Metabolic Pathways

P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S
GLYCOPROTEINS GANGLIOSIDES MUCINS
AcNH CHOH CHOH

BLOOD GROUP ALGINATES O-ANTIGENS HYALURONIC ACID DERMATAN STARCH SUBSTANCES PEPTIDOCHITIN CHONDROITIN PECTIN INULIN CELLULOSE GLYCAN CH OH
2

GLYCOGEN
HO CH2OH O O OH OH OH OH OH CH2OH O NH

CONH 2 CH2COO OH

COO O O O O

N

+

Ribose -O - P - O - P - O- Adenosine(P)

N

+

O O

O
+ N

COO

Ribose - O - P - O - P - O -Adenosine
O

O

O

COO OPC

CH2OH
HO

2.4.99.7

6.3.2.7-10 6.3.2.13 HO O
CH3CH COO-

O COO OPPU

2.4.1.68 2.4.1.69
OPPU CH3 HO

1.1.1.132
O HO OPPG OH

HO CH3

O

Indoleacetate
(Auxin)
1.2.3.7
CH2CHO

Indoxyl
HO NH

NH

NAD( +P)
NH

6.3.5.1 6.3.1.5
HO NH CH 2CH2NH 2

Desamino-NAD
HO

2.7.7.18

Nicotinatenucleotide
CH3O NH

Ribose- P

11 2.4.2.

NICOTINATE
N

COO

COO
+ COO N RP

2.4.2.19
CH 2CH2NHCOCH 3

Quinolinatenucleotide
N

NHAC

2.4.1.17

HO

OH

OPPT OH OH CH3

UDP-N-Ac-Muramate
HO CH2OH O COO OH OPPU NHCOCH 3

UDPIduronate
5.1.3.12
COO HO OH O

OH

2.4.1.29 2.4.1.21 2.4.1.1 2.4.1.11 HO etc. 2.4.1.21

CMP-N-Acetyl neuraminate
AcNH O CHOH CHOH CH2OH COO OH 2.7.7.43

GDP-Fucose
4.2.1.47
CH2OH O

GDPMannuronate

TDP-Rhamnose
O OPPT OH

CH2OH O OH

LACTOSE

+ CH2CH(NH3)COO

2.4.2.19

CH2CH2NHCOCH 3

COO COO

5.1.3.13 O 2.4.1.33
CH2OH O HO OH HO OH

OH OH

3.2.1.23 2.7.1.38

Indoleacetaldehyde
4.1.1.43
CH 2COCOO NH

NH

Indole
1.14.16.4

5-Hydroxytryptophan
+ CO CH2CH(NH 3)COO CHO

4.1.1.28

5-Hydroxytryptamine 2.3.1.5 N-Acetyl-serotonin
(SEROTONIN)
+ COCH2CH(NH 3)COO OH NH2 COO OH NH2

NH

2.1.1.4

N-Acetyl-5-O-methyl-serotonin
(MELATONIN)
COO OCH NH2 COO

Quinolinate

OH

2.4.1.16 1.1.1.158
CH2OH O

HO OH HO OPPG

3.1.3.29

GDP-Mannose
OPPU OH CH2OH O

TDP-4-Oxo6-deoxyglucose
4.2.1.46

ADPGlucose

CH2OH O OH HO OH HO

GALACTOSE
2.7.1.6
OPPU HO CH2OH O OH OP OH

+ CO CH2CH(NH 3)COO NH2

4.1.99.1

HO

N-Ac-Neuraminate
CH2OP O

(Sialate)

HO O CH2 C COO

OPPU NHAC

UDP-N-AcGalactosamine
COO O

Indolepyruvate
2.4.1.22

Formylkynurenine
1.13.11.11
+ CH2CH(NH 3)COO NH

NH

3.5.1.9

Kynurenine 1.14.13.9 3-Hydroxy kynurenine
C-CH(OH)CH(OH)CH 2 OP CH

3.7.1.3

UDPGalacturonate
OPPU

2.7.7.13

MANNOSE
2.7.1.7
CH 2OP O

GDP-Glucose
1.1.1.2 2
2.7.7.27 2.7.7.34

UDP-N-Ac3.1.3.29 ACNH 4.1.3.20 Glucosamine HO OH OH pyruvate N-Ac-Mannosamine-6-P
CH2OH O CH2OH O

HO OH HO O P

UDP-Glucose Galactose-P
2.7.7.9
CH 2OH O HO OH HO HO 5.1.3.2 2.7.7.10

CH2CH 2NH2

5.1.3.7
HO OH OH

Mannose-1-P
5.4.2.8

5.1.3.6

TDP-Glucose
2.7.7.24

CH 2OH O OH OPPU OH

Tryptamine
COO OC P OCH 2 CH2 HOCH HCOH C

NH

4.1.1.28

TRYPTOPHAN
HO COO OH OH

4.2.1.20

N

Indole-3-glycerol-P
COO HO OH

H

UDP-Glucuronate
CH2OH O CH2OP O OP NHCOCH 3 5.4.2.3 HO OH OH

2.7.7.12

1-(o-Carboxy phenylamino) 1-deoxyribulose-5-P
COO

COO HOC-CH(OH)CH(OH)CH 2OP CH N

4.1.1.45 3-Hydroxy 1.13.11.6 2-Amino-3-carboxy 2-Aminomuconateanthranilate muconate semialdehyde 6-semialdehyde COO H H Catechol
NH C C CH CH2OP OH OH COO NH2

OCH NH2 COO

A R O M A T I C A M I N O A C I D S

9 .1 .1 1.4

1.2.1.32 1.14.12.1
OOC OOC CH 2COCOO NH 2

H

4.1.1.48

N-(5-P-Ribosyl) anthranilate
COO CH2

O

2.4.2.18

Anthranilate
OOC

COO OH OH

COO

2-Amino muconate

4.1.3.20
OPPU

HO OH HO OH

CH2

4.1.3.27 5.4.99.5
OH

H E X O S E S

ACNH HO OH OH

2.7.1.60
HO OH NHAC HO OH

Mannose-6-P
2.4.1.9

2.4.1.13

CH 2OP O HO OH OH NH2

OP

UDP-Galactose
CH2OH O

N-Ac-Mannosamine

5.1.3.14

UDP-N-Ac-Glucosamine
COO O

2.7.7.23
OH

N-Ac-Glucosamine-1-P
OH OH OH OH OP HO OH
OH

N-Ac-Glucosamine-6-P
H H C OH C CO CH2OH C

NHCOCH 3

Glucose-1-P

3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-P
O -OOC O CH2COO

H

OH

4.6.1.3
O

O

Dehydroquinate

4.2.1.10

O

Dehydroshikimate
CH2COO

1.1.1.25

Shikimate

OH

P O

2.7.1.71

OH

CH2COCOO

Shikimate-3-P PEP

OH

OH

P O

2.5.1.19

Shikimate-5 4.6.1.4 enolpyruvate 3-P
+

OH

O-C-COO

Chorismate
+

OH

OC-COO

Prephenate
CH2COCOO

CH2CH(NH3) COO

CH2CH(NH3) COO

2.3.1.4
5.3.1.8

OH H HOCH 2 C H C

OH OH C C H

HOCH 2

Glucosamine-6-P
3.2.1.26 3.2.1.48

HO OH
OH

OH

COO -

OH OH H

HO OH

OH OH

HO OH

Gulonate
OH H C H C

OH H

1.1.1.19
OH OH C H O C H CO

Glucuronate
OH H C H C HOCH 2

1.13.99.1
OH C H O CO CO

Inositol
HOCH 2 C H

3.1.3.25
OH H C

Inositol-P
C CO

OH

Fructose
1.1.1.14
H H C OH H C C CH2OH OH

SUCROSE
5.5.1.4

GLUCOSE
5.4.2.2 3.1.3.9 2.7.1.2 2.7.1.1

Fumaryl 5.2.1.2 Maleyl 1.13.11.5 Homogentisate acetoacetate acetoacetate
CHOHCH 2NHCH 3 OH CHOHCH 2NH2 OH

COO

O CH2COO

4.2.1.51 1.3.1.13

OH

1.13.11.27

1.3.1.13

Hydroxyphenyl pyruvate

OH

2.6.1.5
+

OH

TYROSINE

1.14.16.1

PHENYLALANINE
1.3.1.13

2.6.1.5 4.3.1. 5

Phenylpyruvate

CH2CH2NH2 OH

CH2CH(NH3) COOOH

4.1.

3.1.1.18 HOCH 2

OH OH C O
HOCH 2 C CH2OP O

1 1.1.1.2
2.6.1.16
O OH

ATP

Epinephrine
(Adrenaline)

OH

2.1.1.28

Norepinephrine
(Noradrenaline)
1.6 2.1.

OH

1.14.17.1

Dopamine α-Tocopherol
(Vitamin E)

OH

4.1.1.28 1.14.18.1
O

Dopa
H2 C CH-COO + NH3

OH

1.14.16.2

Ubiquinone
O O

1.25
+

CH2 CH2NH2

CH=CHCOO

CH2CH(NH3) COO HN I O I

Tyramine

OH

Cinnamate Menaquinone
1.14.13.11
CH=CHCOO

Gulonolactone 1.1.3.8 2-Oxogulonolactone
1.1.1.45
OH H C OH OH HOCH 2 C H CO C COOH OH H HOCH 2 C H C OH CO CO COO -

ASCORBATE
OH H HOCH2 C H C CO O

1.10.2.1 1.10.3.3
CO

OH OH H

Sorbitol
2.7.1.3
H H C OH H C

2.7

CO

.1.4

HO OH

ADP

CHOHCH 2NH2 OCH 3 OH

1.1.1.49

P E N T O S E S

3-Dehydrogulonate
OH H HOCH 2 C H C OH C CHO

1.1.1.130
H

2, 3-Dioxogulonate
H C OH C CHO H HOCH 2 C H C

Dehydroascorbate
CO CH 2OH H H C

POCH2
OH C CO

C

C COO -

3.1.

1.17

P-Glucono lactone

Glucose-6-P
5.3.1.9

CH2 OP O OH OH

CH(OH)COO OCH 3

HO OH

Normetepinephrine
(Normetadrenaline)

CHOHCH 2OH OCH 3 OH

Coumarate

NADP +
5.3.1.8

OH

HOCH 2

C

OH H

OH OH H

L-Xylose
OH H HOCH 2 C H C H C OH OH

4.1.1.34
CH2OH

D-Arabinose
OH H HOCH 2 C H C OH CO

5.3.1.3

OH OH

D-Ribulose
OH H

2.7.1.47

HOCH 2 C

CH2OP

OH OH H OH 6-P-Gluconate NADPH

4-OH-3-MethoxyD-mandelate
CH2OP O NHCOCH 2NH2 H 2C OC NH CHO NH RP

3.4 1.4.

Dopaquinone Plastoquinone

O

O O
NH

OH

I
OH

I

4-OH-3-Methoxyphenylglycol
NH H 2C

1.14.18.1

MELANIN

THYROXINE
OOC-CH-CH 2COO HNCO C N

LIGNIN

Tannins
O C

Plant Pigments

NADP +

CH 2OH

POCH2

C H

C OH

CO

CH2OH HOCH 2

Fructose-1-P
H H H

OH OH H

1.1.1.44 5.1.3.1
H H C CO CH2OH H H

H

H C

HO C CO CH2OH

2.2.1.1

POCH2 C

L-Arabitol
HOCH 2 C H C H

L-Xylulose
H OH H C C OH C OH H OH OH

2.7.1.53

NADPH

L-Xylulose-5-P
H OH H C OH HOCH 2 C C OH H OH OH

C

C

C

CH2OH

Fructose-6-P ATP
C CHO

OH OH H

HN C

CHO NH RP

OH OH H C OH CHO HOCH 2

OH OH OH

CH 2OH

CHO

Ribitol
H H C

POCH2

C

Glycinamideribosyl-P
6.3.4.13

OH OH

H 2N

HC C

N CH N

OOC

N C C CH N RP

2.1.2.2

6.3.5.3 6.3.3.1 Formyl Formyl 5-Amino 4.1.1.21 5-Amino-4-imidazole carboxylate-R P glycinamide-R P glycinamidine-R P imidazole-R P
H2NCONH 2

RP

H2 N

H 2N

C

CH

H 2N

C C

N CH N RP O C C NH C

N

6.3.2.6

5-Amino-4-imidazole 4.3.2.2 5-Aminoimidazole (N-succinylcarboxamide)-R P carboxamide-R P
HN HC O C N N C C CH NH

RP

H 2N

OH OH

L-Arabinose
OH H HOCH 2 C H C H C OH OH

5.3

1.1.1.10

.1.4
HOCH 2

Xylitol
C H C H

2.7.1.47

D-Xylose
POCH2 C
H C H CO CH OH 2

H C CHO

D-Ribulose-5-P
5.1.3.1
H OH C CO CH 2OH

POCH 2 C

3.1.3.11

2.7.1.11

HOCH 2 C

Erythrose-4-P
POCH 2

OH OH

ADP
HO C CO CH2OP CH2OP O

Urea

H 2N
OC

COO C N H H

NH2 CO
NH

H2 N
OC

H C

H C

3.5.3.4

CHO

CO CH2OH

D-Ribose
5.1.3.4

OH OH OH

L-Lyxose

L-Ribulose 2.7.1.16 L-Ribulose-5-P
1.1.1. 9
H OH HOCH 2 C C CO CH2OH OH H

5.3.1.6

OH OH H

2.7
2.7.1.17

POCH 2

C

4.1.2.-

.1.1

5

D-Xylulose-5-P

OH H

2.2.1.2

Fructose1:6-bis-P

NH2

.1.4 2.6 10 0 1. .2 1.4. .1

GLYCINE
O

CH2(NH3)COOH

+

Allantoate
N
NH2

3.5.2.5

Allantoin

NH OC CO C N H NH H

O

HN OC

C

NH C C CO NH

1.7.3.3
NH2

URATE
N CH N
N HC

N H

1.1.1.204 1.1.3.22 Hypoxanthine 1.1.3.22 Xanthine
NH2 N C C CH C N RP(P) N

N C CH C OC NH NH HN

O C

2.1.2.3

H2 N HCO

N CH N RP

C A T E C H O L A M I N E S

3.2.2.2

Inosine
2.4.2.1

3.1.3.

5

Formylamidoimidazolecarboxamide-R P
3.5.4.10
HN O C N N C C CH N RP HC

N
CH

N

O P O O

HC

D-Xylulose
H+
PHOTOSYSTEM II

H+

H+

H

H C

H C CHO

H+ H+

O2

2 2

H+Protons from Water
THYLAKOID LUMEN THYLAKOID MEMBRANE STROMA

H+

H+
H+
H+
H+

3 3

H+

CHLOROPLAST OUTER MEMBRANE

COO

Linoleate
1.3.1.35

1.14.99.25
COO COSCoA

γ-Linolenate

Arachidonate 1.13.11.34
CO-S-ACP

L I P I D B I O S Y N T H E S I S

1.14.99.5

Oleoyl-CoA Stearoyl-CoA
CH3(CH2)14COS-ACP COSCoA

Palmitoleoyl-ACP Dehydrostearoyl-CoA Palmitoyl-CoA
1.3.1.9 2, 1.3.1.10
CH3(CH2)n CH=CHCOS-CoA CH 3(CH2)14COSCoA CH3(CH2)14CH=CHCOS-CoA

Palmitoyl-ACP ACYL-ACP
CH3(CH2)6CH2CH 2COSACP

3-Enoyl-ACP

4.2.1.60 4.2.1.61

Decanoyl-ACP Hexanoyl-ACP Butanoyl-ACP

1.3.1.

3, 4-Decenoyl-ACP
9

CH3(CH2)5CH=CHCH 2COSACP CH3(CH2)6CH=CHCOSACP

4.2.1.6

2, 3-Decenoyl-ACP 2, 3-Hexenoyl-ACP Crotonoyl-ACP
R-CH2COO CH3CH=CHCO-S-ACP CH3(CH2)2CH=CHCO-S-ACP

4.2.1.

CH 3(CH2)2CH 2CH2COSACP

1.3.1.9

4.2.1.59

CH3CH=CHCO.S-ACP

CH3CH2CH2COSACP

1.3.1.9

4.2.1.58

ACYL-CoA
(Cytosol)
2.3.1.7

CH3(CH2)n+2COS-CoA

6.2.1.3

3.1.2.20

FATTY ACID

L I P I D D E G R A D A T I O N

Carnitine O-Acyl-carnitine
O-Acyl-carnitine
3.1.1.28
CH3(CH2)n CH2CH2COSCoA

3.1.1.3

CH2O-CO-R CH2O-CO-R"

R’-CO-OCH

CH2O-CO-R R’-CO-OCH CH2OH

Triacylglycerol

FAT

Diacyl 2.3.1.20 glycerol

3.1.3.4 2.7.1.107

ACYL-CoA
(Mitochondria)

1.3.99.3 1.3.99.3 1.3.99.2

CH3(CH2)n CH=CHCOSCoA

2, 3-Enoyl-CoA

4.2.1.17 4.2.1.17 4.2.1.55

CH3(CH n CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA

CH3(CH2)2CH2CH2COSCoA

Hexanoyl-CoA Butanoyl-CoA
CH3CH2CH2COSCoA

2, 3-Hexenoyl-CoA Crotonoyl-CoA Pentenoyl-CoA
CH 2O-CO-R CH3CH2CH=CHCOSCoA CH3CH=CHCOSCoA

CH3(CH2)2CH=CHCOSCoA

3-OH-Hexanoyl-CoA 3-OH-Butanoyl-CoA
CH3CH2CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA CH3CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA

CH3(CH2)2CH(OH)CH 2COSCoA

Odd C Fatty acids

Pentanoyl-CoA
CH2 O-CO-R R'-CO-OCH O CH2O-PO O

CH 3CH2CH 2CH2COSCoA

3-OH-Pentanoyl-CoA
CH 2O-CO-R R'-CO-OCH O O CH2O POCMP

OH

OH

R'-CO-OCH

1.3.99.7
HO OH OH

COO O + CH 2O PO CH 2CHNH 3 O

-

-

Phosphatidyl inositol

PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE
CH2O-CO-R R'-CO-OCH O

2.7.8.8 2.7.8.11
CH 2O-CO-R’

Serine

Inositol
R'-CO-OCH

P H O S P H O L I P I D S

CH 2O-CO-R R'-CO-OCH

4.1.1.65

O HCO-CO-R

OPhosphatidyl ethanolamine CEPHALIN CH2OCH=CHR R-CO-OCH O

O + CH 2O P OCH 2CH2 NH 3

CH2 O-POCH 2CH(OH)CH 2 O-P-OCH 2 O O

Cardiolipin

-

OPhosphatidylglycerol

2.7.8.1

CDP-Ethanolamine
CH2O-CO-R

+ CPP- OCH 2CH2 NH3

2.7.7.14

Ethanolamine-P
CH2OH HOCH O + CH2OPO CH2CH 2N(CH 3)

2.1.1.17 2.1.1.71

OCholine plasmalogen 1.3.1.35 Serine + NH

+ CH2OPO CH2CH2N(CH 3)3

HOCH O + CH2OPO CH2CH2N(CH 3)3 O CH 2 O-CO-R 3.1.1.32 O R'-CO-OCH + CH2OPOCH2CH2N(CH 3)3 O

- Lysolecithin

3.1.1.5

OGlycerophosphocholine

LECITHIN

+ CPP-O CH2CH2N(CH 3)3

2.7.8.2

CDP-choline
3

2.3.1.50

3

Dehydrosphinganin Gangliosides

CH 3(CH2)14COCHCH 2OH

+ NH 3 CH3(CH2)14CH(OH)CHCH 2OH

1.1.1.102

2.4.1.62

UDP-Sugars Acyl-CoA

Sphinganin

+ NH 3 CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2OH

2.7.8.

3.1.4.12

4-Sphingenin
3.5.1.23
NHCOR

NHAcyl O + CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2 O PO CH2CH2N(CH 3)3 O

SPHINGOMYELIN

-

2.7.8.3

CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2OH

3.1.4.12

Ceramide

I S O P R E N O I D S S T E R O I D S P O R P H Y R I N S

Lycopene (C40)
To Brain - VISION

ß-CAROTENE (C40) Metarhodopsin
1.13.11.21
COO-

hv

Rhodopsin
CH3O CH3O

O

Opsin
CHO

CH3

Retinoate
1.2.1.36

O

Ubiquinone
(Coenzyme Q)

trans-Retinal
1.1.1.105

5.2.1.3

Light

11-cis-Retinal
1.1.1.105

CHO

Menaquinone Plastoquinone
O HO
CH 3 O

Retinol esters
2.3.1.76 3.1.1.21

CH2OH

(Vitamin A)

Dark

(Vitamin K)

(Vitamin E)

STEROIDS Progesterone
HO H HO

2H+ CuB Heme a3
2eH HO H H HO H
1.9.3.1

F6

N2

6.3

trans-Retinol

2.5.1.21

δ

.5

5.2.1.7

11-cis-Retinol

Phylloquinone

α-Tocopherol

.5

CH2OH

O CH3

CH 3

H

P

Pregnenolone

CHOLESTEROL

Desmosterol
COOCH2

HEMOGLOBIN
CH2 CH H3 C HC N H3 C CH2 CH2 COOC H H C N Fe N CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH3C CH CH3 CH CH

CHLOROPHYLL
CH2 CH H3 C
H2 C

H2 C N H H N C H2

CH3 CH 2 CH CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH3 C
H2 C

CH2 N H H N

H2 C N H H N C H2

N

N H H N

H3C CH2 CH2 COO-

CH2 CH2 COO-

CH2 CH2 COO-

HEME

1.3.3.4 4.99.1.1

Protoporphyrinogen

1.3.3.3

Coproporphyrinogen

© 2003 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

www.iubmb.org
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8

H2 O

Translocated protons

8

P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S

2H+ yclic Ph C 2H+
PQ PQH2 _ PQ
1e-

otophosphoryla SYSTEM lic n-cyc electr tion l No (electric curre on fl

PHOTO- H+

POCH 2 C

H

H C

H OH C C CO CH2OP

P-Ribosyl amine
4.1.2.13

OH OH

Glyoxylate

Sarcosine

2.1 OOCCH 2NHCH3

N CH2 O

N

O HC O O N -O P~O P~O P O CH 2 O O O O

OOC-CH-CH 2COO

Fumarate
(AMP)

OH

1.5.99.2
OOCCH 2N(CH3)2

1.4.4.2

Cyclic AMP

4.6.1.1

ATP
d-ADP
2.7.4.6

2.7.4.6

OH OH

ADP

2.7.4.3 2.7.4.4

N HC

ADENOSINE-P Adenine

4.3.2.2

1.17.4.1

Adenylosuccinate
3.5.4.3

N

NH N C C CH C NH RP

Aspartate
6.3.4.4 3.1.4.6 2.4.2.1

INOSINE-P
(IMP)
HN O C N N C C CH N RP

1.1.1.205 OC

H+

Ferredoxin

2eQB QA
Pheophytin P680 Chl.a Mn
2e-

.

2e-

* 2eFe-S

H+

nt)

o

D-Ribose-5-P

OH OH OH

POCH2

C

Dimethylglycine
2.1.1.5
OOCCH2N(CH3)3
+

Sedoheptulose-PP
2.2.1.1
POCH 2CHOHCHO

OH OH OH H

2.7.

7.7

DNA RNA
O C

2.7.7.7

H+

Betaine
1.2.1.8
+

d-ATP
2.1.2.1

1e-

PQ

PQH2

Cyt bf
2e-

H+
H+ H+

NADP+

A1 Chl.A0

2PQH2

2PQ
2e-

._

Cyt bc
2e-

2PQ
PC PC PC

NADPH+H+
Pi

Dihydroxyacetone-P
(Glycerone-P)

HOCH2COCH2OP 2.2.1.1

1.1 5.3.

3-P-Glyceraldehyde
Pi
6.3.4.7 Pi NAD+ 2.4.2.14

OHCCH 2N(CH3)3

P700

Fe-S 2e- Cyt.f

H+
a

H+ H+

ADP
2

1.1 5.3. 2.7.1.28

Betaine aldehyde
1.1.99.1

FOLIC ACID C1 POOL
4.1.2.5

ATP
4.2.1.2 0

2.7.7.6

2.7.7.7 2.7. 7.7 2.7.7.6

d-GTP d-CTP GTP TTP 2.7.
2.7. 7.6

2.4.2.15

d-GDP
2.7.4.6

XANTHOSINE-P
(XMP)
2.4.2. 1
6.3.4.1 6.3.5.2
HN H2 N C O C N N C C CH N RP

H

P U R I N E S

1.17

.4.1

Guanine GDP

H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+

4H+

H+

ADP
β
1

Pi

w

2.7.4.8

2.7.

7.6
O C

4.6

1.17.4 .1

GUANOSINE-P
(GMP)
NH2 C CH CH OC N DP
N

Ribulose-1,5-bis-P

Glyceraldehyde
1.2.1.13
CH2OP O

1.2.1.12

+ HOCH2CH2N (CH3) 3

CH3 H2NCH 2 CHCOO

CH3 H2NCONHCH 2CHCOO

HN OC

CHOLINE
2.6.1.51 1.4.1.7

γ

ATP
β2
α α

Fixation

CO2

NADH

HOCH2CH(NH3)COO

+

SERINE

4.2.1.22 4.1.1.11

3-Aminoisobutyrate

3.5.1.6

2.1

ß-Ureido isobutyrate
3
3.5.1.6

3.5.2.2

Dihydro thymine
3.5.2.2

CH-CH3 CH 2 NH

HN OC

C CH3 CH NH O C

TDP
2.4.2.4
O C

O

2.7.

4.9

HN OC

C N

1.3.1.2

Thymine
CH2 CH2

C-CH3 CH 2.1.1.45 DP

HN OC

O C

THYMIDINE-P
2.4. 2.4

d-UMP

CH CH N DP 3.5.4.12 NH 2 C CH N CH OC NH

d-CMP

2.7.4.14

d-CDP

.1.1

HN
H2NCONHCH 2CH 2COO OC

2.7.6.1
OH OH

OP O P

1:3-bis-P-Glycerate
ADP
2.7.2.3

POCH 2CHOHCOO P

H2NCH 2CH2COO

HOCH2COCOO

ß-Alanine

ATP
α

ATP
HO HO COO

P-Ribosyl-PP

Hydroxypyruvate

3.1.3.3

3.6.1.34

ADP

+ P OCH2CH(NH3)COO

-OOC NH2 CH2 OC CH-COO N

Carbamoyl ß-alanine
HN OC O C NH

Dihydrouracil
HN OC O C

NH

HN OC

1.3.1.2

Uracil
O C

CH CH N H
O C CH HN OC N CH RP

1.17.4.1
NH 2

3.5.4.1
HN OC

CH2 CH-COO

COO

ATP
OH COO HO O OH

1.1.1.29

Phosphoserine
2.6.1.52

Carbamoyl aspartate
2.6.1.22
H H C H C H C

H

3.5.2.3

URIDINEDihydro Orotate Orotidine-P Uridine-P UDP 4.1.1.23 (UMP) 2.7.4.4 2.4.2.10 2.7.4.6 triphosphate orotate 1.3.1.14
(UTP)
H H C H C H C NH2 N OC C NH CH C HC N N H H C CO CH2 CONH 2 N NH C CH C HC N N RP

CH C-COO NH

HN OC

CH

C-COO N RP

2.4.2.9

O C CH CH N RPPP

Cytosine
N OC

CDP

C

N

CH 2.7.4.6 CH

6.3.4.2

RPPP

CYTIDINEtriphosphate
(CTP)
H H C C C H CH N

P Y R I M I D I N E S

α α1

α β

εε

c

3

5.3 1.1 .99 4.9 .3 9.1

O

Leukotriene B4
COO

3-P-Glycerate
2.7.1.31

POCH2CHOH COO

1.1.1.95

P-Hydroxypyruvate
2.4.2.17
HC N

P OCH2COCOO

P OCH2 C

P-Ribosyl-ATP
C CH 2CHCOO NH C H

OH OH O

3.6.1.31

NH2 N + C C N CH C HC N N RP(PP)

P OCH 2

C

P OCH 2 C

P-Ribosyl-AMP
C NH CH + CH2CH(NH 3)COO

3.5.4.19

OH OH O

OH OH

P OCH 2 C

Prostaglandin PGE 2
CH3(CH2)14CH(OH)CH 2COS COS-CoA

HO

OH

5.3.99.5

Thromboxane B2
CH3(CH2)14COCH 2COS-CoA

OH-Stearoyl-CoA

Oxostearoyl-CoA
Mitochondrial

2, 3-Diphosphoglycerate

POCH2CH(OP) COO

5.4.2.1

HOCH2CH(OH) COO

Glycerate

Carnosine
4.1.1.22

NHCOCH 2CH2NH2

HC N

HC N

C NH CH

P-Ribulosylformimino P-Ribosylformimino 5-aminoimidazole- 5.3.1.16 5-aminoimidazolecarboxamide-R P carboxamide-R P + +
+ CH2CH(NH 3)CHO HC N C CH 2CH(NH 3)CH2OH HC N C

RP

OH OH HN

Imidazole glycerol-P
HC N C H C NH CH2COCH2OP

CH2CH(NH 3)CH2OP

CH3(CH2)14COCH 2COS-CoA

Endoplasmic Reticulum

ACETATE

CH 3COO

HISTIDINE
4.3.1.3

1.1.1.23

Histidinal
OOC HN

1.1.1.23

Histidinol
OC N

NH CH

3.1.3.15

Histidinol-P

NH CH

4.2.1.19

2.6.1.9
CH N C

Chain elongation
CH 3(CH2)n CH(OH)CH 2COSACP

3-OH-Acyl-ACP

1.1.1.100

3-Oxoacyl-ACP

CH 3(CH2)n COCH 2COSACP

2-P-Glycerate
4.2.1.11

HOCH2CH(O P)COO

Imidazole acetol-P
CH CHCOO

HC

C C H NH

CH2CH2NH2

1.2.1.4

N

CHCH 2CH2COO NH CH

CHCH 2CH2COO NH CH

HISTAMINE

2.3.1.41

ETHANOL
1.1.1.1

CH3CH 2OH

2.1.3.2

2.3.

Formimino glutamate

3.5.2.7

Imidazolone propionate

4.2.1.49

NH CH

4.3.1.3

Urocanate 2SO 4
1.2.1.32

0

60

3-OH-Decanoyl-ACP 3-OH-Hexanoyl-ACP 3-OH-Butanoyl-ACP
CH2OH HOCH CH2OH HOCH CH3CH(OH)CH 2COS-ACP CH3(CH2)2CH(OH)CH 2COSACP

CH3(CH2)6CH(OH)CH 2COSACP

1.1.1.100

3-Oxo-Decanoyl-ACP
2.3.1.41

CH 3(CH2)6COCH 2COSACP

1.30

+ CH2CO-OCH2CH(NH 3)COO

Acetylserine
+ S-CH 2CH(NH 3)COO + S-CH 2CH(NH 3)COO

HS

1.1.1.100

3-Oxo-Hexanoyl-ACP Acetoacetyl-ACP
CH3COCH 2COSACP

CH3(CH2)2COCH 2COSACP

P-enolpyruvate
ADP Malonyl-ACP
2.3.1.39
HOOCCH 2CO-S-ACP

CH2=C(OP ) COO

1.8.99.1

HSO -

1.8.99.2

Acetaldehyde HS
1.1 4.1.

CH3CHO

Phosphoadenylylsulphate
(PAPS)
4.2.1.22 4.4.1.8

2.7.1.25

Adenylylsulphate
(APS)

2.7.7.4

4.2.

99 + .8 HSCH 2CH(NH 3)COO

2.3.1.41

CYSTINE
4.4.1.15

1.6.4.1

CYSTEINE

4.4.1.1

+ CH2CH(NH 3)COO + SCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO

4.2.99.9

Cystathionine

+ HSCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO

Homocysteine
3.3.1.1

2.1.1.13 2.1.1.14

+ CH 3 SCH CH CH(NH )COO 2 2 3

METHIONINE
+ CH 3 SCH CH CH(NH )COO 2 2 3 +

1.1.1.100 1.1.1.8

1.13.11.20
+ HO 2SCH 2CH(NH 3)COO + HO3SCH 2CH(NH 3)COO

CH2OH CH2O P

2.7.1.40

Glutamate
1.29
6.3. 2.2

Adenosyl

Adenosyl

2.5.1.6

2.3.1.41

Glycerol
2.3.1.15

2.7.1.30

3-P-Glycerol

2.3.1.51
CH2O-CO-R

KETONE BODIES Acetone 3-OH-Butyrate
CH3COCH 3 CH3CH(OH)CH 2COO

3.7

.1.2

ATP

4.4.1.15

HSO3
+ CH3CH(NH3)COO

HO2SCH 2COCOO

Cysteine sulphinate

Cysteate

4.1.

R’-CO-OCH CH2O P

2.7.8.5

Malonyl-Co-A Acetyl-ACP
2.3.1.38
CH 3CO-S-ACP

HOOCCH 2CO-SCoA

PYRUVATE
1.2.4.1 2.3.1.12 1.8.1.4

1.4.1.1

2.6.1.2

3-Sulphinyl pyruvate
4.1.1.29

ALANINE

Hypotaurine

HO2SCH 2CH2NH2

1.8.1.3

HO3SCH 2CH2NH2

CH2SH + OOCCH(NH 3)CH2CH2CONHCHCOO

S-Adenosyl homocysteine

+ SCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO

2.1.1.10 2.1.1.20

S-Adenosyl methionine
(SAM)

Taurine

γ-Glutamylcysteine
6.3. 2.3

Glycine

4.1.1.4

1.1.1.30

Phosphatidate

Acetoacetate
3.1.2.11

CH3COCH 2COO

4.1.1.9

4.1.3.

4.1.2.5
+ CH3CH(OH)CH(NH 3)COO

18

+ OOCCH2CH2COOCH2CH2CH(NH 3)COO

4.1.1.12 2.6.1.18
CH3CH(OH)COO

Succinylhomoserine
2.3.1.46
CH3 CH3

CH2SH + OOCCH(NH 3)CH2CH2CONHCHCONHCH 2COO

1.1. 1.

27

PYRUVATE
3-OH-Acyl-CoA
1.1.1.35 1.1.1.35
CH3(CH2)n COCH 2COSCoA

CH3COCOO-

THREONINE
4.1.3. 18
4.2.1.16
CH3CH2COCOO

LACTATE
.5 2

O-Phospho- 2.7.1.39Homoserine 4.2.99.2 homoserine
COO

+ POCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO

+ HOCH 2CH2CH(NH 3)COO

Bile Acids
HCHO
4.1.2.12
CH3 + CHCH(NH 3)COO CH3

Glutathione

HOCH 2 C(CH 3)2COCOO

Oxopantoate

3-Oxoacyl-CoA

2.3.1.

3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA Acetoacetyl-CoA
CH3CH2COCH 2COSCoA CH3COCH 2COSCoA

CH3(CH2)2COCH 2COSCoA

16
6

2.3.1.1

NAD ATP CO2
6.4.1.1

1.2.4.1 2.3.1.12 3.1.3.43

HOH GDP CO2 GTP

4.2

.1

1.2.1.18
4.1.1.32

Malonic semialdehyde

OHCCH 2COO-

1.1.1.3 1.1.1.86

CH3

2-Acetolactate Oxobutyrate
4.1. 3.18
1.1.1.
CH3 HOCH 2CHCOO

CH3COC(OH)CH 3

2-3-Dihydroxy 4.2.1.9 2-Oxo- 1.4.1.8 VALINE isovalerate isovalerate
CH3 CH3 CH2 = CCOSCoA CH3

C (OH)CH(OH)COO CH3

CHCOCOO

1.1.1.169

2.6.1.32

1.1.1.157

2.3.1.9

1.2.1.25

Pantoate ß-Alanine 3.5.1.22
6.3.2.1

HOCH 2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)COO

NADH+H+
CH3COSCoA

1.1.1.35

3-Oxopentanoyl-CoA
OHCCOO

4.1.3.5

NAD+
.44 2.6.1.4 2.6.1

ACETYL-CoA
1.1.1.39
-OOCCOCH2COO-

Methylmalonyl semialdehyde
2.6.1.1 4.1.3.7 CH2COOC(OH)COOCH2COO-

CH3 OHCCHCOO

31

3-Hydroxyisobutyrate
COO CH3COC(OH)CH 2CH3

3.1.2.4

3-Hydroxy- 4.2.1.17 Methyl 1.3.99.3 Isobutyryl-CoA Isobutyryl-CoA acrylyl-CoA
CH3 CH3 CHCOCOO CH3CH2 CH 3 + CHCH(NH 3)COO CH3CH2

HOCH 2CHCOS-CoA-

CH3CHCO-SCoA

HOCH2 C(CH3)2CH(OH)CO NHCH 2CH2COO

PANTOTHENATE
2.7.1.33

2.7.7.41

Glyoxylate
1.1.1.79 1.2.3.5
HOCH 2COO

4.1.3.5
CH2COO CH3C(OH)CH 2COSCoA

4.1.3.4

NADH+H+
4.2.1.1 8

OXALOACETATE
NAD+
4.1.3.8

2.3.1.1

6

CDP-diacyl glycerol
O

Glycolate
1.2.1.21 2.7.8.5
HOCH 2CHO

ß-OH-ß-Methylglutaryl-CoA
1.1.1.34
CH2COO CH3C(OH)CH 2CHO

4.2.1.9 2-Aceto-22-Oxo-3-methyl 2:3-Di-OHhydroxy- 1.1.1.86 3-methylvalerate valerate butyrate
CH3 CH 3 CH3COCHCOSCoA CH3CH(OH)CHCOSCoA CH3 CH3CH=CHCOSCoA

C(OH)CH(OH)COO CH3CH2

P OCH 2C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH2COO

2.6.1.32

ISOLEUCINE
CH 3

COO P OCH 2C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH 2CO NHCHCH 2SH

4-P-Pantothenate Cysteine 6.3.2.5

1.2.1.25

4-P-Pantothenylcysteine
4.1.1.36

CH2O-CO-R CH2O-PO CH 2CHOHCH 2OH

HOOC-COOH

Oxalate

FMN
I

I
1.1.1.37

CITRATE
4.1.3.2

Glycol aldehyde
1.4.3.8
+ HOCH 2CH 2NH 3

Glyoxylate Cycle

-OOCCHO

4.2.1.3
CH(OH)COO2COO

Propanoyl-CoA
2.1.3.1 4.1.1.41 5.1.99.1
CH3 OOC-CH-COSCoA

CH 3CH2COSCoA

2-Methylaceto2-Methyl-3-4.2.1.17Tiglyl-CoA 2 Methylbutyryl1.1.1.35 1.3.99.3 acetyl-CoA hydroxyCoA butyryl-CoA
COOH

CH3CH 2CHCOSCoA

P OCH 2C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH 2CO NHCH 2CH 2SH

4-P-Pantetheine
2.7.7.3

1.6.5.3

+ POCH2CH2 NH3

Mevaldate
1.1.1.32
CH COO

FMNH2
2H
+
4.1.3.1
CH3CH(OH)CH2CO.SCoA

6.4.1.3

COOH (CH3)2CHCHCH(OH)COO

ISOCITRATE
1.1.1.41

(CH3)2CHC(OH)CH 2COO

2.7.1.82

Ethanolamine
CH 3COCH 2CH 2N(CH 3)3

2Fe -S (5 Clusters)

2-Isopropylmalate
4.2.1.18
4.2.1.18 1.1.1.3

4.2.1.33

3-Isopropyl- 1.1.1.85 Oxoleucine malate
6.4.1.4

(CH3)2CHCH 2 COCOO

2.6.1.6 1.4.1.9

+ (CH3)2CHCH 2 CH(NH 3)COO

LEUCINE
1.2.1.25

ADP- OCH2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH2CO NHCH 2CH2SH

Dephospho-Coenzyme A
2.7.1.24

3.1.

3.1.4.4 3.1.4.3 2.7.7.15
+ OCH 2CH2N(CH 3)3

2 Acetylcholine CH C(OH)CH CH OH 3 2 2 4.2 Mevalonate

4H+

1.6. 5.3

2.3.1.6

MALATE 4H+ 2H+ 4.2.1.2
or 2H+ -

-OOCCOCH

GLUTARATE
1.2.4.2 2.3.1.61

2-OXO-

2CH2COO

4.1.1.71

Methylmalonyl-CoA
2.7.2. 4
+ P OOCCH 2CH(NH3)COO

CH3

ASPARTATE
4.3.1.1 6.3.5.4

3-Methylglutaconyl-CoA
H C N

OOCCH 2C = CHCOSCoA

3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA
H2 C
N

CH3 CH3C = CHCOSCoA

1.3.99.10

Isovaleryl-CoA

(CH3)2CHCH 2COSCoA

P-ADP- OCH 2 C(CH 3)2CH(OH)CONHCH 2CH 2CO NHCH 2CH2SH

Coenzyme A
+ NH3 OOCCH-CH 2CH2CH2CHCOO + NH 3

Choline-P

+ HOCH 2CH 2N(CH 3)3

2.7.1.36 2.7.4.2
CH2COO

CH3C(OH)CH 2CH2OPP + NH 3 CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2 O- Galactose

2.7.1.32

CHOLINE

UQH2

FUMARATE
1.3.5.1

OOCCH=CHCOO-

Aspartyl-P

Diphosphomevalonate

FADH2
Fe-S Cyt.b

+

SUCCINYL-CoA
6.2.1.4

-OOCCH2CH2CO.SCoA

5.1.99.1 5.4.99.2

1.2 .1.1 1

Psychosine
NHCOR

2.4.1.23

UDP-Galactose

Acyl-CoA Cerebroside
CH3 CH2

UQ
4.1.1.33

FAD

II

SUCCINATE

-OOCCH2CH2COO-

1.2.1.16

1.3.1.26 OOCCH 2CH2CHO Aspartyl 4.2.1.52 2, 3-DihydroPiperideineSemialdehyde dipicolinate 2, 6-dicarboxylate Succinic semialdehyde OH
+ (CH3)3NCH2CH(OH)CH 2COO

+ OHCCH 2CH (NH3)COO

HC OOCC

CH 2 CH-COO

H 2C OOCC

CH2 CH-COO

OOCCH 2CH2CONH OOCCH 2CH2CONH OOCCOCH 2CH2CH2CH-COO OOCCHCH 2CH2CH 2CH-COO + NH3

A M I N O A C I D S

N-Succinyl- 2.6.1.17 N-Succinyl-2, 6 3.5.1.18 Diamino2-amino-6-oxodiaminopimelate pimelate pimelate
+ H2N(CH 2)4 CH(NH 3)COO

Glycine
2.3.1.37

UQH2
1.10.2.2

2H+

+ H2NOCCH 2CH (NH3 COO

Carnitine

+ + (CH3)3N(CH 2)3 CH2CH(NH 3)COO

CH3(CH2)12CH=CHCH(OH)CHCH 2 O- Galactose

3.2.1.46 2.4.1.47 1.3.99.7

CH3C-CH2CH2OPP

Isopentenyl-PP
(C5)

2UQH2

UQH2 1e_ UQ.

5-Aminolevulinate

Asparagine

1.14.11.1

2.6.1.19 1.3.99.7
OOCCH 2CH 2CH2COSCoA

N6-Trimethyl3-OH-lysine

+ + (CH3)3N(CH 2)3 CH2CH(NH 3)COO

1.14.11.8

N6-Trimethyllysine

LYSINE

7 5.1.1. 20 4.1.1. 1.5.1.7 - 10

Phytoene
(C40)
2.5.1.32

Dimethylallyl-PP
(C5)
2.5.1.1
CH 3 CH3

CH3C = CHCH 2OPP

4H+

2.5.1.29

CH3C= CHCH 2 CH2C= CHCH 2OPP CH2OPP

Geranyl-PP
(C10)
2.5.1.10

2e- 2UQ_ . III 2eFe-S Cyt.bL Cyt.c1 2UQ

2H+

2-AMINO ACID 2-OXO ACID
MI
2.6.1.R-CO-COO

+ R-CH(NH3) COO

4.1.1.70

Glutaryl-CoA

OOCCH 2CH2CH2COCOO

2-Oxoadipate

+ OOCCH 2CH2CH2CH (NH3 ) COO

4-Aminobutyrate
(GABA)
H2N(CH 2)3NH(CH2)4NH (CH2)3NH2

OOCCH 2CH2CH2NH2

2.6.1.39

2-Aminoadipate 1.2.1.31 2-Aminoadipate semialdehyde
Adenosyl
+

+ OHCCH 2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO

COO NH CHCH 2CH2COO

+ CH 2CH2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO

1.5.1.9

Saccharopine

CH3-SCH 2CH2CHNH 2

1eCyt.bH UQ

+ OOCCH 2CH 2CH (NH3) COO

4.1

.1

5 .1

Spermine

S-Adenosylmethyl thiopropylamine
(Decarboxylated SAM)
Biosynthesis Degradation

TRA
NS
A

LEGEND
Carbohydrates Amino Acids
Biosynthesis Degradation

n

Geranyl-geranyl-PP
(C20)

NA TIO N

GLUTAMATE
1.4.1.14

2.7.2.1 + 1 POOCCH2CH 2CH(NH3) COO

2.5.1.22
H2N(CH 2)4NH (CH2)3NH2

Glutamyl-P
1.2.1.41

Phytol (C20)
CH3

CH2OH

OPP CH2

Cyt.c

1.10.2.2

Spermidine

1.4.1.2

3.5.1.2 6.3.1.2
+ H2NOCCH 2CH2CH (NH3) COO

Farnesyl-PP
(C15)

CuA CuA
Heme a

or ting ATP nsp 3.6.1.34 synt h tra +oscp

1.6.6.1 1.7.99.4

NO3NO2-

2.5.1.16
H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2NH2

Lipids
Biosynthesis Degradation

2H+

F1
β

7.1 1.7. 6.4 1.6. .1 8.6 6.3.4.16 1.1

NH4
ATP CO2

+

Purines & Pyrimidines
Biosynthesis Degradation

Glutamine

+ OHCCH 2CH 2CH(NH3) COO

Glutamic semialdehyde
2.6.1.13

Putrescine
CH2 CH2 CH N CHCOO

e as

6.3.5.5

Pyruvate Glyoxylate
4.1.3.16
OOCCH(OH)CH 2COCOO

CH3COCOO

OHCCOO

Vitamins Co-enzymes & Hormones
Biosynthesis Degradation

2H+

ATP
AD
β

Carbamoyl-P
2

H2NCOOP

ATP
γ
3

+ H 2NCONHCH 2CH2CH2CH(NH3) COO

Pentose Phosphate Pathway Photosynthesis Dark Reactions
Human Metabolism is identified as far possible by black arrows

CITRULLINE
2.1.3.3

Pyrroline-5carboxylate
4.1.1.17 1.5.99.8 CH2 1.5.1.2
CH2 CHCOO

Zymosterol

Lanosterol

5.4.99.7 1.14.99.7

Squalene
(C30)

1/ O 2 2

IV

ADP +

Pi

COOCH3 COOCH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 -OOC
H 2C H 2C H 2C

CH2 CH2 H 2 C N H H N CH2 CH2 COOC H2 N H H N

COOCOOCH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 COO-

COOCH2

H 2O
TRA N S L O

H+ H+ H+ β H+ H+

P +1 P i
γ
δ

α

T Aα

β

2.1.3.3
+ H2NCH2CH2CH2CH (NH3) COO

CH2

4-Hydroxy2-oxoglutarate
2.6.1.23

Biosynthesis

Degradation

F1
ε
H+ H+

ORNITHINE
F0
H+

6.3.4.5
OOCCHCH 2COO N + H2NCNHCH 2CH 2CH2CH(NH3) COO

PROLINE
1.14.11.2
HOCH H2C N H CH2 CHCOO

NH

COMPARTMENTATION
The "Backbone" of metabolism involves GLYCOLYSIS in the CYTOPLASM, the TCA CYCLE (mainly) in the Mitochondrial matrix and ATP FORMATION spanning the MITOCHONDRIAL INNER MEMBRANE

H2NCONH 2

+ OOCCH(OH)CH 2CH(NH 3)COO

2.1.4.1

UREA

CH2 H2NCH2C=O

COOlevulinate -OOC
H2 C H2 C

5-Amino-

α

H+

c 0 c-sub-u

nit

s

Glycine +

3.5.3.1

CH 2 CH 2 N H

AT E

+ H2NCNHCH 2CH2 CH2CH (NH3) COO

NH2

3.5.3.6

NO
1.14.13.39

Argininosuccinate

4-Hydroxyglutamate
HOCH HC

1.5.1.12

CH2 CHCOO

OOC

COO-

4.2.1.24

D PROTONS

ADP Pi

H+ H+ H+ H+

ARGININE
4.3.2.1
+ NH
2

HYDROXY PROLINE
HN C NH CO CH 2 N CH3

3-Hydroxypyrroline5-carboxylate

N

An electron flow (an electric current) generated from NADH and UQH2 drives the translocation of protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space. The retrolocation of these protons through the F0 subunits of ATP synthase to the matrix then supplies the energy needed to form ATP from ADP and phosphate

C

4.1.1.37

Uroporphyrinogen

4.3.1.8 4.2.1.75

H2 N

X

ATP
E NDE
RGONIC REACTIO N

Y

+ NH2

+ NH2

Electron Flow

Proton Flow

Porphobilinogen

Guanidoacetate

H2NCNHCH 2COO

2.1.1.2

H2NCN(CH 3)CH2COO

Creatine

2.7.3.2

P- HNCN(CH 3)CH2COO

P-Creatine
3.5.2.10

1.5.1.2
Small Numbers ( eg. 2.4.6.7) refer to the IUBMBEnzyme Commission (EC) Reference Numbers of Enzymes

Creatinine

22nd Edition Designed by Donald E. Nicholson, D.Sc., The University of Leeds, England – and Sigma-Aldrich
Product No. M 3907

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