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Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers

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Published by: Divine Jane Purcia on Feb 05, 2012
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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS 1. Digital Literacy 2. Why Study Computer Technology? 3. What is a Computer? 4. Components of a Computer 5. Computer System 6.

Components of a Computer System 7. Advantages and Disadvantages of using Computers 8. Computer Applications in Society 9. Pervasive Themes 10. IT and its related and informing Disciplines Digital literacy  Computer literacy is also known as digital  It involves having a current knowledge of  Requirements that determine computer changes  One must keep up with these changes to Why study Computer Technology? Some Computer roles in our lives 1. Tiny embedded computers control alarm clocks, entertainment centers and home appliances 2. Today’s automobiles cannot run efficiently without embedded computer systems 3. An estimated 10 million people work from home instead of commuting to work because of PCs and networking technologies 4. People use e-mail for personal communications nearly 10 times as often as snail mail and 5 times more often than telephone. 5. Routine daily tasks such as banking, buying groceries are affected by computer technologies. Personal Benefits 1. Improved Employment Prospects  Computer-related skills are essential in most careers such as automotive mechanics, nursing, journalism, archaeology, others.  Makes one more marketable to prospective employers. 2. Skills Span Different Aspects of Life  Computer skills are needed regardless of setting, work, school or play  Knowledge of computers is useful anywhere 3. Greater Self-Sufficiency whether at home,

literacy computers and their uses literacy change as technology be computer literate

nothing more or less. electronic and mechanical components known as hardware.  Example: Computers process several data items to print information in the form of a cash register receipt Instructions  Computers carry out processes using instructions  Instructions are steps that tell the computer how to perform a particular task  A collection of related instructions organized for a common purpose is referred to as software Components of a Computer  A computer contains many electric. you will develop a strong base to support furtherance of your knowledge in the years to come What is a Computer?  An electronic device that processes data according to a predetermined set of instructions that converts it into information useful to people.  Information conveys meaning and is useful to people  Many daily activities either involve the use of or depend on information from a computer. Peter Norton  An electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its memory that can accept data. such as text. Output Devices-used to convey information to one or more people 3. communications or time management 4. Foundation of Knowledge for a Lifetime of Learning  Basic computing principles have not changed over the years. and they will be valid well into the future  By mastering fundamentals. System Unit. you become self sufficient whether you use it for research. produce and store results for future use. process the data.  Hardware components 1. images. People who truly understand computers know that computers are tools. audio and video. Gary Shelly Data and Information  Data is a collection of unprocessed items. numbers. Input Devices-used to enter data or instructions into a computer 2.  We do not give up control of our lives to computers rather we use them to suit our needs  By understanding computers.a case that contains the electronic components to process data .

3.2 Memory– electronic component that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions. instructions. Advantages of using Computers  Speed . User Refers to the people who use the machine for their beneficial purposes. It records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media. Software Series of related instructions that makes the computer perform tasks.allows resource sharing and/or processing with other computers. Hardware The machine itself. 3.1 Motherboard.electronic component that interprets and carries out basic instructions 3. often wirelessly Disadvantages of using Computers  Health risks – Prolonged or improper computer use lead to injuries  Violation of privacy – Invasion to privacy and Identity theft due to improper protection  Public safety – Naïve users of websites fall prey to scrupulous users  Impact on labor force – replacement of employee by the machine . and information to and from one or more computers Computer System  A collection of parts which are categorized according to the work they do. Data Consists of individual facts or pieces of information processed by the computer into useful form. Communication Devices-enables a computer to send and receive data. 5.Holds data. Anyone who communicates with a computer or uses the information it generates.  Every computer is part of a system Components of Computer System  Components of a complete Computer System 1. 2.2 Processor.generates error-free results  Storage – Store enormous amounts of data  Communications .main circuit board of the system unit 3. 4. RAM 4. instructions and information permanently for future use. Two categories: ROM. Storage Devices. The tangible parts of the computer.Performs operations at incredibly fast speeds  Reliability – Electronic components rarely break or fail  Consistency .

CT scan. diagnose mechanical problems. mercury and flame retardant contents pollute environment Computers in Society EDUCATION  Computer technology in university curricula  Essential learning requirement Elementary = Keyboarding Secondary = Office applications or Basic programming  Research INDUSTRY  Computer-Aided Design  Computer-Aided Manufacturing  Shipping Transportation mode reservations or scheduling. scheduling deliveries  Construction Firms = calculate amount of materials and project completion schedules  Automotive mechanics = vehicle performance monitoring. Invoice and Billing. product pricing  Courier Dispatchers =for tracking pickup and drop off points. determine repair and maintenance strategies IT and its related and informing disciplines  Definition of IT  Computer Science  Software Engineering  Information Systems  Computer Engineering Pervasive Themes  User centeredness and advocacy . POS. Impact on the environment – lead. magnetic resonance imaging  Computerized Disease Management  Robotic surgical devices OTHERS  Restaurant and Grocery Stores= for inventories. tracking vehicle locations and goods storage  Process Control GOVERNMENT  Population Statistics  Taxation  Military and Police Works HEALTH CARE  Procedures = ultrasound.

and manage information assurance and security in computing.  IT graduates must therefore develop a mind-set that does not allow losing focus on the importance of users and organizations. etc. often pre-existing components. software and data. integrate. as well as people and processes.  They must therefore develop a user-centered approach to technology (HCI. Information assurance and security  IT systems model ◦ Management of Complexity  Information and Communication Technologies ◦ Human-Computer Interaction ◦ Information Management ◦ Networking ◦ Platform Technologies ◦ Programming ◦ Web Systems and Technologies  Adaptability  Professionalism  Interpersonal Skills  Data versus Information User Centeredness and Advocacy  IT graduates design and integrate IT-based solution to help users and/or organizations achieve their objectives. an awareness of the activities and processes that the solution is expected to support. networking.  Security breaches typically occur on the different components of a system interface. and a constant awareness of the possibility of security breaches will therefore enable them to design IT-based solutions that are less likely to put the organization’s assets at risk. ergonomics. They can be resolved through additional training or process redesign. create.). cognitive psychology. or across the interface between the user and the other components of the system. (Chumer. and organizational systems.  The IT professional must understand. like the interface between different computers in a networked application. deploy and administer IT systems. a lot of their professional activity takes place at such interfaces. 2002) Information Assurance and Security  IT applications and the data and information stored in such applications are some of the most important assets that an organization possesses. human factors. apply. such as hardware.  Security must therefore be a central consideration in any attempt to select. It is also important for the IT professional to provide users with a framework to be . communication.  An integrated IT-based solution consists of technological elements.  Realization that solutions to problems that arise are not always purely technological.  IT professionals integrate different.

policies and procedures. and IT graduates therefore must develop the ability to use abstraction to form a model of the situation in which the need for an IT-based solution arises and in which the IT-based solution has to be integrated. IT-based solutions are typically designed to address problems or opportunities that arise in a complex environment. recovery. IT Systems Model  The ability to manage complexity through: abstraction & modeling. standards. best practices. and the use of appropriate tools. The most appropriate conceptual tool to deal with complexity is abstraction. and information security. the integration of an IT-based solution itself often makes an already complex environment even more complicated. Moreover. patterns. attacks and defense mechanisms. IT graduates must be able to handle such complex situations and to focus on those aspects of the situation that are most relevant to the user and wider context in which the user is expected to function. IAS includes operational issues. .sufficiently security aware to be an asset to the organization rather than a liability. risk analyses.

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