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Eye-gaze as a form of human machine interface holds great promise for improving the way we interact with machines. Eye-gaze tracking devices that are non-contact, non-restrictive, accurate and easy to use will increase the appeal for including eye-gaze information in future applications. The system we have developed and which we describe in this paper achieves these goals using a single high resolution camera with a fixed field of view. The single camera system has no moving parts which results in rapid reacquisition of the eye after loss of tracking. Free head motion is achieved using multiple glints and 3D modeling techniques. Accuracies of under 1° of visual angle are achieved over a field of view of 14x12x20 cm and over various hardware configurations, camera resolutions and frame rates.
1.1Eye Gaze Tracking Under Natural Head Movements
Most available remote eye gaze trackers based on Pupil Center Corneal Reaction (PCCR) technique have two characteristics that prevent them from being widely used as an important computer input device for human computer interaction. First, they must often be calibrated repeatedly for each individual; second, they have low tolerance for head movements and require the user to hold the head uncomfortably still. In this paper, we propose a novel solution for the classical PCCR technique that will simplify the calibration procedure and allow free head movements. The core of our method is to analytically obtain a head mapping function to compensate head movement. Specifically, the head mapping function allows to automatically map the eye movement measurement under an arbitrary head position to a reference head position so that the gaze can be estimated from the mapped eye measurement with respect to the reference head position. Furthermore, our method minimizes the calibration procedure to only one time for each individual. Our proposed method will significantly improve the usability of the eye gaze tracking technology, which is a major step for eye tracker to be accepted as a natural computer input device.
Eye Gaze is defined as the line of sight of a person. It represents a person’s focus of attention. Eye gaze tracking has been an active research topic for many decades because of its potential usages in various applications such as Human Computer Interaction, Eye Disease Diagnosis, Human Behavior Study, etc. Earlier eye gaze trackers were fairly intrusive in that they require physical contacts with the user, such as placing a reactive white dot directly onto the eye or attaching a number of electrodes around the eye. Except the intrusive properties, most of these technologies also require the viewer’s head to be motionless during eye tracking. With the rapid technological advancements in both video cameras and microcomputers, eye gaze tracking technology based on the digital video analysis of eye movements has been widely explored.
CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION
The Eyegaze System is a communication and control system for people with complex physical disabilities. You run the system with your eyes. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen, a person can synthesize speech, control his environment (lights, appliances, etc.), type, operate a telephone, run computer software, operate a computer mouse, and access the Internet and email. Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books, attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world. Imagine yourself being a intelligent, motivated, and working person in the fiercely competitive market of information technology, but just one problem You can't use your hands. Or you can't speak. How do you do your job? How do you stay employed? You can, because of a very good gift from computer Industry : The Eyegaze, a communication & control system you run with your eyes. The Eyegaze System is a direct-select vision-controlled communication and control system. It was developed in Fairfax, Virginia, by LC Technologies, Inc., 2.2 Block Diagram:
Figure: Block Diagram of Eyegaze System
Eyegaze Systems are being used to write books. Eyegaze Systems are in use around the world. operate a telephone. offices. etc. and long-term care facilities. multiple sclerosis.CHAPTER 3 THE SKILLS NEEDED BY THE USER This system is mainly developed for those who lack the use of their hands or voice. control his environment (lights. ALS. muscular dystrophy. Its users are adults and children with cerebral palsy. Only requirements to operate the Eyegaze are control of at least one eye with good vision & ability to keep head fairly still. attend school and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities all over the world. type. 5 . run computer software. and Werdnig-Hoffman syndrome. Eyegaze Systems are being used in homes. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen. brain injuries. operate a computer mouse. brainstem strokes. hospitals. spinal cord injuries. appliances. and access the Internet and e-mail.). a person can synthesize speech. schools.
Alternating strabismus (eyes cannot be directed to the same object.1 Good control of one eye: The user must be able to look up. involuntary movement of the eyeball): The user may not be able to fix his gaze long enough to make eyegaze selections.Figure: An example of fixations and saccades over text. This is the typical pattern of eye movement during reading. These include: Nystagmus (constant. 3. He must be able to fix his gaze on all areas of a 15-inch screen that is about 24 inches in front of his face. left and right. Several common eye movement problems may interfere with Eyegaze use. The eyes never move smoothly over still text. down. either one deviates): 6 . He must be able to focus on one spot for at least 1/2 second.
he might need reading glasses in order to see the screen clearly. 3. These include the following: Inadequate Visual acuity: The user must be able to see text on the screen clearly. When the left eye deviates and the right eye is again fixed on the screen the Eyegaze System will resume predicting the gazepoint. it will continuously focus on the screen. If he's over 40 years old and has not had his vision checked recently. Putting a partial eye patch over the nasal side of the eye not being observed by the camera often solves this tracking problem. If. eyetracking works well with glasses. By applying only a nasal-side patch to the other eye. will continue to take pictures of the right eye. The calibration procedure accommodates for the refractive properties of most lenses. a user with alternating strabismus is operating the Eyegaze System with the right eye. and the System will not be able to determine where the user's left eye is focused. In most cases. Hard-line bifocals 7 . The Eyegaze camera. he may need corrective lenses to operate the Eyegaze System. If.2 Adequate vision: Several common vision problems may affect a user's ability to see text clearly on the Eyegaze monitor. and that eye begins to deviate. the user will retain peripheral vision on that side. prior to his injury or the onset of his illness he wore glasses. Since only the unpatched eye can the screen. however. the left eye will take over and focus on the screen. for example.The Eyegaze System is constantly tracking the same single eye.
if the lens moves around considerably on the cornea and causes the corneal reflection to move across the discontinuity between the contact lens and the cornea. or a side effect of many commonly prescribed medications. Graded bifocals. a blurred image on the screen decreases the accuracy of eye fixations. Without a good retinal reflection the Eyegaze System cannot accurately predict the user's eye fixations. Diplopia (double vision): Diplopia may be the result of an injury to the brain. Cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye): If a cataract has formed on the portion of the lens that covers the pupil. however. it may prevent light from passing through the pupil to reflect off the retina. Blurred vision: Another occurrence associated with some brain injuries. Small. hard contacts can interfere. Partially patching the eye not being tracked may alleviate double vision during Eyegaze System operation. typically do not interfere with eyetracking. and may make it difficult for the user to fix his gaze on a given point. as well as a side effect of medications. The corneal reflection is obtained from the contact lens surface rather than the cornea itself. Soft contact lenses that cover all or most of the cornea generally work well with the Eyegaze System. making it difficult for the system's image processing software to determine the pupil center accurately.can be a problem if the lens boundary splits the image of the pupil. The clouded lens may also make it difficult for a user to see text 8 .
Absence of medication side effects that affect Eyegaze operation: Many commonly prescribed medications have potential side effects that can make it difficult to operate Eyegaze.on the screen clearly. seated position. a drug commonly used to decrease 9 .) And Baclofen. Some antidepressants can cause blurred vision and mydriasis (abnormally dilated pupil. Even though the System's eye search is completed in just a second or two. Homonymous hemianopsia (blindness or defective vision in the right or left halves of the visual fields of both eyes): This may make calibration almost impossible if the user cannot see calibration points on one side of the screen. Surgical removal of the cataracts will normally solve the problem and make Eyegaze use possible.3 Ability to maintain a position in front of the Eyegaze monitor: It is generally easiest to run the System from an upright. Anticonvulsants (seizure drugs) can cause: nystagmus. headache and confusion. with the head centered in front of the Eyegaze monitor. blurred vision. However the Eyegaze System can be operated from a semi-reclined position if necessary. 3. Continuous. dizziness. since the Eyegaze System must relocate the eye each time the user moves away from the camera's field of view and then returns. diplopia. uncontrolled head movement can make Eyegaze operation difficult. it will be more tiring for a user with constant head movement to operate the System. drowsiness.
3. can cause dizziness. blurred vision and mydriasis. Ability to read: At present. and the corneal reflection is sitting on top of a big. Memory: 10 . especially if a rudimentary communication system has not been established. When the child looks at the picture he activates the Eyegaze key that is located directly underneath it. He may be able to recognize words. A young child with average intelligence may not be reading yet. The System is text-based.muscle spasms. the Eyegaze System is configured for users who are literate. headache. disorientation. As an interim solution many teachers and parents stick pictures directly onto the screen. and may be moving his eyes in a left to right pattern in preparation for reading. bright pupil. a user with average intelligence will best maximize the capabilities of an Eyegaze System. If the retinal reflection is extremely bright. In general. Mydriasis can be severe enough to block eyetracking. but probably has the capability to learn to read at an average age.4 Mental abilities that improve the probability for successful Eyegaze use: Cognition: Cognitive level may be difficult to assess in someone who is locked in. the corneal reflection may be indistinguishable and therefore unreadable by the computer. drowsiness.
11 .Memory deficits are a particular concern in considering the Eyegaze System for someone with a brain injury. A user who can't remember from one day to the next how to operate the system may find it too difficult to use effectively.
Sophisticated imageprocessing software in the Eyegaze System's computer continually analyzes the video image of the eye and determines where the user is looking on the screen.CHAPTER 4 HOW DOES THE EYEGAZE SYSTEM WORK For using the Eyegaze Systems the users sits in front of the system’s screen and for tracking the eye movement of the user the systems follows the below mentioned steps. a specialized video camera mounted below the monitor observes one of the user's eyes. As a user sits in front of the Eyegaze monitor. Nothing is attached to the user's head or body. As the system starts tracking the movement of the eyes. all the features of the system can be used depending on the requirements. Figure: Eyegaze System Application 12 .
Prior to operating the eye tracking applications.e.. The bright-pupil effect enhances the camera's image of the pupil and makes it easier for the image processing functions to locate the center of the pupil. infrared light emitting diode (LED). 4. and causes the pupil to appear white. 7. The light also shines through the pupil and reflects off of the retina. mounted beneath the System's monitor. 5. As a user sits in front of the Eyegaze monitor. 6. An infrared-sensitive video camera. i. The computer calculates the person's gaze point. takes 60 pictures per second of the user's eye. 3. the Eyegaze System must learn several physiological properties of a user's eye in order to be 13 . The Eyegaze System uses the pupil-center/corneal-reflection method to determine where the user is looking on the screen. the back surface of the eye. Sophisticated image processing software in the Eyegaze System's computer continually analyzes the video image of the eye and determines where the user is looking on the screen. The LED reflects a small bit of light off the surface of the eye's cornea.1. Typically the Eyegaze System predicts the gaze point with an average accuracy of a quarter inch or better. Nothing actually is attached to the user's head or body. A low power. a specialized video camera mounted below the monitor observes one of the user's eyes. mounted in the center of the camera's lens illuminates the eye. the coordinates of where he is looking on the screen. 2. based on the relative positions of the pupil center and corneal reflection within the video image of the eye.
A user operates the Eyegaze System by looking at rectangular keys that are displayed on the control screen. A low power. mounted in the center of the camera's lens illuminates the eye. and the user does not need to recalibrate if he moves away from the Eyegaze System and returns later. To "press" an Eyegaze key. The user calibrates the system by fixing his gaze on a small yellow circle displayed on the screen. typically a fraction of a second. The LED reflects a small bit of light off the surface of the eye's cornea. 8. 10. and causes the pupil to appear white. mounted beneath the System's monitor. takes 60 pictures per second of the user's eye. infrared light emitting diode (LED). 9. An array of menu keys and exit keys allow the user to navigate around the Eyegaze programs independently. and following it as it moves around the screen. is adjustable.able to project his gazepoint accurately. The calibration procedure usually takes about 15 seconds.The gaze duration required to visually activate a key. the user looks at the key for a specified period of time. the back surface of the eye. In detail the procedure can be described as follows: The Eyegaze System uses the pupil-center/corneal-reflection method to determine where the user is looking on the screen. The bright-pupil effect enhances the camera's image of the pupil and makes it easier for the image processing functions to locate the center of the pupil 14 . The system learns these properties by performing a calibration procedure. An infrared-sensitive video camera. The light also shines through the pupil and reflects off of the retina.
The calibration procedure usually takes about 15 seconds. the Eyegaze System must learn several physiological properties of a user's eye in order to be able to project his gazepoint accurately. based on the relative positions of the pupil center and corneal reflection within the video image of the eye. i. and following it as it moves around the screen.The computer calculates the person's gazepoint. Prior to operating the eyetracking applications. 15 . Typically the Eyegaze System predicts the gazepoint with an average accuracy of a quarter inch or better.. The user calibrates the system by fixing his gaze on a small yellow circle displayed on the screen. the coordinates of where he is looking on the screen. The system learns these properties by performing a calibration procedure.e. and the user does not need to recalibrate if he moves away from the Eyegaze System and returns later.
The LED generates the corneal reflection and causes the bright pupil effect. low power. An array of menu keys and exit keys allow the user to navigate around the Eyegaze programs independently. No attachments to the head are required. 16 .CHAPTER 5 HOW TO RUN THE EYEGAZE SYSTEM A user operates the Eyegaze System by looking at rectangular keys that are displayed on the control screen. The gaze duration required to visually activate a key. A small. is adjustable. typically a fraction of a second. the user looks at the key for a specified period of time. infrared light emitting diode (LED) located at the center of the camera lens illuminates the eye. • • • • The Edge Analysis System uses the Pupil-Center/Corneal-Reflection method to determine the eye's gaze direction. A video camera located below the computer screen remotely and unobtrusively observes the subject's eye. which enhances the camera's image of the pupil. To "press" an Eyegaze key.
and can construct words and sentences that can be spoken aloud by the system. but the technology is still only available to a small portion of the potential user population. Current eye tracking equipment allows users to generate text on a computer by using eye gaze. even when all other ways of communicating are either severely damaged or completely lost. Eye tracking systems that allow text entry by eye gaze have been in existence for about two decades. Users are able to select letters and numbers by looking at a keyboard on a screen with their eyes. Typically.CHAPTER 6 USES OF EYEGAZE Every year more than 100 000 people are diagnosed with motor neurone diseases. Communication by Gaze Interaction (COGAIN) is a Network of Excellence designed specifically to help people with these disabilities to communicate more effectively with eye gaze. Obstacles for more wide-spread use currently include: the high cost of eye tracking equipment. the eyes still function. giving the users greater freedom in their lives. At the COGAIN stand you can see how this technology is used by a person who relies on it. Using these systems both empowers and enables people with disabilities as they can now communicate without the need for an assistant or helper. the limitation that gaze communication applications may only work with a particular dedicated 17 .
two "Paddle" games. 6. and finally that eye tracking devices are often hard to use and require experts to operate them. (Second Computer Mode) SPEAK 100 "canned phrases" through a speech synthesizer. by means of the T-TAM connector.1 The Basic Eyegaze Can: ADJUST TO A NEW USER in about 15 seconds. (Calibration) TYPE with one of four keyboards. (Transportable Computer) BE A KEYBOARD to a second computer to run any keyboard-controlled software. weight approximately 16 lbs. plus Solitaire and Slot Machine. (Teach Screens) 6. (Lights and Appliances) DIAL and answer a speaker phone from one screen. No special wiring.2 With Options The Eyegaze Can: BE AT TWO SITES!! Portable computer has a handle to hand-carry between two sites. Two sets of other components and cables for access to Eyegaze System at school. "Phone Book" stores 16 frequently used numbers. work or home. then print or speak. (Phrases) CONTROL appliances anywhere in the home or office from one Eyegaze screen. (Read Text) PLAY games. (Typewriter) TURN pages on the computer screen by looking at "up" or "down". Dimensions 9"x5'txl7'1.eye tracking device. (Telephone) 18 . (Games) TEACH new users with simplified screens. with a single glance of the eye. Phrases can be changed by caregiver or user.
CHAPTER 7 MENUS OF EYEGAZE SYSTEM The Main Menu: The Main Menu appears on the screen as soon as the user completes a 15second calibration procedure. The Main Menu presents a list of available Eyegaze programs. 19 . The user calls up a desired program by looking at the Eyegaze key next to his program choice.
are available.Figure: Main Menu Main Menu Options: 7. Figure: Phrases Screen 7. Typed text appears on the screen above the keyboard display. The user types by looking at keys on visual keyboards. provides quick communications for non-verbal users. along with the speech synthesizer.2 Typewriter Program: Simple word processing can be done using the Typewriter Program.1 The Phrase Program: The Phrases program. The Phrases program stores up to 126 messages. which can be composed and easily changed to suit the user. Looking at a key causes a preprogrammed message to be spoken. Four keyboard configurations. The user may 20 . simple to complex.
Figure: Alpha Keyboard 7. Frequently used numbers are stored in a telephone "book"."speak" or print what he has typed. 21 . Non-verbal users may access the speech synthesizer to talk on the phone. He may also store typed text in a file to be retrieved at a later time. The retrieved text may be verbalized. edited or printed.3 The Telephone Program: The telephone program allows the user to place and receive calls.
22 . The programs being run are displayed on the second computer's monitor. and send e-mail by looking at keyboard and mouse control screens on the Eyegaze monitor. He can access the Internet.Figure: Telephone Control Screen 7. Typed text appears simultaneously on the Eyegaze and second pc's screens.4 Run Second PC: The Run Second PC program permits the Eyegaze Communication System to act as a peripheral keyboard and Mouse interface to a Windows computer. The user can run any off-the-shelf software he chooses on the second computer.
basic on-screen switch to run "cause & effect" software programs on a Second PC. Simple Mouse is an easy mouse control program to provide simplified access to educational software on a Second PC. Both run with the Second PC option. 23 . two new Eyegaze programs have been added to the Eyegaze System. Eye Switch is a big.Figure: Frequency Keyboard For children.
The user turns appliances on and off by looking at a bank of switches displayed on the screen. provides Eyegaze control of lights and appliances anywhere in the home or office. Figure: Lights and Appliances 7.7 Read Text Program: 24 .Figure: Mouse control screen 7.6 Paddle games & Score Four: These are the visually controlled Games. No special house wiring is necessary.5 The Lights & appliances Program: The Lights & appliances Program which includes computer-controlled switching equipment. 7.
On vertical EyeGaze detection. Any ASCII format text can be loaded for the user to access. shown in fig. this is estimated by the difference in reflectance between the Iris and the sclera. (Not available on the Portable Eyegaze System. the detecting method uses the difference in reflectance between the Iris and the sclera. such as ALS patients. 7. The operation of this system only requires user eye movement.9 A web browsing system using Eyegaze input: Recently. Onscreen volume and channel controls provide independent operation. In this paper. It utilizes a personnel computer and a home video camera to detect eye-gaze under natural light. the eye-gaze input system was reported as a novel human-machine interface. this is estimated by the difference of integral value of the brightness on area A and B. The light intensity distribution from eye image changes with Iris movement. The light intensity distribution from eye image changes with Iris movement. Books on floppy disk are available from Services for the Blind. We have reported a new Eyegaze input system already. On horizontal Eye-Gaze detection. Using this system. Eye-Gaze input system has to detect gaze direction of users.The Read Text Program allows the user to select text for display and to "turn pages" with his eyes.) 7. Our Eye-Gaze input system Runs image analysis software for Eye-Gaze detection. many communication aid systems have been developed for people with severe physical handicaps. we propose a new web browsing system for our conventional eye-gaze input system.8 Television: Television programs can be displayed directly on the desktop Eyegaze System screen. 25 . we draw attention to the vertical movement of Iris.
User can switch function groups by gazing “menu” indicator. and correct easily errors in operation. Therefore it enables web browsing at a faster pace. the results show that the subjects can operate this system as they planned. etc. 26 . radio button. This system analyzes the location of selectable object on web page. Subjects were browsing through two web sites. in other words. this system offers many functions such as “mouse cursor control”. this system offers many Function groups.In this. we propose the web browsing system using above methods. The evaluation experiments for the proposed system were conducted with five objects. ”scrolling of screen” . the mouse cursor skips to the object of candidate input. By switching 3 function groups. such as hyperlink. This system stores the locations of these objects. The indicators for web browsing are displayed on monitor of personnel computer. “refreshing web page” and “text input by using screen keyboard”. “decision of selected object” . edit box.
or during studies of neurology. respectively. and when it moves to another position. Most modern eye-trackers use contrast to locate the center of the pupil and use infrared and near-infrared non-collimated light to create a corneal reflection (CR). The vector between these two features can be used to compute gaze intersection with a surface after a simple calibration for an individual. Bright Pupil tracking creates greater iris/pupil contrast allowing for more robust eye tracking with all iris pigmentation and greatly reduces interference caused by eyelashes and other obscuring features. Their difference is based on the location of the illumination source with respect to the optics. Eye movement is typically divided into fixations and saccades. and some function remotely and automatically track the head during motion. If the illumination source is offset from the optical path. Most information from the eye is made available during a fixation.CHAPTER 8 TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES The most widely used current designs are video-based eye trackers. It also allows for tracking in lighting conditions ranging from total darkness to very bright. Two general types of eye tracking techniques are used: Bright Pupil and Dark Pupil. some require the head to be stable (for example. some are head-mounted. then the eye acts as a retro reflector as the light reflects off the retina creating a bright pupil effect similar to red eye. when the eye gaze pauses in a certain position. Although 50/60 Hz is most common. then the pupil appears dark because the retro reflection from the retina is directed away from the camera. The resulting series of fixations and saccades is called a scan path. Eye tracking setups vary greatly. which is needed in order to capture the detail of the very rapid eye movement during reading. If the illumination is coaxial with the optical path. A camera focuses on one or both eyes and records their movement as the viewer looks at some kind of stimulus. today many video-based eye trackers run at 240. Most use a sampling rate of at least 30 Hz. with a chin rest). But bright pupil techniques are not effective for tracking outdoors as extraneous IR sources interfere with monitoring. 350 or even 1000/1250 Hz. but 27 .
On average.not during a saccade. Preparing a saccade towards a new goal takes around 200 ms. the locations of fixations along a scan path show what information loci on the stimulus were processed during an eye tracking session. 28 . and 350 ms during the viewing of a scene. fixations last for around 200 ms during the reading of linguistic text. The central one or two degrees of the visual angle (the fovea) provide the bulk of visual information. the input from larger eccentricities (the periphery) is less informative. Hence.
the eyes still function. Uses include: • • • • Cognitive Studies Medical Research Laser refractive surgery Human Factors 29 . the visual world paradigm). marketing research and medical research (neurological diagnosis). At the COGAIN stand you can see how this technology is used by a person who relies on it. Communication by Gaze Interaction (COGAIN) is a Network of Excellence designed specifically to help people with these disabilities to communicate more effectively with eye gaze. even when all other ways of communicating are either severely damaged or completely lost. and the playing of sport. and finally that eye tracking devices are often hard to use and require experts to operate them.CHAPTER 9 APPLICATIONS Every year more than 100. psychology (notably psycholinguistics. Users are able to select letters and numbers by looking at a keyboard on a screen with their eyes. Using these systems both empowers and enables people with disabilities as they can now communicate without the need for an assistant or helper. including cognitive science. the perception of advertising. but the technology is still only available to a small portion of the potential user population. the limitation that gaze communication applications may only work with a particular dedicated eye tracking device. A wide variety of disciplines use eye tracking techniques. human-computer interaction (HCI). giving the users greater freedom in their lives. Typically.000 people are diagnosed with motor neurone diseases. Obstacles for more wide-spread use currently include: the high cost of eye tracking equipment. human activity recognition. Specific applications include the tracking eye movement in language reading. music reading. and can construct words and sentences that can be spoken aloud by the system. Eye tracking systems that allow text entry by eye gaze have been in existence for about two decades. Current eye tracking equipment allows users to generate text on a computer by using eye gaze.
sporting events. magazines. sponsorship. In general.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Computer Usability Translation Process Research Vehicle Simulators In-vehicle Research Training Simulators Virtual Reality Adult Research Infant Research Adolescent Research Geriatric Research Primate Research Sports Training fMRI / MEG / EEG Commercial eye tracking (web usability. While some companies complete this type of research internally. The most prominent field of commercial eye tracking research is web usability. The resulting data can be statistically analyzed and graphically rendered to provide evidence of specific visual patterns. pupil dilation. Examples of target stimuli may include websites. checkout systems. By examining fixations. advertising. Applications include web usability. commercial eye tracking studies function by presenting a target stimulus to a sample of consumers while an eye tracker is used to record the activity of the eye. blinks and a variety of other behaviors researchers can determine a great deal about the effectiveness of a given medium or product. shelf Displays. saccades. While traditional usability techniques are often quite powerful in 30 . television programs. and software. commercials. there are many private companies that offer eye tracking services and analysis. advertising. etc) Finding good clues Communication systems for disabled Improved image and video communications Computer Science: Activity Recognition Commercial applications In recent years. kiosks). consumer systems (ATMs. marketing. newspapers. automotive. films. package design and automotive engineering. the increased sophistication and accessibility of eye tracking technologies have generated a great deal of interest in the commercial sector. packages.
Analyses may target a prototype or competitor site in addition to the main client site. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that drowsiness is the primary causal factor in 100. print ads. This may be used to analyze distinctiveness. website. overall design and many other site components. This provides valuable insight into which features are the most eye-catching. Lexus claims to have equipped its LS 460 with the first driver monitor system in 2006. providing a warning if the driver takes his or her eye off the road. Eye tracking is commonly used in a variety of different advertising media. and cognitive engagement driving safety could be dramatically enhanced. online ads and sponsored programs are all conducive to analysis with current eye tracking technology. newspaper. Eye tracking is often utilized while the target product is in the prototype stage. an advertiser can quantify the success of a given campaign in terms of actual visual attention. eye tracking offers the ability to analyze user interaction between the clicks. Eye tracking provides package designers with the opportunity to examine the visual behavior of a consumer while interacting with a target package. Analyses focus on visibility of a target product or logo in the context of a magazine. online advertisements. This allows researchers to assess in great detail how often a sample of consumers fixates on the target logo. attractiveness and the tendency of the package to be chosen for purchase. branding. One of the most promising applications of eye tracking research is in the field of automotive design.providing information on clicking and scrolling patterns. navigation usability. which features cause confusion and which ones are ignored altogether. The goal of this endeavor is to provide the vehicle with the capacity to assess in real-time the visual behavior of the driver. eye tracking can be used to assess search efficiency. inattention. Commercials. Research is currently underway to integrate eye tracking cameras into automobiles. 31 . By equipping automobiles with the ability to monitor drowsiness. Specifically. or televised event. product or ad in this way. Prototypes are tested against each other and competitors to examine which specific elements are associated with high visibility and appeal.000 policereported accidents per year. Another NHTSA study suggests that 80% of collisions occur within three seconds of a distraction.
using only their eyes.Since 2005. browse the Internet and perform other such activities. where users can focus on a subject simply by looking at it through the viewfinder. Eye tracking has also seen minute use in autofocus still camera equipment. and for those who have glasses or other physical interference which would limit the effectiveness of older eye control systems. Eye control works even when the user has involuntary movement as a result of Cerebral palsy or other disabilities. send e-mail. eye tracking is used in communication systems for disabled persons: allowing the user to speak. 32 .
The System makes its predictions based on the assumption that the only source of infrared light shining on the user's eye is coming from the center of the camera. Common sources of infrared light are sunlight and incandescent light bulbs. The Eyegaze System must be operated in an environment where there is limited of ambient infrared light. New portable Eyegaze System The Portable Eyegaze System can be mounted on a wheelchair and run from a 12-volt battery or wall outlet. Environment required for an Eyegaze system Because eyetracking is done using infrared light. or only vertical movement. 10.1.CHAPTER 10 FOR PEOPLE WITH LIMITED EYE CONTROL Scanning Keyboard is the new row/column keyboard with an on-screen eye "switch" for people with limited eye movement.7 kg) and its dimensions 33 . The System works best away from windows. Therefore. It weighs only 6 lbs (2. stray sources of infrared may degrade the accuracy or prevent Eyegaze operation altogether.2. The switch can be placed on either side. 10.Eyegaze system must take care of light sources in the room in order to ensure the best accuracy. which are low in infrared. or below the keyboard to accommodate users with only horizontal movement. and in a room lit with fluorescent or mercury-vapor lights. The user may "speak" what he has typed. above.
5cm x20cm x23cm).are 2.5"x8"x9" (6. The Portable Eyegaze System comes with a flat screen monitor and a table mounted for its monitor. Figure: Portable Eyegaze System Mounted on Wheelchair 34 . The monitor can be lifted off the table mount and slipped into a wheelchair mount.
Figure: Screen of Eyegaze System 35 .
sound. cables and connectors Upgrades and Options Portable Lights Telephone Television computer (in place & of desktop computer) Appliances $1000 $500 $350 $350 $350 Computer access (hardware and software to run a PC) Options for use outside the U.900 US$ Surge protector.10. The prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. Dollars. CD 15" Adjustable High-speed LCD monitor infrared and Flat tray with sensitive floppy Panel camera camera and drives Monitor bracket lens Text Menu $14. The above prices do not include shipping costs or travel-related installation expenses.3 THE EYEGAZE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: COMPONENTS & PRICES Desktop Eyegaze System Software Programs Main Keyboard Games Read Teach Settings Program Hardware Desktop computer with Windows 2000.S.S. are slightly different. Video frame grabber. All money is in U. 36 .
RMS tracking errors are typically 0.5% sales tax.25 inch (0. and fixation and saccade analysis. an indicator of head location and movement. 3-dimensional location of the eyeball center within the camera field-ofview. x-y coordinates of the subject's gazepoint on the computer screen. At each camera image sample. the Edge Analysis System generates: • • • • • an eye-found flag indicating whether or not the eye is visible to the camera and thus whether or not a valid gazepoint is calculated.Virginia residents add 4.63 cm) or less and the advanced image processing algorithms in the System explicitly accommodate several common sources of gazepoint tracking error: • • • Head Range Variation Pupil Diameter Variation Corneal Reflection Straddling Pupil Edge 37 . The Edge Analysis System is robust and extremely easy to calibrate. pupil diameter.
Figure: Eyegaze System Communication System 38 .
Care must be taken.CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSION Today. 39 . that eye-gaze tracking data is used in a sensible way. though. The main reason for eye-gaze based user interfaces being attractive is that the direction of the eye-gaze can express the interests of the user-it is a potential porthole into the current cognitive processes-and communication through the direction of the eyes is faster than any other mode of human communication. This thesis argues that it is possible to use the eye-gaze of a computer user in the interface to aid the control of the application. in so-called noncommand user interfaces. since the nature of human eye-movements is a combination of several voluntary and involuntary cognitive processes. the human eye-gaze can be recorded by relatively unremarkable techniques. It is argued that eye-gaze tracking data is best used in multimodal interfaces where the user interacts with the data instead of the interface.
com/132.com/content/assistive-technology http://www.diku.sensorysoftware.eyetechds.html http://www.htm http://www.CHAPTER 12 REFERENCES • • • • • • http://www.dk/hjemmesider/ansatte/panic/eyegaze/node19.html http://www.de/eyegaze_english.com/ 40 .eyegaze.com/content/eyetracking-research-tools http://www.eyegaze.gschlosser.