This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Eye-gaze as a form of human machine interface holds great promise for improving the way we interact with machines. Eye-gaze tracking devices that are non-contact, non-restrictive, accurate and easy to use will increase the appeal for including eye-gaze information in future applications. The system we have developed and which we describe in this paper achieves these goals using a single high resolution camera with a fixed field of view. The single camera system has no moving parts which results in rapid reacquisition of the eye after loss of tracking. Free head motion is achieved using multiple glints and 3D modeling techniques. Accuracies of under 1° of visual angle are achieved over a field of view of 14x12x20 cm and over various hardware configurations, camera resolutions and frame rates.
1.1Eye Gaze Tracking Under Natural Head Movements
Most available remote eye gaze trackers based on Pupil Center Corneal Reaction (PCCR) technique have two characteristics that prevent them from being widely used as an important computer input device for human computer interaction. First, they must often be calibrated repeatedly for each individual; second, they have low tolerance for head movements and require the user to hold the head uncomfortably still. In this paper, we propose a novel solution for the classical PCCR technique that will simplify the calibration procedure and allow free head movements. The core of our method is to analytically obtain a head mapping function to compensate head movement. Specifically, the head mapping function allows to automatically map the eye movement measurement under an arbitrary head position to a reference head position so that the gaze can be estimated from the mapped eye measurement with respect to the reference head position. Furthermore, our method minimizes the calibration procedure to only one time for each individual. Our proposed method will significantly improve the usability of the eye gaze tracking technology, which is a major step for eye tracker to be accepted as a natural computer input device.
Eye Gaze is defined as the line of sight of a person. It represents a person’s focus of attention. Eye gaze tracking has been an active research topic for many decades because of its potential usages in various applications such as Human Computer Interaction, Eye Disease Diagnosis, Human Behavior Study, etc. Earlier eye gaze trackers were fairly intrusive in that they require physical contacts with the user, such as placing a reactive white dot directly onto the eye or attaching a number of electrodes around the eye. Except the intrusive properties, most of these technologies also require the viewer’s head to be motionless during eye tracking. With the rapid technological advancements in both video cameras and microcomputers, eye gaze tracking technology based on the digital video analysis of eye movements has been widely explored.
CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION
The Eyegaze System is a communication and control system for people with complex physical disabilities. You run the system with your eyes. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen, a person can synthesize speech, control his environment (lights, appliances, etc.), type, operate a telephone, run computer software, operate a computer mouse, and access the Internet and email. Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books, attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world. Imagine yourself being a intelligent, motivated, and working person in the fiercely competitive market of information technology, but just one problem You can't use your hands. Or you can't speak. How do you do your job? How do you stay employed? You can, because of a very good gift from computer Industry : The Eyegaze, a communication & control system you run with your eyes. The Eyegaze System is a direct-select vision-controlled communication and control system. It was developed in Fairfax, Virginia, by LC Technologies, Inc., 2.2 Block Diagram:
Figure: Block Diagram of Eyegaze System
). type. multiple sclerosis. and Werdnig-Hoffman syndrome. brain injuries. schools. and access the Internet and e-mail. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen. hospitals. ALS. Its users are adults and children with cerebral palsy. run computer software. etc. Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books. operate a computer mouse. appliances. attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world. Eyegaze Systems are being used in homes. control his environment (lights. offices. a person can synthesize speech. spinal cord injuries.CHAPTER 3 THE SKILLS NEEDED BY THE USER This system is mainly developed for those who lack the use of their hands or voice. and long-term care facilities. 5 . Only requirements to operate the Eyegaze are control of at least one eye with good vision & ability to keep head fairly still. Eyegaze Systems are in use around the world. muscular dystrophy. operate a telephone. brainstem strokes.
1 Good control of one eye: The user must be able to look up. The eyes never move smoothly over still text. 3. These include: Nystagmus (constant. either one deviates): 6 . involuntary movement of the eyeball): The user may not be able to fix his gaze long enough to make eyegaze selections. He must be able to fix his gaze on all areas of a 15-inch screen that is about 24 inches in front of his face. Alternating strabismus (eyes cannot be directed to the same object. Several common eye movement problems may interfere with Eyegaze use. down. This is the typical pattern of eye movement during reading. left and right. He must be able to focus on one spot for at least 1/2 second.Figure: An example of fixations and saccades over text.
eyetracking works well with glasses. Hard-line bifocals 7 . 3. Putting a partial eye patch over the nasal side of the eye not being observed by the camera often solves this tracking problem. The Eyegaze camera. however. a user with alternating strabismus is operating the Eyegaze System with the right eye. and that eye begins to deviate. When the left eye deviates and the right eye is again fixed on the screen the Eyegaze System will resume predicting the gazepoint. The calibration procedure accommodates for the refractive properties of most lenses. In most cases. These include the following: Inadequate Visual acuity: The user must be able to see text on the screen clearly. for example. the user will retain peripheral vision on that side. it will continuously focus on the screen. the left eye will take over and focus on the screen. By applying only a nasal-side patch to the other eye. If.The Eyegaze System is constantly tracking the same single eye. Since only the unpatched eye can the screen. he may need corrective lenses to operate the Eyegaze System. he might need reading glasses in order to see the screen clearly. prior to his injury or the onset of his illness he wore glasses. If.2 Adequate vision: Several common vision problems may affect a user's ability to see text clearly on the Eyegaze monitor. and the System will not be able to determine where the user's left eye is focused. will continue to take pictures of the right eye. If he's over 40 years old and has not had his vision checked recently.
Partially patching the eye not being tracked may alleviate double vision during Eyegaze System operation. Diplopia (double vision): Diplopia may be the result of an injury to the brain. Graded bifocals. and may make it difficult for the user to fix his gaze on a given point. it may prevent light from passing through the pupil to reflect off the retina. Small. Cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye): If a cataract has formed on the portion of the lens that covers the pupil. a blurred image on the screen decreases the accuracy of eye fixations. if the lens moves around considerably on the cornea and causes the corneal reflection to move across the discontinuity between the contact lens and the cornea. Without a good retinal reflection the Eyegaze System cannot accurately predict the user's eye fixations. however. Blurred vision: Another occurrence associated with some brain injuries. Soft contact lenses that cover all or most of the cornea generally work well with the Eyegaze System. as well as a side effect of medications. typically do not interfere with eyetracking. The clouded lens may also make it difficult for a user to see text 8 . hard contacts can interfere. or a side effect of many commonly prescribed medications.can be a problem if the lens boundary splits the image of the pupil. The corneal reflection is obtained from the contact lens surface rather than the cornea itself. making it difficult for the system's image processing software to determine the pupil center accurately.
with the head centered in front of the Eyegaze monitor. uncontrolled head movement can make Eyegaze operation difficult. Some antidepressants can cause blurred vision and mydriasis (abnormally dilated pupil. Absence of medication side effects that affect Eyegaze operation: Many commonly prescribed medications have potential side effects that can make it difficult to operate Eyegaze.) And Baclofen. Surgical removal of the cataracts will normally solve the problem and make Eyegaze use possible. Homonymous hemianopsia (blindness or defective vision in the right or left halves of the visual fields of both eyes): This may make calibration almost impossible if the user cannot see calibration points on one side of the screen. Continuous. dizziness. Even though the System's eye search is completed in just a second or two. blurred vision. However the Eyegaze System can be operated from a semi-reclined position if necessary. seated position. since the Eyegaze System must relocate the eye each time the user moves away from the camera's field of view and then returns.on the screen clearly.3 Ability to maintain a position in front of the Eyegaze monitor: It is generally easiest to run the System from an upright. it will be more tiring for a user with constant head movement to operate the System. drowsiness. Anticonvulsants (seizure drugs) can cause: nystagmus. headache and confusion. a drug commonly used to decrease 9 . 3. diplopia.
He may be able to recognize words. As an interim solution many teachers and parents stick pictures directly onto the screen. drowsiness. The System is text-based.muscle spasms. Mydriasis can be severe enough to block eyetracking. 3. In general. and the corneal reflection is sitting on top of a big. especially if a rudimentary communication system has not been established. a user with average intelligence will best maximize the capabilities of an Eyegaze System. headache. Ability to read: At present. the corneal reflection may be indistinguishable and therefore unreadable by the computer. and may be moving his eyes in a left to right pattern in preparation for reading. can cause dizziness. Memory: 10 . blurred vision and mydriasis. but probably has the capability to learn to read at an average age.4 Mental abilities that improve the probability for successful Eyegaze use: Cognition: Cognitive level may be difficult to assess in someone who is locked in. If the retinal reflection is extremely bright. bright pupil. disorientation. the Eyegaze System is configured for users who are literate. A young child with average intelligence may not be reading yet. When the child looks at the picture he activates the Eyegaze key that is located directly underneath it.
11 . A user who can't remember from one day to the next how to operate the system may find it too difficult to use effectively.Memory deficits are a particular concern in considering the Eyegaze System for someone with a brain injury.
all the features of the system can be used depending on the requirements. As the system starts tracking the movement of the eyes. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body. As a user sits in front of the Eyegaze monitor. Figure: Eyegaze System Application 12 .CHAPTER 4 HOW DOES THE EYEGAZE SYSTEM WORK For using the Eyegaze Systems the users sits in front of the system’s screen and for tracking the eye movement of the user the systems follows the below mentioned steps. a specialized video camera mounted below the monitor observes one of the user's eyes. Sophisticated imageprocessing software in the Eyegaze System's computer continually analyzes the video image of the eye and determines where the user is looking on the screen.
Prior to operating the eye tracking applications. 3. 4. Typically the Eyegaze System predicts the gaze point with an average accuracy of a quarter inch or better. Nothing actually is attached to the user's head or body.. The LED reflects a small bit of light off the surface of the eye's cornea. mounted beneath the System's monitor. The computer calculates the person's gaze point. 7. a specialized video camera mounted below the monitor observes one of the user's eyes. 5. the back surface of the eye. As a user sits in front of the Eyegaze monitor. 6. An infrared-sensitive video camera.1. The Eyegaze System uses the pupil-center/corneal-reflection method to determine where the user is looking on the screen. mounted in the center of the camera's lens illuminates the eye. A low power. infrared light emitting diode (LED). the coordinates of where he is looking on the screen. and causes the pupil to appear white. the Eyegaze System must learn several physiological properties of a user's eye in order to be 13 . The bright-pupil effect enhances the camera's image of the pupil and makes it easier for the image processing functions to locate the center of the pupil. The light also shines through the pupil and reflects off of the retina. takes 60 pictures per second of the user's eye.e. Sophisticated image processing software in the Eyegaze System's computer continually analyzes the video image of the eye and determines where the user is looking on the screen. 2. i. based on the relative positions of the pupil center and corneal reflection within the video image of the eye.
mounted beneath the System's monitor. An array of menu keys and exit keys allow the user to navigate around the Eyegaze programs independently. The system learns these properties by performing a calibration procedure. The LED reflects a small bit of light off the surface of the eye's cornea. 10. is adjustable. the user looks at the key for a specified period of time.The gaze duration required to visually activate a key. the back surface of the eye. The calibration procedure usually takes about 15 seconds. A low power. 8.able to project his gazepoint accurately. and the user does not need to recalibrate if he moves away from the Eyegaze System and returns later. The user calibrates the system by fixing his gaze on a small yellow circle displayed on the screen. 9. The bright-pupil effect enhances the camera's image of the pupil and makes it easier for the image processing functions to locate the center of the pupil 14 . The light also shines through the pupil and reflects off of the retina. mounted in the center of the camera's lens illuminates the eye. An infrared-sensitive video camera. To "press" an Eyegaze key. infrared light emitting diode (LED). takes 60 pictures per second of the user's eye. In detail the procedure can be described as follows: The Eyegaze System uses the pupil-center/corneal-reflection method to determine where the user is looking on the screen. A user operates the Eyegaze System by looking at rectangular keys that are displayed on the control screen. typically a fraction of a second. and causes the pupil to appear white. and following it as it moves around the screen.
and the user does not need to recalibrate if he moves away from the Eyegaze System and returns later. i.The computer calculates the person's gazepoint. The calibration procedure usually takes about 15 seconds. the Eyegaze System must learn several physiological properties of a user's eye in order to be able to project his gazepoint accurately. 15 . The user calibrates the system by fixing his gaze on a small yellow circle displayed on the screen. based on the relative positions of the pupil center and corneal reflection within the video image of the eye. The system learns these properties by performing a calibration procedure. Typically the Eyegaze System predicts the gazepoint with an average accuracy of a quarter inch or better.e.. Prior to operating the eyetracking applications. and following it as it moves around the screen. the coordinates of where he is looking on the screen.
the user looks at the key for a specified period of time. To "press" an Eyegaze key. which enhances the camera's image of the pupil. No attachments to the head are required. 16 . • • • • The Edge Analysis System uses the Pupil-Center/Corneal-Reflection method to determine the eye's gaze direction. A small. A video camera located below the computer screen remotely and unobtrusively observes the subject's eye. The gaze duration required to visually activate a key.CHAPTER 5 HOW TO RUN THE EYEGAZE SYSTEM A user operates the Eyegaze System by looking at rectangular keys that are displayed on the control screen. An array of menu keys and exit keys allow the user to navigate around the Eyegaze programs independently. low power. The LED generates the corneal reflection and causes the bright pupil effect. infrared light emitting diode (LED) located at the center of the camera lens illuminates the eye. typically a fraction of a second. is adjustable.
Eye tracking systems that allow text entry by eye gaze have been in existence for about two decades. the eyes still function.CHAPTER 6 USES OF EYEGAZE Every year more than 100 000 people are diagnosed with motor neurone diseases. Current eye tracking equipment allows users to generate text on a computer by using eye gaze. Obstacles for more wide-spread use currently include: the high cost of eye tracking equipment. but the technology is still only available to a small portion of the potential user population. Users are able to select letters and numbers by looking at a keyboard on a screen with their eyes. Using these systems both empowers and enables people with disabilities as they can now communicate without the need for an assistant or helper. even when all other ways of communicating are either severely damaged or completely lost. Typically. giving the users greater freedom in their lives. Communication by Gaze Interaction (COGAIN) is a Network of Excellence designed specifically to help people with these disabilities to communicate more effectively with eye gaze. and can construct words and sentences that can be spoken aloud by the system. At the COGAIN stand you can see how this technology is used by a person who relies on it. the limitation that gaze communication applications may only work with a particular dedicated 17 .
then print or speak. (Phrases) CONTROL appliances anywhere in the home or office from one Eyegaze screen. (Transportable Computer) BE A KEYBOARD to a second computer to run any keyboard-controlled software. Dimensions 9"x5'txl7'1. (Lights and Appliances) DIAL and answer a speaker phone from one screen. (Teach Screens) 6. "Phone Book" stores 16 frequently used numbers. plus Solitaire and Slot Machine. (Telephone) 18 . two "Paddle" games. work or home. weight approximately 16 lbs. (Second Computer Mode) SPEAK 100 "canned phrases" through a speech synthesizer. (Read Text) PLAY games. and finally that eye tracking devices are often hard to use and require experts to operate them.1 The Basic Eyegaze Can: ADJUST TO A NEW USER in about 15 seconds. 6. (Games) TEACH new users with simplified screens. (Calibration) TYPE with one of four keyboards. (Typewriter) TURN pages on the computer screen by looking at "up" or "down". Phrases can be changed by caregiver or user.eye tracking device. with a single glance of the eye. Two sets of other components and cables for access to Eyegaze System at school. by means of the T-TAM connector.2 With Options The Eyegaze Can: BE AT TWO SITES!! Portable computer has a handle to hand-carry between two sites. No special wiring.
The Main Menu presents a list of available Eyegaze programs. 19 . The user calls up a desired program by looking at the Eyegaze key next to his program choice.CHAPTER 7 MENUS OF EYEGAZE SYSTEM The Main Menu: The Main Menu appears on the screen as soon as the user completes a 15second calibration procedure.
provides quick communications for non-verbal users. Figure: Phrases Screen 7. Looking at a key causes a preprogrammed message to be spoken. simple to complex. along with the speech synthesizer. The Phrases program stores up to 126 messages. Typed text appears on the screen above the keyboard display.Figure: Main Menu Main Menu Options: 7.2 Typewriter Program: Simple word processing can be done using the Typewriter Program.1 The Phrase Program: The Phrases program. which can be composed and easily changed to suit the user. are available. The user types by looking at keys on visual keyboards. The user may 20 . Four keyboard configurations.
Frequently used numbers are stored in a telephone "book".3 The Telephone Program: The telephone program allows the user to place and receive calls. 21 . Figure: Alpha Keyboard 7. Non-verbal users may access the speech synthesizer to talk on the phone. The retrieved text may be verbalized."speak" or print what he has typed. He may also store typed text in a file to be retrieved at a later time. edited or printed.
22 . and send e-mail by looking at keyboard and mouse control screens on the Eyegaze monitor. The programs being run are displayed on the second computer's monitor. Typed text appears simultaneously on the Eyegaze and second pc's screens. The user can run any off-the-shelf software he chooses on the second computer.Figure: Telephone Control Screen 7.4 Run Second PC: The Run Second PC program permits the Eyegaze Communication System to act as a peripheral keyboard and Mouse interface to a Windows computer. He can access the Internet.
23 . two new Eyegaze programs have been added to the Eyegaze System. basic on-screen switch to run "cause & effect" software programs on a Second PC. Simple Mouse is an easy mouse control program to provide simplified access to educational software on a Second PC. Both run with the Second PC option. Eye Switch is a big.Figure: Frequency Keyboard For children.
6 Paddle games & Score Four: These are the visually controlled Games. 7.5 The Lights & appliances Program: The Lights & appliances Program which includes computer-controlled switching equipment. Figure: Lights and Appliances 7. provides Eyegaze control of lights and appliances anywhere in the home or office. The user turns appliances on and off by looking at a bank of switches displayed on the screen. No special house wiring is necessary.Figure: Mouse control screen 7.7 Read Text Program: 24 .
8 Television: Television programs can be displayed directly on the desktop Eyegaze System screen. this is estimated by the difference of integral value of the brightness on area A and B. (Not available on the Portable Eyegaze System. the eye-gaze input system was reported as a novel human-machine interface. Eye-Gaze input system has to detect gaze direction of users. shown in fig. The operation of this system only requires user eye movement. Onscreen volume and channel controls provide independent operation. We have reported a new Eyegaze input system already. The light intensity distribution from eye image changes with Iris movement. Books on floppy disk are available from Services for the Blind. many communication aid systems have been developed for people with severe physical handicaps. The light intensity distribution from eye image changes with Iris movement. 25 .) 7. Using this system. the detecting method uses the difference in reflectance between the Iris and the sclera. we draw attention to the vertical movement of Iris.9 A web browsing system using Eyegaze input: Recently. On horizontal Eye-Gaze detection. Any ASCII format text can be loaded for the user to access. In this paper. we propose a new web browsing system for our conventional eye-gaze input system. It utilizes a personnel computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. On vertical EyeGaze detection. Our Eye-Gaze input system Runs image analysis software for Eye-Gaze detection.The Read Text Program allows the user to select text for display and to "turn pages" with his eyes. this is estimated by the difference in reflectance between the Iris and the sclera. 7. such as ALS patients.
By switching 3 function groups. the results show that the subjects can operate this system as they planned. we propose the web browsing system using above methods. such as hyperlink. this system offers many Function groups. edit box. radio button. The evaluation experiments for the proposed system were conducted with five objects. 26 . Therefore it enables web browsing at a faster pace.In this. “refreshing web page” and “text input by using screen keyboard”. etc. the mouse cursor skips to the object of candidate input. in other words. User can switch function groups by gazing “menu” indicator. ”scrolling of screen” . This system stores the locations of these objects. The indicators for web browsing are displayed on monitor of personnel computer. and correct easily errors in operation. this system offers many functions such as “mouse cursor control”. Subjects were browsing through two web sites. “decision of selected object” . This system analyzes the location of selectable object on web page.
It also allows for tracking in lighting conditions ranging from total darkness to very bright. The resulting series of fixations and saccades is called a scan path. then the pupil appears dark because the retro reflection from the retina is directed away from the camera. The vector between these two features can be used to compute gaze intersection with a surface after a simple calibration for an individual. Most information from the eye is made available during a fixation. which is needed in order to capture the detail of the very rapid eye movement during reading. when the eye gaze pauses in a certain position. Although 50/60 Hz is most common. 350 or even 1000/1250 Hz. But bright pupil techniques are not effective for tracking outdoors as extraneous IR sources interfere with monitoring. Their difference is based on the location of the illumination source with respect to the optics. and some function remotely and automatically track the head during motion. some are head-mounted. Most modern eye-trackers use contrast to locate the center of the pupil and use infrared and near-infrared non-collimated light to create a corneal reflection (CR). Two general types of eye tracking techniques are used: Bright Pupil and Dark Pupil. today many video-based eye trackers run at 240.CHAPTER 8 TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES The most widely used current designs are video-based eye trackers. some require the head to be stable (for example. and when it moves to another position. Eye movement is typically divided into fixations and saccades. A camera focuses on one or both eyes and records their movement as the viewer looks at some kind of stimulus. then the eye acts as a retro reflector as the light reflects off the retina creating a bright pupil effect similar to red eye. respectively. Bright Pupil tracking creates greater iris/pupil contrast allowing for more robust eye tracking with all iris pigmentation and greatly reduces interference caused by eyelashes and other obscuring features. but 27 . with a chin rest). Most use a sampling rate of at least 30 Hz. If the illumination source is offset from the optical path. Eye tracking setups vary greatly. or during studies of neurology. If the illumination is coaxial with the optical path.
fixations last for around 200 ms during the reading of linguistic text. The central one or two degrees of the visual angle (the fovea) provide the bulk of visual information. the locations of fixations along a scan path show what information loci on the stimulus were processed during an eye tracking session. 28 . Preparing a saccade towards a new goal takes around 200 ms.not during a saccade. and 350 ms during the viewing of a scene. On average. Hence. the input from larger eccentricities (the periphery) is less informative.
and can construct words and sentences that can be spoken aloud by the system. even when all other ways of communicating are either severely damaged or completely lost. Uses include: • • • • Cognitive Studies Medical Research Laser refractive surgery Human Factors 29 . Typically. but the technology is still only available to a small portion of the potential user population. Communication by Gaze Interaction (COGAIN) is a Network of Excellence designed specifically to help people with these disabilities to communicate more effectively with eye gaze. music reading. Specific applications include the tracking eye movement in language reading. and finally that eye tracking devices are often hard to use and require experts to operate them. Current eye tracking equipment allows users to generate text on a computer by using eye gaze. Eye tracking systems that allow text entry by eye gaze have been in existence for about two decades. the eyes still function. Obstacles for more wide-spread use currently include: the high cost of eye tracking equipment. the limitation that gaze communication applications may only work with a particular dedicated eye tracking device.000 people are diagnosed with motor neurone diseases. A wide variety of disciplines use eye tracking techniques. and the playing of sport. psychology (notably psycholinguistics. marketing research and medical research (neurological diagnosis). Using these systems both empowers and enables people with disabilities as they can now communicate without the need for an assistant or helper. human-computer interaction (HCI). At the COGAIN stand you can see how this technology is used by a person who relies on it. Users are able to select letters and numbers by looking at a keyboard on a screen with their eyes. the perception of advertising. human activity recognition. the visual world paradigm).CHAPTER 9 APPLICATIONS Every year more than 100. giving the users greater freedom in their lives. including cognitive science.
Examples of target stimuli may include websites. and software. marketing. saccades. magazines.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Computer Usability Translation Process Research Vehicle Simulators In-vehicle Research Training Simulators Virtual Reality Adult Research Infant Research Adolescent Research Geriatric Research Primate Research Sports Training fMRI / MEG / EEG Commercial eye tracking (web usability. In general. etc) Finding good clues Communication systems for disabled Improved image and video communications Computer Science: Activity Recognition Commercial applications In recent years. package design and automotive engineering. commercials. commercial eye tracking studies function by presenting a target stimulus to a sample of consumers while an eye tracker is used to record the activity of the eye. newspapers. films. checkout systems. While traditional usability techniques are often quite powerful in 30 . the increased sophistication and accessibility of eye tracking technologies have generated a great deal of interest in the commercial sector. kiosks). sponsorship. television programs. By examining fixations. consumer systems (ATMs. there are many private companies that offer eye tracking services and analysis. pupil dilation. advertising. advertising. sporting events. Applications include web usability. The most prominent field of commercial eye tracking research is web usability. blinks and a variety of other behaviors researchers can determine a great deal about the effectiveness of a given medium or product. packages. While some companies complete this type of research internally. shelf Displays. automotive. The resulting data can be statistically analyzed and graphically rendered to provide evidence of specific visual patterns.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that drowsiness is the primary causal factor in 100. The goal of this endeavor is to provide the vehicle with the capacity to assess in real-time the visual behavior of the driver. and cognitive engagement driving safety could be dramatically enhanced. eye tracking can be used to assess search efficiency. eye tracking offers the ability to analyze user interaction between the clicks. This may be used to analyze distinctiveness. Commercials. print ads. Specifically. This provides valuable insight into which features are the most eye-catching. providing a warning if the driver takes his or her eye off the road. Research is currently underway to integrate eye tracking cameras into automobiles. which features cause confusion and which ones are ignored altogether. One of the most promising applications of eye tracking research is in the field of automotive design. an advertiser can quantify the success of a given campaign in terms of actual visual attention. online advertisements. Analyses focus on visibility of a target product or logo in the context of a magazine. overall design and many other site components. attractiveness and the tendency of the package to be chosen for purchase.000 policereported accidents per year. Eye tracking is commonly used in a variety of different advertising media. Lexus claims to have equipped its LS 460 with the first driver monitor system in 2006. navigation usability. Prototypes are tested against each other and competitors to examine which specific elements are associated with high visibility and appeal. newspaper. product or ad in this way. website. Eye tracking is often utilized while the target product is in the prototype stage. Another NHTSA study suggests that 80% of collisions occur within three seconds of a distraction. Eye tracking provides package designers with the opportunity to examine the visual behavior of a consumer while interacting with a target package. Analyses may target a prototype or competitor site in addition to the main client site. branding. or televised event.providing information on clicking and scrolling patterns. 31 . online ads and sponsored programs are all conducive to analysis with current eye tracking technology. This allows researchers to assess in great detail how often a sample of consumers fixates on the target logo. inattention. By equipping automobiles with the ability to monitor drowsiness.
Eye control works even when the user has involuntary movement as a result of Cerebral palsy or other disabilities. and for those who have glasses or other physical interference which would limit the effectiveness of older eye control systems. eye tracking is used in communication systems for disabled persons: allowing the user to speak. send e-mail. where users can focus on a subject simply by looking at it through the viewfinder. Eye tracking has also seen minute use in autofocus still camera equipment. using only their eyes. browse the Internet and perform other such activities. 32 .Since 2005.
10. Environment required for an Eyegaze system Because eyetracking is done using infrared light.Eyegaze system must take care of light sources in the room in order to ensure the best accuracy. above. and in a room lit with fluorescent or mercury-vapor lights. New portable Eyegaze System The Portable Eyegaze System can be mounted on a wheelchair and run from a 12-volt battery or wall outlet.1. The Eyegaze System must be operated in an environment where there is limited of ambient infrared light. or below the keyboard to accommodate users with only horizontal movement. The System makes its predictions based on the assumption that the only source of infrared light shining on the user's eye is coming from the center of the camera.7 kg) and its dimensions 33 .CHAPTER 10 FOR PEOPLE WITH LIMITED EYE CONTROL Scanning Keyboard is the new row/column keyboard with an on-screen eye "switch" for people with limited eye movement. The user may "speak" what he has typed. Therefore. stray sources of infrared may degrade the accuracy or prevent Eyegaze operation altogether. It weighs only 6 lbs (2. The System works best away from windows. or only vertical movement. 10.2. Common sources of infrared light are sunlight and incandescent light bulbs. which are low in infrared. The switch can be placed on either side.
are 2. The monitor can be lifted off the table mount and slipped into a wheelchair mount.5"x8"x9" (6. The Portable Eyegaze System comes with a flat screen monitor and a table mounted for its monitor.5cm x20cm x23cm). Figure: Portable Eyegaze System Mounted on Wheelchair 34 .
Figure: Screen of Eyegaze System 35 .
Dollars. The prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. All money is in U. cables and connectors Upgrades and Options Portable Lights Telephone Television computer (in place & of desktop computer) Appliances $1000 $500 $350 $350 $350 Computer access (hardware and software to run a PC) Options for use outside the U.S.3 THE EYEGAZE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: COMPONENTS & PRICES Desktop Eyegaze System Software Programs Main Keyboard Games Read Teach Settings Program Hardware Desktop computer with Windows 2000.10.S. The above prices do not include shipping costs or travel-related installation expenses. CD 15" Adjustable High-speed LCD monitor infrared and Flat tray with sensitive floppy Panel camera camera and drives Monitor bracket lens Text Menu $14. sound. are slightly different. Video frame grabber.900 US$ Surge protector. 36 .
5% sales tax. pupil diameter. 3-dimensional location of the eyeball center within the camera field-ofview. an indicator of head location and movement. At each camera image sample. The Edge Analysis System is robust and extremely easy to calibrate. x-y coordinates of the subject's gazepoint on the computer screen.63 cm) or less and the advanced image processing algorithms in the System explicitly accommodate several common sources of gazepoint tracking error: • • • Head Range Variation Pupil Diameter Variation Corneal Reflection Straddling Pupil Edge 37 .25 inch (0. and fixation and saccade analysis. RMS tracking errors are typically 0. the Edge Analysis System generates: • • • • • an eye-found flag indicating whether or not the eye is visible to the camera and thus whether or not a valid gazepoint is calculated.Virginia residents add 4.
Figure: Eyegaze System Communication System 38 .
in so-called noncommand user interfaces. It is argued that eye-gaze tracking data is best used in multimodal interfaces where the user interacts with the data instead of the interface. Care must be taken.CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Today. though. 39 . since the nature of human eye-movements is a combination of several voluntary and involuntary cognitive processes. This thesis argues that it is possible to use the eye-gaze of a computer user in the interface to aid the control of the application. that eye-gaze tracking data is used in a sensible way. the human eye-gaze can be recorded by relatively unremarkable techniques. The main reason for eye-gaze based user interfaces being attractive is that the direction of the eye-gaze can express the interests of the user-it is a potential porthole into the current cognitive processes-and communication through the direction of the eyes is faster than any other mode of human communication.
eyetechds.htm http://www.com/132.eyegaze.html http://www.de/eyegaze_english.gschlosser.com/content/eyetracking-research-tools http://www.com/ 40 .CHAPTER 12 REFERENCES • • • • • • http://www.sensorysoftware.diku.com/content/assistive-technology http://www.dk/hjemmesider/ansatte/panic/eyegaze/node19.eyegaze.html http://www.