔیﺎﻬﻨﻟا ﻲﻓ تدأ ﻞﺻاﻮﺘﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻖیﺮﻔﻟا ءﺎﻀﻋأ ﺪﻋﺎﺴﺗ ﻂﺉا
ﻢﻬﻨﻴﺑ .
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• نوﺪﺑ ﻂﻘﻓ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺪﻤﺘﻌﻧ ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋ ﻞﻠﻀﺗ ﺎﻧﺎﻴﺡأ ﺎﻬﻨﻜﻟو لﺎﺠﻣ ىا ﻰﻓ ﺔﻤﻬﻣ تاﺮﺒﺨﻟا نأ ﻦﻣ ﺐﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑ
تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻣ ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺗ َ ﺎﻀیأ ﺐﺠیو ﻚﻟﺬﻟ ﻩﺮیﻮﻄﺗ داﺮﻤﻟا عﻮﺿﻮﻤﻟا وأ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻦﻋ تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻣ دﻮﺝو
ﻊﻣ تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﻩﺬه ﻖیﺮﻃ ﻦﻋو ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا لﻮﺡ ﺔﺤﻟﺎﺻو ﺔﻴﻓﺎآ ﻰﻟإ لﻮﺻﻮﻟا ﻦﻜﻤی تاﺮﺒﺨﻟا ﺮﻓاﻮﺗ
ﻞﺤﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺱﺎﻨﻣ قﺮﻃ .
• ﻦﻜﻤی ﻚﻟذ ﺪﻌﺑو ﻦیﺮﺥﻻا ﻰﻟإ ﺎﻬﻠﺡو ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻞﺻﻮﺗ ﺎﻬﻧا ﻰﻟإ َ ﺎﻀیأ تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻴﻤهأ ﻊﺝﺮﺗ
ﻒﺼﻋ ﻞﺜﻣ ةﺪیﺪﻋ تاودأ ماﺪﺨﺘﺱا ﻖیﺮﻃ ﻦﻋ ﻚﻟذو تﺎﺡاﺮﺘﻗا ةﺪﻋ ﻰﻟإ لﻮﺻﻮﻟا
ﻦهﺬﻟا brainstorming و affinity diagrams و fish bone diagram ... ﺦﻟا
• ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻞﻀﻓﻻا رﺎﻴﺘﺥاو ﺎﻬﺘﻴﻤهأ ﺐﺴﺡ حﺮﺘﻘﻤﻟا لﻮﻠﺤﻟا ﺐﻴﺗﺮﺘﺑ مﺎﻴﻘﻟا ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻖیﺮﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ
• ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ﻰﻓ راﺮﻤﺘﺱﻻا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻢهﺰﻴﻔﺤﺗو ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺘﻟا ﻦﻋ ﻦﻴﻟﻮﺌﺴﻤﻟا ﺪیﺪﺤﺗ ﻚﻟذ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻢﺙ
مﻮﻘﺗ ﺎهروﺪﺑ ﻰﺘﻟا ﻩزﺎﺠﻧإ ﻢﺗ ﺎﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ فﺮﻌﺘﻠﻟ تارﺎیﺰﻟاو ﻰﻧوﺮﺘﻜﻟﻻا ﺪیﺮﺒﻟا ﻖیﺮﻃ ﻦﻋ ﻚﻟذ ﻢﺘیو
ﺚﺤﺑ ﻢﻬﺝاﻮﺗ ﺪﻗ ﻰﺘﻟا ﻖﺉاﻮﻌﻟاو بﺎﻌﺼﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺐﻠﻐﺘﻟاو ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻖیﺮﻔﻟا ءﺎﻀﻋا .
• ﻞﻤﻋ ﺐﺠی عوﺮﺸﻤﻟا ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺗ ءﺎﻨﺙا Monitoring system ﻦیﺬﻔﻨﻤﻟا ﻪﻴﺝﻮﺗو ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺗ ﺔﺒﻗاﺮﻤﻟ
ﻢﻴﻠﺴﻟا ﻖیﺮﻄﻟا ﻦﻋ فاﺮﺤﻧﻻا ﺔﻟﺎﺡ ﻰﻓ ﻢﻬﻴﺝﻮﺗو ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ءﺎﻨﺙا . ﻊﺿو ﺐﺠی ً ﺎﻀیا
milestones ﻰﺘﻟا طﺎﻘﻨﻟا ﺪیﺪﺤﺘﻟ ﻪﻟ ﻂﻄﺨﻣ ﻮه ﺎﻤآ ﺮﻴﺴی ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟا نا ﻦﻣ ﺪآﺎﺘﻟا ﺐﺠی ﺎهﺪﻨﻋ .
• ﺔﻌﻗﻮﺘﻤﻟا ﺞﺉﺎﺘﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻬﺘﻧرﺎﻘﻣ و ﺔﻴﻠﻌﻔﻟا ﺞﺉﺎﺘﻨﻟا ﺪیﺪﺤﺗ عوﺮﺸﻤﻟا ءﺎﻬﺘﻧا ﺪﻨﻋ .
10 . ﺮیﻮﻄﺘﻟا رﺎﺸﺘﻧا Spread Improvement
• ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ءﺪﺑ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺚﺤﻟاو ﻊﻴﺠﺸﺘﻠﻟ مﺎﺴﻗﻷا ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟ ﻪﻨﻋ نﻼﻋﻹا ﻦﻣ ﺪﺑﻻ ﻢﺴﻗ ﻰﻓ ﺮیﻮﻄﺘﻟا ﻢﺗ اذإ
ذا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﻢﻬﻤﺴﻗ ﻰﻓ ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺗ عوﺮﺸﻣ اوأﺪﺑ ﺪﻗ اﻮﻧﺎآ اذا ﻢهﺰﻴﻔﺤﺘﻟ وا ﻢﻬیﺪﻟ ﻦﻜی ﻢﻟ ا .
12
Impact of improvement efforts
Employee
Work life
Care
Outcomes
Market
Share
Client
Satisfaction
Reduced
Cost
Project
60 % 70 % 30 % Clinic Enhancement
Outdoor clinics
Purchases
ﺞﻣاﺮﺒﻟ ﻊﺝﺮﻤآ َ ﺎﻀیأ مﺪﺨﺘﺴیو ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺒﻟ جذﻮﻤﻧ ﻖﺑﺎﺴﻟا لوﺪﺠﻟا ﺢﺿﻮی
ﺔﻴﻠﺒﻘﺘﺴﻣ .
Tools
• Brainstorming
• Affinity Diagram
• Pareto Diagram
• Control charts
• SIPOC Supplier-Input-Process-Output-Customer
• QFD Quality Function Deployment
• Balanced score card
• Bench marking
• Process charts
• PDCA Plan Do Check Act
• SPC Statistical Process Control
• Five s
• Cause and effect
13
ﺔﻤﺕﺎﺨﻟا :
ﺔﻴﺡﺎﻧ ﻦﻣ داﺮﻓﻷا تﺎﻌﻗﻮﺗو تﺎﺝﺎﻴﺘﺡا ﺮﻴﻓﻮﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺰﻴآﺮﺘﻟﺎﺑ مﻮﻘﺗ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ نإ
ﻢﺘیو ﻞﻴﻤﻌﻠﻟ تﺎﻣﺪﺨﻟا ﻞﻀﻓا ﻢیﺪﻘﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﺝرﺎﺨﻟاو ﺔﻴﻠﺥاﺪﻟا ﺔﺑﺎﻗﺮﻟا تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﻊﻴﻤﺠﺗ ﻖیﺮﻃ ﻦﻋ ﻚﻟذ
تﺎﻣﻮﻠﻌﻣ ﻖﻴﺙﻮﺗ مﺎﻈﻧ ﻞﻤﻋ ﺎﻀیأو تاراﺮﻘﻟا ذﺎﺨﺗا ﻲﻓ ﺎﻬﻣاﺪﺨﺘﺱﻻ ﺎﻬﻠﻴﻠﺤﺗو documentation
system ﺮﻴیﺎﻌﻣ ﻞﻤﺸی نأ ﻰﻠﻋ standards تﺎﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا ﻞﻤﻋ تاءاﺮﺝإو ﺲﻴیﺎﻘﻣو processes
مﺎﻬﻤﻟا ﺬﻴﻔﻨﺘﻟ ﺔﻣزﻼﻟا .
ﻤﺼﺗ و ﺔﻌﺝاﺮﻣ ﺎﻬﻟﻼﺥ ﻦﻣ ﻢﺘی ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا ﺞﻣاﺮﺑ ﻰﻓ مﺪﺨﺘﺴی ىﺬﻟا ﺮیرﺎﻘﺘﻟا مﺎﻈﻧ ﻢﻴ
ﺔﻌﺝاﺮﻤﻟا تﺎﻴﻠﻤﻋ auditing system ﺔﻴﺠیرﺎﺨﻟا وا ﺔﻴﻠﺥاﺪﻟا ءاﻮﺱ .
ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺘﻟا تﻻﺎﺤﻟا ﻰﻓ لﺎﻌﻓ نﻮﻜی نا ﻦﻜﻤی ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺴﺤﺘﻟا :
• ﺢﻴﺤﺻ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﻪﻘﻴﺒﻄﺗ ﻢﺘی
• ﻪﻘﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟ ﻰﻓﺎﻜﻟا ﺖﻗﻮﻟا قﺮﻐﺘﺴی
• ﺔیﻮﻴﺤﻟا تﻼﻜﺸﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺰﻴآﺮﺘﻟا
• ﻻا ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺮﻤﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﻢﻋﺪﻟاو ماﺰﺘﻟﻻا ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟا ةراد
• ﻒﻴﻟﺎﻜﺘﻟا ﻞﻗﺄﺑ ﻞﻴﻤﻌﻟا تﺎﻌﻗﻮﺗ قﻮﻔﺗ تﺎﻣﺪﺥ ﺮﻴﻓﻮﺗو ﻞﻴﻤﻌﻟا ءﺎﺿرا ﺎﻬﻓﺪه ﺔﺒﺱﺎﻨﻣ ﺔﺌﻴﺑ ﻖﻠﺥ
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