SIMPLE TESTS FOR DETECTION OF ADULTERATION IN FOODS

DR. ARCHANA KUSHWAHA ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

DEPARTMENT OF FOODS & NUTRITION COLLEGE OF HOME SCIENCE GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR-263145

. y Precautions --consumer --time of purchase ± knowledge --common adulterants --effect on health. transportation and marketing. y India--financial gain ±carelessness --lack in proper hygienic condition of processing.Adulteration in food y Crude form--prohibited substances are either added or partly or wholly substituted. storing. y Consumer ±cheated --victim of diseases.

saw dust artificially coloured TCP Oils Paralysis Rancid oil Oils Destroys vitamin A and E Damage digestive tract Lathyrism (crippling spastic paraplegia) Sand. marble chips. pulses etc. cancer tea leaves. Adulterant No Adulterants in food 1 2 Argemone seeds Argemone oil Foods Commonly Involved Mustard seeds Edible oils and fats Diseases or Health Effects 3 4 5 6 7 Epidemic dropsy. Glaucoma.Injurious Adulterants/Contaminants in Foods and their Health Effects S. Cardiac arrest Artificially coloured foreign As a substitute for cumin Injurious to health seeds seed. Poppy seed. Food grains. black pepper Foreign leaves or exhausted Tea Injurious to health. stones. filth Lathyrus sativus Khesari dal alone or Mixed in other pulses .

eggs usually with fever and chills) and egg products. diarrhoea. (Welchii) type A canned meats. abdominal pain. etc. vomiting. fish and gravy stocks diarrhoea. acid frozen foods. tuna. meats. Food infection (nausea. baked foods Increased salivation. salads. beans. warmed-up leftovers Shigella sonnei Milk. puddings. toxins acid foods.C. fermented food to respiratory failure) etc.Botulism (double vision. meat and meat products. Meat and meat products. abdominal pains. moist mixed foods Staphylococcus aureus Dairy products.E or F vacuum-packed fish. sausages. salads. shell-fish. sauces vomiting. diarrhoea) Salmonella spp. death due A. Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) shrimp.Bacterial contamination 20 Bacillus cereus Cereal products. smoked muscular paralysis.B. Entero-toxins-A. poultry.severe thirst.D or E especially custard or cream-filled abdominal cramp. cream prostration sauces. foods. potato. custards. Clostridium botulinus Defectively canned low or medium.perfringens Milk improperly processed or Nausea. gas formation 21 22 23 24 25 . cold sweats. raw Salmonellosis (food infection vegetables. low.B. Clostridium.

liver damage. cancer and other toxic effect. cancer etc. fibroid tumors etc. mental retardation in infants Blood anticoagulant Chances of liver cancer Anemia. Chances of cancer the gastro- . Allergy. increase in serum chloresterol etc. Food Coloured food Oils and fats Chinese food. Mental retardation. meat Brain damage. products Flavoured food Flavoured food Cold drinks In variety of food as preservative Sweet foods meat and Sterlites. enlargement of heart Acute irritation of intestinal tracts etc. oil cake etc. Cancer Carcinogenic effect Blood clot. angiosarcoma.4 Benzopyrene Excessive solvent residue Non-food grade or contaminated packing material Non-permitted colour or permitted food colour beyond safe limit BHA and BHT beyond safe limit Monosodium glutamate(flour) (beyond safe limit) Coumarin and dihydro coumarin Food flavours beyond safe limit Brominated vegetable oils Sulphur dioxide and sulphite beyond safe limit Artificial sweetners beyond safe limit Meat Smoked food Solvent extracted oil.Additives in food 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Diethyl stilbestrol (additive in animal feed) 3.

Rhizopus. ergotoxin and ergometrine groups Toxins from Fusarium sporotrichioides Toxins from Fusarium sporotrichiella Toxins from Penicillium inslandicum Penicillium atricum. Aspergillus Sterigmatocystin from Aspergillus versicolour Aspergillus nidulans and bipolaris Foodgrains Hepatitis . rye Ergotism (St. Penicillium citreovirede.Anthony¶s firemeal or bread burning sensation in extremities. peripheral gangrene) Grains (millet. Fusarium. cottonseed. Ergot-infested bajra. Alimentary toxic aleukia(ATA) oats. rye.Fungal contamination 38 Aflatoxins Aspergillus flavus. etc. itching of skin.etc) (epidemic panmyelotoxicosis) Moist grains Urov disease (Kaschin-Beck disease) Yellow rice Toxic mouldy rice disease 39 40 41 42 43 Ergot alkaloids from Claviceps purpurea Toxic alkaloids. ergotamine.Liver damage and cancer contaminated foods such as groundnuts. wheat.

milk. such as cereals Ascariasis Amoebic dysentery Infectious hepatitis Bolivian haemorrhagic fever . unheated foods Hepatitis (virus A) contaminated with faeces.Parasite/ bacterial / virus infection through food 44 Ascaris Any raw food or water lumbricoides contaminated by human faces containing eggs of the parasite 45 Entamoeba Raw vegetables and fruits histolytica Viral 46 Virus of infectious Shell-fish. urine and blood of infected human 47 Machupo virus Foods contaminated with rodents urine.

Gastro-intestinal disturbances cassava. oils. especially shell-fish Toxic mushrooms Mushroom poisoning (Hypoglycemia.Cancer contaminated water. cramps. Excess fluoride causes fluorosis etc.Natural Contamination 48 Flouride Drinking water. amaranth. sea foods. failure of blood to clot Cottonseed flour and cake Cancer Bitter almonds. Smoked fish. abdominal pain. diarrhoea) 49 50 51 52 Oxalic acid Gossypol Cyanogenetic compounds Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAH) Phalloidine (Alkaloid) 53 54 Solanine . skeletal and neurological disorders) Spinach. fats and fish. apple seeds. profuse watery stools. (mottling of teeth. tea. some beans etc. severe necrosis of liver leading to hepatic failure and death) Potatoes Solanine poisoning (vomiting. Renal calculi. meat. etc. convulsions. mineral oil.

and infants. Antibiotics (beyond safe limit) Meats from antibiotic-fed Multiple drug resistance hardening of animals arteries. pulses. Pesticide residues (beyond All types of food Acute or chronic poisoning with safe limit) damage to nerves and vital organs like liver. kidney. etc. etc. cancer and tumours in the meat products liver. spinach Methaemoglobinaemia especially in rhubarb. The liver is the initial site but afterwards tumours appear in other organs. Asbestos (may be present in Polished rice. and in processed foods containing body may produce cancer processed foods) anti-caking agents. Kaolin. kidney. etc. Absorption in particulate form by the talc. asparagus. trachea oesophagus and lungs.Chemical contaminants 55 Nitrates and Nitrites Drinking water. etc. heart disease 56 57 58 .

Of Hydrochloric acid and 0. Add 5 ml.Simple Screening test for Detecting Adulteration in Common Food S. Cool and a drop of iodine solution. Insert the glass stopper and shake for 2 minutes. Boil 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. crimson colour in the lower acid layer indicates adulteration. Take 5 ml. Blue colour indicates presence of Starch. conc. Add 10 ml. Argemone oil 2 Ghee Mashed Potato Sweet Potato. Add 1 drop of Ammonium Molybdate reagent. Of the sample in a test tube. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Vanaspati . Development of a pink or red colour indicates presence of Vanaspati in Ghee. orange yellow. etc. Of acidified petroleum ether. N. Allow to separate yellow. Add 5 ml. Shake carefully. HNO3 --to 5 ml.4 ml of 2% furfural solution or sugar crystals. The formation of turbidity indicates presence of Castor oil in the sample. colour disappears on boiling & reappears on cooling. of oil in a clean dry test tube.sample. 1 Food article Vegetable oil Adulteration Castor oil Test Take 1 ml.

Add 1 ml. A pink or red colour in the lower(acid layer) indicates rancidity. Of HCl to one tube. Of 0. Of filtered fat dissolved in ether.) Appearance of cherry red colour indicates presence of sugar/jaggery. Of solvent ether to 5 ml. Of resorcinol resublimed in 5 ml. Synthetic Colouring Matter Pour 2 gms. Divide into 2 portions. Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petri dish. Fiehe¶s Test: Add 5 ml. Of conc. Add 5 ml. Shake well and allow to stand. Add 2 to 3 ml.1% of ether solution of Phloroglucinol. Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Of honey. Shake vigorously for 30 seconds.Rancid stuff (old Take one teaspoon of melted sample and 5 ml. Add 1 ml. 3 Honey Invert sugar/jaggery . Of HCl in a ghee) stoppered glass tube. Of 10% NaOH to the other tube. Restopper & shake for 30 seconds and allow to stand for 10 minutes. Presence of pink colour in acidic solution or yellow colour in alkaline solution indicates added colouring matter. Of resorcinol (1 gm. HCl.

Pink colour indicates Lead Chromate. Add conc.HCl to a small quantity of dal in a little amount of water. Of dil. Shake 5 gm. Of water and add a few drops of HCl. Of pulse with 5 ml. Of 1:3 HCl) and stir well. Swollen and black Ergot infested grains will turn light in weight and will float also in water 5 Pulses Metanil Yellow(dye) Lead Chromate 6 Bajra Ergot infested Bajra . if developed indicates the presence of Kesari dal.HCl to a small quantity of dal and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes.Aniline Chloride Test : Take 5 ml. Orange red colour indicates presence of sugar. Pulses/Besan Kesari sativus) dal(Lathyrus Add 50 ml. The pink colour. Add Aniline Chloride solution (3 ml of Aniline and 7 ml. 4. Of honey in a porcelain dish. Immediate development of pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow and similar colour dyes.

chilly. Appearance of red colour (which persists even upon adding little distilled water) indicates the presence of added colours.etc. Extract the sample with Petroleum ether and add 13N H2SO4 to the extract. Shake sample with dil. berries. Black papaya seeds float on the top while the pure black pepper seeds settle down. Of Carbon tetra chloride and allow to stand. However. Sprinkle on water surface. Powdered bran and sawdust float on d) saw dust the surface. Bran will float on the surface. curry powder.HCl Effervescence indicates chalk. etc. if the colour disappears upon adding distilled water the sample is not adulterated. Black Pepper 9 Papaya seeds/light Pour the seeds in a beaker containing Carbon tetra-chloride. Dung will float and can be easily detected by its foul smell.7 Wheat flour Excessive & dirt sand Shake a little quantity of sample with about 10 ml. 10 11 Spices(Groun Powdered bran and Sprinkle on water surface. Grit and sandy matter will collect at the bottom. Excessive bran Chalk powder 8 Common Colour spices like Turmeric. . Coriander powder Dung powder Soak in water.

Dissolve it in 1:7 Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and filter. which disappears on dilution with water. sand. The seeds of Badi Elaichi have nearly plain surface without wrinkles or streaks while seeds of cardamom have pitted or wrinkled ends. 13 Badi Elaichi seeds Turmeric Powder 14 Starch of maize. Of sample add a few drops of silver nitrate. rice coloured. Lead Chromate Ash the sample. Add 1 or 2 drops of 0. A pink colour indicates presence of Lead Chromate. etc. Brick powder grit. chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. While foreign/added starches are colourless and small in size as compared to pure turmeric starch. If colour persists Metanil yellow is present. Choti Elaichi seeds Separate out the seeds by physical examination. Instant appearance of violet colour. big in size and has an angular structure. Brick powder and grit will settle at the bottom. White precipitate indicates adulteration. Add few drops of conc. indicates pure turmeric. wheat. Pour the sample in a beaker containing a mixture of dirt.1% dipenylcarbazide.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to sample. A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow tapioca. 15 Turmeric Metanil Yellow .Common salt 12 Chillies To 5 ml. filth.

If palms with charcoal dust turn black adulteration in indicated.16 17 Cumin seeds (Black jeera) Asafoetida(Heeng ) Grass seeds coloured Rub the cumin seeds on palms. Soap stone. Take a filter paper impregnated with Ninhydrin (1% in alcohol.HCl to the residue. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle at the bottom. Decant the top layer and add dil. Spots of bluish purple colour indicate presence of hidden insects infestation 18 Foodgrains Hidden insect infestation . Shake sample with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).) Put some grains on it and then fold the filter paper and crush the grains with hammer. Asafoetida will settle down. matter Chalk other earthy Shake a little quantity of powdered sample with water. Effervescence shows presence of chalk.

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