Adventure Objectives


Adventure Protocol



How Resilient are You?

Theme: Beyond \2 13

Your Adventure Sites

Activities Preview


Beyond the Summit, the Wilderness and the Horiz[]n

My Pack list 28


The Present d Classroom learning


33 59 83


I. 2.

RESILIENCE: Instill the willto bounce back stronger from stress and adversity

Leadership: Provide platform for the students to display and hone their leadership skills 3. Proactiva: Encourage students to be initiative and responsible to make things happen 4. Decision-making: Encouraging and guiding students in making the best decision when faced with obstacles 5. Unity: Experience cemaraderie and feelings of neighborliness. B. Teamwork: Engage students in team activities and processes. and working in a team 7. Appreciation: AppreCiate Mother Nature and remember where our roots come 8. S. from Adaptability: Abilityto adapt qUicklyto problems. changing environment and new

CommunicatiDn: Encourage students to voice out thoughts and reflections to

one another lll Knowledgeable: Gaining great insights on nature as well as personal and interpersonal development II. Sociable: Develop skills for communal living and sharing under one roof


All students must follow the adventure protocol in order to have an enjoyable and

fQn. yet

safe experience.

Care for yourself and the others: your safaty is the main prioritv' II Always stay with your assigned group • Inform your facilitators or teachers if you need to be away from the group (e.g. going to the toilet) • listen to instructions and be at your best behaviour at all times (no vulgarities) • Be punctual for all activities • Inform your facilitators or teachers ~ you are not feeling well or are injured • Rehydrate regularly • Respect nature. respect wildl~B • Attempt all activities and put in your very best to learn and grow


Don't: • Drink untreated water • Share medication • Wander off to other places bV yourself • Talk when someone is briefing Dr giving instructions • Do anything that you are unsure of • Bring Dr do anything illegal (e.g. smoking) • Be in the tents Dr sleeping bags of the opposite gender at any time




Theresifience to go beyond your limits




Have you Bver wondered why some people seem to remain calm in the face of disaster. whlla others seem to fall apart? People who are able to keep their cool have what psychologists call. "resilience". WIts! Is HESILIENC£? Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity. trauma. tragedy. threats. or even significant sources of stress. Simply. it means bouncing back from difficult experiences Dr setbacks. People with resilience are those who tap on their inner strengths and rebound positively from a setback Dr challenge. be it academic failure. relationship issues with family and friends. or failing to succeed in an area of interest They cDntinue to believe in themselves and their abilities. always seeking for opportunities to help them succeed. In contrast. people who are less resilient may dwell on problems. feel victimized. become overwhelmed and turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms. such as drugs. They start to feel inadequate and lose hope in themselves and in life.

Imagine being born without arms and legs -no arms to wrap around a friend: no way to carry things: no legs to walk and run: no ability to cycle. What would you do? How wnuld that affect your daily life? That is the life of Nick Vujicic. Born in 1982 in Brisbane. Australia. Nicholas Vujicic came into the world with neither arms nor legs without any medical explanation or warning. Imagine the shock his parents felt when they saw their first-born baby boy for the first time. only to find out that he was what the world would consider imperfect and abnormal. Throughout his childhood, Nick dealt not only with the typical challenges of school and adolescence issues such as bullying and self-esteem problems: but also struggled with depression and loneliness. He constantly questioned why he was different from all tha other kids surrounding him: why he was the one born without arms and legs. He wondered what the purpose behind his life was. or if he even had a purpose. According to Nick. the victory over his struggles throughout his journey. as well as the strength and passion he has for life can be credited to his family. friends and the many people he has encountered along the way who have encouraged him to get on with life. and to inspire people.


By the age Df \9. Nick started to fulfil his dream by inspiring and encouraging penpie from all Dver the world through metivationsl speaking. He has made a massive decisi[]n

mova from Brisbane. Australia to California, USA, where he is the president

01 an


International non-profit organization - life Without limbs - and also has his own motivational speaking company - Attitude Is Altitude. stated. "I found the purpose of my existence. and also the purpose of my ohumstance. There's a purpose for why you're in the fire." Nick wholeheartedly ullsV8S that there is a purpose in Bach of the struggles we each encounter in our lives. lind that our attitude towards those struggles. along with our faith can be the keys to overcome ths challenges we face. That's what resilience is all about
Wltst .I'B fIIur strugglttsln life? How.IW fOu going ID oVllrcomB it?


Focusing on past experiences and sources of personal strength can help you learn about what strategies for building resilience might work for you. By exploring answers to the following questions about yourself and your reactions to challenging life events. you may discover how you can respond Bffectively to difficult situations in your life. Lonsider the follOWing: • What kinds of events have been most stressful for me? • How have those events affected me? • Have Ifound it helpful to think of important people in my life when I am distressed? • To whom have I reached out for support when going through a traumatic or stressful experience? • What have I learned abnut myself and my interactions with others during difficult times? • Has it been helpful for me to assist someone else going through a similar experience? • Have I been able to overcome obstacles. and if so. how? • What has helped make me fael more hopeful about the future? After going through this Resilience Adventure. it shall form a part of your past experience. ReflBct upon and use this experience to discover more about yourself and cultivate a stronger than ever resilience to face the obstacles and challenges in life in
your future andBBvnurs.
llefeffHICs: Americe PsychologtethlFliJUon.

lite HDiHIto IleslliBnce. Hetriever/II OOCf1mber 0/0 from 2


The self-test below contains statements which will help you to determine how resilient you are. Using a range of 'T'_usu being Strongly Disagree G H5" being Strongly Agree). select the number that best indicates your feelings about that statement. Statement Rating I. I'm able to adapt to changes easily. 2. I feel in control of my life. 3. I find that mllife is meaningful. 4. I feel proud that I have accomplished things in my_life. 5.1 tend to bounce back after a hardship or illness. 6. I remain optimistic and don't give up, even when things seem hopeless. 7. I am confident and my belief in myself gets me through hard times. 8. I can get through difficult times because I've experienced difficulty before. S. I have close. dependable relationships. 10. I can see the humour in situations. even under stress. II. I like challenges and feel comfortable taking lead. 12.1 can handle my emotion during uncertainty or unpleasant feelings.


Rating of 0-20 Your resilience leval is kJw but that doesn't msan you havs zaro resilience. It can be difficult to keep going at times. Youwill need to strangthsn your rasilience and doing so; it will make a significant and positive change in your life. Be the change you want to sse. Rating of 21-40 Your resilience level is average. You may feel dissatisfied in general and feel a need to make some changes. Be more optimisti: and gain control of your lifel Rating Df 41-6D YDur resilience level is high. You are dDing well in almost all aspects of resilience. You are very optimistic with the challenges ahsad and are able to balance yaur life between wDrk and play. YDUare alsu able to bounce back from difficult Dr painful events. Others will seek YDUDut because you are able to look at situations from different perspectives. Get gDing with this kind Dflife!


To go beyond is to work more than one's limit for a certain goal. the limit of one's mind. body and potential. Giving your best in everything you do allows you to constantly go beyond your limits and gain the confidence in you. and believing in yourself that you can accomplish anything at any given moment As that confidence grows. nne will keep challenging the status quo. performing beyond Dna's potential. daring one's mind to strive on and pushing one's body over the pain threshold. like a snowball eff-ect. the process keeps repeating and ultimately. this person becomes a confident person who gains the respect of others.

"Set out to best others and no one will want to help you. Set out to best yourself and everyone will want to help you," -Simon Sinek
limits are like an unseen "force field" that makes a human work or achieve something just within their comfort zone. Usually it is seen as a normal achlevement What society wants is someone versatile enough and to be able to stand up to any challenges regarding every aspect of society that includes Civic literacy. Business literaey. s1 Environment literacy. Health literacy and Global Awareness. These are the 21 century skills which our society is seeking in each individual. looking beyond your goals is important as it unleashes much of a person's hidden potential. As what Mr. Anthony Robbins. a famous speaker said. "Goals are derived by emotions. and emotions are created by the motion. once the way you Isel"


Being the largest state in Peninsular Malavsia, Pahang definitely has lots to offer for an adventure. It is blessed with natural beauty and extraordinary challenging lsndscapa The 3 different locations in Pahang are Taman Negara. Jeram 8esu and Kota Helanggi. In the central of these 3 attractions lies the Exclusive Dutdoor Headquarters which is based in Jerantut. The 3 adventure sites are proven training sites in Pahang. and they have what it takes to provide Adventurers with a challenging platform to develop their character a leadership while going beyond their physical Ii mental limits through an impactful and unique adventure.



Jlrantut is a peaceful major town in the Central Pahang where it has all the nBcessary amenities and accommodatiDns that are essential to the success of a complete adventure in Pahang. The safety facility. Jerantut Hospital. is also located in this town.
Taman Negara. is regarded

as the world's most gloriDus and oldest tropical rainforest. It has 13D million years of rich his tory. The national park serves as a natural habitat to an estimate of 10.000 species of flora and fauna. The mythical Kola Gelanggi is a 150 million year old histnrical cave complex. An astlmatad 100 caves and cave chambers exists within Kala Gelanggi and are among the best caves in SDuth-East Asia. Dver at Jeram Basu sits the CDuntryview Resort. a recreational center which eensists of chalets B raserts. a small farm & animals. JBram Besu is famous for its aquatic activities and its white water rafting is widely regarded as the most challenging white water course in Malaysia.



Brief Description

Trail of GlDry

Spanning 52km long. the cycling track boasts challenging inclines and slopes down the stretch.

White Water Rafting & Water Confident

Jeram Besu White Water Rafting is the most challenging course in Malaysia with several rapids to conquer. Adventurers will be prepared with water confidence activities like rapid jumps and capsize drill before picking up the paddle.

Built across the Jeram Besu River. the Flying Fox provides Adventurers with a chance to fly across the river. Upon landing at the opposite side of the river. , Adventurers and their team will walk and swim across the Jerarn Besu River.



Canopy Walk & Buldt Terasek Trekking Adventurers treks up the 342m high Bukit Teresek comprising of numerous steep slopes. The Canopy walk follows up next at 45m high and 5lam long.

Trekking S Cave Exploration

Through climbling and crawling. Adventurers get to explore the 15D million years old historical Kota Gelanggi caves full of interesting articles and gain valuable knowledge.

Adventurers get to abseil down the high and challenging vertical natural solid


limestone rocks.


Rock Climbing (Natural Surfaces) Rock climbing in a safe and natural environment demands both physical and mental effort from Adventure'rs.

4 WhsBIDriw Adwnturs

to Waterrn II

An energetic and breath-taking ride of 4 wheel drive through dirt. water and road trail to the Berembun Waterfall at the top of the hill. Enjoy and have fun in the waterfall before taking the 4 wheel drive downhill again.

Ultimata Survival • Jungle Survival Pragramme

Adventurers will be isolated in the wilderness of Taman Negara wtth no one else but each other. the guides and the Orang Asli (original people) throughout this program. Survival skills will be imparted and traditional games will be prepared for them to compete and challenge each other.


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Tribal Exchange: Orang Asli Interaction

Orang Asli means "oripinal people" in Malay and they live a nomadic lifestyle in the jungles of Taman Negara. O'ler at the villag,e. witness their simple
and culture. understand the history o.f Orang Asli. and learn various traditional survival ski.lls of the Orang Asli.

Jungle Trekking to Dedari Hill

Deep into the jungle. Adventurers wiH he led and accompanied by certified jungle . guides throughout the program as they overcome obstacles and set their sights, an conquering Dedari Hill.

Mobile Synergy Activities

Our mobile synergy activities consist af wide range of dynamic activities usually involving teams to achieve a common goal. complete a specific task or engage in problem-solving scenarios together. It can be held anywhere anytime as the:y are dependent on the facilitation and guidance of our experienced coaches.


(]utdoDr Camping (Cave, Grassland. Sondbank)

An outdoor adventure camp is i:I never complete without camping in wild environment. Sandbank Lamping as well as the Grassland Lamping will be experienced in the wilderness of Taman Negara. Jeram Besu Grassland Camping will be organized in the secured premises of Countryview Resort. . Outdoor Cave Camping in a safe environment at Kota Gelanggi in one of the caves known as Gua Balai. The basic skill of pitching a tent in a cave will be taught by our instructors and coaches.

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Description S Itinerary of the 3 Groups
Summit suggests the highest point or part. of a hill. a line of travel. or any object being at the top or apex. It has an alternate meaning. which is the highest point of attainment or aspiration. the summit of one's ambition. The main highlights of "Beyond the Summit" programme are Cave Exploration, Noci Climbing 6 AIIseiling. Always striving for greater heights. you will survive through the darkness of caverns; nvartnma obstacles to reach the summit: and abseil back to firm ground. The journey to the summit requires you tn be pusltive. because when the going gets tough. the tough gets going and your achievement at the end is more gratifying.


DIy I 16-Jan

0615 1130 1230 IBOO 2DOn 2200 2230



Assemble in school far deparhlre lunch al lucky Garden Restaurant. YilngPeng OeparllD deslinalioo (J!I'afT1Besu) Aniwal at Jeram Belu, 18f. up lenti and wash up Dimer Hight actiYities with glides and trainers Briefing far nui day programme Bedtme Wake-up S stretch oot / Breakfast Water confidence. white water rafting. flying fox

2 17-Jen


1200 1300 I63D 17110 1830 1930 2D3D 2200


Cont.nJe with actimies (rom1i1ll80

DISmantle IBnti / Wash up Depart to Kata Gelanggi Amval at Kota Gelqgi I Briefing and allocatilll of t!ntJ



Night actMtieI Mtb guides 6 trainerl BriIfing fur 11111 day prograrrvne Bedtine
WaIIe-up & stm:h lilt / 8rakfast AbnIing I Rrd. ckrDng/ Cave bploratilll

3 IS-Jan

D700 083D
1330 1&30 1900



& Trekking

CllftiwllEtiwitin (rvtatiJnaf) Wlab up! Pnpm fur GraIp ParfurmafEB Acti'lities



Dmer Might adiWtia wid! guides G tramars (Solo Walk) 8adtinB

0800 1200 1300

•• ,..S IIrItch lilt /
AbuIing / Rack ~



Caw Explaratioo & Trekking

1830 1900 211lO


Cmtiue acthIII8I (ralltiall) Dilnartle Tm / Pad; If and Wah up I Depart tn J8I'IIItut lift Raort Amval at JII'IIrtut hill raartIIIriIfinJ Prepare ".., parfot IIlIlIce actnitial Own time DirNr ReftectlLq I Togett.r




0100 0300


Bill to Jnntut Trail StatiIII BII8I'II Trsin to SIfIIIIPII'Il AmYllln SiIgapore. WoocIIandISIItirl. bus Imler bad to IChoIt


WildernBsE means a wild and uncultivalBd region, a~ of fore t ur desert, un habited T If no, only by wild animals The main highh hts of the u8E! tlln d the 'H'lder e'.:programme include Jungle Survival Oraog Ails Experience B Deep Jungle TreKking This group Dr ::>tudBnts will embar on the most mid and fll.r.:itmg jungle ~!Jrmal'o net No guardians, no technology! They will gel 10 understand and app eclsts thE! natu E mora while slaying in the jungle, The Jungle '"dlagerJ, HIB Orang A,:Ii. mil become frirm~' or the students, Imparting the nece~!:arf survival skill:; In them. llYing ul uf he c[Jmfort zones and striving for team survival. thiS group wdl defmilely been e mora rB!:iliBnt and come [Jut of the jungle stronger than ever,






0615 1130 1130

Assemble In ~chool for departuMl Lunch al Lucky Garden Mlstauranl Yong Peng BU1ID Kuala Tahan CamPSI!! Arm~ S Sel-up tents OliVIer (packed) Srielmg lor nen day programme Bedtime Wake-up S stretch au! Breakfast (packed) Boat Tranmr to Jungle Campsite S set up lettlement fur survival programlll! Orang Asli E~erience I Prepare Lunch Orang Asli Experience" Prepare own dinner Hight ActlYitiBS with guides 6 trainers Bedtme Wab-up G stretch lilt Prepare own breakfast Jungle Tral:king til Oedan Hill (packed lunch) Back at Campsite Orang Asli Experience III Prepare own dimer Night Activities with guides 8 trainer'! Bedline Wab-up & I!retch out Clear up S Breakfast Baat TransfBr 10 LBKFloating Restaurant BUI to Raub (4 x 4 slBrt point) "'DW out Iu waterfall Wi 4x4 Packed l1IIch / Relax at Waterfall and wash up Depart frun Waterfall and retII'O to Raub. followed by bus to Jerantut Hili Rem1 ArriYIII at Jerantut hill resort/Briefing Prepare gl1llp parfonnance BCti~tiBi / Own tinw

IBOO 2200
2 17-Jan 0630 0730 0900 1200 1230 1330 1730 2000 2000 2100

3 IS-Jan

0900 1500 1530 1730 1930 2200




0645 0715 1030 1300 !G30 1830 1900 2[)[)0 2100

Dinner Reflactillll / Coming Togethar


DIDO 0300 1100

BUIlD JeranbJt Train Station Board Train tu SilgapOl'B ArriWlJ In Singapore. Woodlands train SlBtion. BUI transfer back to Ichool.


The apparent intersection of the earth and sky as sssn by an observllr is the horizon. It also refers to the range of one's knowledge. experience or interest How far CBn you go? The highlights of the 'IBByond the Horizon" programme are 52im ViclnryCycling G While Water Halting Ihese 2 activities bring a whole new [evel of perseverance and endursnca. Without either physical Dr mental strength. it will be almost impossible to
pull through. You will need to resist the obstacles faced along the way. while helping. supporting and encouraging one another. It may be easier to finish the race as an individual. But what about finishing the race as a team? Always striving forward to the ultimate goal ahead. be it cycling or rafting. aim for the horizon and go for it!



0615 1130


1830 1900 2000 2200

Event Assemble io school for departure Lunch alluckV Garden restaurant. Vong Peng Depart to dB~linatiDn (Kuala Tembeling) Arrive al Kuala Tembeliog Ii BDat Transfer 10 Paslr lambaog Arrival and camping at Pasir Tambang campsite Omner/Night activities with guides and trainers Bedtime . Wab-up Ii stretch out / Breakfast BrieFing I Issuing of Helmets Ii Bicycle 52bn cycling from Paslr Tambang to Taman Hegara


0630 0700 0830 1230 1330 1600 1630 1830 1930 2200 2230 0700 0800 1200 1300


Continue cycUng Arrive at Taman Hegara Bus depart to Jeram Besu Arri'o'Bat Jeram Besul SebJp tents and wash up Dinner I Night Activities with gUides and trainers Briefing fnr next day prDgranune Bedtime Wake-up Ii stretch out I Breakfast Water confidence . .mite water rafting, flying fnx lunch ContilUe activities Dismantle tents S wash up Bus to Taman Megara Arrival at Taman Nagara/ Setup tents Dinner I Night Activities with guides and trainers Bedtime Wake-up S stnlb:h lilt CanopyWalklTeresek Hill/Rapid shooting and Orang A.aliexperience

3 IB-Jan

1930 2230 4 19-Jan 0700


0830 1200


1830 !BOD


Continlll activities



Dismantle Tena / Pack up Bnd Wa:shup / Depart to Jerantut Hill Resort Arrival at Jarantut hillresort!Briaflng Prepare gl'lllp performance Dcti~ties / Own time Dinner
Reflections / Comblg Together Bus tn Jarantut Train Station


0300 1100


Board Train to Singapora
Arrival in Singapore. WDDdlands Train Station. Transfer back to IChool




DBI5 1130 1230 183D 1S00 1930 2D3D 2200 2230 0700 0830 1200 1300 1600 1700 1830


Event Assembls in school for departure lunch at lucky Garden mtauranL Yong Peng Depart to destilation (Taman NegaraJ Arrival at Taman tegara Setup tents and wash up Dinner Night activities with guides end trainers Briefing for next day programme Bedtime Wake-up S stretch out / Breakfast Canopy WalVTerBsek HUl/Rapid shooting and Orang Asliexperience lunch Continue acti~ties Dismantle Tents I Wash up Ous tn Kuala TembBling Anive at Kuala Tembeling Ii Ooat Transfer to Pasir Tembang Setup tents Dinner Night activities with gUides and trainen Bedtime Wake-up S stretch out / Dismantle Tents / Breakfast Briefing I Issuing of Helmets Ii Bicycle 52bn cycling From Pasir Tambang to Taman Hegara Lunch Cantinue cycling Arriw at Taman Negara OeparbJre to Jeram Besu AlTilralat Jeram Besu.let up mnts and wash up Dinner Night activities with gUides and trainers Briefing for next day programme Bedtime Wake-up S stretch out I Water confidence. white water rafting, fl~ng fox Lunch Continue activities Dismantls Tents I Pack up and Wash up / Depart to Jerantut HillResort Arrival at Jerantut hillrasortlBriefing Prepare group perfonnanca activities! Own time Dinner Reflections / Coming Together

2 17-Jan

1930 2030 2200 3 IB-Jan 0530 11700



1B30 1700 1900 2000 2030 2200 2230


DSDO 1200 1300 ISDD 1830 1900 21110


5 20·Jan

0100 1100


Bus to Jeranlut Train Station Board Train to Singapore Arrival in Singapore. WODdlandsTrain Station .Bus transfer back to school




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MY PACK LIST (minimum)
excluding the clo1hes you are wearing when reporting to schaal

Im~Drtant Items


Passport Writing Materials (Pen 6 Adventure Guide)


l-shets Sweater of Jacket Shorts Track Pants Undergarment Sucks Track Shoes Shoes (for wet weather activity) Sandals/ Slippers

4 I 2 2 4 4 I pair I pair I pair

Tooth Brush 6 Tooth Paste Shampoo BodVSoap Bath Towel

I I I I I I If any

Water Bottle Torch Sleepin~ Bags Personal Medir:ation

21st Century Skills
Ever since the late 19BDs. "21st-century skills" has been a catch-phrase around the education and business worlds. It continues to do so. racketing

Part of its persistence may be due to the excitement in defining a new age: we're leaving behind an entire thausand-vaar set and advancing into a new one. But have things really changed that much? They certainly have. .. Twitter. Facebook. Whatapps. YouTube. blogs. social networking and iPhones are very recent influences on the cultural scene. Behind these platforms. cnncepts and new ways of learning. is a rnlndset change. The world is less static, collaboration is vital. and learning is a continual and dynamic process. To better position yourself to take advantage of opportunities in a globalized world. you will need to possess lITe-ready competancles like creativity. innovation. cross-cultural understanding and resilience.



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Knowledge and skills are underpinm~d by values. Values define a person's character. They shape the beliEfs. attitudes and actions of a person. and therefure form the core of the framework of 21st century competencies. This adventure strives tn instil these core values into the students. namely R'ESIUENCE. LEADERSHIP.CARE, IN1EGRI1'{. TE~M'NORK and PERFORMANCE mould them into capable leaders and model citizens of future.

The middle ring signifies the Social and Emotional Competencies-skills necessary for you to recognise and manage your emntians, develop care and concern for others. make
responsible deeis nns. establish positive relationships. as well as to handle challenging situations effectively. Make USB of the opportunities to develap your social and emntional competencies through interaction with school mates as well as facing obstacles and

challenges in this sxcitinq 504N adventure.


The outer ring of the frameworkrepreseflts globalised world we IivBin. These ars:

the 21st century skills necessary for the

• Civic literacy. global awareness and cross-oattars! SKills • Critical and inventive thinking • Informalion ano communication sMls

By bringing students like yourselves for an overseas Resilience AdventurB. it increases
your global awareness and ernss-nultural knowledge. allowing you to see the untapped side of the world, the Mother Nature. Through various challenges along the way. critical and inventive thinking are needed from the students to nvercema the obstacles and solve problems. Without collecting the necessary information and communicating them to your team members. it will be impossible to succeed together as a team in conquering this Resilience Adventure. Together. these values and competencies wil.1enable all of you to tap into the rich opportunities in the new digital age, while keeping a strong Singapore heartbeat Many of these competencies and values are being taught and derived in this Resilience Adventure. What we are aiming for is to strike a better balance between students' learning of content knowledge and their acquisition of the necessary compBiencies and values to thrive in the future, through outdoor experiential learninq.

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Desiretl Stutlent Outcomes
By equipping the students with the 21st r:entury skills thrnugh outdoor adventure experiential learning. the desired outcnmes for every student are: ./ A confident person. who has a strong sense of right and wrong. is adaptable and resilient knows himself. is disr:e.rning in judgment. thinks independently and r:ritically. and communicates effectively . ./ A self-directed learner. who questions. reflects, perseveres for his own learning . and takes responsibility

./ An active contributor who is able to work effectively in teams. is innovative. exercises Initlirtivs. takes calculated risks and strives for excBllem::B . ./ A concerned citizen. who is rented to Singapore. has a strong sense of civic responsibilitV. is Irrfortnerl about Singapore and the world. and takes an active part in bettering the livas Df Dthers around him.


In this Resilience Adventure. you will not only have fun with your schoolmates. develop your leadership 6 character. going beyond your physical 6 mental limits. but also engaged in academic learning beyond your classroom. Subjects. including Geography. History. Mathematics and Science (Biology. Chemistry S Physics), will be incorporated into this programme. making it as an educational adventure as well. Continue to learn anywhere. anytime - the nature outdoor setting shall be your classroom in the wilderness for the 504N Adventure!



Taman Negara is one the oldest rainforests in the entire world. estimated at 130 years old. The abundance and diversity of nature is phenomenal in Taman Negara. the world's most complex: and rich ecosystems; a varitabla treasure of the planet It was Driginated from the legislation of Pahang in 1925. which set aside I&JU.I~'land deSignated as Gunung Iahan Game Reserve. Then it is declared as King S.... National' Park in 1938 by the Sultans of 3 states Pahang. Trengganu and preserve the land's indigenous nature in perpetuity. it was gazetted I!'DftI::IMiI'R1 state's Enactments in 1938 -IS39. The park was renamed Taman Negara after gained independence in 19S7.No commercial exploitation is permitted subsistence hunting by the aboriginals (the Orang Ash people). Taman Negara covers 4.343 SQ km the central coordinates are 04°30' and 102°59' East longitude. The altitude ranges from BOrn to 2187m at the Gunung Tahan. This hUgE area shared among three states: Pahang 2.411 sq Kelantan I.D43 sq km (24%) and Trengganu 853 SQ km (19%). Although the area is so far from the coast most of it (57%) lies 305m There are several hills in the park above I.DDDm elevation. including mountain in Peninsular Malaysia. Gunung Iahan at 2.IB7m. but there ara high-altitude granite formations. Malaysia is one of the 12th mega biodiversity areas in the world and T tropical rainforest indeed is DnElof the world's most complex and rich park is home to about 14.000 species of plants and trees. more than any the world. There are more than 2.400 species of flowering plant mammals. 350 species of birds. 61 species of snakes. 55 species of bats. 30 species of rats and 109 species freshwater fishes (l5



Taman Negara).

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Exis/ence of TropicalRain/orest Tropical rainforests are beauliful and [a,,,nalln9 ph,nomena of nalure TwoLasic thin!!, are necessary for a tropical rainforest to' exist: warm tempera/ures and plenty of fiJin.
These requirements are generally found on earth within a band to either side of the equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropir crf Capricorn with the most Intense band bRing 10 degrees to either side of the equator. Tropical rainforest conditIOns arB' not guaranteed to occur within this band however. local wind and t:ljmilh~ patterns can create deserts as well, A good e ample is the vast Sahara OesBrl in Ilorth Africa Tropical rainforest condrtmns dBpEmd to some extent On interactions between the atmosphere and the rainforest itself too



are characterized


a unique vegetative


cnnsisfing of several

vertical layers including tha emergent layer. cannpy layer. understDry lay,r. shrub and ground level. The canopy refers t[) the dense ceiling of leaves and tree brane as formed by cl[]sely spaced forest trees.
Emergent layer: • The tallest trees are f[lund in this layer • Trees can grow in mars than 40m tn capture direct sunlight • They also have thick and straight trunks


• E.g. Kapok Tree

Canopy Laver:
• Trees grow so close together that their crowns inlerlm::k to form a eontinullus canDpy.

• Height of eanopy is between 25m to 35m. • Uanas. Epiphytes (e.g. Bird's Nest Ferns) and Parasitic plants (8 g. Mosses) can be found at the canopy layer.

Understo.rey Lave'r: • Shorter Tree (10m to 25.m) with dlscnnnnuous canopy. • Shade tolerant trees like palms and tress ferns are common at this layer. • Leaves are much larger at this layer.

Shrub layer:
• Height of shrub layer is between 2-7m. • Isolated shrubs. ferns and trees have to adapt to the lack of sunlight. • Includes wild ginger. pan dan and tapioca.

Ground la)1!r: • Moist and dark with little undergrowth small fungi. mosses and ferns. • The leaf litter layer is considerably thin to other natural vegetation types as decomposition is fast because of the high temperature.

consisting of as compared the rate of

humidity and


50 ( 5ft

40 m (130 ft

20 m 6...It

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KDta Gelanggi is a 150 millinn year Did historiral caves complex. It was first mentioned by Cameron in 1882 in the R.oyal Asiatic: SDC. Journal. Various archaeological digs. especially by the MUlium Negara Department of Museum H Antiquities has revealed
human remains dating An estimated

1500 y,ears.

100 caves and cave chambers exists within Kota Gelanggi and are amung the best in South-East Asia. You will be able to experience what tropical IimBstone i::averns are all about. Discover a new world in the cave complex. With their unique flora. fauna and various strangely shaped formations coupled with the beauty of the stalagmites and slalaetites that are furmed naturally over the time. Overview of Caves Caves have long been regarded as places of mystery and intrigue. Prehistoric people used them for shelter and decorated them with some uf the earliest-known works of art Pirates used them to hide their ill-.gotten booty. By dafinitian. a cave is simply a natural open space found underground. Sometimes caves form when large rocks get stBBbd up after a landslide. but most often. they are the result of the chemical of limestone by subsurface water. Very few plants can grow in a cave because of the lack of light Instead. fungi. even some simple mosses dominate caVBS. Insects. reptiles and bats are adaptable to the cave envirnnment as well. One of the most unusual cave "cave fish". Totally blind. this colourless creature navigates by touch. sensors on its body. Sometimes. so much solution takes place inside a cave that the cap rocK support thB weight of the surface above. The roof caves in and a sinkhole





formation of Coves Cave formal ion begins. whBnrainwater absorbs carbon dim:ide as it fal\s through \he atmosphere. Rain water must have csrbnn dioxidE! to becnrna acidic to chBm'lca\\y react with the limestone bedrock. Rainwater is absorbed by the soil into the ground. As rainwater comes through tha soil it absorbs more carbon dioxide that is being produced by plants that are dead. This I::hangBs the ground water to a weaker form of carbone acid (H20 + C02 = HZC03). As it travels down through the ground it comes tn solid rock. When the rod is limestone Dr dolomite 1!8VeS G8n form. The water reacts charnlcallv with limestnne and slowly a larger and larger spac:e will form. This happens boca use the rocks are made of calc ium carbonate (CaCD3). This is what you call chemical erosion.

As the further space beeumss even more eroded, the water will flow through. As it flows
PhYSical erosion washes away rock and sand. This is what makes a Cilve larger and Iorms an underground stream. The cave is formed finally nvar hundreds of thousands of years nr even millions []f years.
it erodes.



The Wonders of StalacMes and Stalagmites We can trace the words stalactite and stalagmite hack to the Greek word "stalassein." which means "to" This is fitting because it describes how both are formed in nature. Although they look a little creepy. stalactites and stalagmites grow simply because of water running over and through inorganic material. limestone caves" whsre most stalactites and sta'iagmites are round, are mainly composed of ca;lcite. a common mineral found in sedimentary rocks, Calcite molecules are made of calcium and carbonate ions. and are referred to as CaC03. or calcium carbonate. When rainwater falls over a cave and trickles thmugh rocks. it picks up carbon dioxide and minerals from limestone. If we add water. carbon dioxide and calcium carbonate together. we get this equation:

H20 + C02 + CaCm;:: Ca (HCD3)2
is known as calcium bicarbonate. and the water carries the substance. baSically dissolved calcite. through the cracks of the roof of a cave. Once water comes into contact with the air inside the cave. however. some of the calcium bicarbonate is transformed back into calcium carbonate. and calcite starts to form around the crack. As water continues to drip. the length and grows. forms and on the

Ca (HC03)2


of the calcite
a stalactite

ceiling. It can take a very long time for
most stalactites to form -- they usually

grow anywhere between a quarter-inch and an inch every century.

42 Stalagmites don't just emerge fram the giround. The water dripping from the end


of a stalactite falls to the floor of a calle
and deposits more calcite into a mound.

Soon enough. a stalagm~B will form in a cone like shape. This is why you usually find stalactites and stalagmites in pairs and sometimes they'll even grow tog.ether to form one big column .. There are many limestone caves around the world famous fur their displays of dripstone. including
Carlsbad Caverns in New Mfl):ico.



Timpanog[]s Caves in Utah. Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and Jenolan Cave's.

Ruchan Caves in Australia and Gua Kota 11Gelanggi Caves in Pahang.

Ilnca you enter the caves. be sure
your journey. An wDndBrful opPQr¢~ these beautiful caves over at

to help you navigate through appreciate and observe
rvaIllomll skills:

• • • •

Whichcave rJidyou go lo? How deep was it? What was Could you see any light coming from Did you see any unique cave structures Whatdid it smell liie? How did the walland floor of the caves /eel Ok!you spot any living organisms in the cave?


Du:ring your Resilience Adventure at Panang. you will come across some of the rivers at Taman Negara 6 Jeram Besu. You wil,1witness some of the features of the rivers. such as waterfall and rapid. Seized the cpportunities to navigate through those challenging rivers! formation of Rivers Every river in this universe has a point of origin and gravity plays a significant role in the diredion of the flow of B river. In areas where the climate is humid. the point of origin of the rivers is from springs. The points of nrigination of rivers are the marshes. lakes. and melting glaciers. One of the SOUrl:BSof water that replenish the rivers is either the melting snow or the rainwater. This process is known as the precipitation. Another major source of river water is the rain. When it rains heavily in the hills. the water trickles down the steep slopes and flows onto a riverbed Initially, the water from the hills flows in an evenly distributed fashion and is called as surface run-off. When this water flDw travels a certain distance. it begins to flow in parallel rills and also gathers momentum. Soon these parallel rills unite to form a stream. As the rills converge with the stream. a brook is formed. This brook flows through a valley. The volume of the water in a brook becomes constant when it gains sufficient volume of groundwater. The brook becomes a river when the water level in the brook increases.



Oominant Processes at Different Parts of the River Course

Middle Course

Lower Course

rhurar/aimcs lD.'P I V -sh3pcd Valley ~arfll\~ f Shallow (Mnncl Ih~h I.h.'dload

Clurradtristlcs Open I 8'!DUe sloping va1lry

Clwarltrlstt • Open ,.gentle sloping y:alley YO ith floodplain • Fbt l Wadi:~Iain • Wide. open VII1ey • Vay wide md my da:p cbmod

\\-,lh floodplain • WIder I deeper Channel • Moo: 1IdpCIIdcd Rdimcnt

'V' Shaped Vll~ • In!~rlockin8 Spurs t Wat(rfwls • Gorges

• Ml:aIldm • ki'rcr "Iiffs • Slip olISlopcs

• Ox·bow Ukrs • Flood Plains *l.e'\e;e

ThE upper course of the river is dominated by vertical erosion whole deposition is most common in the lower course of tha river. In the middle course. the erosion ability of the river increases because the river's discharge increases as it moves downstream and there are fewer big bouJdfln to obstruct and slow down the speed of flow. lateral erosion is also prominent in the lower course of the river as the discharge is the greatest at this stage. Deposition occurs where the river energy drops such as in the inner banks (convex banks) of a meandering river. Furthermore. the amount of load carried by the river increases downstream. inducing deposition.


Transportation occurs throughout tha riVBrsystam from upper to I!ower enurse. The amount of load transportod lncraasas progressivBly towards the river mouth in the lower course. The size of the sediments transported in the river decreases from upper to lower course.
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3 states of flowing Water During water rafting. be sure to know the state af the flowing water sa as to assure that it is suitable to raft. depending on how well-train you are to navigate the rapids. Laminar Flow: Laminar describes the smooth-flowing currents in an unobstructed river. Even these currents can be complicated, for their speeds vary. Surface water is slowed by wind while deep currents are slowed by friction with the riverbed. Water in the middle. a few feet below the surface. usually runs the fastesl Turbulant Flow: Turbulent flow occurs when obstacles. such as rocks or a Budden narrowing of the river channel. obstruct the currant's flow. Obstacles force too much water intD tDO little space. so the water runs faster and laminar sheets break into individual ribbons of currant. Then things get really complicated. If water runs into a boulder. a turbulent zone Is created where the water and rock collide. The current runs faster around the boulder's edges. but water called an eddy. Shear zones between the eddy and the fast water can be strong enough to keep B raft from reaching calm water.


Chaotic Aow: WatBr crashing D\ler EI s,uomerged ledge nr ruck becomes chaotic and creates a hole. A hale er£!alBs 8 I., I.. . .. norlzollta vortex underw!ater that actually rotates In an upstream dir'(lc tlon A ralter who falls lnto a hola Is pushed back upstream against the IBdge that crnnteu the hole, and then driven down undarwatar, Often the only way out of a vortex is to di"e to the bottum of the river. where some of the water crashing into the hole flows under the vortex. A raftBr gets into that deep current can follow it flut of the hole and then rssurfac,B,
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formation of Rapids
A rapid is a section of a river where the river bed has a relatively steep gradient

causing an lncreaae in water velocity end turbulence. A rapid is a hydrological feature bBtween a run (a smoothly flowing part of a stream) and a cascade. A rapid is characte:rised by the river becoming shallower and having some rocks exposed above the flow surface. As flowing water splashes over and around the; rucks, air bubbles become mixed in with it and portions of the surface acquire a white colour. forming what is callBd "whitewater". Rapids occur where the bed material is highly res istanl to the erosive power of the stream in comparison with the bed downstream of the rapids. Very young streams flowing across solid rock may be, rapids for much of their length.

less reststant rock

Four factors. separately Dr in combination. can create rapids:orodienl. '. :/' • cons/ric/IOn obs/roc/ion and How rate. Gradient. constricti,nn and obstruction are t nnh d' Sream e topography factors and are relatively cnnsislant, Flow rate is dependent u ... b.· 'h ' pon ,ol seasonal variation in praclpltatlan and snowmelt and upon release rates or t 1 ups ream dams.

Hef.nttp/ len. wi1ipatliil. y/will/Rapid m

forma/ion of Wa/erfalls Waterfalls era found in the upper course of a river. They usually Occur where a band of hard rock lies next to soft rock. As the river passes over the hard rnck the soft rock below is eroded (worn away) more qUickly than the hard rock I.B8ving the hard rock elevated above the stream bed below. The 'step' in the river bed continues to develop as the river flows over the hard rock step (Cap Rock) as a vertical drop.
The drllj gets staeper as the rivBr erodes the soft rock beneath by proc.esses such as abrasion and hydraulic action. A plunge pool forms at the base of the waterfall. This erosion gradually undercuts thB hard rock and the plunge pool gets bJgger due to

further hydraulic action and abrasion. Eventually the hard cap rock is unsupported and collapses. The rocks that fall into the plunge pool will enntinue to enlarge it by abrasinn as they are swirled around A steep sided valley known as a gorge is left behind and as the process continues, the waterfall gradually retreats upstream

auaIy refers tD e regm • fnlpa rainforest abllllfillal of 1and plant life. Did you that the "" .............. ~ ~1I'it }llnp/a. h referred III In: Nated land? bit you cifo -j II genera _ to refBt III a dense tropI:aI farat sc mas is daa&d as joogks and ther do t*Y .. ortaJ ~ ... 1IIIm of the Earth. 1hn in afart 51% of ill etTe jI1gIe emIraunent. Can JIll name some of tIan that can be' ,.


lJtinate StmvaI. a real te ptrysa and rout' atmfcrt zone and I", k tw}e 01 the tourjat activites Adrenbn. BB .ItJI'2 to read up on the MIl I and be ...... ,.... Bmbarbd 011this ,uney


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Jungle Survival Tips Survival skills are techniques a person may use in a dangerous or limited situation to save themselves or others. Benerally speaking. these techniques are meant to provide the basic necessities for human life: water. food. shelter. habitat. and the naad to think straight. to signal for help. to navigate safely. to avoid unpleasant lnteractians with animals and plants. and Ior first aid. In this Resilience Adventure. we acquire the necessary survival skills to better appreciate nature and to develop character and resilience and nut just only for survival purposes. listed below are the priorities that must be addressed before any other needs are met in a survival situation (dependant on environmental factors): Mental Preparedness Readiness Our mind and its prncasses are critical to survival. It is said that the will to live in a life and death situation often separates those that live and those that do not Here's a great life example of the power of mental: A young teenage girl named Juliana Ktlpcke was the victim of a plane crash in the Amazon jungle. With no formal training and wearing only her confirmation clothes. she walked through the jungle for several days with parasitic insects boring under her skin. After eleven days. with very little food. she reached a hut and collapsed inside. Three hunters found her the next day and took her to B local doctor. Of those who survived the crash. she was the only one to make it out alive. It is believed that her simple and indestructible will to live made the differem:e, to survive through the Amazon jung1e!



A shelter is anything that can protect a person from his/her environment, inc,ludlny hot S cold climate and must be somewhat comfort to sleep in. It allows resliul sleep whIch IS una of the human needs a shaker. Not only provide a place to rest. it also boosts the morale of the survivor as it can be regarded as his/her safe refluge. A shelter can range from a "natural shelter"; such as a cave or a fallen -down thicklyfoliaged tree, to an intermediate form of man-made shelter such as a debris shelter to complatoly man-made structures such as a tarp. tent. or house. During your survival journey at Taman Negara. you will be taught to build a simple shelter. constructed by using a lattice of branches propped up at an angla against the wind. large leaves, such as ferns or fir branches. can then be added to create cover for rain and hail. Ferns can also be added to prnvida B natural form of insect repellent.

Assuming that the climate and environmental conditions stays censtent. B human being can live for an average of three to five days without any intake of water. The nand far water is of course greater in calder or warmer temperatures. and also In condition where it requires more physical exertion. Four to six litres of water or other liquids are generally required Bach day in the wilderness to avoid dehydration and to keep the body runctioning properly.


Dehydration A lack of water causes dehydration. which may result in lethargy. he adac:hB:';, dlzzlnsss. confusion. and BVIBntuallydeath. Even mild dBhyd.ration reduces endurance and impairs concentration. whieh is dangerous in a survival situation where clear thi.nkin.g 13 essential. Dark yellow Dr brown urine is a diagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avuid dBhydration. 8 high priority liS typIcally assigned to locating a supply of dri.nking water and making provision to rsndar that water as safe as possible to drink. Survivable Sources of Weter II! Jungle Most traa roots and vinss contain lots of water. and can be purgled by breaking into 3ft sections. and standing upright above a water catcher. Avoid any vegetab.le liquids which are cloudy, milky in appaarancs. or cnleurad in any way. Water can also be gathered in some other ways. In areas of abundant moisture. water can be scooped out of B pond. Rainwater can be caught in makeshift containers. Water can also be collected from condensation traps or solar stills. Clothing can be used to COIlBct dew from vegetation. You can tie a t-shrt to your 18g and walk through dewcovered grass in the morning and evening. than wring out the water and collect them for consumption. This is one of the effective water procurement methods in the nature. Many birds. mammals and some insects. such as snts and bees. ere reliable indications of water, either

through a stream nr a soaked patch of earth.

Wo/Ol' Pl1lihcollDfl for Drinklnu

Water gathered mu I be rendered • ale fnr r;un .ump II J1 "rJ bOllmg. filtering, chemical. olar rarimtmn and d".lJl/iJtmll Biologically ~onlamlnated v . Tn:tic Walp.r
Biologically cDntaminated wale i:.. {a common microorgani rn hat. viruses that can lead 10 inf'!ctllln

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from pesticide runoff . mirm tailiny-•. iJnd sn on. 8mll rj

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ur chem .~ V rr.

water can remove Dr hll micrrJorr' "r,m'., hu it wdl nul remrm: r.hf1mical during urvival in the jungle. do lak£! null. Dllhe WiJl~ Ihfll fUll !}llheredl The impla .. t way to purdy the wa er i. ln h011 the water (providJ!d thai the urVlyor I., ablp. to create lire for bOiling). BOIling i he rno t cp.rtaln way of killiny all mir.nmrgani ms, Ar!cording ta the Wildemwl MedIcal S[J(~iety. water tamperatures above 1600 F (700 C) kill all
pa1hogen within 30 minute and ablJVp'1850 F

(B5° C) within a few nn utf! . So in the limp. it takes for the wallp.r to reach the bOIling point (212° F Dr moo C) from ISOo F (700 C). al pathogens will be hUed, even at htgh attitude To be safe, let the water boil rapidly for one minute, especially at higher aHltude SIOce water bods at a lower temperature.
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Making a fire is recognized in the fiel·d of jungle survival to sig:nificantly increase one's ability to survive physicaHy and mentaUy. It is presented as a tool meeting many survival needs: • Warmth in cnld eonditinns • A means to purify water or sterilize tools • Heat to dry wet clothes • A cooking flame • A sense of security and comfort • Smoke for rescue signals • Heat to melt snow and ice fur drinking water • A means to scare away dangerous animals • light for your shelter or for torches • Smoke to help repel insects In the jungle environment. how do you start a fire without a match Dr lighter? Do ytlu know any method to start a fire? Not to worry. listed below are various methods you can use to start a fire without a match.

Battery Nethod
If you're stranded with your car or find wreckage from a boat Dr plane. you can use the
battery to create your spark: I. Find some wire from the car Dr wreckage -- any engine wire will worl 2. Attach two pieces of wire to each battery terminal. 3. Get your tinder and touch the wires together above it. 4. This should create a spark and the tinder will smoulder. S. Pick the tinder up and blow on it. 6. Once it lights. quickly transfer it to your fire pit and add small kindling.



5S Can and ~hocolate Method Many people may fail to pack out their refuse. and ehancas are you can find a soda can in the woods. If you have some chocolate ..toothpaste or powdered cleanser on haRd. use this method:

I. Smear some chocolate or an abrasive onto the bottom [Jf the soda cen,
2. Use the wrapper or some cloth to rub it into the can to polish it. 3. Add more chacnlata as needed and continue to rub for about 30 minutes.

4. Wash the abrasive off the can with some water. Your goal is a shiny. reflective
surface. 5. Once you have a good surface. angle the can toward the sun and hold a piece of tinder about an inch away from the centre of the can. S. like a convex lens. the can will produce a concentrated hot spot and your tinder will begin to smoulder. 7. Gently blow on the tinder until it ignites and qUickly transfer it to your fire pil WARNING-- do not eat the used chocolate or toothpaste. It contains aluminium and is highly toxic.

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a piece of softwood for your plow board. about 18 inches long and r£lughly 'l Inches wide. Willow and poplar trees work weH and are commonly f:ound near streams and rivers. 2. Carve a groove I inch wide and S-8 inches long in the centre of your plow board. about two inches from either end. USB a knifHor the sharp edge of a rock. 3. Find a hardwood stick for your plow. It should be about a foot long and come to a point on one end. 4. lay the board flat on the ground and insert the plow into the groove. S. Rub the plow back and forth with moderate pressure to. create small bits of wood dust 6. Once you have a moderate amount of dust. raise the top, end of the board up and rest it on your knee. The dust will collect at the bottom. 7. Rub as fast as you can with heavy pressure until the dust smoulders. Pick up the board and gently blow until you have a flame you can transfer to your tinder.



Take Note of Blood Suckers - Leeches leeches are annelids comprising the subclass Hirudinea. There are freshwater. terrestrial. and marine leeches. Most leeches are flattened from top to bottom and measure 0.198 to 0.187 inches (5 to 20 millimetres) in length. Leeches have eyespots on the head that are able to detect movement from contrasting patterns of light and shadow. The mouth is located underneath the head and is surrounded by a sucker. The sucker helps draw blood and other bodily fiuids into the rneuth Leeches are not covered with stiff bristles nor do they have paddle-like flaps. To gain traction. leeches have suckers at the front and rear of their bodies. The tail sucker is used for swimming. getting around. or remaining attached to a host Blood-feeding species have special pouches that allow them to increase their intake of fluid. They can expand up to six times their normal weight. EHect of Bites A leech attaches itself when it bites. and it will stay attached untd it has , blood The leech has a huge appetite where it can consume about 3 times itS feeding and then subsists fur months on the stored food. Due to an (hiMJdin) that leeches secrete. bites may bleed more than a normal wound for up to 3 hours after the leech is removed. The effect of the anticoagulant will wear off several hours after the leech is removed and the wound is cleaned. (FYI: Anticoagulant substance can be extracted and has been used in medicine to prevent blood clotting)


One recommended method of removal is using a fingernail or other flat. blunt object to break the seal of the oral sucker at the anterior end (the smaller. thinner end) [If the leech. repeating with the posterior end. and then flicking the leech away. Other means to remove the leech include applying flame. salt. soap or a chemical such as alcohol. vinegar. lemon juice. insect repellent. heat rub. or certain carbonated drinks. These cause the leech to regurgitate its stomach contents into the wound and qUickly detach. However. the vomit may carry disease. and thus increase the risk of infection.

Treatment ofLeeches Bite Wound
After removal or detachment. the wound should be cleaned with soap and water, and bandaged. Bleeding may continue for some time. due to the leech's anti-clotting enzyme. Applying pressure can reduce bleeding, although blood loss from a single bite is not dangerous. The wound normally itches as it heals. but should not be scratched as this may complicate healing and introduce other infections.

There is no guaranteed method of preventing leech bites in leech-infested areas. The most reliable method is to cover exposed skin. The effect of insect repellents is disputed. but it is generally accepted that strong (maximum strength or tropical) insect repellents do help prevent bites.

Something interesting: Are leeches NALEor fENALE?
leeches are hermaphroditic. each specimen containing several pairs of testes and one pair of ovaries. Typical species lay their eggs in mucous cases known as cocoons: upon hatching. the young of some forms attach themselves to the underside of an adult and are carried about with it until they can live independently.
liel http://animals.jranLDrg/pages/IG98IlBBches-Hirodinea.html


General First Aid S Safety Tips
Asthma Signs and Symptoms (Not all may be present): • Breathlassness or difficulty speaking • A wheezy noise when breathing • Persistent cough How you can help: • Call for help either from the guides or teachers • Help the patient to rest in a comfortable position (usually sitting) • Assist the patient to take their asthma relieving medicine Burn How you can help: • Call for help either from the gUides or teachers. • Ensure that you, others helping, and the patient are not in danger. • Gently flood the burnt area with cool (not ice cold) water for 20 minutes. 00 not use ice. A first aid burn gel may be used in place of cool water prOVided there is enough to cover the burn. In the absence of water any cool clean fluid (bear. soft drink etc) can be used. • The shower or bath is a good place for cooling. but do not place small children in a cold bath or shower for twenty minutes. as this is a common cause of hypothermia in burnt children. • Remove clothing and jewelry from the burnt area. but do not remove clothing stuck to the skin. • Do not put cream Dr ointments on the burn. • lightly cover the burn with cling film Dr a clean dressing.

6l Allargle Raaetian

Signs and Symptoms (Not all may be present): • Swelling of the affected areas, throat. mouth or face • Redness of the skin or an itchy rash • Breathing difficulties similar to an asthma attack • Dizziness. weakness or collapse How you can help: • Call for help either from the guides or teachers • Assist the patient to take any medicine they have been prsscrbed for severe allergy • lie the patient down if they are unwell or on their side if they are unconscious • If they stop breathing. place them on their back and start CPR • If the allergy follows exposure tn a chemical. wash the contact area thoroughly with water Nose Bleads How you can help: • Call for help either from the quides or teachers • Sit the person down • Get them to breathe through their mouth, with their head tilted forward. Firmly pinch the entire soft part of the nose for ID - 20 minutes. Repeat this if the bleeding does not stop • When the bleeding stops tell the person not to blow their nose for a few hours. because this may restarllhe bleeding

Heat Exhaustion

Signs and Symptoms (Not all may be present): • Weakness • Loss of appetite • Fainting • Dizziness • Sweating • Nausea/vomiting How you can help: • Call for help either from the guides Dr teachers • Rest patient i,na cool place • Give patient fluid to drink. Most patients will respond well with water, fruit juice. or a soft drink of their choice
EVB Injurias

Signs and Symptoms (Not all may be present): • Pain • Watering and redness • Bleeding • Altered vision How you can help: • Call for help either from the gUides or teachers • If you can see the particle. gently try to remove it with water Dr a clean cloth. Do not persist if it is hard to remove • Prevent the patient from rubbing the eye as this may result in scratching • If symptoms persist Dr you cannot remevs the particle. see a doctor




Minor Cuts/ Bruises How vou can help: • Claan the wound • Help them to sit at a table where you can put your first aid supples • Clean the surrounding area • Apply a plaster to reduce the risk of infection. but first check that the person is not allergic to the kind of plaster you'rE! using. • In case of deep cuts/bruises. call for help either from the gUides or teachers.
Sam!y G first Aid TipsReference: http//{ips/


• • • Describe the highlight of the day. What are the learning points? Describe your thoughts and feel.ings.

• • • Describe the highlight of the day. What are the learning points? Describe your thoughts and feelings.


• • • Describe the highlight of the day, What are the leaming points? Describe your thDughts and feelings.


• • • Describe the highlight of the day. What are the learning points? Describe your thoughts and feelings.




You have been through this 5D4N Resilience Adventure. We believe that you have indeed gone beyond your physical and mental limits to get into the next level of personal growth. Your next challenge will come soon. when you leave this adventure and go back into the real world. Are you ready to face it? Rate your growth with "1"indicating strongly agree and "5" strongly disagree. [/- Strongly Agree. 2· Agree. 3: Neutral 4: Disagree..5: Strongly Disagree] Growth Assessment Myknowledge of outdoor education has been enriched through this adventure. I have seen classroom subjects at work in the outdoor settlnq, This adventure instilled. enhanced and impressed upon me the school values of care. inte_grity. teamwork and oerformance excellence. I understand the true meaning of resilience and have become more resilient thruuuh this adventure. I have developed my leadership and a sense of teamwork. I have learnt how to adapt to changes and work out of my comfort zone. I see the whole new perspective of facing the challenges positively. rather than withdrawing or givinQ up. I am able to control and handle my emotion during uncertainty or setbacks. I have made new friends and have understood the important of building strong relationship. I am a more confident person after Qoin~ through this adventure. I feel proud that I have accomplished this 5D4N Resilience Adventure. It is one of the bigg_est achievements in mv life. I will face the real world. with my new level of resilience. confidence and positive attitude. going beyond my limits to strive for success in life. RatinQ

I. 2.


4. 5. 6.

8. 9.
10. II.





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