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What is Nationalism? The Road to Nationalism Frailocracy The Secularization Movement Visitation Controversy Pedro Pelaez 1872 Carlos Maria de la Torre GomBurZa La Algarada Caviteña

Coined by Johann Gottfried von Herder (nationalismus) during the late 1770s. y Involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms. y The belief that the state is of primary importance, or the belief that one state is naturally superior to all other states. y It emphasizes collective identity - a 'people' must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture.

There are many events that contributed to the rise of nationalism in the Philippines. y Most of these events are either national or international that affected the Philippines. These are:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ The different rebellions in the Philippines British Occupation of the Philippines The rise of Nationalism in America and Europe Latin American War of Independence Spanish Constitution of 1812 Carlist Wars of Spain Age of Enlightenment Industrial Revolution Scientific Revolution

y For

300 years, Spanish authorities in the Philippines had to quell numerous revolts in the Philippines. y Most of these revolts are caused by the following: ‚ Personal reasons ‚ Institutional reasons ‚ Religious reasons

This type of revolts are reactions against their disenfranchisement of their political and economic powers in the community. y Others simply do not like the Spaniards and only by rebelling can they regain their goals. y Most of these type of rebellions are lead by former datus, rajahs, and babaylans. y Sometimes, even gobernadorcillos and cabeza de barangays led some of these rebellions.

Francisco Dagohoy y Diego and Gabriela Silang y Juan dela Cruz Palaris y Rajah Sulayman y Pedro Ladia y Dagami y Magalat y Pedro Almazan y Tondo Conspiracy or Conspiracy of the Maharlikas

y This

type of rebellion are mostly a reaction against institutions imposed by Spain in the Philippines. y The reasons of this type of rebellions are: ‚ Land ‚ Taxation ‚ Bandala ‚ Encomendero ‚ Polo y servicio

y Juan Ponce Sumuroy (polo y servicio) y Francisco

Maniago (polo y sevicio &

bandala) y Andres Malong y Kapampangan Revolt (encomendero) y Ambaristo Revolt (taxation of basi) y Dingras and Cagayan Revolts (taxation)

y This

type of rebellion is a reaction against Roman Catholicism. y The main causes of this rebellion are mainly of the monopoly of Roman Catholicism in the matters of faith and the abolition of the old ways and customs of the native Filipinos. y The babaylans were the primary leaders of these rebellions, later on even laymen who were reacting against the Roman Catholic Church.

Tamblot (babaylan) Bangkaw and Pagali (old practices) y Tapar (old practices) y Isneg resistance (Mandaya revolt) y Igorot resistance y Muslim resistance y Apolinario de la Cruz (Hermano Pule)
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There was no unity within the community. These revolts were mainly due to emotional extremes without proper planning or execution whatsoever. y The aims and objectives of these rebellions were personal or regional in nature NOT national. y There was no lingua franca a common language that unites the population. y Most of these rebellions end with a betrayal, death of the leader, or violently subdued by Spanish authorities.
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y The

British Occupation of the Philippines was part of the British Campaign against Spain during the Seven Year s War. y The British was successful in occupying Manila, Cavite, parts of Ilocos and Cagayan.

The Signing of the American Declaration of Independence
Independence Hall Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The US Declaration of Independence
Signed by the Representatives of the 13 colonies in the America.

The Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

Louis XVI
Executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. He was the only king of France ever to be executed.

y Lasted from 18th and early 19th centuries. y Haiti became the first colony to rebel against

France and became independent in 1804. y Soon after, Mexico, Brazil and the rest of South America gradually gained their independence. y This weakened Spain and Portugal as they are depended with their Latin American colonies for raw materials.

Battle of Carabobo Venezuela

Battle of San Domingo Haiti

Independence of Brazil 1822 Battle of Boyaca Colombia

Simon Bolivar Peru Central South America

Bernardo O'Higgins Chile

Jose de San Martin Argentina

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Mexico El Grito de Dolores

François-Dominique Toussaint L'ouverture Haiti

y Also known as Cadiz Constitution, was

made by the Liberals of Spain during the Peninsular War. y The Cortes of Cádiz worked feverishly, and the first written Spanish constitution was promulgated in the city of Cádiz on March 12, 1812. y The Constitution of 1812 is regarded as the first example of classic liberalism in Spain, and one of the first worldwide.

y During

the early nineteenth century it served as a model for liberal constitutions of several Mediterranean and Latin American nations. y Liberal deputies were in the majority, and they wanted:
‚ Equality before the law ‚ A centralized government ‚ An efficient modern civil service ‚ A reform of the tax system ‚ The replacement of feudal privileges by freedom of contract ‚ The recognition of the property owner's right to use his property as he saw fit.