pmyavë armif;rSm ydkufygvdkŒ

&efÿif; (awmifwHcg;)
‘pmyavë armif;rSm ydkufygvdkŒ
ausmif;awmfudkwJh vdkufr,hfjyif
b,fpm b,fESpfÿg armifoifrwkef;’
aAsm!ëefŒ/ aus;vufaw;
trnfrod a±S;pmqdk
jrefrmh±dk;&m aypmxkyf&JŒ tay:qHk;u &pfywf+yD; xkyfydk;xm;wJh ,if;vdyfvdktÿwfudk pmyavë vdkŒac:ygw,f?
uyavë/ ur`avë vdkŒvnf;ac:ygw,f? ÿg;wkwfacsmif;uav;awëudk ‘twdkif’ taeeJŒxm;+yD;
ta&miftrsdK;rsdK;qdk;xm;wJh ÿgcsnfudk ‘tazguf’ tjzpf a&mpyf ,ufvkyfxm;wJhypPnf;yg?

pmyavë
,ufvkyfwJh ynm±Sif&JŒ pdwfwdkif;us ESpfoufovdk yHkpHawëaz:xm;awmh pmyavëawërSm wckeJŒwck vHk;ÿO\Hk
qifwlwmrsdK;udk awëŒEdkifzdkŒ rvë,fulyg? wcsdKŒpmyavëawëuawmh ,if;vdyf t=urf;xnf tay:rSm
tÿwfpudkuyf+yD; csKyfxm;ygw,f?
pmÿgwufzdkŒ oëm;=uwJhtcgrSm ausmif;om;/ udk&if/ OD;yÌif;awëu pmyavëeJŒxkyfxm;wJh o'Ng/ o+*dK[f/ qef;/
tvuFm/ tbd"gef/ ,rdkuf/ yXmef; pwJh aypmxkyfusrf;awëudk ayëŒydkufvdkŒ,loëm;=u&w,f?
udk,feJŒoufqdkif&m
pmyavëudk
w±dkwao
jrwfjrwfEdk;Edk;eJŒ
&ifcëifrSm
ydkufwJholuydkuf/
vufarmif;rSmydkfufwJholuydkuf+yD; pmoifcef;qDudk ,loëm;=uw,f? aus;vufaw;awërSm pmyavë &ifrSm
ydkufygvdkŒ/ pmyavë armif;rSm ydkufygvdkŒ/
pmyavë armifrSm ydkufygvdkŒ pojzifh oDqdk=uwJh
rluëJawëvnf;±dSygw,f?

pmcsq&mawmf bkef;awmf}uD;ukd t&ifqHk; OD;cs ÿwfjznfh+yD;&if udk,f,lvmwJh aypmxkyfudkyg
q&mwqltaeeJŒ rSwf,l+yD; OD;cs uefawmh=uygw,f? +yD;awmhrS pmjyefzdkŒ/ pmÿgwufzdkŒtwëuf
aypmudkxkyfxm;wJh pmyavëudk jznf+yD; a±SŒrSmcif;ygw,f? a±S;jrefrmh 12 v &moD yëJpOft& e,kefv rSm
pmjyefyëJawë usif;y=uwmrdkŒ pmyavëcif;w,fvdkŒ trSwftom;xm;cJhygw,f?
‘o}uFef wmul;
ESpfOD; anmifa&
pmyavëcif;
yÌif;awmfcH
pma&;wHESifh’
om"deysdKŒ
vufÿJokEN&
(jrefrm ouU&mZf 1085-1161)
pmyavëudkjznfvdkufwJhtcg aypm}udk;eJŒ &pfywfpnf;aESmifxm;wJh aypmxkyfudkawëŒ&ygr,f? tJ'D
aypm}udK;u a&mifpHkcsnfeJŒ *syfckwf ,ufxm;wJh jAuf wvufravmuf tÿwf}udK;jym;yg? tpëef;wzufrSm
uëif;avsmwckudk wygxnf; ,ufxm;ygao;w,f? aypmusrf;&JŒ emrnf/ vSL'gef;xm;wJhukodkvf±SifeJŒ
qkawmif;pmawëudk tifrwefrS vuf&majrmufatmif ,ufvkyfxm;ygw,f?

aypmxkyf}uD;eJΠpnf;xm;wJh }udK;jym;
aypmxkyf&JŒ tay:qHk;eJŒ atmufqHk;rSm opfom;jym; wcsyfpDeJŒ!‡yfxm;ygw,f? tJ'D opfom;jym;awëudk
‘usrf;’ / wcsdKŒuvnf; ‘usrf;zHk;’ vdkŒ ac:ygw,f?

aypmxkyf/ usrf;zHk; ESpfcsyf eJŒ pnf;xm;wJh uëif;avsmyg }udK;jym;
tJ'Dpnf;xm;wJh }udK;jym;udkjznf+yD; opfom;jym; usrf;zHk; ESpfcsyfudk z,fvdkuf&if txyfvdkufpDxm;wJh
‘pmyv†if’ aypmcsyfawëudkawëŒ&r,f? aypmvdkŒac:wJhtwdkif; ayyif &JŒ xdyfqHk; ayzl;u&wJh ay±ëufeJŒ
aypmcsyfawëudkvkyfygw,f? 'ga=umifhyJ wcsdKŒu ‘ayzl;vìm’ vdkŒac:=uwmyg? xef;±ëufeJŒvnf;vkyfEdkifygw,f?
'gayr,fh ay±ëufu xef;±ëufxuf t±ë,fydk}uD;wm&,f/ ydk+yD; tom;xlwm&,fa=umifh pma&;zdkŒtwëuf
ydkaumif;ygw,f? xef;±ëufudkawmh txyfxyf csnf}udK;eJŒcsKyf+yD; jrefrmh±dk;&m Zmwm eJŒ &ufcsKyfawëvkyf&mrSm
t"duoHk;ygw,f?

aypm eJŒ yv†ifayguf
ayvìmcsyfawë&JŒ tzsm;ESpfzufpDu oHk;yHk wyHk tuëmtaÿ;rSm ‘yv†ifayguf’ vdkŒac:wJh taygufi,fESpfckpD
ygygw,f? atmufcH usrf;zHk; opfom;jym;rSm ‘yv†iw
f dkif’ vdkŒac:wJh ÿg;wdkifikwfuav;ESpfck±dSw,f?
pma&;+yD;wJh aypmcsyfawë&JŒ ‘yv†ifayguf’ awëudk tJ'D ‘yv†ifwdkif’awërSm pëyfvdkufwJhtcg tpDtpOfrysuf
xdef;odrf;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
pmvHk;awë a&;rxm;wJh aycsyftvëwfawëudk tay:qHk;eJŒ atmufqkH;rSm cHxm;ygao;w,f? tJ'gudk ‘yv†ifcH’
w,fvdkŒ ac:wmygyJ? +yD;awmhrS ed'gef; a&;xm;wJh ‘yv†ifcsyf’/ tJ'Datmufu t"du usrf;pm ‘pmyv†if’/
+yD;awmh ed*Hk; ‘yv†ifcsyf’/ atmufqHk;rSmrS yv†ifcH aycsyftvëwf awëudk xyf+yD;xnfh&w,f?
wcsdKŒaypmxkyf}uD;awërSmawmh csnfuspf}ud; wacsmif;pDudk
‘yv†ifayguf’ awërSmoëif;+yD;
csnfxm;wwfygw,f?

aypmxkyfeJΠoDwJh}udK;
aypmawërSm ÿrf;zuf/ ausmzuf rsufESmESpfzufpvHk; pma&;xm;ygw,f? aypm wrsufESmrSm pma=umif;a& 7
a=umif;uae 12 a=umif;txd ±dSwwfw,f? ‘7 a=umif; ay’/ ‘9 a=umif; ay’ pojzifh ac:ygw,f?
a&;+yD;aypm 12 ±ëuf / 24 rsufESmudk 1 ‘t*Fg’ vdkŒac:ygw,f? tJ'D pmrsufESmawëudk trSwfpOf rSwf&mrSm 1/
2/ 3/ 4 vdkŒ ra&;xdk;yJ ‘u/ um/ ud/ uD/ uk/ ul/ au/ uJ/ aumh/ aumf/ uH/ um;’ tpOftwdkif;
a&;xdk;avh±dSygw,f? ‘u’ +yD;&if ‘c’ udk tJ'DvdkyJ qufxdk;ygw,f? ‘t’ uae ‘tm;’ udka&mufwJhtxd
pmr+yD;ao;&ifvnf; ‘us/ usm/ usm;’ vdkŒ qufrSwf&ygw,f?
pmvHk;awëudkzwf&wm arS;rdSefae&ifvnf; a&eH}uD; okwfxm;wJh tÿwfeJŒ nifnifomom wdkŒum okwfum
zwf&ygw,f? zwf+yD;wJh aypmwcsyfcsif;pDudk ÿrf;zufu atmufrSmxm;vdkŒ arSmufvsuf xyfxm;&ygw,f?
tJ'grS aypmudk jyefodrf;vdkufwJhtcg rlvu tpDtpOftwdkif;yJ jzpfygr,f?
tom;aoatmif jyKjyifxm;wJh ay±ëufukd ‘pmpOfcHk’ ay:rSmwif+yD; owWKwrsdK;rsdK;eJŒvkyfxm;wJh ‘unpf’ eJŒ
pmvHk;awëa&;wJhtcg ay±ëuf&JŒtom;udk uëJ+yJ rxdcdkufatmif pmvHk;ÿdkif;awëudkyJa&;ygw,f? tvSqifxm;wJh
unpf ykHpHtrsdK;rsdK;±dS=uayr,fh 1 vufr&JŒ 8 yHk 1 yHkavmuf tvHk;/ 6 vufravmuf t±SnfeJŒ
tzsm;ESpfzufcíef/ tv,fu ÿrf;ylyl cyf±dk;±dk; oHacsmif;unpf udkoHk;=uwmrsm;ygw,f? Eëm;&JŒ em;twëif;u
tarì;eJŒvkyfxm;wJh
pkwfwHudkoHk;+yD;
rifeJŒa&;xm;wJh
rifa&;aypmawërSmawmh
refusnf;aphyHk
pmvHk;awëudkawëŒEdkifygw,f? urRÿgpm rSmygwJh pmvHk;rsdK;awëyg?

u/ unpf ayrSmjcpf
a±S;acwfjrefrmh±dk;&m pmayusrf;*efawëudk a&;om; rSwfwrf;wifp&m ypPnf;wrsdK;uawmh yk&ydkuf jzpfygw,f?
yk&ydkuf qdkwm aumuf±dk; eJŒ av#mfyifawëudk tajccH+yD;vkyfxm;wJh ±dk;&mvufjzpf puULtxl pmtkyfrsdK;yg?
‘omvJ’ vdkŒ ac:wJh av#mfyifwrsdK;udk vkyfwJh yk&ydkufu tjzLa&mif jzpfygw,f? aumuf±dk;udkvkyf&ifawmh
yk&ydkuftndK udk&ygw,f? tJ'D yk&ydkuftndKudk rifqdk;+yD; trnf;a&mif vkyf,lygw,f? yk&ydkuf tjzLa&mif
tay:rSm rifeJŒa&;+yD;/ yk&ydkuf trnf;a&mif tay:rSmawmh uefŒulqHeJŒa&;ygw,f?
‘yk&ydkuf wpfql
uefŒul wpfwHESifh
&uef aemufay:
raemf um&ef’
arëŒEëef;&uef
a±ìawmif eENol
(jrefrm ouU&mZf 1100-1150)

rifa&; yk&ydkuf

yk&ydkuf tzHk;
yk&ydkufawë/
aypmxkyfawëudk
pmwdkufaowWmeJŒ
pmwdkufbD±dkawërSm
odrf;xm;avh±dSygw,f?
pmwdkufaowWmawëu
trsm;tm;jzifh
ppfpD;okwf
,ëef;ypPnf;opfom;aowWmawëyg?
pmwdkufaowWmawëtay:rSm ,ëef;yef;csDa&;/ a±ìZÿga&;/ a±ìydef;cs om;±dk;udkif ±kyfºuë edygwfawmfawë
ygavh±Sdygw,f?
pmwdkufbD±dkawëuawmh
yef;ykvuf&mawëeJŒ
tao;pdwf
xkvkyfxm;wJh
opfom;bD±dk}uD;awëyg?
‘ydÉuwf edum,f
udk;uë,f a&;om; oëif;xm;&ef
pmwdkufESifhwuë’
armiftd bkef;}uD;yifh arwWWmpm
pavOD;ykn
(jrefrm ouU&mZf 1174-1229)
rif;wkef;rif;}uD; &wemyHk rEWav;®rŒopfwnfwkef;u pmwdkufaowWmeJJŒ pmwdkufbD±dkawë vkyfudkifwJh
ynm±Sifawëtwëuf pmwdkufwef;&yfqdk+yD; &yfuëufae&mcsay;cJhawmh 'DuaeŒtxd y&dabm*awë vkyfaeqJ
tJ'DemrnfeJŒ &yfuëufwck rEWav;®rŒrSm ±dSaeygao;w,f?

,ëef;yef;csDa&; pmwdkufaowWm

om;±dk;udkif a±ìcs pmwdkufaowWm

yef;yk ±kyfvHk;awëeJ pmwdkufbD±dk
pmayusrf;*ef
ydÉuwfawë
odkrSD;xm;wJh
pmwdkufaowWmeJŒ
pmwdkufbD±dkawëudk
bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;awëxJu aZwÿefaqmif ydÉuwfwdkufawëxJrSmodrf;&ygw,f? ax&ÿg' Ak'<omom
pnfyif zëHŒ®z; wdk;wufxëef;um;cJhwhJ yk*Hacwfwkef;u bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;awërSmwëifruyJ ydÉuwfwdkuf
oD;jcm;wnfaqmuf+yD; odrf;qnf;&avmufatmiftxd pmayusrf;*ef ydÉuwfawë rsm;rsm;pm;pm;
±dScJhzl;w,fvdkŒ rSef;q&ygw,f?
&mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pëm =umcJh+yDqdkawmh txJrSmodkrSD;xm;wJh pmayusrf;*efawëudkrqdkxm;eJŒ ausmuf/ tkwfeJŒ
wnfaqmufxm;wJh ydÉuwfwdkuf taqmuftOD}uD;awëawmifrS rlv yuwdtwdkif;r±dSEdkifawmh+yD?
vHk;ÿO\Hk ajymufuë,foëm;cJhwJh yk*H®rŒa[mif; jrueft&yfu xdvdkifrif;}uD; (usefppfom;) aumif;r_
puULwdkuf eJŒ aESmif;acwfawë&JŒvuf&mtopfawëu zHk;vìrf;oëm;vdkŒ emrnfavmufyJ tEdkifEdkif
usefcJhawmhwJh yk*H®rŒa[mif;u ted±k'<rif;}uD;aumif;r_ ydÉuwfwdkufawëu acwfawë&JŒ ajymif;vJr_
o±kyfouefudk oufaojyae=uw,f?

xdvdkifrif;}uD; (usefppfom;) aumif;r_ puULwdkuf/ jruef/ yk*H®rŒa[mif;
(1905 ckESpfu aemufqHk;jrifuëif;)

ted±k'<rif;}uD;aumif;r_ ydÉuwfwdkuf/ yk*H®rŒa[mif;
uefŒulqHeJŒa&;wJh a&;p&mypPnf; aemufwrsdK;uawm opfom;oifykef;jzpfygw,f? ausmufoifykef; eJŒ
ausmufwHudk
wëifwëifus,fus,f
roHk;=uao;ciftcsdeftxd
bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;awërSm
opfom;oifykef;udkt"duxm;+yD; oHk;cJh=u&w,f? 'D;'l;/ vufyH/ ydEMJ pwJh bdkifom; ac: opfom;tyëawëeJŒ
vkyfavh±SdwJh opfom;oifykef;awëu xk 1 vufromom/
tvsm; 1 awmifxëm/ teH 1
xëmavmuf±dSygw,f? tay:ykdif;rSm }udK;wyf+yD; csdwfqëJxm;zdkŒ taygufwckygwJh ‘oifykef;acgif;’ ygygw,f?

udk,fa&;r,fhpm tenf;trsm;tay:rSm rlwnf+yD; vkyf=uwmqdkawmh opfom;oifykef;&JŒ t±ë,ftpm;u
trsdK;rsdK;yg?
yxrOD;qHk; opfom;oifykef;topf&JŒ rsufESmESpfzufpvHk;udk wwfEdkifor# tacsmwdkufxm;&w,f? tom;yëyë
r±dk;yif/ uecdkyifawëu&wJh rD;aoë; tr_efŒukd xrif;&nfyspfyspfjzpfjzpf/ xrif;aphaysmhaysmhawëeJŒjzpfjzpf
nufaeatmif usdwfe,f+yD; awxm;wJhaumfudk opfom;oifykef;ay:rSm tpmwifw,f? aeylylrSmvSef;vdkŒ
aoëŒaoëŒajcmuf&if ausmufeJŒacsmatmifwdkuf&w,f? aerylyJ rdk;apëaewJhtcgrsdK;rSmawmh oifykef;udk
rD;uif&ygw,f? tJ'DvdkeJΠtpmwifvdkuf/ aeylvSef;vdkuf/ ausmufwdkufvdkuf txyfxyf
vkyf+yD;wJhtcgrSmawmh pdwfwdkif;us acsmarëŒ ajymifwif;aewJh rsufESmjyifeJŒ teufa&mif opfom;oifykef;wck
&yg+yD? tJ'Dopfom;oifykef;u ukdif&ifvnf; vufudkrayyg?

opfom; oifykef;
uefŒulqHu obmÿwëif;xëufypPnf;qdkawmh t±ë,ftpm;pm;/ ta&mifeJŒ yHkpHuvnf;trsdK;rsdK;yg?
uefŒulqHudk oJeJŒausmufcJtpteawërygatmif aoaocsmcsma±ë;+yD;rS owWKpëyfwHrSmjzpfap/ ÿg;wHwck&JŒ
xdyfrSm!‡yf+yD; }udK;eJŒpnf;vdkŒjzpfap a&;vdkŒ&atmifvkyf&w,f? ‘uefŒulwH’ vdkŒac:ygw,f?
oifykef;acgif;udk udk,fh&JŒ b,fzufrSmxm;+yD; tvsm;vdkuf pma&;&w,f? pmvHk;awëa&;zdkŒ p+yD;avhusifhcsdefrSm
ausmif;om;&JŒvufu r+idrfao;awmh oifay;wJhq&mu ausmif;om;&JŒvufudkudkif+yD; pmvHk;awë a&;wJhtcg
uefŒulwH udk b,fvdkvênfh&r,fqdkwm oifjyay;&ygw,f? tJ'D vufOD;q&mudk uefŒulvufvênfh i,fq&m
vkdŒac:wmygyJ?
‘oifykef; xef;±ëuf

ay xufpDum
a&;aomcgvnf;
tuQ&mudk
aocsmvSap
pmvHk;udkvnf;vSvSap’
wdavmu qHk;rpm
±Sifr[moDvÿHo
(jrefrm ouU&mZf 815-880)

uefŒulvufvSnfh i,fq&m bkef;awmf}uD;/
oifykef;udk,fpDeJŒ pmoifom;awë
pmÿgwufcsdefudka&muf&if bkef;awmf}uD;a±SŒrSm pmtH&/ pmjyef=u&w,f? pmaus&if quf+yD;pmwuf&r,f?
rausnufao;&ifawmhvnf; t&ifaeŒupmudkjyef+yD; pmtH=u&jyefw,f?
udk,fwdkiful;a&;whJ ‘a&; oifykef;’ u pmudkjzpfap/ ‘qdk oifykef;’ rSm q&mu toifha&;ay;xm;wmudk
usufrSwf pmtH&wmjzpfap/ waeŒwm pmÿgvdkuf+yD;vdkŒ pmaus+yDqdkwJhtcg aemufwaeŒ pma&;zdkŒtwëuf
opfom;oifykef;ay:u pmawëudk zsufypf+yD; oifykef;acs&w,f? xrif;&nfeJŒrD;aoë;r_efŒawxm;wmudk
oifykef;ay:rSm okwfvdkuf/ aelylvSef;vdkuf/ ausmufeJŒtacsmwdkufvdkufeJŒ oifykef;acs+yD;wJhtcg t&ifwkef;u
a&;cJhor# pma[mif;awë vHk;ÿaysmufuë,foëm;+yD; rsufESmjyif topfwckjzpfvmwmygyJ? 'DuaeŒ ajymqdk
oHk;pëJae=uwJh ‘oifykef;acsw,f’ qdkwJhpum;&JŒ t&if;tjrpfjzpfygw,f?

b,fpm b,fESpfÿg armifoifrwkef;
a±S;acwftcgu tdrfuae+yD; ausmif;wufwJh aeŒausmif;om;rsdK;u ±Sm;yg;ygw,f? udk&if/ OD;yÌif; awëvdkyJ
pmoifom; ausmif;om;awëu bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;awërSm aexdkif=u+yD; pmoif=uw,f? qërf;cHcsdefrSm
oHCmawmfawë pDwef;vdkŒ &yfxJ ±ëmxJudk qërf;cHºuë=uwJhtcg ausmif;om;awëu qërfawmfAsdKŒ vdkŒ
[pf=u&ayvdrfhr,f?

qërf;awmfAsdKŒ
±SifjyK+yD;wJhtcg i,f¶ë,folawëu ‘armif&if’/ ±ë,fwlawëu ‘udk&if’/ }uD;wJholawëu ‘OD;&if’ &,fvdkŒ
jzpfoëm;=u+yD? tJ'Dtcg tdrfrSmrae&awmhyJ bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;udk oëm;ae&+yD? OD;yÌif;awëeJŒtwl
armif&if/ udk&if/ OD;&ifwdkŒvnf; oydwfudkydkufvdkŒ ausmif;udkvdkuf=u&ayr,f?

oydwfudkydkuf ausmif;udkvdkuf
bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;qdkwm ausmif;opf/ wdkufopf/ ausmif;a[mif;/ wdkufa[mif; trsdK;rsdK;±dSavawmh
wcgwavvnf; ausmif;}uD;utdk/ ausmif;vuf&ef;awëu+ydK/ ausmif;acgifrdk;uvnf; rvHkavawmh rdk;awëu
w+cdrfh+cdrfheJŒ apë+yD;±ëmvm&if rdk;a&±ìJ±ìJpdkwJhtwdkif;yJ ae=u&jyefw,f?
‘vuf&ef;i,f+ydK
±SifvlysdK wnf; uwnf;u
ausmif; pdkvdkŒ±ìJ’
aAsm!ëefŒ

vuf&ef;i,f+ydK ausmif;}uD;utdk
&nf;pm;t&m ra&muf wa&mufrSm cëJxm;cJh&wJh rrav; twëuf oHa,mZOfawë wavS}uD;eJŒ
aemufqHwif;aerdol ykxkZOf OD;&if tzdkŒrSmawmh ausmif;qDudkoëm;&mvrf;wavsmufvHk; vërf;p&mawëcsnf;yJ
jzpfaeayvdrfhr,f?
ta±SŒqDudkav#mufygvdkŒ
taemufudkwJhjyef+yD;±SKar#mfvdkuf&ifvnf;
[dktaÿ;t&yf
±ëmOD;qDrSm
wHcëefwdkifawëu wHcëefvHk;awë/ ukuUm;awë avxJrSmwvëifhvëifheJŒ bk&m;tqlqludk vërf;armp&m
jrif&ayvdrfhr,f?

ta±SŒudkav#mufygvdkŒ taemufudkwJhar#mfvdkuf&if
om; udk&if}uD;udk q&mawmf&JŒausmif;xdyftxd vdkufydkŒ+yD;awmh ±ëmtÿifvrf;qD jyefoëm;avwJh
arë;ordcifu ar#mfvifhw}uD;eJŒ b,fpm b,fESpfÿg armifoifrwkef;&,fvdkŒ rSwfrSwf&& owday;vdkŒ
ar;cJhao;w,f?

rrav;wdkŒ ysdKOD;&if crsmrSmawmh arë;ordcifu tjrwfwEdk; ay;vdkuf±SmwJh pmyavëudk vufarmif;rSm
usyfusyfydkuf+yD; omawmif; om,m±dSvSwJh bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;ÿif;twëif; vSrf;ÿifcJh&±Smav+yD?

tÿifrSm omayawmif; aAg"da±ìausmif;
‘+rdKŒv,fu r¾yf
t&yfrSmwJh ukodkvf
ausmif;}uD;&,ftdk?
vuf&ef;i,f+ydK
±SifvlysdK wnf; uwnf;u
ausmif; pdkvdkŒ±ìJ?
ta±SŒudk av#mufygvdkŒ
taemufu,fwJh ar#mfvdkuf&if
wHcëefwdkif a±ìukuUm;eJŒ bk&m;udkjrif?
pmyavë armif;rSm ydkufygvdkŒ
ausmif;awmfudkwJh vdkufr,hfjyif
b,fpm b,fESpfÿg armifoifrwkef;

arav;udk oHcsdKaESmvdkΠajymcJhygOD;?
rrav;wdkΠysdKOD;&if
tÿifrSm omayawmif;
aAg"da±ìausmif;?’
aAsm!ëefŒ/ aus;vufaw;
trnfrod a±S;pmqdk
txl;aus;Zl;wifpëmeJŒ udk;um;jcif;
(1) jrefrmh±dk;&m aus;vuf jrefrmr_"avhrsm;/ twëJ-1/ qifjzLuíef;atmifodef;/ 'DZifbmv/ 2009
(2) ordkif;wHcëef*sme,f/ twëJ-2/ jrefrmEdkifiH ordkif;aumfr±Sif/ 1961
(3) Pictorial Guide to Pagan: 1971
(4) aAsm!ëefŒ/ aus;vufaw; toHzdkif/ oDqdkol-±ëmpm;}uD; pdefaA'g
(5) aAsm!ëefŒ/ aus;vufaw; toHzdkif/ oDqdkol-wa,m OD;wif&D
(6) bkef;}uD;ausmif;/ bk&m;apwD/ aypm "gwfyHkrsm;/ tifwmeuf