2 although the wife will probably have little to say as to where the home will be, it is good for her to know why her husband has chosen a particular place for his home and land. So let us think first of all what are the necessary things to consider in choosing the place for a home. 1. It must be healthy. When it is possible, a welldrained side or top of a hill is a good place to choose but we must be careful that we have some shelter from the wind and rain and that there are no tsetse flies in the area. We must be careful not to build too near a swamp, or we shall be bitten by mosquitoes. 2. There must be a good water supply near at hand. It is hard if the wife and her children have to walk very far for water every day. We cannot live without a good supply of water, nor can we keep our bodies and homes clean. 3. There must be plenty of air and sunlight. It must always be remembered that if we want to have healthy bodies, we must not shut out the sun by having banana or other trees growing very near our homes. 4. The soil round about must be fertile. It will be no good planting our crops on stony, hard ground, for the sun will quickly dry them up. 5. Lastly we must think about a place which will be convenient for all the family to live in. The father may be a clerk or a teacher, if so he must be able to get to work easily. If there are children, they must, be able to walk to school easily. Many children have' practically no home life because they walk so many miles to and from school. Then again our home should be near the church to which we wish to go, for this will make it possible for the whole family to attend services together.

3 If we can find a place to build our house which will give us all these advantages, we will have a very good home. Some Practical Work Which You Can Do Go round to some village sites and write down your criticisms of the sites, giving reasons. 2. _ Write down criticisms of the site chosen for your boarding establishment.
1.

CHAPTER PLANNING A MODEL

2
HOUSE UNIT

When you have decided where to build your home it is a good thing for you to plan how you will layout your buildings. It is not sufficient just to have a house but you will also need a bathroom, latrine, kitchen, stores, a chicken and goat-house, as well as a vegetable garden and if possible a place for the children to play and an enclosed space where chickens can run about. All these places will need to be planned out so that they form a unit of which you can be proud. There are several points which you must consider: 1. The house itself must be near the middle of your ground, because that is the most important building and you want to get at the other buildings with as little walking about as possible. 2. The housewife spends a great deal of time in her kitchen and therefore she must have the kitchen near the house and also have a path between the two buildings,

8' Stare 5'. and \\llIch are damp and hide rats in them. CHAPTER 3 HOME (1) PLANNING THE THE HOUSE VEGETABLE..-I ('ai.. 5. so that in the dry season water can be carried to it easily. 6 The vegetable plot must be near enough to the house so as to be really easy for the housewife to obtain vegetables from it quickly. When we are going to build a house we must first d. GARDEN W. COMPOST PIT Firewood store 3'~&.('over what we can afford.10' flOWER BEDS Suggested plan of the model house unit Most families in this country have lived for many vears in houses made of poles filled in with mud and t. The latrine must be at least 20 ft..--_~ Sittin9 Room and Dinin~ Room 12'. and Bat)lfoom 3'.11(' . It will make a very .ill comes in. difference to the cost of a house if the owner can I. so as not to bring flies and other household pests. Try to improve on the plan in this book. . Make a plan in cardboard or clay of a model house unit.10' Bedroom 10'. from the house and kitchen otherwise if you are not very careful flies may contaminate your food. 5 Some Practical Work For You To Do 1.4 3.'. These houses are easy to build l iu l.e. then the walls fall down. 2. we all know how often they have to be repaired.8' Vi~tors' Room 10'. It would be a good plan to have it near the well.- i Clothe. he will charge a great deal of money. I FRUIT GARDEN "'. If we make an agreement with a I.. -/ . Fortunately nowaday!') many Africans' recognizing that it is far better and cheaper to 11'lild good brick houses with tiled roofs..hatched with grass.10' Run :.ti.8' ~ g_ I ". it is a bad thing to keep on cutting poles to build Id II(~ houses which only last for a short time. They say 11. J II " door with slot Small chicken Bedroom for man and wife 10'. '\----1 ~ COURTYARD Chicken'--_-J\: ---l Childrens' 32'x 25' . W II ite ants attack the poles. Visit some houses nearby and make notes as to whether you think the unit is well planned giving reasons for your criticisms. it must be dug m such a position that the water cannot be contaminated by the latrine. dd('1' to do it.. line II II II II <. If you are fortunate enough to be a?le to dig a well in your compound. lilt' thatch gets blown away or it slips down and the . The chicken and goat hut must be far enough away from the dwelling-house and kitchen.. 4.dd it himself..

They should be fastened with a bolt so that no one can push them open from the outside when they are shut. 2. CHAPTER 5 PLANNING THE HOME THE IMPORTANCE OF FRESH AIR You all know how the old African homes have no windows because in the old days a man was afraid to . Make notes (with reasons) as to which you think are the best. or wild animals attack him. 4. Many people still build their houses with only one door which is closed at night. which means having windows which can be opened and shut when necessary. When glass becomes available and cheap. In hygiene lessons you have already been taught that you are continually breathing out poisonous air and taking in the pure air. which can be made of different materials: 1. Reed windows can be made in the same way. they will be almost as strong as a wooden window. Wooden frames and shutters can be made by the village carpenter. Treat them. it should be used. If they are well made with a wooden frame. we should aim at using it for windows. and that no good air comes in from outside if there are no openings in the house. and sleep with a blanket over their heads which prevents even the small amount of pure air which is in the house coming to them. 2. for it allows light and sunshine to come into the room.12 walls and floors helps to prevent damp. Try to find out how long the roofs have been standing without beingrenewed. It is very important therefore to have proper 'ventilation' in a house. Go round the buildings near the school and compare the different types of roofs. 3. When it can be afforded a damp proof layer of real cement should be used about the level of the ground outside but below the floor inside. It can be fixed directly on the Damp proof course Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. 13 have any openings in his house in case enemies should spear him whilst he slept. so that they can be shut from the inside. These should be made in two pieces and open from the centre. Every room should have at least one window. Glass windows need to be well fixed and may crack if care is not taken. Now some of the fear has gone but still many people do not realize how important it is to have fresh air coming into a house and openings for the impure air to go out. Look for poles and walls which have signs of being eaten by white ants. Wherever mosquito gauze is available.

As a rule she likes to have the kitc~en away from the house. a stirrer and cooking pots. By the time the boys are big enough to have a room of their own. after you have visited a man who does this work well. Visit two or three homes and criticize the ventilation and size of the rooms./ ~ :J1lE. but who do not take the trouble to have good outbuildings and a nice tidy compound all around their house. It is very important that the outbuildings should be as well planned as the house itself. The schoolgirl is learning how to improve the daily diet of the family and therefo~e. The Kitchen 17 As the African housewife spends so much of her time in the kitchen. and it must also have shelves or stands to I. It is better to have such a house which is well built and has the correct ventilation than to have one which is stuffy and unhealthy because the rooms are too small.BLE OUTBUILDINGS There are many people who like to have a nice house which they can show off to visitors and where they can sit when their work is finished. Give reasons. -.D OUT I I FOR FIRE-WOOlY FLOOII.LF FOR COOKING uTE. A visitors' room can be made in the same way when the man has finished his other buildings. the father can build a separate rondaval.I' 16 house first and if he needs more room he can add to his home later. bath shelter. she will need far more utensils to cook with than in the old days when all she needed was a peeler.NSILS 6 I-'wlNOOW J' WINOOw ~ PLANNING THE THE HOME (1) -REED TA. Make a good reed door or window. The kitchen will therefore have to be large enough to store her utensils. ~Pf.CHAPTER ~ / . I 1) oo~ '"'& A plan of kitchen .. when she is grown up. latrine and chickenhouse will be big enough to start with. mother and three small children. but if she is sensible she will have a kitchen big enough to hold all her apparatus and one which she can lock up when there is no one to take care of her belongings. STOVE. A three-roomed house with stores and a separate kitchen. it must be as convenient for her as possible. 2. Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. This size house will be suitable for a father.

42 of our houses both beautiful and practical. grey or green will make your room l~ok cool as these are cold colours. (c) If YO~ hav~ one of the rooms in the house for a chIld~en s bedroom. a bright colourwash will lighten the rooms and be an added precaution against insect pests and dust. 2. and gives us an idea of things WhIChare foreign to us. They will also make your room look larger. it is a good thing to ~ave a light colour wash and to stencil animals In the frame round the room. Half fill a paraffin tin with ashes and add a large cupful of flour. 43 Choice of Colours for the Walls of Different Rooms The ch~os~ng of suitable colours for the walls of our rooms IS Important. (b) A pale blue. You can also find a red sandy soil which makes an attractive colour wash. Fill nearly to the brim with water and mix all together. The flour makes the ash stick to the wall.tand the value of pictures in education. Now that many of you have a chance of seeing cinema shows you are beginning ~o und~rs. Put on to the fire and boil for a few minutes stirring well. Photographs of our relations and friends are pleasant . Religious PIct~res are good because they will remind us of the stones we have learnt and we can understand them. but if too much flour is used it will peel off. In the om~ It IS better to have simple pictures with little d~taIl and with bold figures of people.to decorate the room. A Grey-blue Wash. ~ Sift a quantity of wood ash and cassava flour. This is very good if mixed with water for whitewashing. A soft shade of pink or a pale creamy yellow will make the room bright. Colour Washes 1. We know how important it is that there should be no cracks in the walls where fishmoths. It is important therefore to have the walls well sanded giving a nice smooth grey surface which can be easily brushed down. Orange coloured stony soil often used as gravel for roads. The red soil. bugs and other pests can hide. If laundry blue is mixed with water and chalk an attractive light blue colour is obtained. Until an African is trained to look at a picture he does not note the details of it and may even look at it upside down. which i~ found in nearly every district and which is used for making bricks can be mixed with water and white chalk and makes a cream colour wash. gives an orange colour wash if mixed with water and stirred well to a smooth paste. Although grey walls are quite pleasing in a house. 4. Apply to the walls with a brush. 3. Pictures in the Home Pictures are very important in a room because _ (a) they help . The pictures in a house often indicate the character o~ the owner. It is also possible to stencil attractive patterns on the walls which will beautify our rooms. giving it colour and mterest· (b) they are of great educational value and a beautiful picture trains our sense of proportion an~ colour. (a) If you have a dark room make it lighter and more cheerful by choosing the right colour for the walls. In some districts it is possible to find the greyish-white chalk.

For mounting and framing the picture. bark-cloth. it is a good plan to have a picture framed in a shop but it is cheaper for us to do it ourselves. but should be kept on bookshelves which can be either bought at a furniture shop or made in the home of bamboo.TI~ DO ill Left: I' II bookshelf made from papyrus. bamboo or even strong brown paper can be used.~~ PA. Pictures should be hung with a strong . .44 to have around us. If they are not exactly the same size and shape. Care must be take. made from bamboo Right: (I bookcase I Great care must be taken to see that books do not get attacked by bookworm. papyrus or wood. The Care of Pictures It is difficult for us to obtain suitable pictures for our homes. Sometimes we can get pleasant pictures out of magazines which are worth putting on our walls.Py R.i to dust them regularly.C. It is better to sew on the backs than to stick them. oJ' S. it is a good plan to collect books in the home so that education can continue even when school is finished. ~i I 0' $TA.WORJ\.ord or fastened carefully on the walls so that tt. Bookcases Now that many Africans are learning to read in schools. ~y do not blow about or get torn. Glass is expensive but it is possible tc use a transparent paper to protect the face of the picture. Try to arrange the pictures so that they look right on the walls. arrange them so that the centres are level in this way: V ~~<. plaited palm leaf. Constant dusting and inspection are necessary. These books must not just be left lying about on the floor to get eaten by insects. 45 Do not have too many pictures on one wall or in one room.J: •j I <1. Arrangement of Pictures It is important to hang pictures on an eye level so that they are easy to see. It is foolish to hang a picture so high that one has 11)crane one's neck to see it.u~ ON FRAP'l[. They can be ordered for the local carpenter to make from mvule or other good local wood. as silverfish often eat them if they are stuck.NnlN(. If we can afford it. so that when we obtain them we must take trouble to protect them. &OO".1 U-1t.

. (d) bedspreads and table covers should also match the rest of the decorations. he should buy a. This will give him a hobby for his leisure time and also a pride in furnishing his home. however.. Most Africans are very clever with their hands and can make the furniture with very few tools. These will enable him to make stronger furniture than he would make with just native tools. a hammer.>$t -'" SISA. a gimlet. a saw. The articles thus made can be joined by pegging if nails are difficult to obtain. the baby's cot and playpen... WOOl) r <. such as beds. etc. chairs. be made with just native knives. plane. a chisel and a screwdriver. Some [urniture which could be made with uery few tools . Home-made Furniture 55 STOO~ IN WOOD WoVEN .1\.54 All furniture made at horne should be as attractive as possible. Covers should be made to go well with the curtains. Any which you buy can be improved in several ways (a) plain white wood can be painted with homemade dyes. Even if he has never learnt woodwork. If a man can afford it.L. Very often they can work together. (c) cushions can be made.. with some practice he will soon become quite good. Many things can. A white cotton or americani case should be made and stuffed with cotton. bedspreads.BEl> .I~G S['AT Much of the furniture in the home can be made by the man and woman. (b) dark woods can be polished and ciled . LEATHE.sTR.

it is wonderful what a difference it will make to the family life. Baskets of various sizes for food. Knives and egg whisks. cups and saucers. Water pots and cooking pots. 7. number Some Practical Work to be Done 1. Collect the materials for a piece of furniture and make this. A paraffin tin. 8. Gourds or bottles for storing cleaning materials. We sometimes hear it said that most African housewives cannot follow what they have been taught in the schools because they have no apparatus but this is no excuse because every African is' very fortunate in having all the materials for making apparatus for the home near at hand. she should be responsible for the making of all cushions. Jugs. both inside and outside. An iron. Paint any white wood furniture in the home. of course. she can do the painting and polishing of the furniture and. that the making of the furniture should be the work of the man. kettle and pail. 9. All the woodwork of the furniture should be done by the man but the woman can do the plaiting for the woven seats. floors. Basins and two tin plates. 12. FOR If we have a well-built house which we have taken trouble to furnish and decorate. 57 to keep it in good condition and to put into practice what we have learnt in our domestic science lessons at school. A certain number of cloths for polishing and cleaning. 2. 2. curtains and cloths. 6. Make the necessary cushions. 3. 11. 13. A first-aid set. Brooms and brushes for sweeping walls. Stirring spoons and mashers whittled in wood. What Apparatus is Required in the Home? 1. 4. it is most necessary . clothes. The woman has so much to do in running the home. 5. 3. plates and teapots. If the husband and wife really work together to make a nice home. cloth and blanket. 4. A hoe and an axe. etc. CHAPTER 16 PLANNING APPARATUS THE HOME THE HOME 10. the ceilings.56 How Much Can be Done by the Woman and How Much by the Man? If the husband and his wife work together in making furniture. Mothercraft apparatus where there is a baby. it is much more interesting. Oil and polish any furniture which needs it. bedcovers and curtains for your home. depending on the size of the family.

we have shelves for all cooking apparatus. (c) we also should make coat hangers and hang dresses and other clothes on a pole fixed across the store. knives.58 14. (b) on the other side we can store our suitcases. Very often the loops for hanging them up break. and make new pieces whenever they need them. Brooms and brushes may come loose at the handles and need rebinding. I /~ Diagram shouiinq stand for cleaninq op parnlus 2. If we have no stores in our houses. 15. Flower vases. This must be done before it gets too bad and beyond repair: 1. pails. spoons for eating. etc. In the kitchen which locks up. 3. This means that we can always find what we are looking for because it is in a place set aside for it when it is not in use. It is a good plan to have pegs or hooks on which we can hang brushes. boxes. it is a good plan to i make a kind of household stand on which to hang our apparatus. Water pots and cooking pots should be put on stands. it will sometimes need repairing. This is both wasteful of time and material. Food should be stored in granaries according to the customs of the country. 59 1. Forks. 'A place for everything and everything in its place'.. This can be made from two cassava stems fitted into each other. Shelf with cleuninq materials and luuu) from hooks ap paratns . cloths. etc. In England we have a saying. The Storing and Repairing of Apparatus People sometimes think that if they have made apparatus themselves they can leave it lying about. In the model house we have planned to have two stores with shelves: (a) one side we can store all our household stores. Repairing Apparatus However careful we may be with our apparatus. and these must be renewed immediately.

cloths. (c) we also should make coat hangers and hang dresses and other clothes on a pole fixed across the store. etc. The Storing and Repairing of Apparatus People sometimes think that if they have made apparatus themselves they can leave it lying about. This can be made from two cassava stems fitted into each other. we have shelves for ~ll cooking apparatus. This means that we can always find what we are looking for because it is in a place set aside for it when it is not in use. This is both wasteful of time and material. and make new pieces whenever they need them. Shelf with cleaning materials and apparatus hung from hooks . it will sometimes need repairing. Repairing Apparatus However careful we may be with our apparatus. knives. I /f\ Diaqratn shouiinq stand for cleonitut apparatus 2 In the kitchen which locks up. 59 1. and these must be renewed immediately. spoons for eating. etc. Food should be stored in granaries according to the customs of the country. boxes. it is a good plan to i make a kind of household stand on which to hang our apparatus. 3. pails.. This must be done before it gets too bad and beyond repair : 1. Flower vases. It is a good plan to have pegs or hooks on which we can hang brushes. Forks. (b) on the other side we can store our suitcases. In the model house we have planned to have two stores with shelves: (a) one side we can store all our household stores. 'A place for everything and everything in its place'.58 14. Very often the loops for hanging them up break. 15. In England we have a saying. If we have no stores in our houses. Water pots and cooking pots should be put on stands. Brooms and brushes may come loose at the handles and need rebinding.

the article often cannot be repaired at all. etc. most flowers look best if arranged fairly loosely to appear as if they are growing. This is especially important if they are used in laundry work because rust marks spread so quickly over clothes. 5. 2. for holding your Make a flower vase. Arranging Flowers and Making Flower Vases Flower Vases 61 These can be made in burnt clay. They must be made so that they do not leak. we must paint them inside or place a small tin inside to hold the water. 3. Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. 4. The length of the stalks for the various vases. 2. Arrange some flowers for the sitting-room. They must consider the following points: 1. Some housewives will find that they have a natural gift for arranging flowers but many still have to learn how to arrange them. Which flowers will last when cut and which die quickly. Make some apparatus home. 3. some tall and some flat and low. If she waits too long. Also broken chairs. Irons which break at the handle should be fixed at the carpenter's shop. All flowers need to be cut either early in the morning or at sunset. If we find that they leak. Differellt shaped flower vases urhic li you call make The rooms of our homes will be much brightened if we decorate them with flowers in vases.60 2. The colours which go well together and those which are suitable for the rooms we live in. H is important that repairs should be done quickly as soon as a housewife notices anything broken. Rusty enamel basins and jugs (not used for food or drinking water) should be painted over with white paint. 4. They should be made in different shapes. Bought crockery which is broken can be repaired with Durafix which can be bought cheaply in the shops. FOR :)HORT STEJII\~ o . which you need for the and mend cleaning Find any broken or torn apparatus it. . 3. Some have too strong a scent for a small room. Make a stand apparatus. tables.

Children especially must be helped by their mothers to wash well. 6. (d) Keep our hair clean and shaved regularly so that it does not get too long and harbour dirt and lice. Sometimes people use cheap scent to try to smell nice but it is far more important to wash our clothes regularly and keep them sweet smelling. 3. (a) All sheets. Dirty clothes are very unhealthy to wear. The members of a family must realize that 'dirt is the cause of most diseases'. (c) Clean our nails regularly so that germs do not remain in them. so that bits of food do not remain in them and cause them to decay. Make some home-made insect-killing fluid. Every housewife must therefore aim at :1. The housewife must be responsible for seeing that all the members of her family change their clothes regularly and she must arrange for washing to be done with hot water and soap or soap substitutes. itch. The sweat of our bodies is absorbed by them and dirt clings to this grease. 5. Ringworm. Seeing That All Clothes Are Washed Well CHAPTER 18 CLEANLINESS IN THE HOUSE The great shortage of water in many parts of East Africa makes it very difficult for the African housewife to be as clean as she would like to be. (b) Clean our teeth regularly. but if we build our houses where there is an adequate water supply. . pillowcases and bedcovers must be washed regularly. scabies and other skin diseases are unlikely to attack a perfectly clean person. Make some clay containers. It is very easy for a careless housewife to allow bugs to live in beds and bedding. it attracts dirt. 2. so the housewife must be very careful to watch out for these dirty pests. Flies. Make some home-made furniture polish. 67 legs and arms. There would be much less need for doctors and hospitals if everyone had perfectly clean habits. Dirty clothes will harbour germs and insects as well as smell badly and rot quickly. All Bedding is Kept Clean In this country there must be continual supervision of beds and bedding. rats and other household pests which carry disease.66 4. This has been the cause of much disease in the country. As this sweat is greasy. Once they are introduced into a house they are very difficult to get rid of. Seeing That All the Members of the Household Have Clean Bodies The little pores in our skin are continually giving out sweat. It is not sufficient just to wash the parts that show such as face. cannot exist in perfectly clean houses. We must therefore :(a) Bathe the whole of our bodies once a day with soap or soap substitute. Every part of our body must be washed. we shall have no excuse for not practising cleanliness in every branch of our home life.

1 mugful of full starch to 5 mugfuls of water. Table linen. 2. Thickness of Boiling Various Garments Water Starch Required for 4. stirring all the time. Do the family wash. (c) sleeves. a few shreds of candle wax or soap and 3 tablespoonfuls cf cold water. Make some boiling water starch. Thin out with cold water as required. Open the front on the back and iron across from right to left. 5. Here is the recipe: mix together 1 heaped tablespoonful of starch powder. Diagram of folding a shirt: place shirt 011 fro~lt and fold back sleeves. forming straight lines down the sides . Starch powder can be made from cassava and other roots. This powder must be cooked with boiling water. 4 Dresses. 3. . 2. Aprons. Fold it and air. as otherwise the starch is thinned down by the water in the article. Iron double parts on the wrong side so as to partly dry. Make some powdered starch. it is a good plan to starch them. . having the unironed part nearest to you and passing the ironed part away from you as it is finished. The Order of Ironing a Man's Shirt 1. working with the collar on the left-hand side. See that it is the correct dampness. (d) yoke if there is one.1 mugful of full starch to 2 mugfuls of water. Before using starch it is better to have the garment dry. Look over the shirt to see that there are no creases and feel it to see that it is quite dry. . 4.fold in three width ways Some Practical Work Which You Can Do Prepare a family wash. 3. Iron all the small parts until dry on the right side: (a) collar. (b) cuffs. 6. Wring out the starch and partly dry the article before ironing.70 In order to make cotton frocks. 1. 71 Fold the back in two and iron both halves until quite dry. 7. Pour on really boiling water until the mixture changes colour and thickens. . Stiff caps.1 mugful of full starch to 3 mugfuls of water. table linen and aprons look nicer and keep clean longer. .1 mugful of full starch to 3 mugfuls of water.

They must-feel firm to the touch and no a y. Rules for Choosing Meat 1. 5. She should buy where there is a good turnover. The flesh should be red in colour. when perishable goods are fresh. what she needs to buy and make a list of the foodstuffs or articles. Do not buy rubbish which will be a loss in the end. especially for perishable goods such as fish. In new potatoes the skin should rub off . meat. They must not have many eyes. Green Vegetables They must have a good appearance and colour. She should be familiar with current prices. Shop as early in the day as possible. Choose potatoes of the same size as far as possible. that is where many people deal. 7. The flowers of cauliflowers should be white. the greater the need to buy to the greatest advantage.easily in scrubbing. These are often published in the papers. The skin must be fairly smooth. and where the shop or stall is clean. before she goes to market. 8. In this way she obtains exactly what she wants and there is no opportunity for the shopkeeper to palm off goods which are not fresh on a younger member of the family. A little must go a long way. 3. must be full and the pea or bean not too large. 2. 2. the time for cooking depends partly on the size. 3. The fat should not be a yellow colour. Onions should not have sprouts. 2. She must first consider exactly. They should not be sprouting. t fl bb 3. Green beans should not be stringy. 2. 1. 6. 4. 6. There must be no unpleasant smell. vegetables and fruit. If possible she should go personally to do her shopping. 4. Cabbages and lettuces must have firm hearts. If a housewife has only a little money to spend. so the housewife must consider the following general rules when going to market: 1. . 5. 5. They should be pale yellow-brown m colour. Remember that the cheapest things are not always the best. It should be firm to the touch. 4. They must smell fresh. 4. Potatoes 1. MARKETING A good housewife must show real common sense and forethought in marketing.80 CHAPTER 81 22 The Choice of Foodstuffs Rules for Choosing Vegetables FEEDING THE FAMILY I. 2. Pods. 3. It must neither be too fat or tal) lean. 5. such as peas and broad beans. Leaves and pods must break crisply.

Kinds of Foods Necessary to Maintain the Different Parts of the Body As we have already said. the legs. She has.B. It both carries the food and keeps the body warm. CHAPTER 23 FEEDING PLANNING THE FAMILY MEALS (1) The African housewife has always recognized how important it is to feed her family. must be given the correct foods. very seldom considered that the meal must be really suitable for building up the body and maintaining a healthy life. The Blood. In order. running about and playing games. which is found in milk. Blood itself is made up of various kinds of mineral salts which are found in some kinds of food. In buying flour. such as wheat or maize flour. These must therefore be eaten regularly. . they must be fed with suitable foods. otherwise it becomes soft and a person will become deformed and unable to stand and walk well. . if their diet does It must have no unpleasant smell. The main parts are the trunk. the housewife must see that it is fresh and free from weevils. to do all kinds of work well. Maize cobs should be tender and full. bones and blood. This is why it is so important that babies and young children drink a great deal of milk because. 3. however. which consists mainly of mineral matter. You have already learnt that the body is made up of different parts such as flesh. skin. Tail and fins must be firm. 82 83 Different Parts of the Body and Their Work The Bones. . One kind which enables us to do brain work and the other kind which helps us to do manual work such as digging. 6. arms and the head. We need two kinds of energy. This bone. we must supply these muscles with the right kind of food because they are continually having to be renewed and built up again. . Gills must be red. the most important one being a mineral called calcium. 4. Eyes must be bright. 5. The scales must come off without breaking the The fish must feel firm to the touch. It must be kept pure by giving it the right kind of food because it is really the food-ship of the body. She has always used whatever staple food was available to prepare a large meal for her husband and children.This flows throughout the body and keeps the heart beating.Rules for Choosing Fish 1. each with its different work. 2.The whole body of a man or woman is built round a framework of bone. bone is made up mainly of mineral matter. The Muscle or Flesh of the Body.This covers the bony framework and gives us energy which is the power to do things. N. In order to keep these different parts healthy and doing their work. therefore.

showing the exact quantities of food which you will use.Breakfast DWlICl" .1I. I h separa e yo. ly as she can with the to lay the table as attrac rve She must try to get hi hich she possesses. Coffee and biSCUItS.c __ T uesday G 0 111\1. Starchy food e~ all sit down together ~n h it is half cold. I Slipper Su nday _.. Use different methods for cooking one of the meals for a child. chicken In Bread an~1 T~~~~io salad. ('I . biscuits. . 'U aU sit down together and eac often the family WI t t ble The housewife must try have his own plate a a a ti . Green vegetable. Now that more meals are eaten which are better balanced with different types of food. . (c) The meal must be well balanced. Thursday ---1------=---· Rice porridge Coffee. an African was therefore very hungry and need€d to feel satisfied with a great bulk. ugali. Green uroundnuts. . Monday The rest of Boiled egg. .. =: Meat sew potatoes. (b) There should be three meals a day. Tomatoes. Europeans are sometimes Worried because the African seems to eat such a large amount of starchy food.. " k Lemon drtn . Or"ange drink. d their methods of Many Africans h~ve l~han~:yS the men folk ate serving up food. tomatoes. ------------1[-. Baked sweet <])()tato._. Banana.J'IBanana f' nitters . Oranac drink.t fnt er. 2. 1e . butter. <> -. Mango. less starchy food should be necessary.. Plan another set of meals which would be suitable for a child..FAMILY MEALS FOR THE FAMILY In planning diets the first consideration should be th-u of satisfying hUnger at frequent intervals of the day and of offering a wide variety of diflerent classes of foods.~ Cassava -- fr itt rr ers. 91 f ~~~r:a~~:~e:~~.1 and porru ge sligar. t bused (e) The best methods of cookmg ~us e d 'use (f) She must be quick in servmg up an attractive methods.~a with honey. In teo en ' At present quite tI ut of a common d sh . _ __ _ Whole maize pudding. This is because in the old days only one meal a day was eaten. II' 1 vegetable with nut sauce. . kl so that the family can everything dished up qU~C hot food. vegetable.--IU--j-i -"-'it-h-Sweet p~tatoes. 0 run ge drink.e:~me h food whole cereal. Beans. 'Cas~--.I.Rice and green Ugali. Green vegetables & groundnuts Cabbage. In planning meals the African housewife should consider the following points: (a) She must have a sufficient quantity of food for the numbers in the family. fats and nuts. Scrambled egg • on maize . n -t ---. ~~~ses. The children must have as much as the adults. is solid and uninterestmg w en I Suggestions for Meals for a F am ily for One Week [)o !I CHAPTER 25 FEEDING PLANNING A DAY'S THE . ". (d) All types of food should be introduced into _ -.90 Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. -ken with . I'ea. v~getables. - W-ed-n-e-s-d-ay--I"'holemaize . t mgs WI.

If the housewife can provide an attractive packed meal. Care should be taken to vary the diet as much as possible. Of course all these foods may not be obtainable but substitutes can be found. it must be served up in an attractive manner. A boiled egg. damp clo~h to keep them moist if they are not to be eaten straight away. iv. 4. Sandwiches of groundnut butter. Cucumber. they must be made beforehand. An orange. A small tin of meat. They may like to have the meals provided by the company. starched and ironed. See that the oven is the right heat. (e) If we are making cakes. (d) We must see that we have the necessary sugar. It is good when we have afternoon visitors to prepare some tea and cakes to welcome them. v. for baking put CHAPTER 27 FEEDING THE FAMIL Y TEA SERVING AFTERNOON All Africans are very hospitable and like entertaining their friends. Some grated raw carrot. This means: (a) That the table linen must be ciean. if we have them. . Cucumber. and knives must be clean and (b) The teaspoons polished. Making Biscuits and Cakes 1. Wrap the sandwiches in a clean. Groundnut biscuits. tea. butter and milk. We must remember. Maize biscuits. but these are very expensive. Shredded raw cabbage. (c) All crockery must be clean. 3. and to consider what meals the traveller will be given at home. This last is better made into a paste. If we have hungry children for tea we should cut the sandwiches thicker. that if we Place them on a cake cooler when you take them out of the oven. 95 introduce the serving of afternoon tea into our homes. bread. Making Bread and Butter or Sandwiches These should be cut thinly. Guavas. vi. Have all ingredients ready when you have decided what you want to make. Maize cakes (Maandazi) Coffee with milk and sugar. tomatoes or avocado pears make a good filling. Fish cakes with potato. Potato chips. much money can be saved. however. Avocado pear. We need an afternoon tea cloth and small serviettes.94 iii. It is not necessary to cut off the crusts as this is wasteful. 2. When the cakes are ready them in the oven quickly. Sometimes our menfolk go long occasional journeys by train.

It remains the same. Yeast needs warmth to grow. Yeast will not grow without food Conclusion. Result. IS really a litt! 1 .t ee mmu es. needs To Make Home-made Yeast Potato Yeast 1 tablespoon flour.. must be quite boiling Heat the teapot with a Ji . !'ut a teaspoonful of tea for each . warmth and and YEAST AND BREAD MAKING Many of your people are t . Result. and put it in a warm place. it is a good thin e for well as somewhat of a how to make it as it . 98 99 also be easily killed and therefore it is necessary for you to know under what conditions it will grow. which makes it rise It ~ mgredlent put into bread . mix it with sugar and water and put it in a cold place. - CHAPTER 28 FEEDING THE FAMIL Y Take a teaspoonful of yeast and mix it with a teaspoonful of sugar and a little warm water. before the tea is made. It remains the same. Prepare a tea table for four people 2. Conclusion. Take a teaspoonful of yeast and mix it with a little warm water and put it in a warm place. grows and spreads. Experiments to Show How Yeast Grows 1. - 3.Making Tea 1. mix it with sugar and put it in a warm place. . moisture to grow.This is th' . Result. spreads. (sugar). before putting in th 1 Itt~e boiling water e eaves. Take a teaspoonful of yeast. Remember that the water . Lay the table in an attractive mann~r. Conclusion. ' I IS much cheaper to make it in Yeast. 2. Take a teaspoonful of yeast. day and as it is expensiv no eatmg bread every luxury. 8 tablespoons lukewarm water. TIP the water out 3. Yeast needs moisture to grow. 1 tablespoon sugar. e more for Europeans. 1 potato. 5. . After a Yeast little while it bubbles food. Result. 2. Pour on boiling water. Serve after allowing to stand for thr Home Practical Work To Do 1. but it ca~ Conclusion. It remains the same. under correct condit' I e p ant which Ions.' IS for Africans and a littl person If It who like stronger tea. g or every woman to know the home. . . 4.

his wife may be called upon to plan for the cooking of the food.they need Chai Ire or borrow the crockery h . cup. g e cup empty out the 4. it should be possible to use this knowledge at home or at school on an open day or when several chiefs or other important guests visit the school. they are used and When [h clean. When refilJina th e top. the same d th e don after the party ay ay or get stolen or lost. ar y . ~mc es may also entertained at the p t th gh If chlld. it is unne:~:ry 71th. so that they do not Serving If it is a la .ren are to be the grass. This will need much thought and organizing ability. ey are returned to (c) Make a list of h t .. 3. or put on plates 1. Cakes may b h n I round to the guests. rge party arrange the sIde table covered with I th cups on a at this table and ha d . the guests contribute to the success of the party: Each family arrives for the feast with a basket of cooked food such as meat. chicken. if it is broken or lost . fish.104 as a rule. tables and b h ave to be borrowed. Quantities Required It will first be necessary to find out approximately how many guests are expected to the feast. Although you may not be able to practise this lesson straight away. According to local etiquette. If the milk serving. The head of each family brings beer. both before the owners. Do not fill the cup to the t at least half an inch t th op of the.~0 . matoke and different kinds of sauces. that it can be :h:Ck l~ borrowed. Guests who bring the best kind of food are given special consideration. as well as a knowledge of quantities needed. CHAPTER 30 COOKING FOR A FEAST 1£ an African has to entertain a large number of outside people. arrs. for I must be replaced (b) All utensils must be ver . althou . th y must be looked ft ey are so often 10 t a er as and Sugar are . She will probably have to arrange for the help of other cooks. ThIS prevents the old tea left in it. the tea before (d) When returning crocker ~ grve out teaspoons. Pour out the tea 2. 105 For children's parties small dishes of sweets in coloured papers look very attractive.It must. have either to hi which . or hired so Teaspoons especiall e Up before returning. It is usual for neighbours to be invited. be carefully ( rea In transrt e) Return borrowed things '. e anded round on small tables. packed so as not to b kY. It must also be remembered that there are often many people who may turn up without being invited and therefore . sd or. stolen. leave spilling. ey can easily be seated on The following points should b ()G e remembered' a reat care must be t I· . (en of all crockery.

These can be removed when the visitors go. and also we are more likely to be attacked by household pests such as ticks. so that she must call upon the visitors to do their share of the work. Nowadays economic conditions. You have already learnt how important It IS for our health to have fresh air during the day and during the night. especially as very few Africans sleep with ~e~tIlabon. cleaned and clean (c) If children 109 and grown-ups are all sleeping together. cultivating and cooking.l r~om. it is much more difficult for a great many people to get out. Africans have always been well known for being most hospitable and now that they are learning to have more comforts in the home and to live more hygienically. (b) In the old days food was plentiful and it was easy to supply food to any number of visitors witho~t much extra cost to the householder. There are several dangers in overcrowding: (a) Disease will be much more easily spread if many people sleep in the same room. A curtain should be put up round each bed so that the visitor has some privacy. The Disadvantages of Overcrowding in a Home It is very bad to sleep a great many people in one smal. They can be put on boxes or barkcloth. You have already learnt that it is had to sleep on the ground as there is not BO much fresh air. and they may be burnt to death. rats and cockroaches. make it more difficult for an African family to be really generous. the children will be disturbed when the grown-ups come to bed.108 The Importance of Planning Well Ahead to Avoid Overwork and Overtiredness When Visitors Arrive Two or three extra people in a household make a good deal of extra work unless there is some planning beforehand. she must try and make some temporary mattresses out of clean sacking or other cheap material and fill them with grass. It is a good plan to make reed beds rather like the tables made for drying dishes. but now there IS usually only just enough food for the family and extra food will have to be bought. (b) It must be thoroughly curtains put up. Now she is often alone. (e) The latrine and bath shelter must be cleaned. that is money. for Beds Substitutes (c) Beds must be made up beforehand. Customs About Visitors In the old days if a visitor came to stay he was given everything of the best. Many homes have an extra room or small house for visitors which must be made comfortable before the visitors arrive: (a) The room or house must be aired well. the housewife will have to plan much more carefully for her visitors. The African will still not . soap and a towel must be prepared for each visitor. the other people wiil be disturbed. (d) A basin. If a housewife has to sleep extra people and she has not sufficient beds. (a) There used to be many helpers to help the housewife in her work. (b) If there should be a fire and the house catches alight. (d) If one person has a cough or fever and cannot sleep.

ki b . . a. when binding up sores. . people. 2. for dealing with sores. .h a teacher or welfar y. On the other hand. cotton from the garden. The Place of Native Herbs and Remedies i'here are many excellent native remedies which can be used very safely. and the mother should certainly use these as they do not cost her anything and are often very good. st-at WI utensils not forgotten. but on the other hand there are many which are too strong and make a patient more ill. tea. We can rrer or even a ruler if it . Prepare some home-made splints. they a great deal of noise~ ih~ ~ mg out air and making and may do a great deal I.. The Utensils Importance If we live far from a h ospital or dispensary . 0 not scream or (b) air and crowd round the pa ti Do not . simsim oil. . lent. They then seek the help of a qualified doctor and are very often upset when their patient dies. hoes not help the patient should be observed whe °th armh·The following rules n ere as been an accident: (a) Be as quiet as vou ca n D talk loudly. etc. etc. Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. anana fibre or torn _ Stretchers can easily be made with two tree poles or a bed can be used. Make a stretcher have at hand. from materials which yOU . you are sure what is the matter with hi until (e) If. Use clean leaves. Stage and dramatize an accident. Many Africans pay a great deal of money to witch-doctors for their so-called 'cures'.124 cannot reach a doctor or nurse .. ringworm. a qualified doctor should be consulted and his advice followed.. then deal quickly to cut branch t ' we must send SOmeone use a millet sti es 0 support the limb. homemade basins. Many crowd round the patient h tt: get ver~ excited . a blanket and If a person breaks an arm with it. use your authority c C \: e crowd. 125 Use salt. SllC as to keep ba I th e worker. accidents m ay occur for which w . 3. '. r own cotton or f ld d be used for padding th dr a OJ e cloth can round these homely SPI~t:o~it~~ we can then bind pieces of cloth.. etc. etc. which is broken au I I IS only an arm . but only find that the patient gets steadily worse. of Using Hom e Iy R \emedies and im. For Christian people it is very wrong to go to a witch-doctor and most of the time it is quite useless. ' come (d) Do not try to lift or move the' . many old Africans know of good skin remedies for scabies. len er first-s 'd ith which are at hand. d e are totally unpre. She should try to pass them on to her children so that they are you are a person with authorit . Before a housewife uses these herbs and African remedies.. shutting out ma mg reathing difficult (c ) If you have a knowledge of first-aid . f orward and help. burns. when an accident occurs ImmedJate~y. ' pared and yet have to . for these are procurable in most homes.

Baby should be nursed in a quiet room without people looking on and the mother should devote her whole attention to the feeding and not try to do two things at once. supporting its back and very gently pat the back. Flru. or seat the child on the lap. THIRD SUN FE OVER- HEAD FOURTH FE-EX> FIFTH FEE. To get up wind. 5.135 134 between feeds. place the child over the left shoulder and gently pat the back. An under-fed baby is liable to have excessive wind if he cannot get enough food to fill his stomach and he may gulp down air until his stomach is full. baby may also have wind because he is being fed too frequently. using the breasts alternately in a regular fashion. Directions for a mother who has no clock. Times for Feeding the Baby Who Weighs Under 7 lb.T FEfD- 6. When the milk is fully established and the flow is ample. and there should be no night feeding.D Wind and How to Bring It Up Wind is very common in infancy. If the baby has not taken his feed easily or has hurried too much he is likely to swallow air with the milk. SECOND FEE.T .D SUNSE. Most of the wind in the baby's stomach is air which has been swallowed. the best method is to nurse at one breast only at each feed.

If he is tied tightly he cannot kick and move about as he does in his cot or playpen. 2. (e) The baby's arms may be hurt by swinging about. showing baby's routine Make a good kind of bonnet for the baby. Four 147 Baby's Day Should Begin and End According to the Clock From birth 10 three months to nine months Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. A regular timetable not only helps the baby to develop normally. (b) There is often no support for his head or else his head is completely covered up and he gets no fresh air.146 well as allowed to fall into bad habits. but she forgets that there are many disadvantages to this habit: (a) The baby cannot exercise himself. Disadvantages of Carrying a Baby Everywhere on His Mother's Back The African mother believes that if she carries her baby on her back then he is safe and cannot come to any harm. As he goes everywhere with his mother he will get all the smoke from the kitchen. but it also helps the smooth running of the home. (f) The mother is tempted to give him the breast at odd times if he cries. . (c) He suffers from all the heat and perspiration which comes from the mother's back. (d) The baby cannot sleep soundly if the mother is working. Make a large chart during the day.

CHAPTER 48 CARE OF CHILDREN IN THE HOME Training in Independence The mother must train the toddler to be independent and helpful. Give him a small broom and duster. brothers and sisters in good habits: (a) Teach him to fasten his own clothes early. Children should be encouraged to stretch and pull themselves up and exercise all their muscles. Putting his clothes tidily when he undresses. e. 3. as they may hurt themselves badly by cutting the nail right down. In no case should small children be allowed to use razor blades themselves for cutting nails. Cook a simple meal for a toddler and teach him to eat in a clean way. especially in his bath.Teach the toddler how to blow his nose on a piece of rag or leaf or a handkerchief.These need to be very carefully tended by the mother. If a child exercises his muscles well in the open air. For the first fortnight the baby takes very little exercise.g. Children should be kept from the bad habit of biting nails and so swallowing harmful germs. Care of the Nails. Avoid the dirty habit of using the fingers. Watch the child dressing himself. . 2. These must be carefully removed with a thorn or safety pin. Let him help where possible. Care of the Nose. (b) Let him feed himself as soon as possible but watch him carefully to see that he does not form bad habits. (c) Allow him to play in his own way and do not interfere unless necessary. As the child grows older . but after that he begins to like to kick about. (d) Make him take responsibility early. to clean them with a small stick or thorn. Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. cleaning up his own toys. . The mother must examine the toe nails and feet of a toddler daily to see that he has not picked up any jiggers. That is. In about a month he will learn to keep himself warm by exercising his limbs. 159 (e) Let him imitate his mother in cleaning the house. Bath a toddler and let the child help you to clear up after. (f) 5. After his bath he can lie on his mother's lap a few minutes to kick and stretch. She should teach the child to scrub his nails and. if necessary. the muscles develop well and so do the bones to which the muscles are attached. bring you a book you need or put a dish on the table for you.158 4. She should use play methods whenever possible and allow the child to copy his mother. SLEEP AND REST FOR THE TODDLER We have learnt how a new-born baby should sleep most of the time during the day and night.

He may wear a shirt. cut out and make a simple frock or shorts for a young school girl. Help a small school child to get ready for school. 2. ragged Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. but this is not really necessary. Design. cultivate and cook food for her family. They must be mended immediately they show signs of wear.170 native soap substitutes for washing the clothes. The little girl should have a simple sleeveless frock and knickers to match. besides keeping herself. over dirty. but either put on a coat hanger or carefully folded and kept in a box or suitcase. Never put the school uniform clothing or skins. The Care of School Uniform Out of School Hours The young school child needs to be very simply dressed. It is the work of both the father and the mother to mould the characters of their children. She must remember that much disease is caused by wearing dirty clothes. for she is constantly with him whilst the father is at work. which easily harbour insects which bring disease. 171 allowed to get too dirty before washing. It should not be thrown carelessly down. She is often busy from early morning till late at night. her children and her house clean. She must. CHAPTER 52 CARE OF CHILDREN IN THE HOME PLANNING THE DAY'S WORK WITH CHILDREN IN THE HOUSE SEVERAL Le]!: simple shorts for the very YOllllg schoolboy. collect firewood. however. . but the mother probably has more influence with the young child than the father. remember that she has considerable opportunity for training the young child so that he will grow up to be a useful member of society. The little boys needs only a small pair of trousers with straps. so this means that clothes which are carefully and regularly washed last longer. These clothes must not be The African mother has much work to do in the house. for she must carry water. She has little time for herself. Riqht : simple frock for the schoolgirl If there is a school uniform it is a good plan to make the child remove this when he returns from school. Dirt will also rot the clothes.

working as quickly as possible as it will quickly evaporate. expense. (b) Rub very dirty parts with a rag. apart from the matter of. IS the distortion of the feet caused by ill-fitting shoes. sleeves and pockets are sponged with warm water and a little ammonia (1 teaspoon to ~-a pint of water). (b) Never bring a light or fire near the spirit as both the spirit itself and the fumes given off from it catch alight easily. (iii) underclothes. 2. The great advantag~ of wearing shoes is the protection they afford against infection.n choosing shoes to see that they fit well. 187 Design a dress suitable for your figure and make the pattern in paper. Wash a terylene skirt. Dark blue material should be sponged with blue water. the neck. 3. not in the sun. The garment should be well brushed. (c) Hang out in the open. 5.186 Petrol or Spirit Cleaning Some coats and dresses do not wash easily and yet get dirty and need cleaning.g. (ii) better dresses. CHAPTER 57 CARE AND CHOICE OF SHOES Most Africans have gone from their earliest chil~hood without shoes and consequently the soles of their feet have become hardened. especially from hookworm and also fr~m injury by stones. ThIS IS especially important when the habit of ~earing shoes is adopted late in life. e. It is possible to buy petrol or aviation spirit for cleaning purposes. that walking in shoes requires to be learnt. (c) Do not pour away any spirit which remains where it is possible for it to catch alight. Feet vary in different individuals not only in si~e but in shape so that the greatest care is necessa~'y l. then sponged with a damp cloth. . Some Practical Work Which You Can Do 1. the average African has well-formed feet and walks well but many of them are now beginning to wear shoes. It should be realized. Unless the fe:t have become deformed by jiggers. this spirit easily catches alight and therefore great care must be exercised in using it: (a) Clean clothes in a shady place out of doors. To Use Petrol (a) Squeeze the frock in the petrol. Black materials with water and vinegar. From specimens of materials found in your school choose those suitable for (i) work dresses. as the bala~ce of the body and the method of swinging it are quite different from that adopted when walking barefoot. Do some cleaning with spirit or petrol. Sponging and Pressing Garments made of heavy material can be cleaned by brushing and pressing. The grea~ dISadvantage. Unfortunately. Sponge and press a man's suit. 4. Greasy coat collars. too. thorns and heat. Press on the wrong side or under a cloth on the right side.

a very cheap pair of shoes will not only wear out quickly. that is for Sh. Putting Away Money and Receiving Interest In the old days Africanc had their savings in cows. Cheap material loses its colour and wears out quickly. An African may be justified in borrowing a large sum of money for building a house if he has regular employment and gets a monthly salary. then Africans would have more things to sell and consequently better homes in which to Jive. Buying Good Things Which Will Last It is often false economy to buy things which are cheap because they do not last long. Debt causes much anxiety and unhappiness in a family and may be the cause of quarrels. In our budgeting of the income we have tried to save something every month. Africans of this country do not always realize how kind Nature has been to them. In this way we really save money in the end. This money is very easily spent and consequently when unexpected expenses occur an African has no money saved. The Europeans have a saying. he will not be able to pay his debt and misery will follow. When you take your money to a Post Office you are really lending it to the Government.192 Saving. as often happens. habits of industry must be fostered. In order to use one's resources to the best advantage. If the cotton harvest is spoilt. They are able to produce various raw materials which could be a source of wealth to them.. land or goats. the health and happiness of a family depend largely upon its resources. At present. such as -looking after poultry or farm animals.you will receive Sh. etc. they also have cash crops and money either from the things they sell or from a fixed wage or salary. If you have some unexpected expense you can easily get out this money. They have all the necessary materials to build good houses and make strong furniture. Do not live beyond your means. This is not economical. Finally. They own land for which they do not always need to pay. It is often very false economy to buy cheap chairs and beds because often they have borers in them and soon fall to bits. This money should not be kept in our houses where it can easily be spent or where it may be lost or stolen but should be put into the Post Office where it can receive interest. although many of them still have possessions of the same kind. What is interest? You have learnt about interest in arithmetic. making furniture or apparatus. If each member of the family had an allotted task. For this loan they will give you 2! per cent for every year. 2/50. picking or cleaning cotton. For instance. They are living in a warm climate where not much clothing is needed. . 193 Never get into debt. 'Work or starve'. If you leave this money in the Post Office you will receive compound interest. but may hurt our feet very much and we may have to buy medicine to cure them. but the ordinary farmer who relies upon the sale of his coffee and cotton for extra cash is unwise to borrow. It is much better to buy an article which will last a long time and pay more for it. Yet in spite of all this there is a surprising amount of poverty and wretchedness in African homes. 100/. Do not buy an article unless you can pay for it.

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