Deddy Hasanusi* Erham Adhitiawan* Anies Baasir* Leonard Lisapaly** Robert van Eykenhof**

ABSTRACT After the drilling of six wells that successfully found oil, an unexpected dry well was encountered in the Tiaka field, Tomori block, Sulawesi – Indonesia. The Tiaka field has carbonate reservoirs that produce oil from its deeper Early Miocene Tomori limestone as the primary objective, while limited gas bearing zones can be found in its shallower Minahaki limestone. The dry well was a surprise as a previous study indicated that this was a favorable location to drill. In order to reduce the risk for the future drilling plan, and to get a better understanding of the lateral facies distribution of reservoirs in the field, a constrained sparse spike inversion was applied to convert the 2D full-stack seismic data recorded in the area into 2D acoustic impedance lines, calibrated to the existing wells. The dry well, however, was treated as a blind well to validate the inversion result. The inversion and interpretation of the seismic data itself has some challenges to be resolved. First, the seismic lines consist of six vintages that were recorded using different sources, resulting in variations in signal-to-noise ratio, frequency content, and seismic amplitude dynamic range. Second, the field has a strong dips (18-25 degrees) that affect the structural interpretation from survey lines at different orientations. Third, and most importantly, there is strong overlap in the acoustic impedance domain between shale and the targeted porous limestone. This paper will discuss how those issues were resolved, or at least reduced. The inversion result confirmed that the dry well was drilled in a tight limestone area, while oil wells were drilled in a porous limestone area. As a result of this study, three wells are planned to be drilled,
* ** JOB Pertamina Medco E&P Tomori Sulawesi Fugro - Jason

with one well recently completed. This well encountered a significant oil bearing zone in the Tomori porous limestone as predicted by the inversion. INTRODUCTION Geological Setting The Tiaka oil field is located in the offshore Toili area of the Senoro-Toili Block in the eastern arm of Central Sulawesi and falls within the Tertiary Banggai Basin (Figure 1). The Senoro-Toili Block is located along the tectonically complex eastern arm of Sulawesi and includes part of a collision complex formed during the Miocene, resulting from the collision of the Banggai-Sula Micro-continental plate and a Tertiary non-volcanic arc forming what is now Central Sulawesi. The Tiaka Field is within one of the thrust sheets produced by this collision process. Geological evolution of the Banggai-Sula micro-continent is closely related to the evolution of the northern margin of the Australia-New Guinea continental plate, which formed during the Mesozoic break-up of Gondwana. Reorientation of Eurasia, Pacific and Indoaustralian plates promotes the westwards drift of the northern Australian continental margin in the form of a sliver microcontinent through the south Sula-Sorong Fault (Figure 2). During the westward drift of the Banggai-Sula micro-continent, an aerially extensive Miocene carbonate shelf with localized reef growth developed along the micro-continental margin. The Miocene carbonate shelf has been identified as the Salodik Group and comprises the Tomori, Matindok and Minahaki Formations. In the Late Miocene, the Banggai-Sula micro-continental shelf approached the eastern part of proto-Sulawesi and induced a collision system, which manifested by Ophiolite Belt, resulted in folding, thrusting and imbricating structures of micro-continental shelf sections, and

there are three principal exploration play types found in the Senoro-Toili Block: Miocene carbonate buildup. Problem Definition The aim of the inversion study carried out on Tiaka the seismic data was to generate 2D acoustic impedance sections calibrated to well data to integrate all data and understand strengths and limitations. The Tiaka field is considered a marginal oil field. Impedance histograms of all lithologies were then displayed in a single frame to examine the impedance overlap between the lithologies. Tiaka6. By adding careful hydrocarbon distribution interpretation. Tiaka2. classes of lithologies were constructed based on the: volume of clay.creating a foreland basin controlled by thrust loading. the inversion results have been used for locating new wells to drill hydrocarbon. 1983. Lithology class Reservoir discrimination was done by first defining lithology types based on well logs. the original geological interpretation was used in the first pass inversion and was then updated to generate final inversion results. The methodology was to run a constrained sparse spike inversion that integrates the information from well data. while a thrusted anticline type is found at the offshore Toili area. First. low porous wet limestone. the seismic lines consist of six vintages that were recorded at different times (1981. After a series of Quality Control (QC) checks. wrench fault anticline and thrusted anticline. which could not be economically developed by the previous operator due to a significant “sunk cost” incurred. and shale. a cross-plot showing the best lithology separation was gained.4 km containing 6200 traces were inverted and calibrated to 4 wells (Tiaka1. METHODOLOGY Overview The objective of our study was to produce facies and porosity distributions in the Tiaka carbonate reservoir. Presently. effective porosity. Tiaka3. This has resulted in the first oil production in Sulawesi Island. and geological interpretation. which were drilled in mid to late 1980 by the previous operator. low porous pay limestone. The thrusted anticline type play involves structural closure at the leading edges of a series of imbricate thrust sheets of Miocene Carbonates in the offshore Toili area at the southern part of the Senoro-Toili Block (Figure 3). Well Tiaka5. Five lithology types were identified which were: high porous pay limestone. the Senoro-Toili Block has been operated by JOB Pertamina-Medco Tomori Sulawesi through the acquisition by Medco Energi International from ARCO Indonesia. reduce drilling risks. Seven wells were conditioned before inversion was executed. high porous wet limestone. Well Tiaka7 is a dry well in the primary reservoir interval although previous studies had indicated high potential for oil. and Tiaka7 were used as blind wells to validate the inversion results. The Carbonate buildup and wrench anticline play types are present in the Senoro area. and 1988) and using different acquisition parameters. . The results of the inversion were acoustic impedance and porosity derived from the simple relationship between porosity and acoustic impedance as observed from the well data. generate a layer property for quantitative analysis and standardize multiple vintages in order to (1). A secondary hydrocarbon bearing interval has been discovered in the Minahaki limestone through the drilling of the Tiaka-7 well. improve geological interpretation (2). and water saturation. Since March 2000. and (4). both exploration and delineation. map porosity distribution (3). which is overlain by the Matindok and Minahaki Formations (Figure 4). 1982. and Tiaka4). seismic data. To build the low frequency model. optimize well locations. 2005. The Tiaka field is defined by four wells. The results were used to interpret the facies distribution and to map the porosity distribution. From the cross-plot. Pairs of properties were displayed and color coded by a third property in a cross-plot to check the feasibility to discriminate lithology types from these prpoerties. 1986. To date six development wells have been successfully drilled by JOB Pertamina-Medco E&P Tomori Sulawesi. Data Sixteen full-stack seismic lines with a total length of 65. who brought the Tiaka field on stream on July 31. . The main hydrocarbon reservoir in the Tiaka field is the Tomori Formation. Challenges There are some challenges to be overcome or at least reduced in this study.

al (1983).e. proper time adjustment during well-to-seismic tie process was applied to compensate for the mistie. and by integrating a low frequency model. The carbonate structure has a dip of 18-25 degrees to the east. Hence. In the next stage. With seismic lines running in various directions. These issues were resolved by estimating an optimum wavelet for each line by selecting for inversion only the lines that pass through the wells. and well log data to generate acoustic impedance with higher resolution than the input seismic data. however. frequency content. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS P-impedance As mentioned before. This information is very important input for establishing a drilling plan. However. The low frequency model is built from a geological model constructed by horizons and filled with properties by interpolating and extrapolating those property from wells and integrating the information from stacking velocity data. naturally suffers from impedance overlap between the different lithologies. the known oil-water contact (OWC) was used to separate potential high porous wet limestone (below OWC) and high porous pay limestone (above OWC). the inputs are used to generate wavelets and low frequency models. Based on this. a low acoustic impedance zone in the carbonate body and above the OWC was interpreted as high porous pay limestone. the porous limestone zone represented by low acoustic impedance was identified in the carbonate body. to interpret the lithology. finding an oil prospect in the Tiaka carbonate field cannot be done automatically by implementing a body capture method constrained by a range of acoustic impedance generated from the seismic inversion. one will strongly depend on the data integration. To avoid a mistake in capturing the high porous pay limestone. Wavelets can be generated at well locations from the seismic data and the logged P-impedance. Second. high porous wet limestone. a lengthy but more accurate procedure was taken. In other words. a thorough examination can be performed to detect whether out-of-plane reflections are contaminating the results.. With the wavelet and low frequency model. converting seismic interface property into layer property. Because the well data do not show significant amounts of shale in the Tomori carbonate. the interpretation of lithology was mainly done using the relative P-impedance and adding the information from wells and a prior . Because seismic inversion can improve geological interpretation by removing the wavelet from the seismic data. In this study. In many cases in Indonesia. Here. stacking velocity was not used due to unrealistic strong lateral variations observed in the velocity data. geological interpretation. In CSSI. and high porous pay limestone. different lithologies are difficult to distinguish using acoustic impedance. some potential new wells location were determined. among others. The aim of this time adjustment is firstly to generate good wavelet for each line and secondly to generate the low frequency model that fits with the structural information contained in those different seismic lines.Therefore. the top and base of the carbonate body were interpreted from relative impedance. and seismic amplitude dynamic range. Because the targeted Tomori carbonate is a high porous limestone. the seismic was inverted to find a minimum reflectivity solution that represents major formations and to reject unwanted noise in the seismic data. as described by Ronghe and Surarat (2002) and Oldenburg et. The seismic lines are also vulnerable to out-of-plane reflections caused by the carbonate’s dipping structure. strong overlap in impedance between lithologies occurs. the seismic data set contains lines with different signal-to-noise ratio. a drilling plan that brought careful treatment to the time-to-depth conversion and examination of potential out-of-plane reflection to attention was established. full-stack seismic inversion that generates acoustic impedance only. The process works by removing the wavelet from the seismic data. event mistie at line intersections (mostly coinciding with the well locations) are significant. In the case of the Tiaka field seismic inversion. Figure 5 shows that strong overlapping between lithologies that exists in full-stack seismic inversion of the Tiaka field. Third. strong overlap was observed between shale. the time to depth relationship of a particular well can be different for different seismic lines. Constrained Sparse Spike Inversion Constrained sparse spike inversion (CSSI) is a method that integrates full stack seismic data. First. i. This mistie was not corrected during the inversion process but the correction was carried out in the time-to-depth conversion stage.

as the wells are sparse. Figure 9 shows another example of Tomori limestone in line 88-520. Tiaka2 (left). in the case of porous limestone. However. and well Tiaka7 is a dry well. two limestone reservoirs of similar quality but of different thickness will have different dynamic ranges of relative P-impedance. is not necessarily higher than the porosity in the updip direction due to the effect of the reservoir thickness to the dynamic range of P-impedance as mentioned in the previous paragraph. It is also important to observe that the deeper tight limestone is not visible in the area close to well Tiaka2 (as indicated by discontinuous bright event in the lower part close to Tiaka thrust between CDP 1400 to CDP 1500). Well Tiaka2 (right) is an oil well. and. The crossplot can be done at log resolution or at inverted resolution in which the log is filtered using the maximum frequency shown by the seismic. Again. the Pimpedance of the blind well was overlain on top of the inverted P-impedance section to compare. Careless interpretation may potentially end up with drilling a well in shale.knowledge on the geology of Tiaka field. the relationship between P-impedance and porosity was first recognized by cross-plotting the porosity and P-impedance. and Tiaka7 (middle). this was probably caused by poor seismic quality in the deeper zone. the relative P-impedance will look stronger than the others and may indicate a pseudohigh porous limestone which is not necessarily an accurate information. the zone with very low impedance (seen as a dark color in section view) should be avoided. Blind well test A blind well test is an important tool to investigate whether the inversion result is valid not only at well locations. interpreting the result using relative P-impedance must be done carefully due to the effect of the reservoir thickness to the dynamic range of relative P-impedance. To do this. In addition. The red curve represents the best fit for limestone only. The figure indicates that a single value of impedance may have two values of porosity. However. and the wavelet was estimated only using well Tiaka2. the blue zone between Top Tomori and Tiaka thrust in the figure was interpreted as a potential pay zone. based on prior knowledge that thick shale has never been encountered in the Tomori limestone. Two wells are displayed on top of the relative P-impedance. The inversion was carried out using the wavelet and low frequency model generated from well Tiaka2 only. Well Tiaka1 and Tiaka2 are oil wells. the low frequency model may be different from the true geology. After inversion. The relative P-impedance along line 88-541 is overlain by a band-pass filtered well P-impedance for 3 wells which are Tiaka1 (right). Again. Porosity To calculate the porosity. Figure 7 shows the crossplot between total porosity vs impedance color coded by lithology at inverted resolution. Another curve for shale can be added. On the other hand. The result confirms that the area near well Tiaka7 is a zone of tight limestone as indicated by higher P-impedance (yellow) and drilling a dry well in this area should be an expected result. Hence. but also at different places. and well Tiaka3 (left) is a dry well. Pay map To get a sense of pay distribution. and hence different transform should used to calculate porosity in shale or limestone. the inversion was carried out by not including all wells but only some of them. well Tiaka3 is a blind well in this line. The reason to use the relative P-impedance was that the low frequency model was built from well interpolations. Figure 8 shows a blind well example. the porosity in the downdip direction. At the well locations. only. An example in which the potential ambiguity in interpreting the Tomori oil reservoir is shown in Figure 6 in which a good match between inversion result and well P-impedance can be achieved. the pay zone in each line was first carefully interpreted and constrained by two main criteria: it must be a porous zone between the top and base of the Tomori carbonate and should be above the known OWC. For example. when those criteria could be fulfilled. At certain reservoir thicknesses. The blue area between Top Tomori and Tiaka thrust in the left part of the section can be interpreted as shale or porous limestone. as indicated by lower P-impedance (green to blue). Tiaka7 is a blind well. The production zone in well Tiaka1 and Tiaka2 is a zone of porous limestone in the Tomori limestone. . the result indicates that area near well Tiaka3 is zone of tight limestone. the match at the deeper level was not good and was probably caused by poor seismic quality at that level. This area of dark color was suspected to be a shale zone.

48. Suphan Buri basin. Recovery of the acoustic impedance from reflection seismograms. No. . 2002. As indicated in the figure. REFERENCES Oldenburg. the well locations were determined to be on the seismic line (or at least very close to the seismic line) because a map generated from 2D line interpolation potentially can have inaccurate information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge JOB Pertamina Medco Tomori Sulawesi and BPMIGAS for supporting this study and for granting permission to publish this work. Figure 10 shows the newly drilled Tiaka8 well on top of the inverted relative impedance.. Scheuer. some property attributes were generated such as: mean impedance. however. No. Ronghe.After the pay horizons were interpreted. A map was then generated by interpolating the attributes. CONCLUSIONS The full-stack seismic inversion applied to the Tiaka carbonate reservoir has been able to delineate facies distribution through data integration and careful interpretation of the results. S. etc. In the drilling plan.. well Tiaka8 penetrated a high porous pay limestone as predicted by the seismic inversion. AAPG Bulletin. 17531771. Acoustic impedance interpretation for sand distribution adjacent to a rift boundary fault. and Levy. New wells Based on the interpretation of the results. Geophysics. T.13181337. pp. S. v. p.W. The red curve represents the interpreted high porous pay limestone (shown in blue). 86. D. New wells have been drilled and successfully found oil in this field through careful interpretation of the inversion results even though the inversion of the full-stack seismic suffers from overlapping impedance between the main lithologies. Thailand.. minimum impedance. mean porosity. 10. and Surarat. new wells were drilled. vol. 10. K.. 1983.

Figure 1 . .Map showing the location of Tiaka field in Sulawesi. Indonesia.

Tectonic evolution of eastern arm of Sulawesi. .Figure 2 .

Principal exploration play type found in Senoro-Toili block.Figure 3 . .

.Figure 4 .Generalized stratigraphy of Banggai basin.

.Figure 5 .Strong overlapping between lithologies in acoustic impedance domain.

.Potential ambiguity in interpreting Tomori oil reservoir. Two transforms can be generated for shale and limestone. Figure 7 .Figure 6 .Cross plot between total porosity vs impedance color coded by lithology in inverted resolution.

Example of blind well validation on line 88-541. .Example of blind well validation on line 88-520.Figure 8 . Figure 9 .

.Figure 10 .Example of blind well validation using the new drilled Tiaka8 well.