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IEEE SId 1100.2005
conductive mass. Such grounding and bonding may be by compression connections, mechanical fittings, welding, bolting, or riveting. The building steel system should be bonded to the grounded service conductor (typically the neutral) and the EOCs at the service entrance, and to the main (metallic) cold-water piping sYstem. Effective grounding (earthing) of the structural building steel system is recommended and should be accomplished by one or more of the following means: a) By bonding the rebars that are encased in the concrete footings to the anchor bolts that fasten the structural steel to its concrete base. b) By a made earth grounding electrode system, such as a buried ground ring connected at multiple points to building steel.
184.108.40.206 Metal underground
Due to the increased use of nonmetallic water piping systems, the metal underground water pipe is no longer permitted to be solely used as a grounding electrode per the NEC. Where the metal underground water pipe enters a facility, it shall be supplemented by at least one other grounding electrode as described in the NEC. 8.5.2 System grounding System grounding refers to the intentional connection of a circuit conductor (typically the neutral on a threephase, 4-wire system) to earth. Separately derived power sources and power service entrances are required to be grounded. The purpose of the system ground is for both electrical safety to personnel and equipment, and fire safety reasons. System grounding also impacts the performance of electronic load equipment for reasons relating to the control of common-mode noise and lightning current. From a safety standpoint, solidly grounded and properly bonded power systems promote the timely operation of overcurrent protective devices in case of ground faults, limit the potential difference between grounded objects, stabilize the phase voltages with reference to ground; and limit transient voltages due to lightning and load-switching. From a performance standpoint, solidly grounded power systems are recommended practice to ensure the existence of an effective conductive path for the return current of filters and SPDs connected line-to-ground or line-to-chassta. These filters and SPDs may be an integral part of the electronic load equipment or may be separately mounted devices located in the building electrical distribution system. Recommended practice is to design for the lowest reasonable impedance between the load equipment containing a filter or SPD and the associated power system source. Low-inductance wiring methods should also be used. If a separately derived source (e.g., transformer, inverter Winding; or alternator) is used, the secondary grounded circuit conductor (e.g., neutral) shall be bonded to the equipment grounding terminal or bus of the separately derived source and grounded to the nearest effectively grounded electrode (typically, building steel). Ifno effectively grounded electrode or building steel is available, then the separately derived source should be connected to the service entrance grounding point via a dedicated grounding electrode conductor installed in the most direct and shortest path practicable. In either case, ifmetal interior piping is present near the separately derived source or in the area served by the separately derived source, a supplemental grounding electrode conductor should also be installed from the equipment grounding terminal or bus of the separately derived source to the metal interior water piping. There are basically two requirements for grounding power services and separately derived systems. The first requirement is to bond the grounded circuit conductor to the grounded enclosure. For power service entrances, the incoming neutral conductor is bonded to the equipment ground bus in the switchboard by means of the main bonding jumper. For separately derived sources, the derived neutral is bonded to the 'equipment grounding terminal or bus on the enclosure of the transformer, UPS, generator, or other equipment that meets the definition of separately derived source. The second requirement is that the equipment ground bus in the power service switchboard or the equipment grounding terminal or bus of the separately derived source be connected to the nearest effectively grounded electrode by means of the
Copyright e 2006 IEEE. AU rights reserved.
6JN - BONDINC JUMP£R (BOND DIRECTLY TO )(0 TERMINAl) GROUNDING ElECTROOe: CONOOCTOR ELECTRODE to NEAREST CROUNOIf>(G Figure 8-7 System grounding requirements of Isolation transformer 8. __. the UPS module is not considered a separately derived system aCcording to the NBC. It is important to note that the NEC prohibits connecting the grounded circuit conductor (typically the neutral) to the EGC at more than one point.Std 1100-2005 IEEE CHAPTERS grounding electrode conductor.2. and equipment protection and performance standpoint. 282 Copyright @2006 IEEE.E:CTROSTAT1C SHIELD L COMMON EOUIPMENt GROUNDING TERMINAl. nonlsolated bypass...1 UPS groundIng schemes 8. Other UPS configurations exist and should be addressed on an individual basis.1.:::=::t--Id.. El. This requires careful consideration when determining system grounding requirements of UPS systems with bypass circuits.5..~ ~~:.. and the power distribution center does not contain an isolation transformer. The proper grounding of UPS systems is critical from a personnel safety. All rights reserved.. The intent is to show typical UPS configurations with particular attention directed toward system grounding requirements in compliance with the NEC. grounded-wye servlce In this arrangement (see Figure 8-8). and b) No local grounding electrode conductor should be installed to the UPS module. . Figure 8-7 illustrates the recommended technique for fulfilling system grounding requirements ofa typical isolation transformer. is brought into the UPS module.. In this system a) The UPS neutral should not be bonded to the EGe. a grounded-wye service is connected to both the main input and bypass (reserve) input of a single UPS module. Location of the bonding jumper or connection of the grounding electrode conductor to the power system neutral in the meter base or other intervening location is not recommended.2.1 Conflguratlo n 1 S Ingre UPS modu Ie. The neutral. A ground bus should be attached to the transformer frame when there is insufficient room on the neutral bus to terminate all of the required conductors. Grounded/grounding eenduetor arrangement Since the UPS module output neutral is solidly connected to the bypass input (service entrance) neutral. The following are recommended practices for properly grounding various UPS system and load configurations. which is bonded to the grounding conductor at the service entrance equipment.5.
The bypass transformer and UPS module together constitute a separately derived system. in a 480 V input/208 V output configuration). and a local grounding electrode module should be installed. The bypass transformer is used in the bypass input to provide isolation and to step down the voltage if required (e.". Grounded/grounding conductor arrangement Since this configuration is considered a separately derived source. In many cases.2Configuration 2 Single UPS module.g.RECOMMENDED DESIGN/INSTALLATION PRACTICES IEEE Sid 1100-2005 ENTRANCE SERVICE: liPS MODULE DISTRIBUTION POWER CENreR GROUNDm . < .• 283 I L_~ • . It appears that ground-fault current from the inverter may adversely affect the service entrance ground-fault relay for standby generators. the bonding of the neutral to the grounding conductor could be done at either the bypass transformer or at the UPS module.2 m (50 ft) or less] to the power distribution center and the sensitive loads. the inverter cannot supply ground-fault current since the static switch will transfer because of the fault-depressed voltage. Isolated bypass In this configuration (see Figure 8-9). as shown in Chapter 7 ofIEEE Std 446.. All rights reserved. Features/performance With this arrangement. since there is no direct electrical connection between the input (service entrance) circuit conductors and the output circuit conductors. I 1 Copyright e 2006 IEEE. ELECTROOE Figure 8-8 Configuration 1 Features/performance While this arrangement may be typical for 208 V inputl208 V output UPS systems.5. (In this particular system.the UPS module is chosen for the point of bonding because it is in the normal power flow and is electrically closer to the load). the neutral of the UPS module should be bonded to the EGC. it does not provide any isolation or common-mode noise attenuation for sensitive loads. a bypass transformer is used to feed the bypass input of the UPS module. . 8. isolation from the input is achieved and common-mode noise attenuation can be obtained for the electronic loads if the UPS and bypass transformer are located electrically close [recommendation is 15.1.2.
since the neutral is bonded to the grounding conductor at the service entrance equipment and is solidly connected to the UPS module output neutral. Also. All rights reserved. Ground/grounding conductor arrangement As explained in Configuration 1.IEEE Sid 1100-2005 CHAPTERS TRo\IISFORMER BYPASS UPS MOOUlE POWER DISTRIBUTION CENTER GROUND Figure 8-9 Configuration 2 8. the power distribution center neutral should be bonded to the EGC and should be connected to a local grounding electrode. This is the preferred arrangement when using UPS modules and power distribution centers. Features/performance This arrangement can be applied to 208 V inputl208 V output UPS modules. the UPS module main input and bypass input are connected to a grounded-wye service in the same manner as Configuration 1. Therefore. by using 480 V inputl480 V output UPS modules. as well as to 480 V inputl480 V output UPS modules.isolated distribution center In Configuration 3 (see Figure 8-10).1.. 284 Copyright C 2006 IEEE. Therefore. Using this configuration. the UPS module is not considered to be a separately derived source.5. The common-mode noise attenuation of this arrangement is better than Configuration 1 or Configuration 2. smaller and less costly power feeders can be used and less voltage drop (as a percent of nominal) can be obtained. (The voltage step-down to 208 V occurs in the power distribution center). nonlsolated bypass. i. . since the isolation (common-mode rejection) occurs as close to the load as is practical.3Configuration S Single UPS module. the UPS neutral would not be bonded to the EGC in the UPS module. the power distribution center is provided with an isolation transfonner and is considered a separately derived source. I I . the UPS module can be located remotely from the power distribution center without compromising the common-mode noise performance. However.2.
r~N . As in Configuration 3. ) is With some UPS systems. This neutral should also be bonded to the EGC and to a local grounding electrode.4 Configuration 4 Single UPS module. Configuration 4 is similar to Configuration 3 except that the service entrance neutral is not included in the conductor arrangement Grounded/grounding In Configuration 4. since the power distribution center contains an isolation transformer. I . the neutral should be included with the bypass input. w grounded-wye service bypass input power feed. and c) No neutral required for the UPS load.1. therefore. it also is a separately derived source. provided that . and a local grounding electrode conductor should be installed. 3 wlre bypass. b) The source is a solidly grounded wye source. Features/performance The scheme shown in Figure 8-11 serves as an alternative to the scheme shown in Figure 8-10 when no neutral is available for the bypass input. even jf not required for the output. AU rights reserved. 285 .5. The UPS module is. the neutral of the service entrance equipment is not brought into the UPS module. isolation and common-mode noise reduction occurs when the center is located as close to the load as is practical. GROWlO GROUNDING I!LECTROOf -: Figure 8-10 Configuration 3 8. Copyright @2006 IEEE. considered a separately derived source. As such. . a) The main input and bypass input are fed from the same source.RECOMMENDED DESIGN/INSTALLATION PRACTICES IEEE SId 1100·2005 ENTRANCE SEAVICE UPS MODULE DlSmlBUTION POWER CENTER g. because the neutral is used for sensing and monitoring of the bypass input. Isolated distributIon center.2. Since the power distribution center contains an isolation transformer. the neutral should be bonded to the EGC.
and common-mode noise attenuation can be obtained for the electronic loads if the UPS and bypass transformer are located electrically close [recommended 15.. ELECTROOE •. reserved. .IEEE Sid 11 QO-2005 CHAPTERS ENTRANCE SERVICE 3UVPASS r-__ UPS_W_DUL_E __ INPUT rv DISTRIBUTION .lsolated bypass. when the UPS module is used with other than a wye-connected source.5Configuration 5 Single UPS module. the bypass input should be fed from a bypass transfonner with a wye-connected secondary. with the exception that the input power source (service entrance) is delta-connected. POWER CENTEfI ~+FI-:~:'%~PUT":':r. ~ i DISTRIBunON CENTER POWER ~ 9 GROIJIoIJ I g _ GROUNDlN3 -. Most UPS modules require that the bypass input be fed from a wye-connected source. I Grounded/grounding conductor arrangement .IA:-::IN<.2 m (50 ft) or less] to the power distribution center and to the electronic loads.5. as in Configuration 2.1 a: w ~ Figure 8·12 Configuration 5 286 Copyright e 2006 IEEE. Therefore. as in Configuration 2. delta-connected source Configuration 5 (see Figure 8~12) is similar to Configuration 2.J In Configuration 5. . -.1. All right!. grounding electrode conductor should be installed."-¥n~ mIOUN> GRouNDING ELECTRODE . the UPS module neutral should be bonded to the BGC. GROUNDlNQ aEOTROPE ":'" Figure 8-11 Configuration 4 8. .". and a local . isolation from the input is achieved. Features/performance With this arrangement.2.
5. full-size neutrals shall be run from the UPS modules and bypass .7 Configuration 7 Multiple-module 415 Hz UPS system In Configuration 7 (see Figure 8-14).1. the 415 Hz UPS module main input is connected to the grounded-wye service in the same manner as the previous 60 Hz UPS configurations. No bypass feed is used with 415 Hz UPS modules.6 Configuration 6 Multiple-module UPS system example In general. the bypass transformer and UPS modules 1 and 2 are considered to be a separately derived system.5. In order to provide a centra] point for bonding the UPS output neutral to the ground for the entire UPS scheme. All rights reserved. a UPS module could be removed from. and the local grounding electrode conductor should be installed. regardless of whether the neutral is required for the static switch loads. Depending upon the multiple-module configuration.2. Copyright@2006 IEEE. composed of more than one UPS module. and everything (including the bypass) feeds through a stand-alone static transfer switch (STS). 8. switch to provide the central point for bonding the neutral to the grounding conductor. transformer to the static switch. or added to. except that the UPS "block" is now. a multiple-module UPS system may be thought of as being an extension of a particular singlemodule system. since there is no direct electrical connection between-the input and output circuit conductors. As an example.RECOMMENDED DESIGN/INSTALLATION PRACTICES IEEE SId 11O()"2005 8. as in this sample multiple-UPS module configuration.1. Grounded/grounding eondueter arrangement Figure 8-13 illustrates one of the grounding schemes for multiple UPS modules with a stand-alone static switch. the grounding concepts of single-model Configurations 1 through 5 can be applied.2. Figure 8-13 Configuration 6 Features/performance By using the static. . (When the neutral is bonded to the grounding conductor in the stand-alone static switch. In this configuration. the stand-alone static switch is utilized. the overall scheme without jeopardizing the integrity of the grounding system.) The neutral-to-grounding-conductor bond. 287 \. consider Figure 8-13 as the multiple-module extension of the same grounding scheme shown in Figure 8-11.
In this system a) b) The neutrals of the UPS output and the maintenance bypass switchgear should not be bonded to the EOC. $ERVICE ENTRANCE SWITCIfOEAR CURRENT 415 MHZ. All rights reserved. As such the UPS output neutral should be bonded to the EGC and a local grounding electrode conductor should be installed.8Configuration 8 Single UPS module with maintenance bypass switchgear In Configuration 8 (see Figure 8-15). Grounded/grounding ennduetor arrangement Since the UPS output neutral and the maintenance bypass switchgear neutral are connected to the service entrance neutral. •• Figure 8-14 Configuration 7 8.1. The UPS module is considered a separately derived source. To provide a central point for bonding the UPS output neutral to the ground for the entire UPS system.1 . Features/performance Using the output switchgear to provide the central point for bonding the neutral to the grounding conductor allows a UPS module to be removed or added to the parallel system without jeopardizing the integrity of the grounding system. so the neutral of the service entrance equipment is not connected to the UPS output neutral. R /] .IEEE SId 1100-2005 CHAPTER 8 Grounded/grounding conductor arrangement In Configuration 7 there is no bypass feeder. the UPS module is not considered a separately derived system according to the NEC.2. and No local grounding electrode conductor should be installed. If the neutral is required for the critical load. the neutral-to-grounding-conductor bond should be made inside the UPS module). A grounded-wye service is connected to the main input and bypass input of a single UPS module and to the maintenance bypass switchgear. the neutral-to-grounding-conductor bond should be made in the output switchgear (if a single 415 Hz UPS module is used. both UPS modules would meet the NEC requirements for a separately derived source. maintenance bypass switchgear is used to completely isolate the uPS module from the critical ac load during maintenance and off-line testing. Copyright J ! 288 e 2006 IEEE..5. the neutral (which is bonded to the grounding conductor at the service entrance equipment) is brought into the UPS module and the maintenance bypass switchgear. In this case.
the neutral conductor would not need to be connected from the service entrance to the UPS bypass and from the service entrance or the UPS output to the maintenance bypass switchgear (see Figure 8"16). since the power distribution center with transformer requires only a three-phase. 3-wire plus ground input. If a power distribution center with an isolation transformer is provided downstream from the UPS system (near the electronic load). conduits. 3. the common-mode noise attenuation of this arrangement would be greatly improved.IAINTENANOE BYPASS INPUT GROUND SERVICE ~ANCE BREAKER MAINTENANCE BYPASS TWO SWITCHGEAR Figure 8-16 8. and equipment enclosures and racks. 289 •i . BGCs. Also.RECOMMENDED DESIGNflNSTAlLATION PRACTICES IEEE Sid 1100-2005 Features/perfonnance This arrangement docs not provide any isolation or common-mode noise attenuation for electronic loads. These metallic parts include raceways.3 Equipment grounding Configuration 8 (3-wlre) The term equipment grounding refers to the connection to power system ground of all non-current-carrying metallic parts. All rights reserved. MAINTENANCE BYPASS NEUTRAL SERVlCE ENTRANCE GROUNO 1WO BREAKER IoI~NTENANCE BYPASS SWITCHGEAR Figure 8-15 Configuration 8 (4-wlre) 3f I. of a power system that may come into accidental contact with circuit phase and neutral conductors. All these items are ultimately grounded together at the grounding electrode of the power service or separately derived system. Equipment grounding is required for both personnel safety and power system protection.5. Copyright @ I j 2006 IEEE.
The intent of the EGC is twofold. junction boxes. properly grounded system components provide a low-impedance path for ground-fault currents and promote the timely operation of overcurrent protective devices in case of ground faults. the additional BGC provides the sole grounding path from the electronic load equipment to the power system or separately derived system. ron with the phase. . This EGC extends radially downstream to the chassis of the electronic load equipment without contacting any grounded metal surfaces such as metal conduits and raceways. 8. junction boxes. As opposed to the standard equipment grounding configuration. the recommended practice is for grounding bushings (and associated grounding conductors) to be installed to ~upplement the mechanical connections at each location that the conduit system is connected to metal enclosures. The purpose of the insulated EGC is to augment the reliability of the grounded metal conduit system.1 Standard equipment ground configuration The standard equipment ground configuration uses an insulated EGC. such as through load equipment and associated data cables. Although the installation of an. In all cases. and branch circuit panelboards.3.5. There are different types of conduit systems that offer better shielding and grounding properties than others. the EGC provides a supplemental low-impedance ground path in parallel with the metallic conduit or raceway from the electronic load equipment to the power system or separately derived system. and at the receptacles themselves. The proper installation of conduits. and standard EGCs. safety switches. this additional insulated EGC typically connects the insulated ground receptacle (lGR) only to the equipment grounding terminal or bus of the power system source or separately derived system. But as the frequency increases. Grounding configurations provide equalizing of potential between grounded objects at 60 Hz. panelboards.. and the application of grounding bushings are discussed in more detail in 8. typically green in color.4. 8. this additional EGC is vital for circuits serving electronic load equipment. raceways. as well as all pull boxes.8. From a system protection standpoint. run with the phase and neutral conductors to supplement grounded metal raceway and conduit. . Ineffective grounding paths can compromise personnel safety as well as the operation of surge suppressors and filters located in electronic load equipment. currents flowing on grounded surfaces may take less desirable paths. All tightsreserved. Recommended practice is to use insulated (non-bare) EGCs installed in grounded metal conduit ~d run with the other circuit conductors feeding electronic load equipment. In either case. panelboards. transformers. These metal enclosures include all distribution panelboards. . other grounding means must also be considered to cover frequencies in higher ranges.1 ! r 1 I i i I 1 I I . and outlet boxes for receptacles (see Figure 8-17 and Figure 8·18). effective ground path cannot be overemphasized.insulated ROC to supplement the grounded raceway or conduit is not required by the NEC. typically green in color with yellow stripe. The grounded metallic conduit acts as an electromagnetic shield for the circuit serving the electronic load equipment.3. Recommended practice is for the insulated EGCs to be sized per the NEC table for EGCs and be properly connected and bonded to each metal enclosure that it passes through from the separately derived system or power service to the electronic load equipment.2lnsuJated ground configuration grounding terminal of the power system or separately derived system.5. properly grounded system components minimize potential differences that may exist between various system components under steady-state and transient conditions. from the electronic load equipment to the equipment The insulated ground configuration also uses an insulated EGC. neutral. the 290 Copyright© 2006 IEEE. circuit breaker enclosures. and interconnected equipment to provide an effective low impedance.. When this equipment grounding configuration is used. their recommended installation practices. In standard equipment grounding configurations. In addition. These different types of conduit systems. 1n insulated ground configurations. the insulated EGC(s) shall be run in the same raceway or conduit as the phase and neutral conductors. J j . and metal outlet boxes.Std 1100-2005 IEEE CHAPTERS From a personnel safety standpoint. pull boxes. The conduit and raceway systems may rely solely on the integrity of mechanical connections at conduit and raceway joints.
If unacceptable EMI is found to be active on the circuit. as the length of the insulated equipment grounding circuit increases. AU rights reserved. using optical signaling interfaces reduces susceptibility to disturbances on the grounding circuit. Application of the insulated equipment grounding configuration in close proximity to the system deriving the insulated ground circuit will normally not produce any practical effects. It has no other purpose and its effects are variable l!lld controversial. Under lightning or power system fault conditions. However. an insulated grounding receptacle circuit may be considered as one potential mitigation method. 291 . another concern arises. The use of the traditional orange-colored insulated grounding receptacle for the express purpose of identifying computer grade power is not allowed per the NEe. However. these effects may again be either increased or decreased noise conditions. The greater the length of the circuit.IEEE RECOMMENDED DeSI GN/INSTALLA TrON PRACTICES SId 1100-2005 enclosing metal raceway must still be properly grounded This type of equipment grounding configuration is only intended to be used for reducing common-mode electrical noise on the electronic load equipment circuit as described in the NEC. aecTfIODE GROUNDING (NEe 26!J. Particularly for distributed computing and telecommunications electronic loads. Robust design of the electronic load equipment for immunity to disturbances on the grounding circuit is another method.S·17 Insulated groundIng conductor pass through distribution panel SSPARI\TI!L Y OEfI~D SOURCe ELECTRICAL LOAD GROllNO GROUND (NEO 260-23) ENTRANCE SERVICE . the potential difference between the electronic load equipment and grounded objects may be sufficient to cause a ·safety hazard or disrupt electronic load equipment performance. These effects (if any) will be somewhat proportional to the overall length of the circuit (see Lewis [B5]). or worse noise conditions than when standard equipment grounding configurations are used to serve electronic Ioad-equipmenr. the desired effects.2e) LOCAl • Figure 8-18 Insulated grounding conductor wiring method with separately-derived source Results from the use of the insulated ground method range from no observable effects. . the greater the expected effects of the insulated equipment grounding circuit. SEPARATELY DERIVED SOURCE PANEL Flgure. Copyrlght@2006 r' IEEE.
other upstream panelboards or switchboards. Therefore. the choices for grounding the upstream end of the insulated EGG are limited to the first panelboard.. These connections defeat the intent of the insulated grounding configuration and may allow conducted ground currents to enter electronic load equipment and may also encourage induced currents from the power conductors to take less desirable paths . Such a connection shall conform to the requirements of the NEC. Safety and performance concerns related to the length of the nonmetallic wiring system are similar to those described for the insulated grounding receptacle circuit. 8. However.. it should never be assumed to be an insulated grounding-type receptacle. These connections to ground may be either intentional or unintentional.such as through data cables (see Gruzs [BIJ). since no metal conduit or raceway is involved in the wiring path to be bonded to the EGC of the circuit. or otber equipment may require both an insulated equipment grounding bus and a standard equipment grounding bus within the same enclosure. The conduit acts as a shield for the circuit conductors and the insulated EGC against radiated noise. Previous listed insulated ground receptacles were identified by an orange color.2. Current listing standards permit standard receptacles to be of any color.3. e. This configuration requires the use of listed insulated grounding receptacles in which the EGG pin is factory insulated from the metal mounting yoke of the receptacle. conducted ground currents are discouraged from entering the electronic load equipment. However. The same bus logically cannot be used for both under all conditions.g. The designer is allowed to choose the point between the power system or separately derived system supplying the circuit at whicb the receptacle EGC pin and the metal conduit or raceway or equipment enclosure system are made common. the integrity and purpose of the insulated grounding configuration is defeated. Proper installation of the insulated equipment grounding configuration relies on the use of special receptacles. In general. including orange. In any case. An insulated equipment grounding arrangement may be continued from the receptacle upstream to a point no further than the first power system ground at the separately derived system or service entrance for that receptacle. Insulated ground receptacles meeting current listing requirements are permanently identified by an embossed orange-colored triangle or delta on the face of the receptacle.3_2. and proper installation practices concerning the routing and identification of the insulated EGG.IEEE Sid 1100-2005 CHAPTERS The insulated grounding configuration is only directly applicable to metal-enclosed wiring means and has no useful purpose with nonmetallic wiring systems. Typical examples of these connections are interconnections of various equipment through grounded shields of data cables and bonding of equipment chassis to grounded metal equipment racks. and the receptacle may be of any color. special equipment grounding buses. or the separately derived system supplying the circuit.5. All rights reserved. unless an orangecolored triangle or delta is embossed on the face of the receptacle.1Insulated grounding receptacles .I i Branch circuit (and listed ac power interconnecting cable) outlet receptacles served by continuous. the nonmetallic wiring system does not provide elestromagnetic shielding for the enclosed circuit conductors and sbould not be used.2 Insulated ground bus Switchboards. metallic raceways may be wired as an insulated equipment grounding configuration. An exception is where the branch circuit outlet is locally bonded to a grounded metallic object. EGCs shall terminate to the ground pin for safe and proper operation of the connected load equipment. if the electronic equipment contains other connections to grounded objects.5. In addition. In addition. Nonmetallic wiring systems are at least partially constructed as if they are insulated grounding types. The use of the insulated ground configuration may provide beneficial effects to circuits that supply electronic load equipment that do not otherwise connect to grounded objects. some receptacles had a triangle or delta embossed on the face of the receptacle. panel boards. S. where the insulated equipment grounding circuit is continued upstream through a panelboard. Recommended practice is for the color of the insulated grounding receptacles to be consistent throughout the facility to differentiate them from standard grounding receptacles. if a specific piece of equipment is actually the termination point for the 292 Copyrlght@2006 IEEE. .
2. raceway.3. and may cause currents flowing on grounded surfaces to take less desirable paths such as through electronic load equipment and associated data cables. All rIghts reserved. In the past. and in obsolete technical infonnation provided by misinformed vendors. The use of any separate or isolated form of earth grounding elecirodes for use as a point of connection of the insulated EOC is a violation of the NBC. These conditions result in problems ranging from personnel hazard to equipment malfunction to component damage. System ground faults may create similar problems in relation to the power system's nominal lme-to-ground voltage and the fault-current magnitude. .5. Failure to adhere to this requirement will significantly increase the effective impedance of the insulated EGC during both fault conditions and normal conditions. More recent publications do not promote this erroneous method and tend to point out the fallacy of this method. it is possible to use the same equipment grounding bus for both the standard EOCs and the insulated EGCs within that equipment's enclosure. The generally perceived need for an isolated earth grounding electrode scheme in relation to the isolated method is not based on good engineering judgment. applied next to each other. the connected equipment. at both ends of the conductor and at all accessible locations along the length of the conductor. In this case.RECOMMENDED DESIGNflNSTALLATION PRACTICES IEEE Std 1100-2005 insulated EOC.3. Copyrlght@ 2006 IEEE.4 Identification of Insulated grounding conductor The insulated BOC should have green-colored insulation with a longitudinal yellow stripe. This condition will negatively affect the operation of overcurrent protective devices. or cable sheath prominently and permanently identified as such. There is an inherent inability to limit the potential developed between the insulated equipment grounding electrode. Terminations of the insulated EOCs similarly shall remain within the associated equipment enclosure. Improper installation of an isolated form of grounding electrode for the insulated EOC has two major flaws: a) b) Under ground-fault conditions. and are terminated within the panelboard containing the overcurrent protection for these branch circuits.2. and standard EOCs for the entire length of the involved circuit. ! Lightning commonly creates conditions of several thousands to tens of thousands of volts between two (or more) such earth grounding electrodes according to FIPS PUB 94. Direct-connected (hardwired) circuits employing the insulated equipment grounding configuration should have their conduit. neutral. 8. This identification should be minimally made by labeling with an orange triangle symbol or by finishing both ends of the circuit with an orange color. and filters located in electronic load equipment. SPDs. Black insulated conductors used for this equipment grounding function (typically larger than 6 AWO) should be color-coded with a combination of green and yellow tapes. 293 . A common situation is where only the branch circuits are insulated equipment grounding and standard equipment grounding styles. 8. Separate equipment grounding buses facilitate the convenient measurement of'the total insulated equipment grounding current to the panelboard's metal enclosure via the Iow-inductance grounding jumper between the two equipment grounding buses. a separate insulated equipment grounding bus and a standard equipment grounding bus are recommended to be provided within the same panel board. I . this path forms a high-impedance return path that may desensitize or prevent the operation of overcurrent protective devices.3 Routing of Insulated grounding conductors All insulated EGCs should be sized per the requirements of the NEC and are required to be routed within the same metallic conduit or raceway as the associated phase. this unsafe method of grounding has been erroneously promoted in both advertisements and articles in various trade publications. and other accessible grounded objects.5.1 . Such an improper insulated grounding (IG) scheme does not meet code requirements for effective grounding.
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