BIT Semester 1 Computer Systems

Chapter 3

Input and Output Devices

Input Devices
‡ The devices that are use to input µData¶ to the computer. ‡ Most Common input devices of the computer are,
± Keyboard ± Mouse

‡ The primary input device of the computer. ‡ Using the keyboard you can do the simplest Input functions of entering data and commands to your computer system. ‡ Has a similar layout to the typewriter. ‡ but has some additional keys that provide additional functionality than a typewriter.

PS/2connector or USB. The wireless may use radio-frequency or infrared. . ‡ Keyboards come in different shapes and sizes but may different the number of additional keys. ‡ The wired connection may be through the DIN(Deutsches Institute für Normung)5connector. ‡ The keyboards may be connected to the computer system through a wire or as wireless.Keyboard Cont«.

Keyboard Types .

± Alphanumeric keys ± Modifier keys ± Numeric keypad ± Function keys ± Cursor-Movement keys ± Special-purpose keys .Standard Keyboards ‡ The standard keyboard has one hundred keys. This set of keys can be divided in to six categories.

. ‡ The main function of these keys is to simply enter what ever symbol that is displayed on the particular key.Alphanumeric keys ‡ These include the alphabetical and numeric keys grouped together on the left side of the keyboard.

Alt´ ‡ Should use with another supporting key to modify.Modifier keys ‡ These keys are located on the bottom left and right corners of the grouping of the alphanumeric keys. Alt+F4 .Ctrl+C.g.. E. Ctrl+V. ´Ctrl´. ‡ These keys include ³Shift.

. ‡ These help to enter numeric data faster that using the alphanumeric keys.Numeric keypad ‡ These are the set of keys that are located at the right most end of your keyboard.

g-F1-Help . E.Function keys ‡ These are the keys located on the top most row of the keyboard and labeled F1toF12. ‡ These keys are allocated certain functions by different applications.

End. Page-up. . Pagedown´keys are the movement keys.CursorCursor-Movement keys ‡ These cursor keys include the quad-directional arrows keys and the" Home.

SpecialSpecial-purpose keys ‡ Special keys usually located between the alphanumeric and number-pad keys which allow you to carry out special functions. Scroll Lock. Print screen. Pause and Esc´ . ‡ These keys are the ³Insert (also known as the over write). Delete.

Special keyboards ‡ According to the users requirements the keyboard structure radically changed. ± 101-key enhanced keyboard .

.104104-key Windows keyboard ‡ Two Windows keys and One Application Key attached to the keyboard.

Mac keyboard ‡ Similar to 101-keyborad. . ‡ But specially use within Apple Mac O/S.

‡ Support Many media facilities.Multimedia and Web-enabled Webkeyboards ‡ Enable you launch you multimedia players and control your media player. .

overall system performance and human comfort .Ergonomic keyboards ‡ The term ³ergonomic´ implies that¶ something's designed to optimize human well-being.

Pointer Devices

Pointer Devices
‡ Any location on the computer screen can be addressed by using X-Y coordinates. ‡ Pointer devices as the name implies are used to point to specific location on the computer screen. ‡ According to the movement of the device screen pointer moves.

‡ The second most common input device (after keyboard) is Mouse. ‡ The X-Y Position indicator for a display system was invented by Mr. Douglas Englebartin 1964. ‡ This device was later called the mouse.

± A ball/roller or optical sensors that indicate the mouse motion.Mouse cont«« ‡ The mouse comprises of four parts. . ± A housing that holds the above components and lets you move the mouse around ± An interface to connect to the computer system. ± Buttons and/or wheel that are used to make selections and scroll.

Ball Mouse ‡ The Ball mouse uses a ball/roller. ‡ The disadvantage of the ball mouse is that it gathers dust and trash . .which cause unreliable motion. ‡ When the mouse is moved the perpendicular wheels touching the ball moves and sensors at the end of these wheels indicate the direction of motion.

± No dust problems. ± Light weight. ‡ Advantages± More reliable to perform smoother operations. .Optical Mouse ‡ The optical mouse uses a light and an optical sensor.

. ‡ The system software decodes this motion data and appropriately moves the pointer on the computer screen. ‡ The mouse rolls on a flat surface. ‡ The required task can be executed by clicking the mouse buttons. ‡ The motion of the mouse is picked up by the sensors and passed through the interface to the computer system.Mouse cont«.

‡ Wireless may use radio signal or IR. ‡ The interface between the mouse and the computer system may be wired or wireless.. ‡ Wired connection by via PS/2 port or USB.Mouse interface«. .

Trackball ‡ The trackball works like an upside-down mouse. ‡ All other functions are similar to mouse. ‡ The mouse has to be moved around where as the trackball remains stationary. . (Ball mouse) ‡ The ball is on the top of the device where as the mouse ball is on the underside. ‡ The best example is the use of a trackball in laptops where you do not have space for a mouse.

‡ The finger is used to move around on the touchpad and this is similar to movement of a mouse-´Strike sensitive´. ‡ First invented at 1994.Touchpad ‡ The touchpad also known as Trackpad. ‡ More common within µNotebook¶ environments.5 inches. ‡ This is a square area about 2 inches by 1. ‡ Tapping the Touchpad is one way to give inputs or users can use provided buttons. .

‡ To enter characters using a µVirtual Keyboard¶. ‡ The pen is commonly used for data entry on PDAs. handheld computers. smart phones and palmtops. ‡ Clicking the mouse similar to tapping the screen or pad by using the ³Pen´. tablet PCs. .Pen-Stylus ‡ The stylus is used to write on a special pad or directly on the screen.

‡ Act as a input as well as output device.Touch Screen ‡ Is a display screen which has sensors or capacitive film to locate where the finger is touching the screen. .

point of sales. ‡ These are commonly used in locations where using a mouse or keyboard is not feasible and an intuitive interface is required. mobile phones . ‡ The buttons or icons on the screen can be pressed by the finger or a Pen.Touch Screen cont«. ‡ Very popular in ATMs.

Joystick and Game Pad .

‡ New devices connected via USB ports and users can very easily plug & play the device without using device drivers. ‡ By using these motion & sound becoming more and more realistic. .Joystick and Game Pad cont« ‡ Use to provide the gaming experience for the users with more entertainment.

Optical Devices .

.Optical Devices ‡ Optical devices use light to capture data and input it in to the computer system.

Barcode readers ‡ Barcodes are a set of dark lines that are used to uniquely identify an item or product. ‡ The captured image is processed and the barcode is identified and passed on to the computer system as an alpha numeric value. (most of the International products) ‡ This is a convenient way of entering data by simply swiping the printed barcode under the barcode reader. ‡ These emits trips of LASER light and the reflected image is picked-up by the light sensors. ‡ Barcodes are found in many products. ‡ This value can be processed by the program and a suitable response can be executed. .

‡ This image file can be stored within the computer. ‡ Hard-copy input can be stored within a computer as softcopy by using a Scanner.Scanners ‡ Scanners are used to capture printed image in to an electronic format. ‡ The wave length at each position is plotted to a two dimensional array that creates an electronic image file. . ‡ This is done by shining light on to the image and capturing the wave length of light reflected a teach point of the image.

The types of Scanners ‡ There are two types pf Scanners. -Flatbed -Hand-held .

. ‡ Communication can be achieved through voice overIP telephony and voice chat. ‡ If your computer system has voice recognition software it can recognize your voice command and execute appropriate actions.Microphones ‡ The microphone is the device used to input sound into the computer system through the soundcard. communicating though voice and providing voice commands. ‡ The microphone aids in recording speech.

‡ There are some types of Cameras. different recording qualities.Video Input ‡ Video input devices also referred to as video cameras come in many sizes. ± ± ± ± Web camera Analog video camera Digital video camera (DV and DVD) camcorder . different storage mediums and in analog and digital forms.

‡ Now a days come up as a in built device with portable devices. (Cam-Chat) ‡ The video quality was low comparing to the other cameras.Web Camera ‡ This type can be considered the most prehistoric type of video camera. ‡ Specially use within online video conferencing. ‡ Not support to capture and transfer sound. ‡ Where it captures the image and transfers it directly to the computer system. .

‡ These cameras also capture sound. . ‡ The main disadvantage is user need to have a special video capture card to convert the analog video in to digital format.Analog video camera ‡ These can capture and store analog video on magnetic tapes.

DV Camera ‡ The DV camera stores the audio and video on DV tapes in digital format. . ‡ Fire-wire interface allow the control of the camera playback through a GUI on the computer system. ‡ Connect to the computer via ³Fire-Wire´ interface. ‡ Disadvantage is data transfer time similar to recording time.

. ‡ These can be read using a DVD-ROM and copied to the computer using DVD-ripping software.DVD Camera ‡ The DVD cameras directly write the video on to a mini-DVD/DVD.

(similar like flash drive) ‡ File can be simply copy. (Don¶t need to convert) ‡ The video quality is very high. . ‡ When the user attach the device to the computer the content of the memory card will display as a disk drive. ‡ Easy to use than other devices.Camcorder ‡ The most convenient video cameras are those with digital memory cards that directly store the video and audio as a single file on the memory card.

Digital cameras ‡ The difference between digital cameras and video cameras is that digital cameras only captures still images and store them in a digital memory card. ‡ Most often the image file is compressed and stored on the memory card to allow a large number of photographs to be taken. ‡ Users just need to copy items. (Don¶t need conversion method) . ‡ The memory card is displayed like another disk drive on your computer system when you connect the digital camera to the computer system.

.Output devices ‡ The computer uses output devices to transfer information to the environment and the user.

± CRT ± Flat-panel . ‡ Monitors provide us with a graphical representation of information on the screen.Monitors ‡ The primary output device of the computer system. ‡ Mainly there are two types.

CRT ‡ CTR stands for Cathode Ray Tube. .

‡ When the electron beam strike the coating it glows with the particular color..CRT cont«. ‡ The monitor tube is a glass vacuum tube with one end having an electron gun that projects three beams and the other a display surface coated with phosphors. ‡ This is the technology commonly used in television sets. . ‡ The three electron beams are intended to glow the red. green and blue phosphors.

Wire for anode voltage . Deflection coils 2.Coil yoke made of iron 12. Air-tight glass "body" of the tube 10. Electron beam 3. filament and control electrode 14. Phosphor layer 5.Control electrode regulating the intensity of the electron beam and thereby the light emitted from the phosphor 13.Screen 11. Graphite layer on the inner side of the tube 7. Cathode 9.CRT elements 1.Contact pins for cathode. Focusing coil 4. Filament for heating the cathode 6. Rubber gasket where the anode voltage wire enters the tube 8.

‡ The mixture of the colors red. ‡ This enables the electron beams to be focused on to a specific location of the phosphorus screen.CRT cont«. ‡ The electron beams are controlled by the focus control coil and the deflection coil. green and blue can create any given color. .

. ‡ The electron beam scans the screen horizontally and vertically at a given number of times per second.. ‡ But also output lot of radiation that cause health issues.CRT cont«. But better display quality. ‡ It also known as Refresh rate. ‡ Higher refreshing rate making better views. ‡ CRT monitors are high electricity consumption.

‡ The LCD was first used in digital calculators and wrist-watches etc«.Flat-Panel ‡ The most common type of Flat-Panels are LCD. ‡ And usually worked in monochrome (one color) ..

LCD ‡ LCD Stands for Liquid Crystal Display. ‡ As the name amplifies the LCD screen is a grid of liquid crystals. .

. PDAs.LCD cont«. Digital and video cameras. ‡ The Refresh rate of LCD very similar to CRT monitors. portable DVD players and many more digital devices useLCD technology for the display. ‡ Originally designed for the Laptops but now a days also use within desktops. ‡ By coloring all the pixels on screen an image is created.. ‡ Most modern day color display mobile and smart phones.

LCD ‡ The main advantages of the LCD over CRT. has low glare and produces no radiation and little heat. ± ± ± ± . requires a special back-light Has low contrast Has a limited viewing angle More expensive ‡ The main disadvantages of LCD. ± ± ± ± Consumes very little space Has better color quality Consumes about 5% of the power Used by a CRT. that has a flat screen.

Other monitor types ‡ Some of the less common monitors are. ± ELD ± Plasma ± Paper-White .

ELD ‡ ELD Stands for Electro luminescent displays. ‡ But instead of liquid crystal phosphorus film sandwiched between two layers of film. ‡ The advantage of this is that these have higher contrast and brightness and do not require a back light. . ‡ Similar to LCD.

‡ The screen size can be increase up to very higher level. create the screen output use Gas in between layers of the screen. .Plasma Display ‡ Plasma displays differ from LCD and ELD by. ‡ Expensive method but can create high quality output and back light is not a requirement .

Paper-White displays ‡ These monitors are used by individuals who create high quality graphics like graphic designers for advertisements newspaper. ‡ The display output is monochrome. That displays characters in black against a white background. and magazine and desktop publishers. . Such monitors are popular for desktop publishing.

. ‡ When buying a computer there are some considerations.Key features of monitors ‡ A good monitor will be easy on your eyes and allow you to work for longer periods of time with comfort. ‡ A bad monitor will cause eye strain and in the long run could harm your eyes.

Main features of monitor ‡ The size of the viewing area-usually stated in inches diagonally. ‡ Refresh rates-the number of times a second it refreshes the screen ‡ Price-up to the user. ‡ Image contrast-The contrast between colors. ‡ Image brightness-The brightness of the display. . ‡ Power consumption and management-The amount of power it uses and its power management features. ‡ Resolution-the total amount of pixels of the screen.

‡ Mainly there are two types of Projectors available.Multimedia Projectors ‡ Use to share video output among large number of people. ± DLP ± LCD .

‡ Can be use within normal light conditions. ‡ But very expensive.DLP-Digital Light Processing ‡ These have a special microchip called the Digital Micro-mirror device. ‡ Little time taken to cool down and compact in size. ‡ The images projected by the DLP projectors are sharp not blur and brighter. .

‡ These projectors are not that bright therefore require a dark room.LCD-Liquid Crystal Display ‡ The projector lamp is shone through a LCD display with the image. ‡ The output quality is less compare to DLP projectors. ‡ Also more time taken to cool down. . ‡ But the prize is low.

‡ The soundcard converts the digital audio data in to an analog form during playback.Sound Systems ‡ To get sound output from the computer system. ‡ The soundcard and speakers have become a standard component in a computer system. .

Sound Systems cont«. ‡ To get sound outputs sound card have to attach with high quality speakers as well. Sound Card . ‡ During recording the sound card converts the analog signal in to digital data and stores it on the disk..

‡ For better quality outputs users can select necessary speaker systems.1 sound System 4.1 Surround sound System Stereo Speakers . 2.1 Surround sound System 7.Sound Systems cont«..1 Surround sound System Headphones 5.

Printers ‡ The printer is the device that provides you with a hardcopy output. ± Non-impact ± make low impact on the printing paper.make a high impact on the printing paper. ± Impact . but the ink will be spayed on the paper . use pins or shapes to make the impact. ‡ Printers are generally categorized in to two types.

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