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)

PARIS

A translation of :

R ECHERCHES

SUR LA

´ T H E ORIE

DES

Q UANTA

(Ann. de Phys., 10e s´ rie, t. III (Janvier-F evrier 1925). e ´ by: A. F. Kracklauer c AFK, 2004

Contents

List of Figures Preface to German translation Introduction Historical survey Chapter 1. The Phase Wave 1.1. The relation between quantum and relativity theories 1.2. Phase and Group Velocities 1.3. Phase waves in space-time Chapter 2. The principles of Maupertuis and Fermat 2.1. Motivation 2.2. Two principles of least action in classical dynamics 2.3. The two principles of least action for electron dynamics 2.4. Wave propagation; F ERMAT’s Principle 2.5. Extending the quantum relation 2.6. Examples and discussion Chapter 3. Quantum stability conditions for trajectories 3.1. B OHR -S OMMERFELD stability conditions 3.2. The interpretation of Einstein’s condition 3.3. Sommerfeld’s conditions on quasiperiodic motion Chapter 4. Motion quantisation with two charges 4.1. Particular difﬁculties 4.2. Nuclear motion in atomic hydrogen 4.3. The two phase waves of electron and nucleus

i

iii v 1 2 7 7 10 12 15 15 16 18 21 22 23 27 27 28 29 33 33 34 36

ii

CONTENTS

Chapter 5. Light quanta 5.1. The atom of light 5.2. The motion of an atom of light 5.3. Some concordances between adverse theories of radiation 5.4. Photons and wave optics 5.5. Interference and coherence 5.6. B OHR’s frequency law. Conclusions Chapter 6. X and γ-ray diffusion 6.1. M. J. J. Thompson’s theory 6.2. Debye’s theory 6.3. The recent theory of MM. Debye and Compton 6.4. Scattering via moving electrons Chapter 7. Quantum Statistical Mechanics 7.1. Review of statistical thermodynamics 7.2. The new conception of gas equilibrium 7.3. The photon gas 7.4. Energy ﬂuctuations in black body radiation Appendix to Chapter 5: Light quanta Summary and conclusions Bibliography

¡

39 39 41 42 46 46 47 49 49 51 52 55 57 57 61 63 67 69 71 73

3.1 6.3.1 Minkowski diagram showing “lines of equal phase” Minkowski diagram: details Electron energy-transport Axis system for hydrogen atom Phase rays and particle orbits of hydrogen Compton scattering 12 13 24 34 37 52 iii .1 1.3.2.2 2.1 4.1 4.3.List of Figures 1.6.

iv LIST OF FIGURES .

W. for which the basic principle was foreseen actually in the atomic theory and correspondence principle of M. [as translated to English below. However. Verlag. Leipzig. difﬁculties persist. the development of Physics progressed very rapidly in the way I foresaw. The two methods and their combination have enabled theoreticians to address problems heretofore unsurmountable and have reported much success. M. as is done in the theory of electrons. H EISENBERG has developed a more abstract theory. At the moment. ideas of M IE are thusly doomed. “Quantum Mechanics”.” Independent of my work. 1927). Paris. but it was M. making these equations non applicable to single isolated particles. namely. ¨ S CHR ODINGER has shown that each version is a mathematical transcription of the other. E. To this point. B ECKER . (trans. Nonetheless.) (Aka.Preface to German translation In the three years between the publication of the original French version. S CHR OEDINGER who developed the propagation equations of a new theory and who in searching for its solutions has established what has become known as “Wave Mechanics. one result is incontestable: N EWTON’s Dynamics and F RESNEL’s theory of waves have returned to combine into a grand synthesis of great intellectual beauty enabling us to fathom deeply the nature of quanta and open Physics to immense new horizons. in terms of a fusion of the methods of Dynamics and the theory of waves. M. namely a undulatory theory of matter within the framework of ﬁeld theory. The tentative. one must be satisﬁed with a statistical correspondence between energy parcels and amplitude waves of the sort known in classical optics. Moreover. In particular. they do not explain why electricity has an atomised structure. 8 September 1927 1Untersuchungen zur Quantentheorie. the electric density in M AXWELL -L ORENTZ equations may be only an ensemble average. E INSTEIN from the beginning has supported ¨ my thesis. M. even if interesting. W.. one has not been able to achieve the ultimate goal. v . B OHR . it is interesting that.] and a German translation in 19271.

.

and from the P LANCK -E INSTEIN notion of proper mass. we see how introduction of phase waves into Statistical Mechanics justiﬁes the concept of existence of light quanta in the theory of gases and establishes. to a new theory. Finally. we proceed in this work from the assumption of existence of a certain periodic phenomenon of a yet to be determined character. For the purpose of generalising this result to nonuniform motion. In particular. Based on an understanding of the relationship between frequency and energy. reveals just how advantageous such a reformulation of electrodynamics would be (Chapter 6). In addition.Introduction History shows that there long has been dispute over two viewpoints on the nature of light: corpuscular and undulatory. perhaps however. This can then be applied to mutually interaction electrons and protons of the hydrogen atoms (C HAPTER 4). Rays of this wave are identical to trajectories of a particle (C HAPTER 2). to the stability conditions of a B OHR orbit being identical to the resonance condition of the associated wave (Chapter 3). we posit a proportionality between the momentum world vector of a particle and a propagation vector of a wave. these two are less at odds with each other than heretofore thought. The further application of these general ideas to E INSTEIN’s notion of light quanta leads to several very interesting conclusions. there is good reason to hope that this approach can lead further to a quantum and undulatory theory of Optics that can be the basis for a statistical understanding of a relationship between light-quanta waves and M AXWELL’s formulation of Electrodynamics (C HAPTER 5). for which the fourth component is its frequency. which is a development that quantum theory is beginning to support. In spite of remaining difﬁculties. Application of F ERMAT’s Principle for this wave then is identical to the principle of least action applied to a material particle. The application of these ideas to the periodic motion of an electron in a B OHR atom leads then. given the 1 . Relativity Theory requires that uniform motion of a material particle be associated with propagation of a certain wave for which the phase velocity is greater than that of light (Chapter 1). which is to be attributed to each and every isolated energy parcel. study of scattering of X and γ-rays by amorphous materials.

N EWTON was ﬁrst to unify Dynamics to a comprehensive theory which he applied to gravity and thereby opened up other new applications. Many researchers. which then F ERMAT succeeded in doing with the principle that carries his name. it appears that Mechanics reigned over all physical phenomena. as well as the general statistical mechanics of G IBBS and B OLTZMANN . albeit with contrived hypothesis. etc. The simplest effects (linear propagation.) that are nowadays part of Geometric Optics. optics and capillary effects. refraction. of which the mathematical elegance is simply imposing. an understanding of equilibrium and motion through dynamics and statics only slowly improved. the so-called “emission theory”. Although one of the main fundamental principles of thermodynamics. as a consequence of the Renaissance. that entropy either remains constant or increases. and later in another form as H AMILTON’s Principle of least action. made known by J OUNG’s experiments. and which nowadays is usually called the principle of least action. Since the 17th century. N EWTON ’s rings). which enabled him even to explain. In the 18th and 19th centuries generations of mathematicians. The origins of modern science are found in the end of the 16th century. effects nowadays consider wave effects (i. As is well known. worked on developing fundamental laws. The imposing theory of gases by M AXWELL and B OLTZMANN . can easily be interpreted in terms of mechanics. astronomers and physicists so reﬁned N EWTON’s Mechanics that it nearly lost its character as Physics. Following successful applications in acoustics. With somewhat more difﬁculty. how energy parcellation between atoms of a gas and light quanta follows. has no mechanical clariﬁcation. Interference effects. were difﬁcult or impossible to . that of M AUPERTUIS . hydrodynamics. which is currently quite topical. Optics. calling on an analogy with the theory of material point dynamics that he created. While Astronomy rapidly developed new and precise methods. the other. shows that there is an analogy between certain quantities relevant to periodic motions and thermodynamic quantities. were of course ﬁrst to be understood. The work of C LAUSIUS and B OLTZMANN.. developed a corpuscular theory. in the 19th century the new discipline of Thermodynamics was also brought within reach of Mechanics. namely conservation of energy.e. The beginning of the 19th century saw a trend towards H UYGEN’s theory. reﬂection.2 INTRODUCTION laws of black body radiation. but has not yet revealed fundamental connections. teach us that. H UYGENS propounded an undulatory theory of light. Dynamics complimented with probabilistic notions yields a mechanical understanding of thermodynamics. Historical survey From the 16th to the 20th centuries. has interested researchers. while N EWTON . This whole beautiful structure can be extracted from a single principle. principally including D ESCARTES and H UYGENS. the science of light.

Lord K ELVIN’s clouds yielded precipitation: the one led to Relativity. We need not remind ourselves of contributions by VOLTA. In F RESNEL’s age such a question was unfashionable and the corpuscular theory was ridiculed as naive and rejected. especially from Special Relativity. Researching the theoretical nature of black body radiation. that M AXWELL mathematically uniﬁed results of his predecessors and showed that all of optics can be regarded as a branch of electrodynamics. was both empirically contradicted and conceptually unreal in that it involved inﬁnite total energy. as needed. that when two theories. with equal facility can clarify an experimental result. For our purposes it is noteworthy. The 20th century: Relativity and quantum theory. as was experimentally already demonstrated by J. thereby holding optics apart from mechanics. We note.HISTORICAL SURVEY 3 explain in terms of corpuscles. of particular interest to us. the basic paradigm of that era retained F RESNEL ’s elastic conceptions. was extraordinarily simple to explain. H ERTZ . The other pertained to methods of statistical mechanics as applied to black body radiation. many. L ORENTZ introduced discontinuous electric charges. Then F RESNEL developed his beautiful elastic theory of light propagation. however. and to an even greater extent L ORENTZ . along with the Emission theory. J. One resulted from the then unsolvable problems of interpreting M ICHELSON’s and M OR LEY ’s experiment. L APLACE . The development of Quantum Mechanics is. In the beginning of the 20th century. FARADAY. In any case. which. T HOMP SON . At the end of the century many expected a quick and complete ﬁnal uniﬁcation of all Physics. In this work we shall simply take these results as given and known and use them. even M AXWELL himself. the R AYLEIGH -J EANS Law. A MPERE . resolved by E INSTEIN —a matter covered adequately by many authors in recent years. the other to Quantum Mechanics. with witch they hoped to explain all electromagnetic effects. A great successes of F RESNEL’s theory was the clariﬁcation of the linear propagation of light. In the 19th century there arose a new physics discipline of enormous technical and theoretical consequence: the study of electricity. Nevertheless. on the other hand. rather on quasi elastic bound electrons for which ¢ . etc. The basic notion was introduced in 1900 by M AX P LANCK. he found that thermodynamic equilibrium depends not on the nature of emitted particles. Herein we give little attention to ether interpretation problems as exposed by M ICHELSON and M ORLEY and studied by L ORENTZ AND F ITZ -G ERALD . a few imperfections remained. then one should ask if a difference is real or an artifact of accident or prejudice. seemingly on entirely different basis. although. and N EWTON’s ideas lost credibility irretrievably. with perhaps incomparable insight. which while giving an exact expression for distribution of energy among frequencies. continued to attempt to formulate mechanical models for the ether. Lord K ELVIN brought attention to two dark clouds on the horizon. which were. extended M AXWELL’s theory.

Somehow E INSTEIN instinctively understood that one must consider the corpuscular nature of light and suggested the hypothesis that radiation is parcelled into units of hν. B OHR made tow postulates: § ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ £ . Even while deﬁciencies regarding the speciﬁc heat of gases arose. L ORENTZ and J EANS . Empirically it was found: h 6 545 10 27 erg-sec. i. The photoelectric effect provided new puzzles. This law turned to be correct. B OLTZ MANN ’s methods provided no means to evaluate certain additive constants in the expression for entropy. Quanta also penetrated areas where they were unexpected: gas theory. and that a nucleus has N positive charges. is subject to certain exceptions and ﬁnally why the R AYLEIGH Law is restricted to a speciﬁc range. hydrogen. E INSTEIN rebutted by pointing to the fact that this same hypothesis. In 1913 B OHR’s theory of atom structure appeared. and not.e. yields the correct black body law. atoms consist of positively charged nuclei surrounded by an electron cloud. While this notion conﬂicts with wave concepts. as well as an explanation of why classical statistics. E INSTEIN explained this remarkable result by considering that radiation is comprised of parcels each containing energy equal to hν. i.4 INTRODUCTION frequency is independent of energy. He took it. where h is a new fundamental constant. postulated that the phase space volume of each gas molecule has the value h3 . among others. along with RUTHER FORD and VAN DER B ROEK that. most physicists reject it. and that its number of accompanying electrons is also N. each of 4 77 10 10 esu. to the energy. Quantum notions quickly penetrated all areas of Physics. This is one of the most impressive accomplishments of theoretical Physics. P LANCK. Astoundingly. To calculate optical frequencies for the simplest atom. In order to enable N ERST’s methods to give numerical results and determine these additive constants. To avoid this problem. experiment shows that the energy of ejected electrons is proportional to the frequency of the incoming radiation.. N is the atomic number that also appears in M ENDELEJEFF ’ S chart. namely: Energy exchange between resonator (or other material) and radiation takes place only in integer multiples of hν. the D ULONG -P ETIT Law. D EBYE .e. The international Solvay conference in 1911 was devoted totally to quantum problems and resulted in a series of publications supporting ` E INSTEIN by P OINCAR E which he ﬁnished shortly before his death.. Quantum theory helped E INSTEIN . P LANCK posited an entirely new hypothesis. then N ERST and L INDEMANN . when an electron adsorb energy hν and the ejection itself requires w then the election has hν w energy. that is. so that atoms are neutral. and then in a more complete form. Applying classical laws for energy balance between radiation and such a resonator yields the R AYLEIGH Law. This effect pertains to stimulated ejection by radiation of electrons from solids. discontinuous light. Serious objections from. as expected. Each frequency or mode corresponds in this paradigm to a kind of atom of energy. in a rather paradoxical manner. a so-called P LANCK resonator. with its known defect. B ORN and K ARMANN to develop a comprehensive theory of the speciﬁc heat of solids.

γ-rays by RUTHERFORD and E LLIS have further substantiated the corpuscular nature of radiation. the Z EEMANN Effect. we shall explicate this point. W. Still. The great success of B OHR’s theory in the last 10 years is well known.) When an electron changes from one to another stable orbit. C OMPTON has analysed scattering correctly as was veriﬁed by experiments on electrons. A.HISTORICAL SURVEY 5 1. S OMMER FELD . the quantum of energy. which revealed a weakening of scattered radiation as evidenced by a reduction of frequency. B RAGG . etc. hν. 2. On the side of quanta. L. Nevertheless. to attempt to unify the corpuscular and undulatory approaches in an attempt to reveal the fundamental nature of the quantum. the fundamental meaning of quanta remained unknown. the study of X-rays and the M OSELEY Law. the time appears to have arrived. £ ¨ ¨ . which relates atomic number with X-ray data. B OHR and others have extended and generalised the theory to explain the S TARK Effect. the wave picture can also point to successes. the prediction of VON L AUE ’ S interference and scattering (See: D EBYE .) Among all conceivable electron orbits.). etc. This frequency is related to a change in the atom’s energy by δε hν. H. In Chapter 3. Study of the photoelectric effect for X-rays by M AURICE DE B ROGLIE . This theory enabled calculation of the spectrum for hydrogen and ionised helium. S CHWARTZSCHILD . radiation of frequency ν is absorbed or emitted. In short. only a small number are stable and somehow determined by the constant h. other spectrum details. This attempt I undertook some time ago and the purpose to this work is to present a more complete description of the successful results as well as known deﬁciencies. especially with respect to X-rays. E PSTEIN . as the earlier objections to this idea have shown. now appears more than ever to represent real light.

.

we prefer to denote the “limit speed of energy. If this body is in uniform motion with velocity v βc with respect to a particular observer. electronic theory leads us to consider matter as being essentially discontinuous.3) Ekin 1 m0 v 2 2 § § 1 1 § £ § £ (1.1. Since kinetic energy may be deﬁned as the increase in energy experienced by a body when brought from rest to velocity v βc. contrary to traditional ideas regarding light. one ﬁnds the following expression: β2 β2 which for small values of β reduces to the classical form: 7 ¤ £ (1.1. we may regard material and energy as two terms for the same physical reality. if not even condensed at singularities. but which. and all mass represents energy.1.1. The principle of inertia of energy attributes to every body a proper mass (that is a mass as measured by an observer at rest with respect to it) of m0 and a proper energy of m0 c2 .CHAPTER 1 The Phase Wave 1. then for this observer. and this in turn.” In so far as there is always a ﬁxed proportionality between mass and energy.2) Ekin m0 c 2 m0 c 2 m0 c 2 1 1 § £ ¥ £ (1. energy may be considered as being equivalent to mass. as is well known from relativistic dynamics. a body’s mass takes on the value m0 1 β2 and therefore energy m0 c2 1 β2. leads us to consider admitting that energy is entirely concentrated in small regions of space. for reasons delineated below. Following E INSTEIN . Beginning from atomic theory.1) energy mass © c2 § £ . Mass and energy may always be related one to another by where c is a constant known as the “speed of light”. The relation between quantum and relativity theories One of the most important new concepts introduced by Relativity is the inertia of energy.

Planck’s constant. the energy of an electron is spread over all space with a strong concentration in a very small region. we have returned to statements on energy as fundamental. To begin. seemingly.1. what must we understand by the interior of a parcel of energy? An electron is for us the archetype of isolated parcel of energy. like all hypotheses. to know well. action is a very abstract notion. The notion of a quantum makes little sense. to each portion of energy with a proper mass m0 . a periodic phenomenon in a moving object appears to a ﬁxed obse 1Regarding difﬁculties that arise when several electric centers interact. has the units of action.3 will show that it is spread out over an extended space. ¤ £ (1. namely: where h is Planck’s constant. the relationships of a quantum ﬁnd expression in terms of action instead of energy. as can be deduced from its consequences.1 Having supposed existence of a frequency for a parcel of energy. in the rest frame of the energy packet. By cause of the L ORENTZ transformation of time. but. h . of course.4) energy h frequency . that is.5) hν0 m0 c 2 ¦ ¥ £ (1. That which makes an electron an atom of energy is not its small volume that it occupies in space. ML2 T 1 . see Chapter 4 below. one may associate a periodic phenomenon of frequency ν0 . by received wisdom. This hypothesis is the basis of our theory: it is worth as much. and as a consequence of much reﬂection on light quanta and the photoelectric effect. One may imagine that.1. the results of §1. and ceased to question why action plays a large role in so many issues. but. let us seek now how this frequence is manifested for an observer who has posed the above question. I repeat: it occupies all space. but the fact that it is undividable. perhaps incorrectly. The further development of the theory of quanta often occurred by reference to mechanical ‘action’. and this can be no accident since relativity theory reveals ‘action’ to be among the “invariants” in physics theories. Moreover. It seems to us that the fundamental idea pertaining to quanta is the impossibility to consider an isolated quantity of energy without associating a particular frequency to it. we now seek to ﬁnd a way to introduce quanta into relativistic dynamics. Nevertheless. This association is expressed by what I call the ‘quantum relationship’. such that one ﬁnds: The frequency ν0 is to be measured. Must we suppose that this periodic phenomenon occurs in the interior of energy packets? This is not at all necessary. by cause of a meta law of Nature. that it constitutes a unit. which we believe. we shall see that this is not so. THE PHASE WAVE Having recalled the above.8 1. if energy is to be continuously distributed through space. but otherwise whose properties are very poorly known.

e.1. (β is always less that 1. If t0 is time of an observer at rest with respect to a moving body. since energy of a moving object equals m0 c2 according to the quantum relation. Additionally this theorem can be proved.1. Thus. which I denote ‘the theorem of phase harmony:’ “A periodic phenomenon is seen by a stationary observer to exhibit the frequency ν1 h 1 m0 c2 1 β2 that appears constantly in phase with a wave having frequency 1 β2 propagating in the same direction with velocity V c β. the phase of the wave traversing the same distance is 1 β2 As stated.6) ν1 ν0 1 β2 m0 c 2 h § £ § § £ ¦ ¦ 1 β2 1 β2. At time t then. but perhaps with greater impact. For an observer at rest. It has brought me to the following conception.1.9) t0 1 t βx c ¤ § £ " § ! § £ " § ! (1. The fact that its velocity V c β is necessarily greater than the velocity of light c. such a frequency as measured by a ﬁxed observer would be: These two frequencies ν1 and ν are fundamentally different. essentially in the same way. Eq. Likewise. i. the moving object has covered a distance equal to x βct for which the phase equals ν1t h 1 m0 c2 1 β2 x βc .7) ν 1 m0 c 2 h 1 β2 § On the other hand.1. this is the famous clock retardation.” ν h 1 m0 c 2 The proof is simple.1.1. this is the same sinusoid of t βx c 1 β2 which rep1 β2 propagating with velocity c β in the direction resents a wave of frequency ν0 of motion..1. THE RELATION BETWEEN QUANTUM AND RELATIVITY THEORIES 9 rver to be slowed down by a factor of 1 β2. Suppose that at t 0 the phenomenon and wave have phase harmony. shows that it can not represent transport of § § " § 1 β2 ¤ § ! § £ (1. then the L ORENTZ transformation gives: The periodic phenomenon we imagine is for this observer a sinusoidal function of v0t0 . we see here that phase harmony persists. Here we must focus on the nature of the wave we imagine to exist. (1. its proper time. this frequency £ £ . as follows. is given by: ¤ § £ § ¦ £ (1.4). This is a difﬁculty that has intrigued me for a long time. in that the factor 1 β2 enters into them differently.8) ν t βx c m0 c 2 h 1 x βc βx c m0 c 2 h 1 β2 x βc § £ £ ¤ § £ § £ (1. except when mass is inﬁnite or imaginary).

let us set them in motion with identical amplitudes and phases. F ERMAT’s principle applied to the wave speciﬁes a ray. in the case we envision. diminish rapidly as one moves out from the centre of the disk. at a given moment in time a ﬁxed observer considers the geometric location of the centre of mass of the various weights. 1. no longer is isotropic about the centre by cause of L ORENTZ contraction. they establish a link between motion of a material body and propagation of a wave. which is in fact a ray for the wave. One sees ﬁnally with this example (which is our of a spring multiplied by 1 reason to pursue it) why a phase wave transports ‘phase’. Consider a large. The surface passing through the centre of gravity of the weights would be a plane oscillating up and down.” To make the last point more precise. So. If waves of nearby frequencies propagate in the same direction Ox with velocity V . there is a surface moving with velocity c β parallel to the disk and having a frequency of vibration on the ﬁxed abscissa equal to that of a proper oscillation 1 β2. to our phase wave. consider a mechanical comparison. Phase and Group Velocities We must now explicate an important relationship existing between the velocity of a body in motion and a phase wave. £ § # .. The preceeding results seem to us to be very important. perhaps a bit crude. we shall generalise this coincidence. but not energy. whereas M AUPERTUIS’ principle applied to the material body speciﬁes a rectilinear trajectory. that is to say. In Chapter 2. it is a “phase wave. But the central point here (in §1. because with aid of the quantum hypothesis itself. further. Our theorem teaches us. Let the number of such systems per unit area. which we call a phase velocity. we note that a rectilinear phase wave is congruent with rectilinear motion of the body. i.e. that this wave represents a spacial distribution of phase. The description we have given conforms to that of an observer at rest with the disk. for which. All the weights on springs have the same period. THE PHASE WAVE energy. so that there is a high concentration at the centre. the disk with its distribution of weights on springs. Were another observer moving uniformly with velocity v βc with respect to the disk to observe it. This ensemble of systems is a crude analogue to a parcel of energy as we imagine it to be. but that speaks to one’s imagination. he gets a cylindrical surface in a horizontal direction for which vertical slices parallel to the motion of the disk are sinusoids.3 it will be made more comprehensible). moreover. in accord with our general theorem.2. their density.10 1. from which identical weights are suspended on springs. and. This surface corresponds. these waves exhibit. is that there is a dephasing of the motion of the weights. and thereby permit envisioning the possibility of a synthesis of these antagonistic theories on the nature of radiation. If. horizontal circular disk. each weight for him appears to be a clock exhibiting E INSTEIN retardation.

5) d " ¦ m0 c 2 h 5 ! £ 1 ν V d β 1 β2 m0 c 2 h 1 4 § 3 1 3 2 © £ dν dβ m0 c 2 h £ (1.2) ν d V 1 U dν We return to phase waves. a beat if the velocity V varies with the frequency ν. because the sign of the cosine has little effect.1.2. Imagine two waves of nearby frequencies ν and ν ν δν and velocities V and V V dV dν δν.6) ¤ £ £ U βc v 4 § 3 dβ dβ £ (1. % £ ¤ % © § £ £ (1.2.2.2. one ﬁnds: One may write: where so that: (1.1) 2 sin 2π νt ψ cos 2π ψ t x V V 2 dν 2 Thus we get a sinusoid for which the amplitude is modulated at frequency δν.2. it only restricts the velocity to being betweenβ and β δβ. or group velocity. If one denotes with U the velocity of propagation of the beat. This is a well known result. If one attributes a velocity v βc to the body. this does not fully determine the value of β. We shall now prove a theorem that will be ultimately very useful: The group velocity of phase waves equals the velocity of its associated body.3) V ν β h 1 β2 ¤ 2' $ £ (' $ % % $ 1 0 § $ ¤ 1 § 0 % ' © ) % £ % § sin 2π νt ϕ sin 2π υ t $ νx V % £ $ § 0 % ¢ £ &$ . PHASE AND GROUP VELOCITIES 11 by cause of superposition.4) U ν d V dβ © dν dβ β β2 1 β2 3 2 . corresponding frequencies then span the interval ν ν δν . This phenomenon was studied especially be Lord R AYLEIGH for the case of dispersive media.2. their superposition leads analytically to the following equation: νx ϕ V d ν δν νx δν (1. In effect this group velocity is determined by the above formula in which V and ν can be considered as functions of β because: c 1 m0 c 2 (1.2.

velocity of energy transport equals group velocity2. F IGURE 1. Let x be in the direction of motion of a body on a chart together with the time axis and the above mentioned trajectory.3. M INKOWSKi appears to have been ﬁrst to obtain a simple geometric representation of the relationships introduced by E INSTEIN between space and time consisting of a Euclidian 4-dimensional space-time. This leads us to remark: in the wave theory of dispersion.1. for example: L E ON B RILLOUIN. of a pseudo Euclidean. ´ e 7 ¤ § 5 § § § 6 1. except for absorption zones. (See Fig.3. THE PHASE WAVE The phase wave group velocity is then actually equal to the body’s velocity.3.” Let us consider now space-time for a stationary observer referred to four rectangular axes. Lines parallel to ox’ are “lines of equal phase.: 1. we get an analogous result. La Th´ orie des quanta et l’atom de Bohr. despite a different point of view. in so far as the velocity of a body is actually the velocity of energy displacement. Phase waves in space-time . A Minkowski diagram showing worldlines for a body moving with velocity v βc. hyperbolic space for which the the fundamental invariant is c2 dt 2 dx2 dy2 dz2 . this line is also the time axis for an observer at rest with respect to the body. Here.1) Given these assumptions. the trajectory of the body will be a line inclined at an angle lesse than 45 to the time axis. namely time multiplied by c 1 Nowadays one considers the fourth axis to be a real quantity ct. (primed axis).12 1. Without loss of generality. To do so he took a Euclidean 3-space and added a fourth orthogonal dimension. 2See. OD is the light cone. let these two time axes pass through the origin. Chapter 1.

a1 . for the stationary observer. PHASE WAVES IN SPACE-TIME 13 If the velocity for a stationlary observer of the moving body is βc.3. is displaced via uniform movement towards increasing t. refer to Fig. therefore.3. equal to c times the proper period T0 h m0 c2 . F IGURE 1. The phase that metric relationships yielding for t 0 one ﬁnds at a . Lines 1 and 2 represent two successive equal phase planes of a stationary observer. lines of equal ‘phase’ for the observer at rest with the body.2. One may say therefore that its velocity is: c (1. c. i. the spacial axis of a frame at rest with respect to the body and passing through the origin. $ ¤ £ C$ £ £ A B £ ¤¤ 9@¤ © © $ @9¤ ¤¤ $ £ $ £ £ £ ¤¤ @@¤ © © $ 9@¤ ¤¤ £ 8 £ . T0 1 ν0 h m0 c2 .1. the slope of ot has the value 1 β.3. it is therefore displaced in his space by the distance a0 a1 in the direction ox by a unit of time. lies as the symmetrical reﬂection across the bisector of xot. is now found at the frequency.1) V a0 a1 aa0 coth x0x β The ensemble of equal phase planes constitutes what we have denoted a ‘phase wave. if the line ox1 in Figure 1 repMinkowski diagram: resents the space of the observer ﬁxed at details. these two dimensional spaces in three dimensional space are planar two dimensional surfaces because all spaces under consideration here are Euclidean. then the state of a comoving observer returns to the same place whenever time satisﬁes: oA c AB c.e. The slope of ox’ is. for him aa0 c. showing the trigonot 1.3. The line ox . this is easily shown analytically using L ORENTZ transformations. β.2. therefore. The points a o a represent projections onto the space of an observer at rest with respect to the stationary frame at the instant 0. Lines parallel to ox are. If the comoving space of a moving body is the scene of an oscillating phenomenon. 1. represented by a line parallel to ox. as we said. is the same for all frames of reference. that section of spacetime which for him is space.. of the periodic phenomenon. AB is. When time progresses for a stationary observer. which equals the proper time period. and shows directly that the limiting velocity of energy. A In effect. One easily sees that planes of equal phase a o a are displaced in the space of a stationary observer with a velocity c β.’ To determine the frequency.

but by AD c. That is: m0 c 2 1 β2 h The period of these waves at a point in space for a stationary observer is given not by AC c.3. one ﬁnds that: β2 .4) ν1 ν0 1 β2 § 1 β2 ¤ ¤ ¤ £ (1. whenever.14 1.6) T AC 1 β2 T0 1 β2 c and the frequency ν of these wave is expressed by: 1 β2 h 1 β2 Thus we obtain again all the results obtained analytically in §1. but now we see better how it relates to general concepts of space-time and why dephasing of periodic movements takes place differently depending on the deﬁnition of simultaneity in relativity.3. The triangle ABC yields: The frequency 1 T1 is that which the periodic phenomenon appears to have for a stationary observer using his eyes from his position.1. For the small triangle BCD. Let us calculate it. is equal to: 1 (1.3.5) © CB DC 1 β where DC βCB β2 AC ¤ § £ § £ (1.2) cT1 cT0 1 β2 This result is a simple application of trigonometry. trigonometry is used on the plane xot.3. the projection of AB on the axis Ot.3.3) AC © AB § AC 2 1 β 2 qed © A B § £ £ § £ AB 2 AC 2 CB 2 AC 2 1 tan CAB ©' ¤ § £ . it is vitally necessary to keep in mind that there is a particular anisotropism of this plane.3.7) ν 1 T ν0 m0 c 2 © § £ C § £ § £ § £ But AD AC DC AC 1 ¤ £ £ £ (1. The new period is therefore equal to: 1 (1. THE PHASE WAVE AC. ¤ § £ § £ £ (1. we emphasize.

PAINLEV E raised several interesting objections to Relativity. therefore. Motivation We wish to extend the results of Chapter 1 to the case in which motion is no longer rectilinear and uniform. We shall therfore make use of another method that seems to us more general and satisfactory. since its frequency. The General Theory of Relativity attributes gravitational force to curved space-time. of the phase wave at each point of the ﬁeld that are rather arbitrary. During ´ a recent visit of M. and therefore the frequency of its phase wave. when L ORENTZ -E INSTEIN transformations don’t pertain. I have conducted my researches from the start by supposing that given the total energy of a body. it needs hypothetical inputs on the value of the propagation velocity. and return to them elsewhere. The phase wave that accompanies a body. Variable motion presupposes a force ﬁeld acting on a body. a ﬁeld is an electromagnetic ﬁeld and our study is on its affects on motion of a charged particle. and in this sense are very instructive.1.CHAPTER 2 The principles of Maupertuis and Fermat 2. Unfortunately. to suppose that. Thus. L AUGEVIN was able to deﬂect them easily because each involved acceleration. for example. is just as unsure for nonuniform motion. M. even not to uniform motion. for present purposes. The methods used in Chapter 1 can not help us here. if it is always to comply with our notions. In this work we shall leave all considerations on gravity aside. V . This has lead me to a very satisfying result which shall be delineated in Chapter 3 in light of B OHR’s interatomic stability conditions. We must expect to encounter signiﬁcant difﬁculties in this chapter in so far as Relativity. is determined by its total energy. Such arguments by illustrious mathematicians have thereby shown again that application of E INSTEIN’s ideas is very problematical whenever there is acceleration involved. a sure guide for uniform motion. has properties that depend on the nature of the body. As far as we know there are only two types of ﬁelds: electromagnetic and gravitational. Guided by the idea of a fundamental identity of the principle of least action and F ER MAT ’s principle. it also must have some affect on propagation of phase waves. if a force ﬁeld affects particle motion. trajectories of one are rays of the other. E INSTEIN to Paris. It seems natural. M. We shall study on the one hand 15 .

the principle of least action is introduced as follows: The equations of dynamics can be deduced from the fact that the integral tt12 dt. .2) ∂ d ∂ dt ∂qi ˙ ∂qi where there are as many equations as there are qi . In classical dynamics. and on the other hand from a very general point of view. which. admit a ﬁrst integral called the “system energy” which equals: ∂ ˙ (2.2. We shall then propose a synthesis of these two. Let us now proceed to the principle of least action of M AUPERTUIS. one has: t1 From this one deduces the equations of motion using the calculus of variations given by L AGRANGE: i. To begin.16 2. t1 and t2 and speciﬁed by parameters qi which give the state of the system. but which has incontestable elegance.e. we shall ﬁnd a solution to the problem we have posed. known as Lagrange’s function. the propagation of waves according to F ERMAT. can be disputed. the difference in kinetic and potential energy. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT the relativistic version of the mechanical principle of least action in its H AMILTONian and M AUPERTUISian form. Two principles of least action in classical dynamics .2.5) © ˙ ∑ qi d dt ∂ ∂qi ˙ ∂ ∂qi ˙ " " F ! % F % F § F § ! £ dW dt ∑ ∂ qi ˙ ∂qi F under the condition that the function shall take to be the case below.3) Ekin Epot ¤ F © £ " F ! (2. between ﬁxed time limits. We shall see below that relativistic dynamics uses a different form for .1) δ t2 dt 0 d dt qi ˙ F E F ¤ F F £ D 2. Moreover. or Lagrgian.2.2. Classical dynamics calls for: ¤ £ F G (2.. depends on qi and qi dqi dt ˙ Thus.2. By deﬁnition. It remains now only to deﬁne . does not depend explicitely on time. which we ∂ qi ¨ ∂qi ˙ ∂ qi ¨ ∂qi ˙ ∂ ∂qi ˙ F § % F H£ § £ F (2. we note that L AGRANGE’s equations in the general form given above. perhaps.4) W ∑ ∂qi qi ˙ i i i P F § " F ! I £ (2. has a stationalry value.2.

it is necessary. there is.6) © D W const . our argument is not false.9) 0 © δ B ∑ pi dqi F £ £ F G £ F £ F G (2.1 In the following we use classical canonical equations: pi ∂ ∂qi . On the contrary. 1Footnote added to German tranlation: To make this proof rigorous.11) δ £ For a material point body.8) 0 © δ t2 ˙ ∑ ∂qi qi dt ˙ ∂ δ B ∑ ∂qi dqi ˙ ∂ £ % F G £ F G (2.2. One may write.2. Ekin known form: mv2 2 and the principle of least action takes its oldest B mvdl 0 ¤ £ £ (2. as it well known. the following holds: i i A where dl is a differential element of a trajectory. no further place here in this new form to impose any time constraints.10) ˙ ∑ pi dqi ∑ pi qidt 2Ekin £ § G (2.2. ¤ £ G (2. Therefore: We now apply H AMILTON’s principle to all “variable” trajectories constrained to initial position a and ﬁnal position b for which energy is a constant. is null. M AUPERTUIS’ ˙ principle may be now be written: A i in classical dynamics where Ekin Epot is independent of qi and Ekin is a homoge˙ neous quadratic function. but.2.2.2. By virtue of E ULER’s Theorem. therefore.2.7) dt W dt 0 © δ t2 δ t2 ¤ £ (2. W . TWO PRINCIPLES OF LEAST ACTION IN CLASSICAL DYNAMICS 17 which according to L AGRANGE.2. t1 and t2 are all constant: t1 t1 or else: t1 i A i the last integral is intended for evaluation over all values of qi deﬁnitely contained between states A and B of the sort for which time does not enter. all varied trajectories correspond to the same value of energy. to also vary t1 and t2 . because of the time independance of the result. as W .

ϕ4 ϕ4 § R£ § R£ § R£ § H£ ϕ1 ϕ1 ax . when it passes a particular point. The two principles of least action for electron dynamics We turn now to the matter of relativistic dynamics for an electron. we introduce another world-vector whose components express the vector potential a and scalar potential Ψ by the relations: 1 Ψ c We consider now two points P and Q in space-time corresponding to two given values of the coordinates of space-time. We imagine an integral taken along a curvilinear world line from P to Q.3) u3 © u3 vz u4 u4 1 § § H£ § H£ © © § © ¤ £ (2.4) ϕ3 ϕ3 az . The components of its world-velocity are: vy vx u1 u2 u2 u1 2 c 1 β c 1 β2 β2 β2 To deﬁne an electromagnetic ﬁeld.18 2.3.3. Let: P P be this integral.2) i 1 2 3 4 ¤ Q © © © £ © ui dxi ds ¤ § § § £ £ (2.1) ds dx4 2 dx1 2 dx2 2 dx3 2 © § R£ § H£ £ .3. “world-velocity” of unit length whose contravariant components are given by: One sees immediately that ui ui 1 Let a moving body describe a world line. it has a form which give this integral a stationary value. H AMILTON’s Principle afﬁrms that if a world-line goes from P to Q. We take it that an electron outside any ﬁeld posses a proper mass me . Here by electron we mean simply a massive particle with charge. it has a velocity v βc with components vx vy vz . The invariant fundamental differential of length is deﬁned by: In this section and in the following we shall employ certain tensor expressions. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT 2.5) m0 c m0 cui © Q eϕi ui ds Q eϕi ui ds ¤ £ £ § H£ § H£ (2. the coordinate ct is denoted by x4 . § § G T£ § § G (2. naturally the function to be integrated must be invariant. and carries charge e.3. ϕ2 ϕ2 ay . A world line has at each point a tangent deﬁned by a vector.3. We now return to space-time. where space coordinates are labelled x1 x2 and x3 . § § c 1 c 1 ¤ § H£ £ § R£ S § H£ (2.3.

If there is no magnetic ﬁeld (irrespective of whether there is an electric ﬁeld) .3.6) Ji m0 cui eϕi i 1 2 3 4 Ji dxi 0 e ϕ v dt © dt 0. ds by cdt 1 β2.8) 1 ecϕ4 0 t2 t1 © δ t2 m0 c 2 β2 ¤ £ § % G £ (2.3.10) i 1 2 3 ¤ Q © © £ © F d dt ∂ ∂qi ˙ ∂ ∂qi £ F E In any case.3.3.11) W ∑ pi dqi const pi ∂qi i 1 2 3 ˙ i Following exactly the same argument as above.9) m0 c 2 1 β2 eΨ 3 S % F H£ § U t1 £ V WS S § § § § S G (2.3. it always © © © £ © S ¡ Let us deﬁne a third world-vector by the relations: .3. If there is a purely electrostatic ﬁeld. we obtain: where t1 and t2 correspond to points P and Q in space-time.2. THE TWO PRINCIPLES OF LEAST ACTION FOR ELECTRON DYNAMICS 19 the statement of least action then gives: (2. Thus. conservation of energy obtains: ∂ (2. Now let us return to the usual form of dynamics equations in that we replace in the ﬁrst equation for the action.3.13) 1 β2 F ¤ £ S § £ S G (2.12) 0 © δ B ∑ pi dqi ¤ Q © © £ F £ ©¤ £ £ " F ! (2. p equals: m0 v p (2. The quantities pi equal to partial derivatives of with respect to velocities qi deﬁne ˙ the “momentum” vector: p.3. then ϕ is zero and the Lagrangian takes on the simple form: In each case for which potentials do not depend on time.3. H AMILTON’s Principle always has the form δ leads to L AGRANGE’s equations: ¤ § § § H£ F (2.7) δ Q P Below we shall give a physical interpretation to the world vector J. one also can obtain M AUPERTUIS’ Principle: A where A and B are the two points in space corresponding to said points P and Q in spacetime.

17) 0 i 1 2 3 4 © © © © £ © δ Q Ji dxi ¤ £ (2. We shall make us of this fact below. Finally. £ G (2. This is not the case if there is a magnetic ﬁeld. From: P one can simplify a bit to: A if J4 is constant. at every point of the given ﬁeld which a body can sample.18) 0 i 1 2 3 © © © £ © δ B Ji dxi £ G (2. This is the least involved manner to go from one version of least action to the other. whilst a priori its direction may vary.3.3. therefore an expression of the integral of motion is more complicated. one ﬁnds that the components of momentum take the form: 1 β2 In this case there no longer is an identity between p and momentum.15) J m0 c u eϕ W c S S S ¤ S S % § £ S (2. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT It is therefore identical to momentum and MAUPERTUIS’ integral of action takes just the simple form proposed by M AUPERTUIS himself with the difference that mass is now variable according to L ORENTZ transformations.3.14) p S S S m0 v ea S 3 S .3. its velocity is speciﬁed by conservation of energy.3. If there is also a magnetic ﬁeld. let us return to the issue of the physical interpretation of a world-vector J from which a Hamiltonian depends. the magnitude of p depends on the angle between the chosen direction and the vector potential as can be seen in its effect on p p.16) J p J4 ¤ S % S S § © XH£ S £ S (2. one ﬁnds: We have constructed the renowned “world momentum” which uniﬁes energy and momentum. Consider a moving body in a ﬁeld for which total energy is given.20 2. We have deﬁned it as: Expanding u and ϕ . The form of the expression of p in an electrostatic ﬁeld reveals that vector momentum has the same magnitude regardless of its direction.

would propagate forward to make the phase then be discordant at a second crossing. There are an inﬁnity of lines in space-time along which a function of ϕ is constant. so we may posit: where Oi . we take a very general and broad viewpoint on space-time. usually functions of xi . The theory of undulations.3) dϕ O4 © 2π νdt £ (2.4. If l is the direction of a ray in the usual sense.4. thereby: The world wave vector can be decomposed therefore into a component proportional to frequency and a space vector n aimed in the direction of propagation and having a magnitude ν V .2. it is the custom to envision for dϕ the form: where ν is the frequency and V is the velocity of propagation. We shall call this vector “wave number” as it is proportional to the inverse of wave length. Wave propagation. the world wave. To do so. leads us to distinguish among them certain of these lines that are projections onto the space of an observer. WAVE PROPAGATION. be two points in space-time. The phase ϕ is an invariant. what law determines its form? Q Consider the line integral P dϕ.4. perturbations breaking phase concordance after a given crossing point. On may write.4. If a world ray passes through these two points. otherwise. FERMAT’S PRINCIPLE 21 2.4.4. P and Q. Let two points such as those above.4) Oi © ν cos xi t V § © £ (2.4. we are lead to the Hamiltonian: P £ G (2. let us suppose that a law equivalent to H AMILTON’s but now for world rays takes the form: P This integral should be. constitute a world vector. If the frequency ν is constant. especially as promulgated by H UYGENS and F RESNEL . stationary. in fact.2) dϕ i ν dl V © 2π ∑ Oi xi ¤ ν V £ G (2.5) 0 © δ Q Oi dxi ¤ £ § H£ (2. F ERMAT’s Principle We shall study now phase wave propagation using a method parallel to that of the last two sections.1) S E δ Q dϕ 0 . Consider the function sin ϕ in which a differential of ϕ is taken to depend on spacetime coordinates xi . which are there “rays” in the optical sense.

how does its phase wave propagate? Instead of searching by trial and error. Extending the quantum relation Thus. In light of these vectors.6) 0 © £ £ S Y δ B ∑ Oi dxi . it sufﬁces to know the distribution of the vector ﬁeld p .3. the same is true to ﬁnd the ray passing through two points.5. Nevertheless.7) δ B νdl V £ 0 G (2.4.4. it sufﬁces to know the wave vector ﬁeld which determines at each point and for each direction.1) O4 ¤ ¤ Q © © © © ¤ ¤ © £ £ S £ £ £ G (2.5.3) dϕ 2πOi dxi Ji dxi h (2. in order to ﬁnd the trajectory of a moving body of given total energy. I shall extend the quantum relation. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT in the M AUPE RTUISien form: A i where A and B are points in space corresponding to P and Q . one gets: A This statement of M AUPERTUIS’ Principle constitutes F ERMAT’s Principle also. we have reached the ﬁnal stage of this chapter. does not prove that the other components are equal.5. in the preceeding sections we deﬁned two world vectors J and O which play symmetric roles in the study of motion of bodies and waves. On the other hand. we pose that: 1 Ji 1 2 3 4 (2. the relation hν w can be written: 1 J4 h The fact that two vectors have one equal component.2) Oi h The variation dϕ relative to an inﬁnitesimally small portion of the phase wave has the value: 2π (2. but in full accord with the spirit of Relativity. 2. By substituting for O its values. the velocity of propagation. At the start we posed the question: when a body moves in a force ﬁeld. by virtue of an obvious generalisation. a bit hypothetically perhaps. We are constantly drawn to writing hν w where w is the total energy of the body and ν is the frequency of its phase wave.Just as in §2.5. as I did in the beginning. to determine the velocity of propagation at each point for each direction.22 2.

Moreover. which in its original form is manifestly insufﬁcient because it involves energy but not its inseparable partner: momentum.4) W m0 c 2 eψ hν £ § £ § £ (2.2) ν h h 1 β2 from which we get: V c β. We believe that the idea of an equivalence between the two great principles of Geometric Optics and Dynamics might be a precise guide for effecting the synthesis of waves and quanta.6. Examples and discussion The general notions in the last section need to be applied to particular cases for the purpose of explicating their exact meaning. EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION 23 F ERMAT ’s Principle becomes then: A i A i Thus. we get the following statement: Fermat’s Principle applied to a phase wave is equivalent to Maupertuis’ Principle applied to a particle in motion. The hypothetical proportionality of J and O is a sort of extention of the quantum relation.6. b) Consider an electron in an electric ﬁeld (Bohr atom).3) © 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 m0 β 2 c 2 dt h 1 β2 1 m0 βc dl h 1 β2 ¤ νdl V £ © § © G £ £ £ £ G (2.6. where energy is given by: 1 β2 ¤ £ % § £ (2. The frequency of the phase wave can be taken to be energy divided by h.6. We wish to check if the predicted propagation velocity for phase waves: c (2.2.6.6.1) V β comes back out of the formalism. The hypotheses from Chapter 1 with the help of Special Relativity allow us to handle this case.5. This new statement is much more satisfying since it is expressed as the equality of two world vectors. we have given it an interpretation from a spacetime perspective. the possible trajectories of the particle are identical to the rays of the phase wave. a) Let us consider ﬁrst linear motion of a free particle. Here we must take: W m0 c 2 (2. 2.4) δ B 3 ∑ Ji dxi δ B 3 ∑ pidxi 0 £ .

with its more or less complicated electromagnetic ﬁeld. Further. This may seem strange. this shows that. Consider an electron whose centre moves with velocity v. Electron we are accustomed to thinking that charge energy-transport through a and mass (as well as momentum and enregion with ﬁelds.6. From a physical point of view. The transfer of this energy through region R. even knowing the ﬁelds therein in detail. (2.7) c 1 β eψ eψ c W β W eψ % 1 § c β eψ £ § £ £ (2.1. ergy) are properties vested in the centre of an electron. and one can say that the starting energy at P was transported to point P .6. it is to be noticed that V is a function of the mass and charge of the moving particle.6.5) px etc 1 β2 © § % £ ¦ ¦ 5 5 £ § . THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT from which we get: V m0 c2 eψ 1 β2 m0 βc 1 β2 This result requires some comment. one has simply: m0 v x (2. We assume that after traversing the region R in Fig. the particle has the same speed but new direction. and to which there is associated electromagnetic energy. expressed in a coordinate system ﬁxed to the particle. The velocity V depends on ψ directly as given by eψ W eψ (a quantity generally small with respect to 1) and indirectly on β. The point P is then transfered to point P .24 2.6) 1 β2 m0 c 2 © 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 m0 βc dl h 1 β2 ©¤ ν dl V When there is no magnetic ﬁeld.6. In connection with a phase $ § $ " § W ¤ £ % £ ! £ (2. however. which according to classical notions is located at point P. only can be speciﬁed in terms of a charge and mass. This may seem bizarre in that F IGURE 2. it is less unreal that it appears.1).6. a phase wave with frequency ν W h propagates at each point with a different velocity depending on potential energy. which at each point is to be calculated from W and ψ.

Thus. there are still obstacles. But even were this difﬁculty overcome. Thus. by considering successive “phases” of the particle in motion and to determine displacement relative to a stationary observer by means of sections of his space as states of equal phase. if a uniformly moving particle with comoving observer is associated with a periodic phenomenon always having the same phase. in this case: β2 where ax ay az are components of the potential vector.2. Unfortunately.9) px eax etc ©¤ © m0 v x § 1 β2 ¤ % £ £ © © hν W m0 c 2 eψ . Maybe. We can not deal with this difﬁcult problem.6. where: (2. If motion is not uniform. A uniformly moving particle would be described by a comoving observer always in the same way. its propagation also must be given in terms of mass and charge Let us return now to the results from Chapter 1 in the case of uniform motion. We might be tempted here again to recover the value of V given above. and we just don’t know how associated periodic phenomenon would be described or whether to each point in space there corresponds the same phase. there does not appear to be good reason to assume that this separation is just the same as for uniform motion. c. a description by a comoving observer can no longer be the same.6.6. however. in order to achieve the same conclusions. present and future spaces of a comoving observer.10) 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 m0 βc h 1 β2 e al dl h νdl V ¤ £ % § § 1 % £ £ (2. We have been drawn into considering a phase wave as due to the intersection of the space of the ﬁxed observer with the past. one encounters here three large difﬁculties. a conclusion that follows for uniform motion from equivalence of Galilean systems. (2.) Consider the general case of a charge in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. then the same velocity will always pertain and therefore the methods in Chapter 1 are applicable. Contemporary Relativity does not instruct us how a non uniformly moving observer is at each moment to isolate his pure space from space-time. which in our conceptions is a substantial part of the electron.8) As we have shown above. EXAMPLES AND DISCUSSION 25 wave. one might reverse this problem.6. and accept results obtained in this chapter by different methods in an attempt to ﬁnd how to formulate relativistically the issue of variable motion.

At the start.2 is therefore fully general and the ﬁrst group of H AMILTON’s equations follows directly.26 2. and the particle’s velocity v no longer has the same direction as the normal to the phase wave deﬁned by p hn. we note that the velocity of a phase wave is deﬁned by: where ν V does not equal p h because dl and p don’t have the same direction. The result from §1. The velocity V varies with the direction.6.14) v βc U dt ∂px ∂ hν V where U is the group velocity following the ray.11) V % 5 ` m0 c2 1 β2 m0 βc 1 β2 eψ 1 c W β W eψ 1 e al G . One can question here the theorem on the equality of a particle’s velocity v βc with the group velocity of its phase wave. One then has the deﬁnition: ν px (2.13) V h The ﬁrst canonical equation then provides the relation: dqx ∂W ∂ hν (2.6.6. © £ 1 £ 0 ¤ £ £ £ £ (2. take it that the x axis is parallel to the motion at the point where px is the projection of p onto this direction.12) © 1 3 pi dqi h∑ 1 1 3 dqi pi dl h ∑ dl 1 ν dl V £ % § eal ¤ £ S % £ S ¦ ¦ £ 5 £ S £ (2. That the ray doesn’t coincide with the wave normal is virtually the classical deﬁnition of anisotropic media. We may. without loss of generality. THE PRINCIPLES OF MAUPERTUIS AND FERMAT So that one ﬁnds: where G is the momentum and al is the projection of the vector potential onto the direction l.6. The environment at each point is no longer isotropic.

4) nh n integer © © ∑ pi dqi 3 £ a (3.1. have shown that it is generally possible to chose coordinates. only certain ones are stable. If we focus on circular motion. (1917) p. the remaining are by nature transitory and may be ignored. it is as follows: 1 where it is to be valid along the total orbit. and B OHR ’s Principle is given as follows: Only those circular orbits are stable for which the action is a multiple of h 2π.1) m0 c 2 R 2 n n integer 2π or. This integral does not depend at all on a 1 E INSTEIN . Ber. alternately: 2π 0 where θ is a Lagrangian coordinate (i.2) pθ dθ nh © © £ . M. That is: h (3. M. der deutschen Phys. E INSTEIN gave this condition for quantisation an invariant form with respect to changes in coordinates1. q) and pθ its canonical momentum.1. B OHR -S OMMERFELD stability conditions In atomic theory.. A. 27 £ a (3. to extend this principle to the case of more degrees of freedom. In 1917.1. Ges.1.e. where h is P LANCK’s constant. qi . 82. for which the quantisation condition is: where integration is over the whole domain of the coordinate. For the case of closed orbits. MM..1.CHAPTER 3 Quantum stability conditions for trajectories 3. S OMMERFELD and W ILSON. B OHR was ﬁrst to enunciate the idea that among the closed trajectories that an electron may assume about a positive centre.3) pi dqi ni h ni integer © © £ G (3. One recognises M AUPERTUIS’ integral of action to be as important for quantum theory. Zum quantensatz von S OMMERFELD und E PSTEIN. then there is only one degree of freedom.

there is no longer indeterminism. It is physically obvious.1. At the end of each pseudoperiod. W . the points of a wave located at whole multiples of the wave length l. in which case all constants are determined. and there is an inﬁnity of pseudo-periods approximately equal to whole multiples of libration periods. We e ´ shall not pursue that here. 3.2. there are a priori three). JACOBI’s equation. always is the case for the above variation. If one succeeds in interpreting this condition. if there are more than one (in the most important case. in other words. must be in phase. Propagation is. E INSTEIN ’s equation applied to each of these pseudo-periods leads to an inﬁnity of conditions which are compatible only if the many conditions of S OMMERFELD are met. one imposes a condition among W and the n 1 others. that of motion of an electron in an interatomic ﬁeld. the particle returns to a state very near its initial state. B LANCHARD editeur. traduction B ELLENOT. The interpretation of Einstein’s condition The phase wave concept permits explanation of E INSTEIN ’s condition. whose value we shall not attempt to calculate. £ £ £ " ! (3. W . It is deﬁned by the classical technique of JACOBI as a total integral of the particular differential equation: where the total integral contains f arbitrary constants of integration of which one is energy. moreover. that to have a stable regime. therefore. If there is only one degree of freedom. it is possible to ﬁnd coordinates that oscillate between its limit values (librations). and ν V dl n integer in the general case. However. which would be the case for K EPLERian ellipses were it not for relativistic variation of mass with velocity. which. i 1 2 ¤¤ © © 9@¤ © © © £ b D ∂s qi ∂qi f § . E INSTEIN ’s relation ﬁxes the value of energy. analogue to a liquid wave in a channel closed on itself but of variable depth. but limit ourselves to remarking that the quantisation problem resides entirely on E INSTEIN ’s condition for closed orbits.5) H W. The resonance condition is l nλ if the wave length is constant. the length of the channel must be resonant with the wave. if motion is quasi-periodic. This matter has been the subject of numerous books in recent years and is summarised in S OMMERFELD’s beautiful book: Atombau und Spectrallinien (´ dition fran caise. angular variables and the residue theorem serve well to determine S OMMERFELD’s integrals. then with the same stroke one clariﬁes the question of stable trajectories. QUANTUM STABILITY CONDITIONS FOR TRAJECTORIES choice of space coordinates according to a property that expresses the covariant character of the vector components pi of momentum. One result from Chapter 2 is that a trajectory of a moving particle is identical to a ray of a phase wave. 1923). along which frequency is constant (because total energy is constant) and with variable velocity.28 3.

for which the demonstration is immediate if one admits the notions from the previous chapter. we have ignored passage from one to another stable orbit. This beautiful result. or. Let us recall now a property of quasi-periodic trajectories.3. If we don’t admit this. Moreover. say on the order of its radius (10 13 cm.3. Now. 3. A theory for such a transition can’t be studied without a modiﬁed version of electrodynamics. a distance deﬁned above. as we saw above. In the particular case of closed circular B OHR orbits in an atom.1) m0 ωR2 n h 2π £ b £ ¦ £ © © c £ . the resonance condition can be identiﬁed with the stability condition from quantum theory. From this we see why certain orbits are stable.).3. small but ﬁnite interval: η. and this is not physically plausible. S OMMERFELD’s multiple conditions bring us back again to phase wave resonance. M AUPERTUIS’ integral of action divided by h. Thus.3. then if. but. which so far we do not have. Sommerfeld’s conditions on quasiperiodic motion I aim to show that if the stability condition for a closed orbit is ∑3 pi dqi nh then 1 the stability condition for quasi-periodic motion is necessarily: pi dqi ni h ni integer i 1 2 3 .2. one may apply to each period % £ % £ % £ (3. the body has returned to a point in a sphere of radius R. stability conditions depend on the interaction with its proper phase wave.1) n1 T1 n2 T2 n3 T3 © τ ε1 ε2 ε3 © £ £ b b ¤ £ (3. there must be coherence with phase waves passing by at small distaces. SOMMERFELD’S CONDITIONS ON QUASIPERIODIC MOTION 29 The integral involved here is that from F ERMAT’s Principle. and if one considers a sphere of small but ﬁnite arbitrary radius R centred on M. This is exactly B OHR’s fundamental formula. it is possible to ﬁnd an inﬁnity of time intervals such that at the end of each. At the start we should note that an electron has ﬁnite dimensions. constitutes the best justiﬁcation that we can give for our attack on the problem of interpreting quanta. If M is the centre of a moving body at an instant along its trajectory. then we must consider the electron as a pure point particle with a radius of zero. the longer the shortest of the τ will be. each of these time intervals or “near periods” τ must satisfy: where Ti are the variable periods (librations) of the coordinates qi . Suppose that the radius R is chosen to be equal the maximum distance of action of the electron’s phase wave. as we have shown. The shorter η is chosen to be. The quantities εi can always be rendered smaller than a ﬁxed. one gets: m0 νdl 2πRm0v nh where v Rω when ω is angular velocity.

it seems that stability conditions come into play in time intervals inaccessible to our experience ¦ ¦ ¦ a £ ¦ G (3.3. there is an objection that should be rebutted. one could say they never play a role. One can estimate the limit of the periods in the case of the L2 trajectory for hydrogen from S OMMERFELD. QUANTUM STABILITY CONDITIONS FOR TRAJECTORIES approaching τ. because the periods τ are very large with respect to the librations Ti . Stability conditions don’t play a role for times shorter than τ. a physicist accepts n 2π α. but may be very small with respect to our scale of time measurements. To satisfy them it is necessary and sufﬁcient that each of the integrals: 0 equals an integer number times h. or about 10 10 seconds. Thus. These are actually S OMMERFELD’s conditions. the periods Ti are in effect. the concordance condition for phase waves in the form: 0 1 where we may also write: 0 i But a resonance condition is never rigorously satisﬁed.3. where α is less than a small but ﬁnite quantity ε which may be considered the smallest physically sensible possibility. If a mathematician demands that for a resonance the difference be exactly n 2π . if waits of millions of years are involved. Rotation of the perihelion during one libration period of a radius vector is on the order of 2π 10 5.3. while on the right n is an arbitrary whole number. ni are known whole numbers. However. qi Qi i 1 2 3 f ¥ ¤ ¤ Q © © £ e £ © ¥ % G (3.30 3. on the order of 10 15 to 10 20 seconds. in an atom.3.5) ∑ ni h 3 Ti pi qi ˙ nh g Choosing now the limit η such that η ∑3 Pi Qi 1 g ¦ g (3.2) nh © τ d τ 3 ∑ pi dqi nh . We have thus an inﬁnity of similar equations with different values of ni . The preceeding demonstration appears to be rigorous.6) pi qi dt pi dqi © Ti ¤ £ G (3. however. we see that. The quantities pi and qi remain ﬁnite in the course of their evolution so that one may ﬁnd six other quantities Pi and Qi for which it is alway true that: εh 2π.4) pi Pi . it does not matter what the quasi period is.3) ∑ ni Ti pi qi dt εi pi qi ˙ £ G ¥ (3.3. This objection is not well founded. The shortest periods then are about 105 times the period of the radial vector (10 15 seconds). which permits neglecting the terms εi to write: 0 i 1 On the left side.

3. is that each integral is relative to each variable and. and. takes a whole number of quanta. SOMMERFELD’S CONDITIONS ON QUASIPERIODIC MOTION 31 of time. therefore. that trajectories “without resonances” can easily be taken not to exist on a practical scale. over a period. 351): “The reason that M AUPERTUIS’ integral equals an integer time h. B RILLOUIN who wrote in his thesis (p.” i . This is the reason S OMMERFELD posited his quantum conditions.3. The principles delineated above were borrowed from M.

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one takes it that an electron always has proper mass m0 at its position in the electrostatic ﬁeld of a proton. then their interaction is negligible. say) removed from a charged body. if they exist. To better understand this difﬁculty. There is here a difﬁculty that is not really a part of the subject of this work and is not elucidated by current relativistic dynamics. whilst an electron has m0 c2 . one might expect that a perturbation of electron mass due to alterations in potential energy are observable. given the extreme precision of spectrographic measurements. and one can apply easily the principle of inertia of energy: a proton has internal energy M0 c2 .1. so should we consider that a proton always has mass M0 and an electron m0 ? Should not potential energy be parcelled between these two components of this system by attributing to an electron a proper mass m0 αP c2 . But if the two are close to each other. B OHR remarkably managed to estimate on the basis of nuclear capture. Potential energy is always much less than internal energy m0 c2 . but nothing says that it is fully rigorous. a hypothesis that is not inexact. with mutual potential energy P 0 how must it be taken into account? Evidently it would be: M0 m0 c2 P. If these two are far removed one from another. This correction would be smaller than the difference between RYDBERG constants for hydrogen and helium (1 2000). what is the value of αand does it depend on M0 or m0 ? In B OHR’s and S OMMERFELD’s atomic theories. Particular difﬁculties In the preceeding chapters we repeatedly envisioned an “isolated parcel” of energy. One ﬁnds: δR R 10 5. 33 § £ § £ © % g § § % § ¦ . Total internal energy is therefore: M0 m0 c2 . and to a proton: M0 1 α P c2? In which case. a difference which M. One can easily calculate the order of magnitude of the largest correction (corresponding to α 1) . that should be apportioned to the RYDBERG constant in the BALMER series if the opposite hypothesis is taken. Nevertheless. This notion is clear when it pertains to a charged particle (proton or electron.CHAPTER 4 Motion quantisation with two charges 4. this notion is not so clear. But if the charge centres interact. consider a proton (hydrogen ion) of proper mass M0 and an electron of proper mass m0 .

In Chapter 2 we established a general parallelism between fundamental quantities of dynamics and wave optics. the frequency and velocity of the electronic x-system ﬁxed to center of phase wave in a system ﬁxed to the nucleus gravity. The plane of these orbits shall be taken as the plane of the same two coordinates in both systems.2. We shall now focus on the case in which an electron and nucleus execute circular motion about their centre of gravity. F IGURE 4. Let space coordinates in a Galilean system attached to the centre of gravity be xi and those attached to the nucleus be yi . MOTION QUANTISATION WITH TWO CHARGES 4. its motion is the same as for Galilean axis and as if the electron’s mass equaled: µ0 m0 M0 m0 M0 In a system of axis ﬁxed in a nucleus. system for hydrogen. those values to be attributed to -system ﬁxed to nucleus. which is not Galilean. B OHR managed to treat this problem with support of the following theorem from rational mechanics: If one relates electron movement to axes ﬁxed in direction at the centre of the nucleus. is that concerning the method of application of the quantum conditions to a system of charged particles in relative motion. y therefore. and reduced to the problem without motion of the nucleus by virtue of the substitution of the ﬁctive mass µ0 for the real mass m0 . Nuclear motion in atomic hydrogen A question removed from the preceeding considerations. Thanks to this artiﬁce.2) © y2 x2 R sin ωt y4 x4 © £ © % £ y1 x1 R cos ωt y3 x3 ¤ Q % £ ¤ % £ ¤ £ £ .1) η M0 M0 m0 The transformation formulas between these two systems are then: £ % £ (4.2.1.2. Further. M. the electrostatic ﬁeld acting on an electron can be considered as constant at all points of space. Axis the theorem mentioned above determines.2.34 4. quantisation conditions of stability can be considered also in this case as phase wave resonance conditions. let: (4. The simplest case is that of an electron in atomic hydrogen when one takes into account simultaneous displacement of the nucleus. so that x4 y4 ct Let ω be the angular frequency of the line of separation of nucleus and electron about the centre of gravity G .

2.2.2.4) © ui dyi ds pi m0 cui eϕi m0 cgi j ui eϕi ¤ § § § % " § 1 § § § ! § £ £ i ds 2 dx4 2 dx1 2 dx2 2 dx3 2 2 % .2.3) 2 sin ωt dy1 dy4 2 cos ωt dy2 dy4 c c Components of a world momentum vector are deﬁned by: One easily ﬁnds: 1 η2β2 η2β2 Resonance of a phase wave. NUCLEAR MOTION IN ATOMIC HYDROGEN 35 From these equations one deduces: ω2 R 2 dy4 2 dy1 2 dy2 2 dx3 c2 ωR ωR (4.2. following ideas from Chapter 2.2. by the condition: if follows: where v is the velocity of the electron with respect to the y axes and dl is the tangential inﬁnitesimal element along the trajectory given by: ¤ £ p % £ (4.8) vdl © 1 h p1 dy1 P2 dy2 1 h m0 % % £ (4.7) © ωR r cos ωt © % § £ dy1 dt dy2 dt ωR r sin ωt £ % a (4.6) 1 p1 dy1 p2 dy2 n n integer h where this integral is to be evaluated over the circular trajectory of the vector separation R r of the electron from the nucleus.5) p3 0 ωRvdt P § 1 § I £ p2 © m0 dy2 dt ωR cos ωt P % I § £ p1 © m0 dy1 dt ωR sin ωt ¤ % £ % £ ¨ £ (4.2. Since one has: © ¨ ¤ £ (4.9) v ωR r § 1 η2β2 dl dt § a £ C % a (4.2.4.

introduction of axes ﬁxed on a nucleus permitted elimination of its motion. © £ ¤ ¤ % £ £ 3 r" % % % % © £ % % % § 1 η2β2 £ s % § ! q % (4. The resonance condition of the electron’s phase wave at any given instant is not modiﬁed. In sum one sees that B OHR’s conditions may be interpreted as resonance expressions for the relevant phase waves. consider the phase wave of an atomic electron. 4.2.2) 2π ω R r 2 nh m0 M0 Consider now a phase wave of the nucleus. if we consider axes ﬁxed with respect to the centre of gravity.11) 2πm0 ω R r 2 nh m0 M0 This is exactly B OHR’s formula that he deduced from the theorem mentioned above and which again can be regarded as a phase wave resonance condition for an electron in orbit about a proton. the ray of the phase wave that passing through E is at each instant a circle centred at N and of length R r. MOTION QUANTISATION WITH TWO CHARGES Finally. to obtain the same formulas. reducing the problem to an electron in an electrostatic ﬁeld thereby bringing us to the problem as treated in Chapter 2. both the electron and nucleus are seen to execute circular trajectories. it is always: m0 M0 (4. the resonance condition is: m0 M0 p1 dy1 p2dy2 2π ω R r 2 nh (4. In all the preceeding. In a system ﬁxed on the nucleus. The two phase waves of electron and nucleus In the preceeding.1) m0 M0 where the integral is to be evaluated at a constant time along the circle centred at N with radius R r. Stability conditions for nuclear and electron motion considered separately are compatible because they are identical. which is the trajectory of the relative motion and the ray of its phase wave. But.10) r 1 2π R r nh © a # m0 ωR ωR v % . one for each. but this circle is moving because its centre is rotating about the centre of the coordinates. nucleus and electron play a symmetric role so that one can obtain the resonance condition by exchanging M0 for m0 .3.3. and we must examine the consistency of the resulting resonance conditions. and therefore we must consider two phase waves. If now we consider the axis ﬁxed to the centre of gravity G. when β2 deviates but little from 1 one gets: M0 (4. the relative trajectory makes a circle centred on G of radius r.36 4. and R for r.2.3. For a start. the resonance condition gives: where.

nucleus and electron orbits of hydrogen. THE TWO PHASE WAVES OF ELECTRON AND NUCLEUS 37 It is instructive to trace in an axes-system ﬁxed to the centre of gravity instantaneous positions of the two phase waves (plane features). . but these rays are not the trajectories of energy.3. envelops of velocity. which are rather their tangents at each point. in other words. and of the trajectories as developed in the course of time (point like features). are not particle trajectories if their form is invariant. This fact reminds us of certain conclusions from hydrodynamics where ﬂow lines. if movement is constant.1.3. 8 F IGURE 4. To emphasise one last point: the rays of the wave at the instant t are the envelopes of the velocity of propagation. Phase rays. It appears in fact as if each moving object describes its trajectory with a velocity which at each instant is tangent to the ray of its phase wave.4.

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and therefore the deductions made in Chapter 3 regarding the stability of B OHR’s atom appear to be interesting conﬁrmation of those facts leading us to form a synthesis of N EWTON’s and F RESNEL’s conceptions. it appears as a little region of space within which energy is highly concentrated and forms an undividable unit. Phys.. therefore. a task we shall not attempt here. we may attribute to it a proper mass: This deﬁnition is entirely analogue to that used for electrons. has been conﬁrmed by the idea of real existence of “atoms of light”. an essential difference between it and an electron.1. Journal de Physique. The atom of light1 As we saw in the introduction. by the principle of inertia of energy.’ A hypothetical input enabling us to develop a theory of black body radiation. represent a quantum of light as having the same symmetry as an electrodynamic doublet. an atom of light posses additional symmetry corresponding to its polarisation. The concepts delineated in Chapter 1. Without obscuring the above mentioned difﬁculties. 132 (1906). There is. 39 ¤ £ (5. Phys. 1922.CHAPTER 5 Light quanta 5.1. 17. Ann. d. This agglomeration of energy has a total value ε0 (measured by a ﬁxed observer).. 1See: E INSTEIN A. make precise the constitution of the unit of light after serious modiﬁcations to electrodynamics. the theory of radiation in recent times has returned to the notion of ‘light particles. if it is accepted. from which. however. as published in: “Quanta and Black Body radiation”. While an electron must be considered as a fully spherically symmetric object. 185 (1909). This paradigm is provisional. We conceive of it in the following manner: for an observer who is ﬁxed. we shall try to specify more exactly just how one is to imagine an “atom of light”. 10. the principle results of which will be covered in Chapter 7. We shall. one may only. Zeitsch.1) m0 ε0 c2 . Nov.

in a very small velocity interval c ε c . LIGHT QUANTA In accord with our general notions. kinetic energy can be expressed extreme smallness of m0 c2 becomes m0 c2 simply as: β2 § 1 ¤ (5. the 1 β2. have great variability of energy.1.1. and.40 5. more exactly put. there corresponds energies having values 0 ∞ .3) 1 β2 © ν 1 h m0 c 2 ¤ 1 £ (5. Since we are trying to establish a correspondence between phase waves and light waves. the frequency ν of radiation is deﬁned by: β2 We note. which results in the following expression for kinetic energy: β2 Moreover.5) ν 1 h m0 c 2 © § § 1 ¤ § £ (5. in spite of the virtual identity of velocities.1. that we must remind ourselves that atoms of light are under consideration. we suppose that there exists in the constitution of a light quantum a periodic phenomenon for which ν0 is given by: The phase wave corresponds to the motion of this quantum with the velocity βc and with frequency: and it is appropriate to suppose that this wave is identical to that wave of the theory of undulation or. It is an experimental fact that light energy moves with a velocity indistinguishable from that of the limit c.2) %© t ν0 1 m0 c 2 h . The velocity c represents a velocity that energy never obtains by reason of variation of mass with velocity. If a particle with an extraordinarily small proper mass. is to transport a signiﬁcant amount of energy.6) m0 c 2 § § 1 ¤ £ (5. We suppose that even with extremely small m0 (this shall be elaborated below) light atoms still have appreciable energy and velocity very close to c. it must have a velocity very close to c.1.4) E m0 c 2 1 § £ (5. so we may assume that light atoms also move with a velocity very close to but still slightly less than c. that the classical wave is a sort of a time average of a real distribution of phase waves accompanying the light atom.1.

Nevertheless. to motion of an atom of light with velocity: v βc related to ν by: Except for extremely slow oscillations. One should not overlook that it is not a question regarding velocity of a phase wave. Let us take it that waves for which 1 ν 10 1 seconds have a velocity differing from c by less than 1%. Effectively.9) m0 max 10 c2 which is approximately 10 24 grams.2. rectilinear propagation is not a universal fact. -A. THE MOTION OF AN ATOM OF LIGHT 41 A light wave of frequency ν corresponds. that many light corpuscles can have the same phase wave. rays that pass an edge close with respect to the wave length deviate so as not to satisfy F ERMAT’s Principle.3 5. m0 c2 hν .1.1.. are very small and one may pose: m2 c 4 0 2h2 ν2 Let us try to determine the upper limit of m0 for light. It is possible that m0 is still smaller.5. that is.. The motion of an atom of light Atoms of light for which β 1 are accompanied by phase waves for which c β c. therefore. F.F. S. so that their trajectories would be various rays of the same phase wave. w£ ¦ £ ¤ © " 5 £ § ! £ (5.8) v c 1 ¤ § v £ £ (5. The old idea that a ray is the trajectory of energy is well conﬁrmed. There are reasons to believe. yet one might hope that some day experiments on very long wave length light will reveal evidence of a velocity discernibly below c . page 69. see the appendix to Chapter 5.2. the experiments of T. in the German edition.1.7) w£ ¦ £ u v βc c 1 m2 c 4 0 h2 ν2 . From a wave 2Changed to: ‘experiments on H ERTZian waves’. This implies that the upper limit of m0 is: 2 hν (5. which is always above c . and a fortiori its square. Light atom trajectories are rays of their phase wave. we think. a wave passing an edge of a screen will diffract and penetrate the shadow region. Association of F ERMAT’s Principle together with mechanical “least action” explains why propagation of light is compatible with these two points of view.2 have shown that even light waves with wave length of several kilometres have a velocity essentially equal to c. which we shall see below. but of energy transport detectable experimentally..K. this coincidence between light wave and phase wave is what evokes the double aspect of particle and wave. 3Regarding objections to these notions.

For a ﬁxed observer. neglecting εε : § v £ § £ £ (5.e. but here we would encounter the problems brought up in Chapter 2 regarding variable motion and we do not yet have a satisfactory resolution. dynamics of point materiel particles doubtlessly hide wave propagation in the real sense that the principle of least action is expressible in terms of phase coherence. It seems that we have arrived at a synthesised viewpoint: wave rays curve as forseen by wave theory. It would be very interesting to study the interpretation of diffraction in space-time.3. If it seems to us nowadays probable. This source emits atoms of light with frequency ν and velocity c 1 ε where ε m2 c4 2h2 ν2 .3. Some concordances between adverse theories of radiation Here we wish to show with some examples how the corpuscular theory of light can be reconciled with certain wave phenomena. this seems to lead to the following conclusion: Our dynamics (in its E INSTEIN format) is based on Optics.2) 1 1 1 1 β β ν ν © ε % § % § £ e$ § (5.3. that a corpuscle and its phase wave are not separate physical realities. The theorem of addition of velocities gives: or where. that all waves transmit energy.1) c1 1 c1 εv c2 1 ε β 1 εβ 1 1 © ε ¦ y % % § c1 ε £ $ $ £ x$ § © § $ v β β . i. they are subject to the same motion as the phase ray to which they are uniﬁed. this deviation results from disequilibrium introduced by a screen on various near zones of a wave. 5. but as light atoms move because the principle of inertia of light is no longer valid.3.. these quantities have magnitudes 0 ν and c 1 ε . N EWTON considered that a screen itself exercised force on light corpuscles. it is a form of Geometric Optics.3) © % $ © % $ ε ε ν2 ν2 £ $ § (5. In contrast. LIGHT QUANTA point of view. Upon reﬂection. a. maybe we can say that screens exercises force on them to the extent that a curve is evidence of existence of such a force.42 5.) Dopper Effect due to moving source: Consider a source of light moving with velocity v βc in the direction of an observer considered to be at rest. In the preceeding we were guided by the idea. so on the other hand.

M.3. The addition law for velocities gives: 4 Note that DE B ROGLIE’s term was “light atom” or “quantum”. one gets the usual optics formulas: ν T v 1 β 1 β 1 ν T c It is just as easy to get the relationship between intensities measured by two observers. nhν and the intensity is I nhν. the energy density of a bundle appears to be: and the intensity: From which we get: All these formulas from a wave point of view can be found in5. 5von Laue.5. Thus. Consider reﬂection of a photon impinging perpendicularly on a mirror moving with velocity βc in a direction perpendicular to its surface.6) I nhν nhν $ % 1 1 β β § v (5. therfore.3. The energy density of a bundle evaluated by this observer is.5) © % nhν c 1 1 β β ν ν % ¤ § § £ £ § £ § % § $ £ (5. SOME CONCORDANCES BETWEEN ADVERSE THEORIES OF RADIATION 43 if β is small. ν2 and c 1 ε2 . b. Vol. 3 ed. p. a term coined by G.3. -A. For the sake of contemporary readability. ν is the frequency of phase waves accompanying photons with velocity c 1 ε1 For a stationary observer. For an observer at rest. a moving observer sees that the source emitted n photons4 per unit of surface. c 1 ε2 .3. hereafter in this translation the latter term is used. n photons are emitted in a a time 1 1 β2 and ﬁll a volume c 1 β 1 β2 c 1 β 1 β . For a ﬁxed observer . Die Relativit¨ tstheorie. not “photon”.4) $ © £ ¤ Q$ § $ § § § $ . If we now consider reﬂected photons. N.3. their corresponding values are: ν2 . I. a £ e § c1 © ε1 $ § % % $ § c 1 ε1 1 β1 βc ε1 § ¤ " ! £ (5.) Reﬂection from a moving mirror.7) $ I I ν ν 2 ¤ $ £ § v$ $ £ $ (5. 119. this frequency and velocity are: ν1 and c 1 ε1 ..K. however. During a unit of time.F. Lewis ﬁrst a year later in 1926.

3.3.3. a volume element. The ratio of intensities before and after reﬂexion are given by: All these results are also given in6. here it is absolutely obvious.11) 1 2 T1 c Oblique reﬂection is easily included. an isotropic distribution of velocities. E2 is in proportion to their energy before reﬂexion. Let n be the number of photons reﬂected during a given time interval. total kinetic energy) of the photons in a unit volume. on recovers the classical formula: T2 v (5. the volume after equals: V2 V1 1 β 1 β . r its distance from the coordinate origin.) Black body radiation pressure: Consider a cavity ﬁlled with black body radiation at temperature T .3. Total energy of these n photons after reﬂection. M. That is: Neglecting ε1 ε2 . Let ds be an inﬁnitesimal wall element.8) c1 ε2 $ § § § $ § c 1 ε2 1 β1 βc ε2 $ $ % § $ .44 5. we presume. LIGHT QUANTA For a stationary observer. what is here the same.124.9) © © ν1 ν2 ε1 ε2 § § § $ § § % % $ § 1 ε1 β1 β ε1 1 ¤ ε2 β1 β ε2 £ C § (5. c.3. p. which elementary geometric reasoning shows easily. gives: If β is small. E1 .12) $ nhν2 nhν1 ν2 ν1 ¤ " § ¤ ! § £ $ $ £ " $ $ ! £ (5.13) $ % $ I2 I1 nhν2 nhν1 1 1 β β ν2 ν1 2 £ ¤ $ £ (5. black body radiation is a photon gas with. Let u be the total energy (or. What is the pressure on the cavity walls? In our view. and θ the angle to the normal of the wall.10) % $ ε1 ε2 ν2 ν1 2 1 1 β β 2 $ $ 1 1 ¤ £ $ $ £ $ $ £ (5. dv . The solid angle under which the element ds is seen from the centre O of dv is: 6 VON L AUE.3. Electrodynamik. reﬂection occurs without change of frequency because of conservation of energy. If n photons occupy a volume V1 before reﬂexion. ¤ " $ ! £ " § ! $ £ (5. given by: Although Electrodynamics also yields this relation.

3.3. so that when v c one gets: ¤ £ (5. an impulse 2G 2W cos θ c is imparted to ds. by dividing by ds radiation pressure π 2 0 Radiation pressure equals one third of the energy contained in a unit volume.e. in quantity: nw dwdv. and ﬁnally r from 0 to c.3.3. the number among them which are directed toward ds is.14) dΩ ds cos θ r2 % .3.. by virtue of isotope.17) 4 § © £ G W c G § Moreover. one ﬁnds: Thus. i.3. equal to: Changing to polar coordinates with the normal to ds as polar axis.19) p u cos2 θ sin θdθ u 3 £ E ¤ (5. photons in dv impart an impulse to ds through reﬂection of : W ds cos θ cos θ nw dwr2 sin θ dψdr c 4πr2 Integrating now ﬁrst with respect to w from 0 to ∞ and noting that 0∞ wnw dw u. The ease with which we recovered certain results known from wave theory reveals the existence between two apparently opposite points of view of a concealed harmony that nature presents via phase waves. ¤ £ G £ (5. we obtain the total momentum deposited in one second on ds and.5. which is the same as the result from classical theory. SOME CONCORDANCES BETWEEN ADVERSE THEORIES OF RADIATION 45 Consider now only those photons in a volume dv whose energy is between w and w dw. by reﬂection at angle θ of a photon of energy w.3. then with respect to ψ and θ from 0 to 2πand 0 to π 2 respectively.18) 2 £ ¤ £ (5.16) dv r2 sin θ dθdψdr 1 β2 and its momentum ¤ £ ¥ (5. kinetic energy of a photon would be m0 c2 m0 v 1 β2.15) dΩ 4π nwdwdv nw dw ds cos θ dv 4πr2 ¤ £ (5.

Thus. no doubt of a statistical character. etc. that emission and adsorbtion of radiation occurs in a discontinuous fashion. We shall develop in the next section our ideas on interference. Photons and wave optics7 The keystone of the theory of photons is in its explanation of wave optics. 5.4. B OHR. as delineated in Chapter 1. can serve as guidance for intrepid researchers who wish to ﬁnd a theory of electromagnetism in better accord with the concept of photons. as we said. One places a material object with which light reacts either chemically. On can consider it proven with near certitude. the author porposed a different theory of interfearance. “On the theory of light Quanta. at this point. M. Electromagnetism. M AXWELL’s equations then are a continuous approximation of discreet processes. Let us turn now to this difﬁcult problem on the ﬂanks. This correspondence being sufﬁciently imprecise and elastic. it is necessary. 447 (1926). with his correspondence principle. then it has a certain global exactitude. to establish a certain natural liason. It is very likely. has shown us that if one attributes the assumptions of this theory to an ensemble of electrons. Interference and coherence8 To start.. 183. it will be most likely with notions of this type that it will be done. it is still not possible to claim satisfactory results for this task. Mag. LIGHT QUANTA 5. 8Footnote in the German translation: In more recent work.” Phil. (See: Comptes Rendus. just as the laws of hydrodynamics are a continuous approximation to the complex detailed motion of molecules of a ﬂuid. 46 (1923). between classical waves and the superposition of phase waves.) . the most we can say is that E INSTEIN’s audacious conception was judiciously adapted along with a number of phenomena which in the XIX century so accurately veriﬁed the wave theory. To proceed at this task. or more precisely the theory of electrons. which should lead inexorably to attribute an electromagnetic character to phase waves so as to account for periodic phenomena.46 5. one 7See: BATEMAN . However. thermally. that if the theory of photons shall explain optical wave phenomena. Perhaps all of electrodynamics has only a statistical validity. 977 for histoirical background and bibliography. it seems we have managed to establish a close association between the motion of photons and wave propagation of a particular mode. in all candour. it is possible that in the last analysis all of these effects are just the photoelectric effect. Unfortunately. One can also consider the diffusion of waves at this point in space. we consider how to establish the presence of light at a point in space.. they should be taken as speculations more than explanations. H.5.. The essential point is that this explanation necessitates introduction of a phase wave for periodic phenomena. gives a rather inexact explication of these processes. in effect.

The ideas developed herein lead to associating phase waves with electromagnetic waves. there is no detection—there is negative interference.6. A wave therefore can consist of many photons that retain the same phase. We propose to express this coordination by the following principle: A phase wave passing through material bodies induces them to emit additional photons whose phase wave is identical to that of the stimulus. details of the internal transformations that a material atom undergoes by emission and absorbtions can not be imagined at all. When the number of photons is very large. therefore. We admit always the granular hypothesis: we do not know in the least if a photon adsorbed by an atom is stored within it or if the two meld into a uniﬁed entity. This is in principle a very qualitative explanation of interference. it must be taken that emission results in the diminution of the source atom’s internal energy in 5. for which the total energy equals h times the frequency of the photon’s accompanying phase wave. light would be undetectable experimentally. likewise we do not know if emission is ejection of a preexisting photon or the creation of one from internal energy. it is certain that emission never results in less than a single quantum. to salvage the conservation of energy principle. So that interference can produce regularities.6. This notion together with that of the correspondence leads us to consider that the probability of an interaction between material particles and photons at each point in space depends on the intensity (more accurately on its average) of a vector characteristic of the phase wave. they can be absorbed in some places and in others not. Whatever the case. CONCLUSIONS 47 can say that where there is no such reaction by material. Whatever point of view one adapts. it seems necessary to coordinate various atoms within a source. Conclusions . BOHR’S FREQUENCY LAW. Electromagnetic theory holds that photographic effects (W IENER’s experiments). these effects are indiscernible. One imagines. at least regarding phase wave distribution in space. and diffusion. and where this is null. while taking the discontinuous feature of light energy into account. that where photons traverse an interference region. this wave very closely resembles the classical conception of a wave. even if there is magnetic energy. N ORMAN C AMPBELL in his book “Modern Electrical Theory” (1913) appears to have envisioned a solution of the same gender when he wrote: “Only the corpuscular theory of light can explain how energy is transfered at a spot. questions regarding intensities must be set aside. M.5. while only the wave theory can explain why the transfer along a trajectory depends on location. It seems that energy itself is transported by particles while its absorption is determined by special waves”. occur in proportion to the electric ﬁeld intensity. wherever the electric ﬁeld intensity is null. B OHR’s frequency law.

. at least in its simple form. 9 E INSTEIN A.. leads also to the Law of Frequencies. if we impose the condition that an emission always comprises just one photon. which we shall consider below. We note that the image of emission from the quantum theory seems to be conﬁrmed by the conclusions of MM.. although those phenomena such as dispersion appear incompatible with the notion of photons. and that serious difﬁculties remain. E INSTEIN and L EON B RILLOUIN . premature to judge its ﬁnal fate.-H. Zeitschr. C OMPTON. LIGHT QUANTA accord with B OHR’s Law of frequencies: One sees that our conceptions.6. d.9 which showed the necessity to introduce into the analysis of the interaction of black body radiation and a free body the idea that emission is strictly directed.1) hν W1 W2 . B RILLOIN . 18. 2. e ¤ § £ (5. it is. s´ rie VI. How might we conclude this chapter? Surely.. 142 (1921). Journ. it seems to us. it appears that now they are less inexplicable given ideas regarding phase waves. A. supports with serious empirical evidence the existence of photons in a domain in which the wave notion reigned supreme. It is nonetheless incontestable that concepts of parcelled light energy do not provide any resolution in the context of wave optics.48 5. after having leads us to a simple explanation of stability conditions. The recent theory of X-ray and γ-ray diffusion by M. Phys. L. 121 (1917). Phys.

1912) p. J. Electron theory explains this quite simply. This is the theory with which Lord R AYLEIGH explained the blue colour of the sky. motion of the vibrating electrons must be determined.CHAPTER 6 X and γ-ray diffusion 6. J. so that waves are diffused more strongly as their frequency increases. The ﬁnal result is that there is a scattering of a fraction of the incident waves into all directions of space. can be attributed to the electronic vibration. The theory of dipole radiation shows that the intensity of secondary radiation falls off as the fourth power of wave length.2 1T HOMPSON . Passage de l’´ lectricit´ a travers les gaz. Paris. Let us begin by deﬁning the phenomenon of diffusion. It supposes (in direct opposition to B OHR’s atomic model) that electrons in atoms are subject to quasi-elastic forces and have determined frequencies. This eventually establishes equilibrium between the incident radiation and redirected radiation. according to which one envisions a bundle of rays. (Gauthier-Villars. M. 49 . so that passage of an electromagnetic wave affects the amplitude of the oscillation of the electrons depending on the frequencies of both electrons and wave. In conformity with the theory of wave acceleration. e e` 2Lord R AYLEIGH deduced his theory on the basis of the elastic theory of light. 321. but independent of its frequency. some of which are scattered in various directions. J. J. In order to calculate the extent of diffusion. On says that there is diffusion if the bundle is weakened by redirecting some rays while traversing material.. motion of electrons is ceaselessly diminished by emission of a cylindrical wave. but this explantion accords well with electromagnetic theory also. Thompson’s theory1 In this chapter we shall study X and γ-ray diffusion and show by suggestive examples the respective views given by electromagnetic and photon theory.1. numerical results show that the inertial term can be neglected in the quasi-elastic term so an amplitude proportional to that of the stimulus wave. To do so one may express equilibrium between the resulting inertial force and the quasi-elastic force for one part and the electric force from the impinging radiation for the other part. In the visible range.

1) sx © Iα I 8π e4 3 m2 c 4 0 p % £ u 7 7 0 54 0 29 . M. contrarywise. T HOMPSON’s theory leads to interesting ¤ ¤ £ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ £ (6. but also now to wave length squared. which accords well with our notion of the ratio of the number of electrons to atomic weight. M. one gets: (6. so that one has: 24 This quantity is nearly 2. energy as a function of θ is given then by 1 cosθ 2. s ρ.1.1. This constant. If one denotes the ‘atomic’ diffusion constant σ as that relative to a single atom. These two principles can be stated as follows: 1 If one designates by θ the diffusion angle relative to the incidence direction.1. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION In the high frequency X and γ-ray region.1. is the bulk diffusion constant. T HOMPSON to formulate the ﬁrst theory of the diffusion of X-rays.1. J. then in terms of bulk diffusion constant it would be: where A is the atomic number of the scatter and mH is the mass of hydrogen. This is the fact leading J. it is. According to empirical evidence. nowadays there is good reason to suppose that the number of electrons of an element equals its atomic number.5) ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ A p 0 54 10 24 0 2 1 46 10 ¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ £ (6. T HOMPSON supposed incoherent emission from the p electrons of an atom and.1. Substituting the numerical factor from Eq. Thus. normalised by material density. All transpires as if electrons were free and vibrational motion simply proportional not only to the incident amplitude. diffusion suffers a gradual diminution given by an exponential law: where s is the decay or ‘diffusion’ constant.50 6. therefore. considered that the diffused energy should be p times that of a single electron. the quasi-elastic term in comparison to the inertial term that is negligible. (6. 2 The ratio of diffused to incident energy per second is given by: where e and m0 pertain to the electron and c is the speed of light. An atom certainly contains more that one electron.3) © σ s AmH ρ ¦ £ (6. experience shows that s ρ is very nearly 0 2.2) Ix I0 e © £ (6.4) σ 0 54 10 24 But.1).

If the wave length is long with respect to the average distance between electrons. D EBYE believes he has seen this phenomenon in certain experiments done by M. W.2.2. and not p . Phys. 3Historical works on X-ray diffusion can be found in the book by MM. For waves with progressively shorter wave lengths. D EBYE considers that the atomic electrons are distributed regularly in a volume with dimensions of the order of 10 8 cm. F RIEDRICH. The reason for this is: one may no longer regard the vibrations of the various electrons as being in phase when the wave length is comparable to interatomic distances. M. The diffused energy then is proportional to p2 . so it becomes energies that add. M. which have been largely veriﬁed already long ago3 There remains difﬁculties. not amplitudes. intensity is not regular but. notably M. La physique des rayons X (Gauthier-Villars. Even though M. Paris. Debye’s theory4 σ 8π e4 2 p 3 m2 c 4 0 . 809 (1915). DEBYE’S THEORY5 51 coincidences with various experiments. but to its square.1) ¦ D 6. for the sake of calculations he supposes they are distributed on a circle. they are in phase so that amplitudes add and diffusion within the cone is much stronger than elsewhere. so that σ becomes: So.. the spacial distribution is asymmetric. D EBYE has proposed a theory completely compatible with both MM. with respect to spacial distribution. it seems that so far there is no explanation. Ann. 46. The strong diffusion cone recedes progressively. for the whole wave the amplitudes of each ray add. D EBYE was ﬁrst to observe a curious phenomenon. energy in the direction from which it came is less than in the opposite direction. ¤ £ (6. the distribution reverts to being symmetric and begins to satisfy T HOMPSON’s formulas because the waves from various electrons are no longer in phase. However. BARKLA’s. R. this phenomenon can be simpliﬁed. B RAGG and BARKLA . 1921) p. T HOMPSON’s result. M. 4 Debye. on a screen placed perpendicular to the propagation direction one sees concentric bright rings cantered on the axis.. H. in a sharp cone in the direction of propagation. For short wave lengths. the motion of the electrons will be essentially in phase and. L EDOUX -L EBARD and A. shows certain periodical variations. d. B RAGG has found a stronger diffusion than calculated above for which he concludes that the dispersed energy is proportional not to the number of scattering centres. M. 137.2. D AUVILLIER. in particular. P.6. The amplitudes of rays in various directions do not add because they are out of phase and therefore diffused energy is reduced. when diffused energy is charted along the axis of the cone deﬁned above. it is identical to M..

1) hνθ hν0 1 hν0 hνθ cos θ c c © m0 c 2 1 ¤ ¤ ¤ . the higher the frequency. So. on the other hand. Debye and Compton Experimentation with X and γ-rays reveals facts quite distinct from those predicted by the above theory. SupF IGURE 6. it applies actually less and less.1). X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION The great advantage of M. P. so that one has: 1 β2 Eq. " " § 1 β2 ¤ § ! % ! £ (6. C OMPTON. so that the value 0 2 of the coefﬁcient s ρ can be obtained. The recent theory of MM. Before completion of an interaction an electron absorbs a certain amount of energy from a photon so that after interaction the frequency of a photon is reduced. 6.52 6. it can be taken that they interact. (6.3.3. there where T HOMPSON’s theory should apply more and more. D EBYE and A.3. (6. Practically simultaneously both MM.3. H.3. Two additional light phenomena have been discover recently by clever experimentation. But it is essential to note that following D EBYE’s ideas. the higher the frequency. Compton pose that a scattered photon goes in a discattering rection at angle θ to incoming radiation. the more the value of the coefﬁcient s ρ decreases rapidly until the wave length goes under ˚ 0 3 or 0 2A and becomes very weak for γ-rays. Their idea is: if a photon passes close enough to an electron. D EBYE’s theory is that it explained the strong diffusion of soft X-rays and showed how it happens that when frequency is increased the theory goes over to T HOMPSON’s. To begin. the more symmetric diffused radiation.3.2) was derived with aid of Fig. H. One is that it appears that diffusion in the direction of the stimulus radiation is accompanied by a reduction of frequency and the other is ejection of the scattering electron. that this is not at all the case. the more pronounced the dissymmetry of diffused radiation.1. A. including that by M.2) m0 βc 2 hν0 c 2 hνθ c 2 2 § § § £ (6. Frequencies before and after interaction are ν0 and νθ and proper mass of an electron is m0 . C OMPTON each in his own way has found an explanation for these phenomena based on classical physics principles and the existence of photons. such that conservation of momentum governs the outcome. the less the total diffused energy. we shall see in the following section. However.

4) λθ λ0 1 2α sin2 θ 2 © % £ £ c . D EBYE applied the correspondence principle somewhat differently but obtained an equivalent interpretation of the same phenomenon. seems to have calculated scattered energy and thereby explained the rapid diminution of the coefﬁcient s ρ.6. It must be taken that in this case scattering occurs without photon degradation. M. occurs when incident photons acquire little change in wave length because the scattering centre can not respond and compensate by virtue of its high inertia.3. the lines of scattered radiation from the crystals usually used as reﬂectors. the other case. To begin. THE RECENT THEORY OF MM. which is equal to the quotient of ν0 and an electron’s proper frequency. For low frequencies the ﬁrst appears to predominate to the extent that. that is all there is. measurements of the wave length of R ONTGEN waves have shown this effect. while its velocity will be between 0 and a certain maximum. which appears to be true only for green light. A. MM. In an article in The Physical Review (May. Experiments by M. would exhibit to an appreciable extent to the ¨ C OMPTON -D EBYE effect. in particular for hard rays in soft materials. ROSS on scattering of MoKα and green light in parafﬁn conﬁrms this point of view. DEBYE AND COMPTON 53 The velocity v βc is the velocity an electron acquires during the interaction. so that it follows: ν0 (6. lets try to explain these two types of scattering in the following manner: the C OMPTON effect occurs whenever an electron is relatively weakly bound in a scattering material. M. M. ¤ 1 % 0 £ (6. 1923) and in another more recent article in the Philosophical Magazine (Nov. C OMPTON shows how these ideas enable computation of many experimental facts. it seems that there coexists a diffused line with no change of frequency and another diffused line which follows the C OMPTON -D EBYE law.3) νθ 1 2α sin2 θ 2 or With aid of these formulas one can study speed and direction of photon scatter as well as electron ‘kick back’ or recoil. The existence of a non displaced line appears to explain why scattering in a crystal (VON L AUE effect) is not accompanied by a variation of wave length. the variation of wave length has been quantitatively veriﬁed. M. For solid bodies and soft radiation. Let α be the ratio hν0 m0 c2 . H. One ﬁnds that photon scattering direction varies from 0 to π and that electron recoil from π 2 to 0. C OMPTON appealing to hypothesis inspired by the correspondence principle. Kα lines exhibit a strong line of scattered radiation following C OMPTON’s Law and a weak line of unaltered frequency. on the other hand.3. C OMPTON had difﬁculties accepting this explanation. JAUNCEY and W OLFERS have shown recently that. in fact.3. in effect. 1923).

it is subject to the difﬁculties considered above. moreover. Total adsorbtion. An empirical law by MM. and it appears that. it is not the same. following the conceptions from the C OMPTON -D EBYE theory. Even if various ancillary corrections are taken into account. and. For a light gas (air). this result is seen experimentally to be much smaller than calculations predict. B RAGG absorption in comparison to C OMPTON absorption is strong. the coefﬁcient of atomic absorption varies as the fourth power of the atomic number. When. and the other with a light gas such as air. In so far as. Ionisation in the gas is due to both electrons being stripped from atoms as well as by recoil of electrons. only the absorbed energy following the B RAGG Law can produce ionisation of the gas by virtue of high velocity photoelectrons shocking atoms. As means to render compatible the conception of scattering as being the deviation of a photon with conservation of phase—as found necessary to explain VON L AUE ’ S interference patterns. thereby making evident the sum of masses of all scattering centres. We shall now give an example. one must admit that hard photons and heavy scatters behave differently that soft photons and light scatters. the ﬁrst cause of this due to variation by N 4 is very weak and the second dependant on N should be the more important one. scattering is exclusively wave scattering. It is possible in this way even to compute D . ¨ This law is well veriﬁed in the middle range of R ONTGEN frequencies and it seems highly probable that it will apply as well to hard X-rays. not at all further resolved from the point of view of wave optics than we indicated in the preceeding section. at least in the case of hard radiation. one with a heavy gas. there is not only scattering of radiation but also “absorption by scattering”. a phenomenon that is accompanied by emission of photoelectrons. Whichever way it is. The B RAGG -P IERCE Law then permits calculating the ionisation produced by the same hard radiation in two separate ampoules. as they are in practice for radiotherapy. and therefore ionisation in the two gases. B RAGG and P IERCE shows that this absorption varies as the cube of the wave length and undergoes crass discontinuities for each characteristic frequency of the interatomic levels of the considered substance. these phenomena must be completely modiﬁed by C OMPTON’s effect. M. In a heavy gas (CH3 I). that is what happens. a portion of the energy is transfered to scattered electrons. for the same wave length and diverse elements.54 6. The new scattering theory appears to be able to explain these anomalies quite well. in effect. One knows that there is a greater diminution by scattering suffered by a sheaf of X-rays traversing material than by absorption. DAUVILLIER has observed this phenomenon in X-rays for which an explanation is for me an old intriguing question. Up to the matter of hard X-rays and light materials. should therefore be much smaller than anticipated. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION preferring to consider that multiple scatterings of the outgoing photon were involved. for example CH3 I.

after the impact. One can generalise the Compton-Debye theory by considering scattering of photons off moving electrons.4. One sees with this example the large practical consequence of the ideas of MM.4. the C OMPTON effect.4.2) a1 1 β2 2 a2 © hν1 c m0 β 1 c hν2 p c m0 β 2 c § § 1 % £ % (6. Scattering via moving electrons . is present but diminished.4) m0 β 1 c c1 hν2 r c m0 β 2 c § § 1 β2 1 % £ (6. of the electron before impact of the photon is deﬁned by the direction cosines a1 b1 c1 . from the resulting equations and 2 2 2 those expressing the conservation of energy.6. represented by the term with α. βc. the D OPPLER Effect also arises.. The direction of the velocity.5) ν2 ν1 § 1 β1 cos θ1 § £ % % § 1 β2 1 1 β2 2 ¤ % £ (6. it follows that: When the initial velocity is null or negligible. If the C OMPTON Effect is ¤ § % % £ § 1 β1 cos ϕ 2α 1 β2 sin2 θ 2 1 ¤ £ (6.4. C OMPTON AND D EBYE. Now. eliminate β2 .3) b1 1 β2 2 b2 c2 © m0 β 1 c hν2 q c m0 β 2 c § § 1 β2 1 % £ % (6. Conservation of energy and momentum during the impact imply: β2 1 Eliminate a2 b2 c2 using a2 b2 c2 1. the y and z axes may be arbitrarily chosen to be orthogonal and in a plane containing the scattering centre.e.4. SCATTERING VIA MOVING ELECTRONS 55 the ionisation.1) hν1 hν2 1 β2 2 © m0 c 2 m0 c 2 £ © © © © © © % £ % £ © © £ 6.4. moreover. Let us take the x axis to be the direction of incoming photons whose frequency is ν1 . then.6) ν2 ν1 1 2α sin2 θ 2 In the general case.4. a1 cos θ1 . i.4. Let the electron’s have ﬁnal velocity β2 c whose direction cosines are a2 b2 c2 . we get C OMPTON’s formula: 1 (6. Recoil of the scattered electrons provides the key idea to understanding many other phenomena. with C OMPTON’s relationship: α hν1 m0 c2 . and we let θ1 be the angle with the x axis. a scattered photon propagates with frequency ν2 and with direction cosines p q r making an angle ϕ with the initial electron velocity (cos ϕ a1 p b1 q c1 r) and the angle θ with the x axis (p cos θ).

8) 1 β1 cos ϕ © ν2 ν § 1 β2 1 ¤ ¤ § § § £ (6. at least those concerning X-rays. it will start to vibrate at frequency ν . This is effectively what happens. attributes the frequency: from which one easily gets: 1 β1 cos θ1 1 β1 cos ϕ T HE C OMPTON Effect remains in general quite weak. Let us calculate now the frequency of the scattered radiation (including relativistic effects). one might expect to get a result identical to that from electrodynamics.7) ν2 ν1 § £ $ $ . Here we have to do with a strengthening of the photon because the scattering electron is itself moving with high velocity and gives some of its energy to the radiation. The impinging radiation with respect to the electron has the frequency: 1 β1 cos θ1 ν ν1 1 β2 1 If the electron maintains its translation velocity β1 c. an observer who receives radiation scattered in the direction making an angle ϕ with respect to β1 c of the source. It is not impossible that some of the above conclusions could be veriﬁed experimentally.4. X AND γ-RAY DIFFUSION negligible.4. one ﬁnds: 1 β1 cos θ1 1 β1 cos ϕ As.9) ν2 ν1 § § $ £ (6. The conditions for S TOKE’s Law are not met. ¤ § £ (6.56 6. photon scattering does not disturb electron motion. while the D OPPLER Effect attendant to a fall of several hundred kilovolts can reach high values (an increase of a third for 200 kilovolts). in this case.4.

CHAPTER 7 Quantum Statistical Mechanics 7. etc. that the entropy of a gas in a particular state is.1) £ p ℵ! n1 !n2 ! nn ! . but it is not without its difﬁculties and objections. Consider ℵ objects which may distributed among m “states” or “cells” considered a priori to be equally probable.1. he arrived at this notion for the ﬁrst time from analysis of the random collisions of the gas molecules. These postulates recall a well known demonstration of a certain analytic derivation of thermodynamic quantitates that has the advantage of being applicable to case of continuously variable states as well as discontinuously variable ones. from the works of MM. P LANCK and E INSTEIN one prefers the relationship S k log P as the deﬁnition of the system’s entropy S. which depends on the temperature scale. to begin. B OLTZMANN has shown. The thermodynamic probability then would be: 57 ¤ ¤¤ 9@¤ £ (7. In this deﬁnition.1. we intend here ﬁrst to recall certain fundamentals in their currently common form. P is not the mathematical probability equal to the number of micro-conﬁgurations giving the same macroscopic conﬁguration over the total number of possible conﬁgurations. and then examen how they affect our new ideas for the theory of gases and black body radiation. the product of the logarithm of the probability of the state times “B OLTZMANN’s constant” k. A certain conﬁguration is realized when there n1 objects in cell 1. Review of statistical thermodynamics The interpretation of the laws of thermodynamics using statistical considerations is one of the most beautiful achievements of scientiﬁc thought. n2 in cell 2. This choice of deﬁnition for P allows for the determination (somewhat arbitrary) of the constant of entropy. rather the “thermodynamic probability” equal simply to the numerator of this ratio. Nowadays. In is not intended in the context of this work to analyse critically these methods. up to an arbitrary additive constant.

to satisfy the minimum condition. is: This is the so-called “canonical” distribution. one concludes that the most probable distribution.1. and so are the δni . The thermodynamic entropy of the system corresponding to this most probable distribution.1.3) kδ 1 βεi © δS ∑ ni log ni m k ∑ δni m k ∑ log ni δni m ¤ § £ £ (7. (7.2) £ ¢ S k log P kℵ log ℵ k ∑ ni log ni m . Eq. Maximum entropy is determined by 1 1 the condition: δS 0.6) is alternately: m βεi kβE W § ¦ § £ (7.1. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS When ℵ and all the ni are large numbers.6) S kℵ log ℵ ∑ m kαe βεi log α ¤ Q ¦ £ ¦ £ (7.1.8) 1 T dS dE ∂S ∂β ∂β ∂E ∂S ∂E dβ dE dβ dE ¤ % ¦ % £ (7.5) ni © U 1 αe βεi α e η £ V % % (7. the only one realized for all practical purposes. while ∑m ni 1 ℵ and ∑m εi ni 1 E 1 total energy .1. Given the above.58 7. Now we consider the resorting of objects among cells such that the total energy is left unaltered. the following equation must be satisﬁed: where η and β are constants.1. The method of indeterminate coefﬁcients requires that.9) kℵ kE kβ © ¦ ∑m εi e 1 βεi % 3 £ £ (7.7) S kℵ log ℵ α kβ log ∑ e £ £ however.4) 0 © ∑ log ni m η βiεi δni § £ § R£ £ § R£ (7.1.1. Entropy will now vary as: 1 1 with the conditions: ∑m δni 0 and ∑m εi δni 0. is given by: 1 To determine β we use the thermodynamic relations: ∑m e βεi 1 % % § £ (7.1. we may use S TIRLING’s formula to obtain the system entropy: 1 Suppose that for each cell there corresponds a value of a function which we shall call the “energy of an object in that cell”.

but a gas comprised of N identical molecules of mass m0 such that the state is deﬁned by 6N parameters. Free energy of this ¤ ¦ £ (7. is an invariant of the equations of motion and therefore its value is independent of the choice of coordinates.13) ¯ F kT log ∑e m βεi ¤ ¦ £ (7.15) w d pdqdr © © 1 m0 v 2 2 ¦ £ (7.1.16) dn Ce w kT 4πm0 3 2 2wdwdxdydz % £ 5 4 £ (7. Suppose that the velocities are sufﬁciently weak to justify using nonrelativistic dynamics.1. Finally.1. In turn. dxdydzd pdqdr (where x y z are coordinates of position and p q r are the components of momentum).1. then we have: where G m0 v 2m0 w is the momentum. one is then led to M AXWELL’s Equal Partition Law giving the number of atoms falling in the element dxdydzd pdqdr: where w is the kinetic energy of the atoms.14) dn Ce dxdydzd pdqdr 4πG2 dG © w kT © © ¤ ¦ § H£ (7.1. REVIEW OF STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS 59 and because ∑m e βεi 1 The free energy can be calculated from: 1 1 The mean value of the free energy for one of the objects is therefore: 1 Let us apply these considerations to a gas comprised of identical molecules of mass mo . the number of atoms contained in this volume element.7. From L IOUVILLE’s Theorem (equally valid in relativistic dynamics) we learn that the inﬁnitesimal element of phase space for a molecule. not an isolated molecule.11) F E Ts E kℵT log ∑e m βεi βkT E ¤ £ £ £ £ (7.1.10) E kβ © © ℵ ¦ 5 £ £ ∑m εi e 1 βεi ¯ ℵε 1 T β 1 kT . whose energy is between w and w dw is given by the classical formula: It remains now only to calculate the free energy and entropy. To do so we take as the object of the general theory.12) kℵT log ∑e m βεi § ¦ § £ © © § £ (7. From this one is lead to the idea that the number of equally probable states is also proportional to this quantity.1.1.

M.1. it would be: 1 M.1.1.22) E Nm0 c2 £ (7. (7.19) NkT log e N ∞ 1 e h3 ε kT dxdydzd pdqdr h3 " ∞ ¦ ¦ G G G G G dRHRRG ! § £ F kT log e © 1 N! ∞ ε kT dxdydzd pdqdr h3 ¤ % £ § R£ (7. so that it follows that: and 3 kNT 2 At the end of his book “Warmestrahlung”.1. therefore. as the average volume of the N atom gas. One can say. but divided by N! to take account of indistinguishability of molecules. from this one gets the entropy and energy from the usual thermodynamic relationships: Upon evaluating the integral one ﬁnds: where V is the total volume of the gas.21) S kN log © 4 e5 2V 2πm0 kT Nh3 3 2 P I 4 § £ (7. P LANCK showed how one can deduce the “chemical constant” involved in equilibrium of a gas with its condensed (liquid) phase.16).18) ∂F E F TS ∂T In order to do these calculations.17) kT log © § ¯ F ∑e m βεi β 1 kT N . P LANCK has shown how this sum is to be evaluated: it is to be expressed as an integral over the the phase space of 6N dimensions. Measurements have veriﬁed P LANCK’s method. P LANCK has determined it with the following disconcerting hypothesis: “Phase space for a molecule is divided into cells of volume h3 ”.1. or that all points of the same cell correspond to states impossible to distinguish physically from each other. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS gas in the thermodynamical sense is deﬁned following G IBBS. This factor has dimensions of inverse cube of action.60 7. P LANCK’s hypothesis leads to writing free energy as: S ¤ £ ¦ © § R£ (7. it is necessary to determine the constant C in Eq. which is equivalent to the product of N integrals over the phase space of a single molecule. that in each cell there is a single point whose probability is not null.20) F kNT log © 4 Nm0 c2 eV 2πm0 kT Nh3 3 2 P " ∞ ¤ ¦ ¦ G G G G G eRRHRG ! I § £ (7.1.1. ¤ % £ (7. Free energy can be calculated in a similar fashion.

with respect to a container) as the only stable situation. One can question how there can exist a stable wave formation in view of the fact that atoms of a gas are in chaotic motion due to constant collisions with each other. for which stable trajectories are deﬁned by stability conditions such that unstable waves would be regarded as unphysical. This is somehow an analogue to a B OHR atom. one can take the probability that the velocity is between v and v dv as being proportional to dv. If moving atoms of a gas are accompanied by waves.. We shall now examine how these two aspects are to be introduced into the above formulas.7. to imagine stationary phase waves in a gas of massive atoms at equilibrium. To begin. the number of atoms deﬂected from their initial motion during a time interval dt by cause of collisions is exactly compensated by the number redirected into this very same direction. The probability that a molecule is found in an element dx of AB is therefore dx l. however. if one considers phase space spanned by x and v. the mean velocity of an atom is 10 cm. all elements dxdv are equally probable. J EANS./sec.2. necessary on average for collision free travel. therefore. and during the time interval 10 10 sec. THE NEW CONCEPTION OF GAS EQUILIBRIUM 61 So far we have made use of neither Relativity nor our ideas relating dynamics with waves. The new conception of gas equilibrium . for example. that are reﬂected at A and B. According to classical notions./sec. and the mean free travel 10 5 cm. this atom traverses 9 105cm. the container must then contain a pattern of standing waves. if..2. even of large dimensions.2. therefore. these phase waves forming a standing pattern (that is. It seems possible. the mean velocity of the phase wave would be c2 v 9 1015 cm. all transpires as if the original atoms traversed a container without any deﬂections at all. let us consider at the start the simple case of molecules that move along the line AB of length l. We are naturally drawn to consider how within the notions of black body radiation developed by M. If the velocities are low enough to justify ignoring relativistic terms. the wave length of a wave moving with an atom whose velocity is v. The situation is very different.1) © £ λ c β m0 c 2 h h m0 v ¦ ¥ ¦ % ¥ £ f 7. would be: (7. can be incorporated into the study of thermodynamic equilibrium. when the stability conditions discussed above are taken into consideration. To better understand the nature of the modiﬁcations we shall try to impose on statistical mechanics. one can respond that thanks to the uncoordinated character of atomic motion.. Moreover. or 9 kilometres. a phase wave can travel many time the length of a container. during free travel. The initial distribution of of velocities is to be random.

Here the occasion has arrived to use the theorem demonstrated in §1.2.5) nν δν γ ν δν UV 2 where γ equal 1 for longitudinal waves and 2 for transverse waves. If w designates the kinetic energy.6) hν w © m0 c 2 m0 c 2 m0 c 2 1 α α w m0 c 2 £ § © ¤ ¤ % £ (7.5) must not be misinterpreted. But. One may. as in general in every small interval there is an enormous number of admissible values of v. From this one sees: m0 l (7. then: v nv0 ¤ Q £ £ (7. the distribution of representative points is the same as that imagined in statistical mechanics. just as M. and by a mechanism which is yet to be fully determined. Let us now consider a gas in three dimensions.2.2. The distribution of phase waves in a container is fully analogous to that used in the usual analysis of black body radiation. not all values of v are present in every situation. with the group velocity U βc and frequency ν 1 h m0 c 2 1 β2. Numerical evaluation shows that even for extremely small values of δv on the scale of experiments.2. the motion of atoms for which there is no stable wave conﬁguration are automatically excluded. thus every small rectangle in phase space represents an enormous number of possible values of v.2.2) l nλ n © ¢ h m0 v n integer £ £ . An atom of velocity v βc. J EANS did in this case. the following expression: 4π 2 (7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS and the resonance condition is: The velocity therfore is restricted to multiples of v0 . calculate the number of stationary waves for which the frequency is between ν and ν δν. there corresponds a large interval δn.3) £ £ £ £ Let h m0 l v0 . it is taken to be discontinuous. On can take it that in general the quantity m0 δxδv h can be handled as an inﬁnitesimal. Eq. distinguishing between group velocity U and phase velocity V . (7.2. corresponds to a wave having phase velocity V c β. in principle. nevertheless it is possible for the purposes of calculation to regard it as a differential. there corresponds m0 δxδv h possible states. The variation δn of the whole number n corresponding to a variation δv of the velocity gives the number of states compatible with existence of stationary phase waves. One ﬁnds in this case. which is the classical expression divided by h. in each element of phase space δxδv.4) δn δv h All transpires as if. one ﬁnds according to the relativistic formulas: 1 β2 ¤ Q £ % £ % £ § £ (7.62 7.2.

Zeitschr. Let us apply Eq. 434 (1912).2. phase waves by reason of symmetry are analogous to longitudinal waves. gives the number of atoms in the volume element dxdydz with kinetic energy between ω and ω dω: ω 4π m0 c2 1 α α α 2 e kT dωdxdydz h3 For atoms.2) uν dν C ¦ (7. O.. we may take 1 α to be very close to 1 and therefore: ω dω dxdydzd pdqdr ω ω 4π 3 2 m0 2ωe kT dωdxdydz Ce kT h3 h3 ω Obviously.9) C ¤ ¦ % % % (7. Zeitschr.1) C 8πh 3 ν e c3 hν kT dν © 8π 2 hν ν e kT dνdxdydz c3 for energy density corresponding to these frequencies: ¤ % G ¦ £ % £ ¦ (7.2. d.8) Cγ ¤ % % % £ 5 £ (7.2. (except for a number of atoms negligible at usual temperatures) . 15.3. H.3. THE PHOTON GAS 63 From which it follows: 4π 2 4π ν dν γ 3 m0 c2 1 α α α 2 dω 2 UV h Calling on the canonical distribution mentioned above. In so far as α is large with respect to 1..7. The photon gas If light is regarded as comprising photons. Ann. 958 (1911). f. Zeitschr..1 7.3. H.. Ann. 79 (1921). for these atoms (except for a small number that can be neglected at normal temperatures). d.. and 40. both α 1 and α 2 may be replaced with α. 14. 38.7) £ % i nω dω γ . We have already shown in Chapter 3 that this idea leads to an exact expression for radiation pressure.3. Brody. (7. Tetrode. 67 (1913). Phys. Phys. 629 (1913). this method shows that the number of possible molecular states in phase space is not the inﬁnitesimal element itself but this element divided by h3 . Thus.. 14.. Phys. black body radiation can be considered as a gas in equilibrium with matter similar to a saturated vapour in equilibrium with its condensed phase. 36. 695 (1914). W.. their proper or rest energy m0 c2 is substantially greater than their kinetic energy. Phys. ¤ ¦ £ (7.. Phys. so we take γ 1. Zeitschr. O.. 16. Here γ 2 by reason of symmetry of units as emphasised in §5. We note that the values of the velocities that lead to this result are those from J EAN’s formula. Keesom. Phys. Thus. This veriﬁes P LANCK’s hypothesis and thereby results obtained above.8) to this gas. E. Moreover.2. one gets for the number of photons per unit volume with energy between hν and h ν dν : 1On this matter see: Sackur. Stern. 212 (1913).1.

64

7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS

The constant can be seen to have the value 1 by arguments presented in my article entitled “Quanta de lumi` re et rayonnement noir” in Journal de Physique, 1922. e Unfortunately the law obtained in this way is W IEN’s Law, i.e., only the ﬁrst term in a series of the exact law found by M. P LANCK. This should not surprise us, for by supposing that moving photons are completely independent of each other, we necessarily come to a result for which the exponent is that found in M AXWELL’s distribution. We know incidentally that a continuous distribution of radiant energy in space leads to the R AYLEIGH Law as J EANS has shown. But, P LANCK’s Law goes to the expressions proposed by MM. W IEN and R AYLEIGH as limits whenever hν kT is very large or small respectively. To get P LANCK’s Law a new hypothesis is needed, which without abandoning the notion of the existence of photons, that will permit us to explain why the classical formulas are valid in certain domains. This hypothesis can formulated thusly: If two or more photons have phase waves that exactly coincide, then since they are carried by the same wave their motion can not be considered independent and these photons must be treated as identical when calculating probabilities. Motion of these photons “as a wave” exhibits a sort of coherence of inexplicable origin, but which probably is such that out-of-phase motion is rendered unstable. This coherence hypothesis allows to reproduce in its entirety a demonstration of M AXWELL’s Law. In so far as we can no longer take each photon as an independent “object” of the theory, it is the elementary stationary phase waves that play this role. What shall we call such an elementary stationary wave? A stationary wave may be regarded as a superposition of two waves of the form:

where ϕ0 can take on any valuer between 0 and 1. By specifying a value for ν and ϕ0 , a particular elementary standing wave is deﬁned. Consider now for a particular value of ϕ0 all the permissable values of ν in a small interval dν. Each elementary wave can transport 0 1 2 photons and, because the canonical distribution law may be applied to these waves, one gets for the number of corresponding photons:

If ϕ0 takes on other values, one gets other stable states and by superposing several of these stable states, that correspond to one and the same elementary wave, one gets yet a further stable state. Therefrom we see that the number of photons for which the energy

¦

∑∞ e 0

hν p kT

¤

£

(7.3.4)

Nν dν

nν

¦

∑∞ pe 1

%

h

g

(7.3.3)

hν p kT

i ©

sin 2π νt cos

x λ

ϕ0

¤¤ @9¤ © ©

7.3. THE PHOTON GAS

65

1

per unit volume. A can be a function of temperature. For a gas, in the usual sense of the word, m0 is so large that one may neglect all terms but the ﬁrst in the series. For this case, on recovers Eq. (7.2.8). For a photon gas, however, one ﬁnds:

**and, therefrom, the energy density: 8πh 3 ∞ ν ∑e c3 1
**

hν p kT

This is actually P LANCK’s formula. But, it must be noted that in this case A 1. First of all, it is certainly true here that A is not a function of temperature. In fact, total radiation energy per unit volume is:

∞ 0

and total entropy is given by:

where V is total volume, and because u f T and P u dS 3 this expression is an exact differential where the integrability condition can be written:

£

(7.3.11)

S

A

©

64π 4 2 ∞ 1 k T V∑ 4 c3 h 3 1 p

£

This is the classical Stefan Law, which leads to setting A above gives us the values of the entropy:

C. The reasoning used

¤

£

£

§

£

(7.3.10)

or 4

©

©

1 du T DT

4 1 du 3 T dT

4 u 3 T2

u T

du dT

u

αT 4

¤

§ £

%

£

(7.3.9)

% %

£ lV

£

%

U

£

dS

PdV

V

©

1 d uV T

dV du u P T T V du 4 dV dT u T dT 3 T

"

!

£

dG £

(7.3.8)

u

uν dν

A

1

©

48πh c3

kT h

4 ∞

∑ p4

1

£

¤

¦

£

(7.3.7)

uν dν

A

¦

£

(7.3.6)

Nν dν

A

dν

dν

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8π 2 ∞ ν e c3 ∑ 1

hν p kT

k

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%

%

£

(7.3.5)

Nν dν

Aγ

4π m0 c 2 1 h3

α

αα

2 dω ∑ e

j

%

is between ν and ν

dν is:

∞

m c2 ω p 0 kT

66

7. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS

and free energy:

It remains only to determine the value of A. If it turns out that it can be shown to be equal to 1, we shall get P LANCK’s formulas. As remarked above, if one neglects terms where p 1, the matter is such that, the distribution of photons obeys the simple canonical law: 8π 2 hν ν e kT dν c3 and one can calculate the free energy using P LANCK’s method for an ordinary gas, so that identifying the result with expression above, one sees that: A 1. In the general case, one must use a less direct method. Consider the p-th term in P LANCK’s series: hν 8π (7.3.14) nνp dν A 3 hν3 e p kT dν c One may this as:

which admits the claim: Black body radiation can be considered to be a mixture of inﬁnitely many gases each characterised by one whole number p and possessing the property that, the number of states of a gaseous totality located in the volume dxdydz and having energy between phν and ph ν dν equals 8π c3 p ν2 dνdxdydz. From this, one can calculate free energy using the method in §7.1. One gets:

1

1

where:

∞ 0

So, ﬁnally:

i

g

§ H£

(7.3.18)

F

A

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16π 4 4 e k T log c3 h 3 A

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16π k3 T 3 1 V c3 h 3 p 4

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(7.3.16)

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8π 2 ν e c3 p

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(7.3.15)

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(7.3.13)

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16π 4 4 ∞ 1 k T V∑ 4 c3 h 3 1 p

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7.4. ENERGY FLUCTUATIONS IN BLACK BODY RADIATION3

67

and, by identiﬁcation with the expression above, it follows: e (7.3.19) log 1 A 1 A which is what we want to show. The coherence hypothesis adopted above has lead us to good results and we still avoided founding by returning to the laws of either R AYLEIGH or W IEN. The study of it ﬂuctuations has provided us a new proof of the importance of black body radiation. 7.4. Energy ﬂuctuations in black body radiation2 If energy parcels of value q are distributed in very large quantitates in a given space and if their positions vary ceaselessly and randomly, a volume element normally contain¯ ¯ ing n parcels, has energy E nq. But, the actual value of n varies considerably from ¯ n, which, from a theorem of probability theory satisﬁes n n 2 n, so that the mean ¯ ¯ ¯ square ﬂuctuation of energy would be:

On the other hand, one knows that energy ﬂuctuations of black body radiation in a volume V are given by a law of statistical thermodynamics, namely:

8πk 2 c3 Vuν dν 2 ν T ε2 3 2 dν c 8πν V and this result, as might be expected, corresponds to that obtained considering interference in electrodynamics. If, on the other hand, one takes W IEN’s Law, which corresponds to the hypothesis that radiation is comprised of independent photons, one gets:

¯ which again leads directly to ε2 Ehν. Finally, for the truly realistic case, i.e., using P LANCK’s Law, one ﬁnds:

2 E INSTEIN A., Die Theorie der Schwartzen Strahlung und die Quanten, Proceedings Solvay Conferrence,

p, 419; L ORENTZ , H.-A., Les Th´ ories statistiques en theromdynamique, Reunion Conf/’erences de M. H.-A. e L ORENTZ au Coll` ge de France, (Teuner, Leipzig, 1916) pp. 70 and 114. e

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(7.4.3)

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for the interval ν to ν

£

(7.4.2)

d uν dν dT dν. Now, using R AYLEIGH’s Law, one gets:

©

ε2

kT 2V

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£

§ £

(7.4.1)

ε2

n

n 2 q2 ¯

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¯ Eq

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On the other hand.6) uν dν ∑ 3 ν3 e p kT dν ∑ n p ν phνdν 1 c 1 1 Naturally.68 7. only its written form is different.4. this expression is at root identical to E INSTEIN’s. QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS ε2 therefore appears to be the sum of a term for which radiations would be independent parcels. has a coherent phase wave. It thus appears virtually certain that every effort to reconcile discontinuity of radiant energy and interference will involve the hypothesis of coherence mentioned above. ¤ k £ (7. it is interesting that it brings us to say:One can correctly account for ﬂuctuations in black body radiation without reference to interference phenomena by taking it that this radiation. and a term for which it should be purely undulatory.7) £ and. the notion that collections of photons into “waves” leads us to write Planck’s Law: ∞ ∞ hν 8πh (7. as a collection of photons.4. one gets: ¯ ε2 ∑ n p νdν ∞ phν 2 © k £ ¦ £ n . by applying the formula ε2 nq2 to each type of grouping. hν. But.

in such a way that there is among these variables the relationship: from which one deduces: This point of view led us to remarkable compatibilities between the D OPPLER Effect and radiation pressure.4. while undulatory ideas lead to R AYLEIGH’s Law. by means of an example with the hope of providing a resolution of this difﬁculty. -A. the velocity βc of energy transport also gets lower. in accord with the old theories. develop a notion suggested by the above considerations.4 I shall. it is also subject to a perplexing difﬁculty: for decreasing frequencies ν. The passage from one to the other of these laws. must be closely related to the above objection. it seems to me. This objection is very interesting because it brings attention to the issue of passage from the purely high frequency corpuscular regime to the purely low frequency undulatory regime.K. We have shown in Chapter 7 that corpuscular notions lead to W IEN’s Law.9) β 1 m0 c 2 hν § £ (7. that in the low frequency domain one should. 69 £ ¤ " ! o§ v £ (7.8) hν 1 β2 © 2 m0 c 2 . that the remaining material in this appendix was omitted in the German translation. This is more difﬁcult to accept than. 4It may be of historical interest.F. as is well known. Unfortunately.Appendix to Chapter 5: Light quanta We proposed considering photons of frequency ν as small parcels of energy characterised by a very small proper mass m0 and always in motion at a velocity very nearly identical to the speed of light c. also assign the velocity c to radiant energy. such that when hν m0 c2 it vanishes or becomes imaginary (?).4.

4. this similarity is sullied by the fact that each photon represents a ﬁnite mass m0 although the classical theory of electromagnetism attributes no mass at all to light. photons are found always in numerous ensembles allied with the same phase wave. The frequency of a phase wave containing multiple photons is given by: 1 β2 where µ0 is the proper mass of each photon. For low frequencies.10) hν © µ 0 c2 m 2 .11) µ0 f p with f 1 § © £ (7.70 APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 5: LIGHT QUANTA In Chapter 7 I have shown how passage from W IEN’s to R AYLEIGH’s Law is explicable in terms of a coherent phase wave for an ensemble of photons. However.4. it seems to me. One might take it that photon mass is a function of the number of photons. suppose that the mass of photons allied with the same phase wave differs from the mass of an isolated photon. reconciles photon population idiosyncrasies with classical wave notions. I have emphasised the similarity between such a Phase wave with a large number of photons and a classical wave. In any case.4. p. the ensemble velocity would be given by: For very high frequencies. p is always very large. § £ ¤ " ! § v £ (7. perhaps. Introducing f p . but this simply can not be maintained and still reconcile electrodynamics with discontinuous photoelectric phenomena. which seems necessary so as to be able to compute absorption and emission of energy with ﬁnite quantities hν. and the transport velocity goes to c as ν 0. the true structure of radiant energy remains very mysterious. black body radiation follows R AYLEIGH’s Law. But we may. p would always equal 1 giving for isolated photons 1 m0c2 hν 2 for the W IEN’s Law for black body radiation and the formula: β energy transport velocity. allied with a phase wave: The necessity to return to classical formulas for low frequencies leads to suppose that f p tends to 0 as p ∞. This hypothesis undermines the simplicity of the concept of “photon”. Thus.12) βc c 1 f p c2 hν £ C £ (7.

The most important consequences are presented in Chapter 3. M AUPERTUIS ’ principle of least action and the principle of concordance of phase due to F ERMAT can be two aspects of the same law. but if it should be formulated satisfactorily. which led us to propose that an extention of the quantum relation to the velocity of a phase wave in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. in Chapter 2. we showed that. following our ideas. Relativity theory revealed the need to associate uniform motion with propagation of a certain “phase wave” which we placed in a Minkowski space setting. We believe that this is the ﬁrst physical explanation of the B OHR -S OMMERFELD orbital stability conditions.Summary and conclusions The rapid development of Physics since the XVIIth century. we introduced as a fundamental postulate the existence of a periodic phenomena allied with each parcel of energy with a proper mass given by the PlanckE INSTEIN relationship. we examined the possibility of representing a concentration of energy about certain singularities and we showed what profound harmony appears to exist between the opposing viewpoints of N EWTON and F RESNEL which are revealed by the identity of various forecasts. In Chapter 5. we have shown how they may be interpreted as expressions of phase wave resonance along closed or semi-closed trajectories. Having recalled the laws governing stability of trajectories as quantiﬁed by numerous recent works. the idea that motion of a material point always hides propagation of a wave. Difﬁculties arising from simultaneous motion of interacting charges were studied in Chapter 4. In Chapter 1. Returning. in particlar the development of Dynamics and Optics. Indeed. we recalled how the notion of the existence of quanta invades on a daily basis the attention of researchers in the XXth century. guided by preceeding results. anticipates the problem of understanding quanta as a sort of parallel manifestation of corpuscles and waves. then. needs to be studied and extended. as we have shown. to this same question in the general case of a charged particle in variable motion under the inﬂuence of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. Electrodynamics can not be 71 . in particlar for the case of circular orbital motion of an electron and proton in an hydrogen atom. it represents a truly beautiful and rational synthesis.

when one recognises the correct analysis. I have developed new ideas able perhaps to hasten the synthesis necessary to unify. must be found. which render. based on two opposing conceptions: corpuscles and waves. and which accommodates discontinuous radiant energy and phase waves leaving the M AXWELL -L ORENTZ formulation as a statistical approximation well able to account accurately for a large number of phenomena.72 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS maintained in its present form. First. a reformulation of electrodynamics. are doubtlessly expressible as phase concordance and I did my best to ﬁnd resolution of several mysteries in the theory of the quanta. Brieﬂy. as well as the notion of a photon. D EBYE and A. as determined by P LANCK . physical domains of radiation. existence of photons as a tangible fact. however. it seems. . from the start. M AXWELL’s Law for a photon gas. the two opposing. C OMPTON. a coherence also of utility in the study of energy ﬂuctuations. The present theory is.-H. I have forecast that the principles of the dynamics of material points. P. I have left the deﬁnitions of phase waves and the periodic phenomena for which such waves are a realization. In Chapter 6 we reviewed various theories of scattering of X and γ-rays by a amorphous materials with emphasis on the theory of MM. therefore. to be considered rather tentative as Physics and not an established doctrine. Finally. In the course of this work I came upon several interesting conclusions giving hope that these ideas might in further development give conclusive results. in Chapter 7 we introduced phase waves into Statistical Mechanics and in so doing recovered both the size of the elemental extention of phase space. given a certain coherence of their motion. which is in accord with relativity of course. but reformulation will be a very difﬁcult task for which we suggested a qualitative theory of interferences. deliberately vague. as well as the black body law.

1912. [4] P LANCK . city. ´ [2] P OINCAR E . “La th/’eorie du rayonement et les quanta”... Proceedings. Fortschritte der Quantentheorie.. e [6] R EICHE . Dresden. e [3] BAUER . Paris. city. 1921-4th. Barth. Atombau und Spectrallinien. A. a [5] B RILLOUIN . (J. (Gauthier-Villars. 73 . 1923). 1924-4 ed. 1921). Untersuchungen sur Strahlungstheorie. Proceedings 3rd Solvay Conference. Steinkopff. (Springer.Bibliography [1] P ERRIN .-A. “Atome und Electronen”.).. (Alcan. DE B ROGLIE). (F. Derni` res pens/’ees. Theorie der W¨ rmestrahlung. Conf. L ONGEVIN and M. Berlin. 1921. F. (Vieweg & Sohn... 1913). ed. 1913). J. H. Les Atoms. 1922). Flammarion. E. Braunschweig. A. Proceedings 1st Solvey Conference. Leipzig. Dissertation. Die Quantentheorie. L. ´ [8] L AND E . 1911 (submitted by P.). [7] S OMMERFELD . M. La Th´ orie des quanta de l’atome et les raies spectrals.

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