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Delphi (Greece), 26-29 April 2006.
Spanish online newspaper´s front page news profile: ownership strategies and trends1
Elvira García de Torres, PhD CEU Cardenal Herrera University email@example.com Silvia Martínez Martínez CEU Cardenal Herrera University firstname.lastname@example.org Bernardino Cebrián Enrique, PhD CEU Cardenal Herrera University email@example.com Nuria García Cebrián CEU Cardenal Herrera University Abstract In this paper, data obtained from the analysis of the structure of online news articles published by eighty Spanish dailies in 2004 and 2005 are crossed with off-line group ownership information and circulation figures. The study, in which 756 front page news have been analysed, discovers clear trends related to the inside/outside hyperlink features of news and multimedia resources as well as well-defined ownership strategies by chains of on-line newspapers. On-line news sector expectations expressed by people in charge of Spanish online editions in questionnaires sent in 2004 provide a frame to interpret results and establish hypothesis for further research. Key words: On-line news, Internet, Spain
Since the Spanish daily newspapers’ leap to Internet in the middle of the nineties, a wide set of studies diverse both on the methodology implemented and range indicate the existence of a limited group of daily newspapers that have developed websites on the same level as those most highly regarded in Europe; in contrast, there are other daily newspapers that have scarcely adapted their resources to cyberspace. We are speaking therefore of a sector with little homogeneity (Armañanzas and others, 1996; Díaz y Meso, 1999; Marcos Recio, 1999; Cabrera, 200l; Canga and others, 2000; Armentia and others, 2000; Estévez, 2002; Sabés, 2003; Almansa and Postigo, 2004; Salaverría and Novos Medios Group, 2005; Ramírez, 2005). After analysing the information news resources of 71 digital daily newspapers, García, Saiz, Cebrián, Berruti y Lavilla (2004)
This work was supported by Grants from the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain (BSO200308535) and CEU Cardenal Herrera University (PRUCH05/37). S.M.M was the recipient of a predoctoral fellowship from Generalitat Valenciana (BFPI06/277) and N.G.C was the recepient of a fellowship from the Ministry of Education and Science of Spain. The assistance of Margot Ovenden is appreciated.
present a group of “prominent dailies” on the Spanish digital scene, characterised as media of high circulation within the traditional sector that belong to a communication groups or chain and that rate highly in services and news resources´added value. Figure 1: Prominent Spanish on-line newspapers Leading Spanish Newspapers El Mundo El Correo Español El Norte de Castilla ABC El País El Diario Vasco El Comercio Ideal La Vanguardia La Verdad El Diario Montañés La Voz de Galicia Diario Sur Las Provincias I 25 19 19 18 26 19 14 17 21 18 15 21 15 14 VP 27 22 22 21 13 19 21 18 14 17 19 12 17 18 T 52 41 41 39 39 38 35 35 35 35 34 33 32 32 G U V V V P V V V G V V V V Distribution Website visits 286.685 25.338.043 128.007 1.215.036 38.850 349.301 266.818 2.383.452 440.226 91.499 506.444 28.058 407.155 35.685 599.605 205.330 40.223 725.788 40.037 434.849 108.643 953.180 38.719 496.163 43.095 337.930
I. Information; VP. Value of website; T. Total. Distribution between January-December 2003 (OJD) and Visits December 03 (OJD). Source: García, Saiz, Cebrián y Lavilla (2004).
The differences in resources are also observed when scrutinising the distribution platforms. Saiz and others (2003) conclude, after examining the mobility in 49 news sites, that e-mail is the most frequent platform of distribution, followed by PDF format. Reference may be made to a “relative mobility”, given that 58% of the media studied offers information accessed through e-mail, 18,3% through the mobile telephone, 18,3% by PDA and 36,7% in PDF format. The percentage of mediums that may be accessed through PDA as well as through the mobile phone is 12,2%. As well as the variations and constrast, influence of the communication group profiles seems evident. A study that sampled a total of 21 daily newspapers - data collected in the year 2002-, indicates the existence of a relation between the dailies ownership, the employment of multimedia resources and the availability of hemerographic material (archives), a conection not shown in the variables of interactivity, platforms of distribution or resources to update the news. Figure 2: Distribution and interactive potential and multimedia in Spanish daily newspapers Variable General e-mail Update Letters to the editor Forum Newsbreak Page General update indicator More 100,000 than 100,000-40,000 100 100 85,7 85,7 85,7 85,7 100 71,4 14,2 85,7 51,1 71,4 Less 40,000 than 100 0 42,8 28,5 0 0
General E-mail Questionnaire Chat PDF Archives Multimedia News update indicator Mobile phone PDA Pop Up (latest news) Front page (latest news) Accessibility Limited List of e-mail
85,7 71,4 71,4 51,1 43,8 42,8 42,8 42,8 42,8 28.5 28,5 28,5 14,2
85,7 85,7 51,1 51,1 0 42,8 42,8 28,5 14,2 14.2 14,2 71,4 14,2
14,2 51,1 0 28,5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0
Source: García, Cebrián, Saiz, Prada, Berruti y Fanjul (2004)
A closer bond between ownership and resources is detected when analysing service content. Figure 3: Services in on-line daily newspapers Value Email Editor Greetings Acces Sms Chat Forum Messenger Job Search E. Maps Yellow P. People Games Guide Mobile Publishing Agenda Download Translator Dictionary Channel Lottery Weather Advice Classifieds Shop Group Connect Connect Connect Connect Connect Connect Connect Connect Find Find Find Find Find Fun Fun Fun Living Living Living Living Living Living Living Living Living Shopping Shopping ZETA CORREO EPI 14,2 91,6 0 0 100 100 0 50 0 0 57,1 100 85,7 100 0 8,3 42,8 58,3 14,2 100 100 8,3 42,8 100 0 91,6 100 100 57,1 41,6 28,5 83,3 0 0 0 0 85,7 58,3 0 0 0 8,3 85,7 100 85,7 100 71,4 100 14,2 91,6 85,7 91,6 28,5 100 JOLY 14,2 0 0 7,1 0 14,2 50 0 0 42,8 21,4 0 0 28,5 7,1 7,1 7,1 0 21,4 0 0 28,5 71,4 57,1 7,1 7,1 14,2 0 0 0 16,6 16,6 50 0 0 0 16,6 83,3 0 0 83,3 16,6 16,6 0 0 66,6 0 16,6 83,3 50 50 0 83,3 16,6 PRISA 0 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 33,3 66,6 100 0 66,6 0 66,6 0 0 100 100 100 0 100 100 0 33,3 100
Travel Auto Real E. Auction
Shopping Shopping Shopping Shopping
0 42,8 14,2 0
75 58,3 66,6 8,3
0 7,1 0 0
100 83,3 0 0
66,6 0 0 0
Source: García, Cebrián, Prada, Fanjul, Saiz y Berruti (2004)
According to García, Cebrián, Prada, Fanjul, Saiz y Berruti (2004), after examining added value in 81 Spanish online newspapers, Spanish communication group Vocento has an outstanding profile in the so called “portal value”, that is, a wide range of service offered to users. Figure 4: Services in Spanish digital diaries by headings Value of website No. Items 20-31 10-20 0-10 No. Dailies 6 (7,4%) 23 (28,3) 52 (64,1)
Source: García, Cebrián, Prada, Fanjul, Saiz y Berruti (2004)
When observing the data from a different perspective, it is possible to observe that the “portal” profile of the Spanish news websites is not generalized, showing the same contrasts noted when the informative content is analysed in other studies. 3. Objectives and Methodology The present study has the objective of evaluating the Spanish online models of dependence and adaptation. In previous studies we have observed that the circulation figures on the traditional market appears to be related to the resources the media procure in their online versions, as well as the influence of the fact that these same media belong to communication groups or chains, both of which we expect to be confirmed by this research. Results obtained in previous studies do not indicate any significant evolution on efforts to improve websites resources in recent years (García de Torres and others, 2004a; 2004c; Saiz and others, 2003; Canga and others, 1999). Díaz Noci 2002 speaks of a mere translation of the editions on paper on the online dailes. We hope, therefore, to find low added value in front page news, an evidence of the “translation effect”. Being news the unit of analysis and taking into account its infinite nature, a subgroup of texts was formed by a selection of front page articles. In the selection of news for the composition of the sample, five headlines were chosen on a random basis, -except in those cases where the front page presented less than five. The dates established for the analysis were the months of November 2004 and December 2005. In total, 756 news have been analysed published by Spanish online dailies that had their distribution controlled by OJD in 2004 and 2005 and an online edition accessible at the time that the analysis was carried out, analysis beginning at 12:00 am. The profile of the news examined here is not representative of the whole content, being this an aspect we have
studied to a greater degree in other studies into the overall project frame. The selection of five stories and principally, of those that are incorporated immediately in the website, has lead us to create a sample with values associated with immediate publication or newsbreaks, this aspect being precisely its value in a medium so highly related to the actuality. Consequently, results are intended to provide an annual indicator to complete and understand data obtained in other studies and not to establish a diagnosis of the state of on-line news of Spanish newspapers. For the collection of data, a record was created in which the coders, a Doctor in Science of the Information and currently doctoring in Communication, noted the presence or the absence of links in the body of the article to other information published in the medium, the time that the article was updated, related news articles, links to documents (primary text sources), links to special reports, photographs, video, sound, graphics, chats, forum, questionnaires, the opinion of the reader, the option to e-mail the author, whether the article could be send on to other people, the option to vote on the information and the article being received on the mobile or PDA. The relevance of the studies on Internet and in particular, of digital medium is not derived exclusively from their technological profile (Jones, 99:25). In order to interpret the data obtained through the content analysis, not only was the descriptive value considered, but more importantly we counted on the information received through the questionnaires sent to the persons responsible for the Spanish newspapers´ online editions. The collection of these data took place between September and December 2004, where questionnaires were sent to those in charge for the edition of the digital versions of 71 generalist newspapers, with a degree of response of 25 plus a questionnaire elaborated by the person in charge of the digital division Vocento group for all its media. The questionnaire was accompanied by an e-mail or fax with a letter of presentation of the project, requesting information on the following aspects: date of incorporation in this medium to Internet, profile of the person responsible for the digital edition, the distribution of the personal, the internal organisation of the newsroom, novelties that had been introduced and the expectations regarding the sector.
4. Results and Evaluation Results obtained in the sample analysed that corresponded to the year 2004, show as relevant for the profile of the front page news of the Spanish daily newspapers the following characteristics: the publication of photographs alongside the story (59 media), the possibility of sending the text to other people (49), the endorsement of news agencies (37), the inclusion of related news (32), to be able to print or access a printable version (21 y 27) and the incorporation of an indicator of the time that the article had been last updated (17). It appears that other options of hypertext are undervalued (such as links in the text of the article), interactivity (being the most frequent option used to reply to the author), and the multimedia resources. Three major newspapers, El Pais, El Mundo and La Vanguardia, daily papers with a circulation over 200,000 in the traditional market, have a more dynamic news profile. En each of these three cases, links with special documents are present – above all in La Vanguardia -, there is a major display of graphics, links in the body of the text
(specially in El Mundo), and forums and chats related specifically to the article (La Vanguardia). It is possible to detect formats predetermined by the technological factor, group synergies and clear differences between the daily newspapers that tend to apply models of adaptation in internet and those with a higher degree of dependency on the editions on paper. In the newspapers related to communication groups, the values are grouped around concrete variables; in particular, the sending of articles to other users (clearly a technological device). Vocento group stands out in the option of “related articles” and Prensa Iberica in offering e-mail to the media (section or author) directly from the article. The options of mobility and its potential to build a dynamic text are limited and the activity is produced more around the article than from or within. Most common is the mobility of the text itself, through the option of sending it to other users. The results obtained in 2005 indicate once again and in a very significant manner the value added to on-line news in three newspapers: El Pais, El Mundo and La Vanguardia. In the front page articles analysed in these three newspapers, the following variables are present: the time that the article is updated, the presence of related articles close to the headline, links to specials from the article and the possibility of sending the information to other users. Also evident is the presence of links in the text of the article in the newspaper El Mundo (four out of the five articles analysed), and in El Pais and also in La Vanguardia at least one of the articles analysed included links to other documents (primary source texts). The global results are the following: Figure 5: Spanish Newspapers grouped by results Newspapers 1 1 1 4 4 3 25 18 16 13 Variables 11 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Percentage 1,1 1,1 1,1 4,6 4,6 3,4 29 29,9 18,6 15,1
With respect to the global profile of the front page news, the data obtained is the following: Figure 6: Spanish newspaper: profile of front page on-line news Variable Photography Send to another user Realted articles Time of updating Graphics Leading Newspapers 59 55 31 15 7 Percentage 68,6 63 36 17,4 8,1
Links to websites Llinks with speciales Links with audience Links with blogs Voting Links to documents Links to questionnaires Sound Possibility of responding to the author Statistics Links within the text Publication of the opinion of the reader Mobility
5 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
4,6 17,4 5,8 4,6 4,6 3,4 3,4 2,3 2,3 2,3 1,1 1,1 1,1
Options for sending information, the inclusion of photographs and the publication of related articles by the text (and not in the text) appear to determine the profile of the headline in the media analysed. Important differences are not appreciated with relation to the results obtained in the year 2004, except for a slight increase as may be observed in the table demonstrating the results, with respect to links in the article or to other webs, graphics, links to forums and questionnaires directly related to the article, the possibility of sending the text to other users or voting. As for qualitative changes, El Pais, for example, provides the option to the reader of suggesting modifications to the information published and recently, the newspaper El Mundo incorporated articles related to other on-line media. The limited differences observed when comparing the results obtained in 2004 and 2005 coincide with the information processed in the questionnaires sent to the editors responsible for the generalist Spanish online newspaperws, in which an unequal vision may be observed with respect to the expectations of the sector, according to the data provided by the newspapers, El Mundo, Heraldo de Soria, El Periódico de Catalunya, La Voz de Galicia, Diario de Navarra, Levante, Las Provincias, Canarias 7, Ideal, Información,Última Hora, El Punt, Hoy, El Día, Diario de León, La voz de Almería, La Opinión de Tenerife, Diario de Girona, El Periódico de Extremadura, Diario de Ibiza, Diario del Altoaragón, Majorca Daily Bulletin, El Adelantado, La Vanguardia and a global perspective of all of the newspapers within the Vocento Group. With respect to the least positive answers regarding the expectations of the sector, some of the reasons frequently mentioned were the lack of confidence in the advertising market, the recognition of the scarce elaboration of the content of the digital medium and the low technological investment, as well as restraints in the payment for content on behalf of the users; comments are also made regarding the “immaturity of the sector”, the “translation of content” and “cost cutting”. Difficulties are expressed also regarding the unstable viability the investments due to the rapid technological evolution and the rights of intellectual property. The most positive aspects – that tended to be commented on by the managers of those daily newspapers with a circulation superior to 30.000 copies in the traditional sector – are related to the consolidation and the growth of the users, the value perceived by the
name of the daily newspaper in the digital market, the generalization of the digital editions and the increase in the synergy between editions on paper and in the online version, with a tendency to integrate. Data related to the personal shed light and must be considered valuable to understand the results obtained in this study as well as in previous research: 85 journalists, 59 technicians and 43 sales people compose the personnel employed in the digital editions of 25 daily digital newspapers. The number of journalists dedicated to the edition of the digital newspapers with less than 50.000 printed copies in the traditional market is 17, which means an impossible average of less than 1, explained by the fact that in some cases the technical personnel carry out the digital edition. The relation that exists between personnel, resources in Internet and circulation in the traditional sector reinforces and explains the configuration of a restricted advanced model of on-line press in Spain. In the case of the Vocento Group, organizational factors as the coordination of the digital editions of the local daily newspapers that belong to this chain of newspapers explains the coincidence in the treatment of the texts in their online media, according to the information provided in the questionnaire. The profiles of the group, yet another interesting aspect, have been taken into consideration when regarding the Zeta, Vocento, Prensa Ibérica, Serra and Joly Groups. Figure 9. Spanish Daily Newspapers, Joly, a homogenous profile Newspapers ECO EW HA NR ED EE F A G Bl Fo ENC OP RA EA V EST M T 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 Diario de Sevilla 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 El Día de Córdoba 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 Europa Sur 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 Huelva Información 0 0 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 Diario de Cádiz 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 Diario de Jerez
In the Spanish daily newspapers, the most complete front page news profile corresponds to the Vocente Group (an average of 4,5 in the variables, with unequal results within a realtively limited range –between six and three variable- higher in ABC, El Correo Español, El Norte de Castilla and El Diario Vasco e Ideal), followed by Zeta (3,1). The most homogeneous of the Groups is Joly – all of its media rated in the final three variables of updating, photography and the possibility of sending the article to other users. Groups Prensa Ibérica (2) and Serra (1) rated less with respect to the variables contemplated.
5. Conclusions Research regarding on-line daily newspapers in Spain in the last 10 years has procured a body of data that, in a discreet manner, signals the daily newspapers El País, El Mundo and the La Vanguardia as newspapers of reference in the Spanish on-line news market, with respect to the display of resources and added value offered to users. The development of the editions cited as well as all of the Spanish daily newspapers shows a
tendency of slow progress in adapting contents to the new environment and signifigant different speed in the run into the online news market. The managers of Spanish online newspapers editions contemplate indistinctly as positively or negatively, in a context of incertainty, the future of the market. Some of them perceive as a key factor the trust placed by the advertising sector (marked as absent) or by the audience (perceived as increasing). This leads them to regard the future either in a frame of consolidation or stagnation, the criteria of economic viability being essential in their assesment. The optimism demonstrated by those editors with more resources in both off-line and on-line editions together with their proposals for improvement express greater levels of confidence in the future of the digital editions of the newspapers by consolidated off-line structures. This optimism and the proposals for improvement as well a non-negative general prospects reflects in the slight yet positive tendency in the digital profile of on-line front page news found in this study. In 2005, the profile of the front page texts continues to provide samples of its dependence on the traditional formats. The internal mobility of the text and its linking to other sites in Internet is still pending (an increase has been observed in the links to other sites in internet that form part of the same news Group –mainly to their specialised media or channels) . The phenomenon of the blog is projected also on the profile of the on-line news texts given that the option to link with a related blog is also available in 2005, corroborating the effort devoted by the different media to set up weblogs in their websites (either by the medium or by its audience). This interest in developing weblogs shows a clear contrast when compared to the more limited effort shown to improve the resources of the on-line front page news. Figure 10. Spanish Daily Newspapers weblogs (2005) Weblog El Soplo Atarecos Crónicas Urbanas La tertulia Apuntes liberales de un chico de derechas De Calle 610,8 Km=0Km Victoria Prego El Escorpión El Descodificador Blog, James Blog Gadgetoblog Todo el Mundo al suelo Bitácora de Cora Letras Vaqueiras Susurros El futbolín Una de piratas Enciende y vámonos La Tostadora Cabecera AS Canarias 7 Canarias 7 Expansión Expansión Expansión Expansión El Mundo El Mundo El Mundo El Mundo El Mundo El Mundo El Progreso El Progreso El Progreso ABC ABC ABC ABC Grupo PRISA
Recoletos Recoletos Recoletos Recoletos UNEDISA UNEDISA UNEDISA UNEDISA UNEDISA UNEDISA
VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO
Salsa de Chiles Vida Digital Divergencias El Córner Evadidos Magonia Pantallazos Áreabrava El futbolín El Pincho En la Ruina Teleblograma Calle 54 Moday + La Plazuela Perdida Caras, Caretas, Carotas La Solana Al Vuelo Ciudad del Hombre Mi Balcón Almazuelas de Barro Que quede entre nossotros Sin su permiso Mimoleskine El Bisturí Letra Pequeña Ojo de Buey Desde el Mirador Mesa para dos El Blog de Buitrago Dejar de fumar
ABC ABC El Correo El Correo El Correo El Correo El Correo El Norte de Castilla El Norte de Castilla El Norte de Castilla El Norte de Castilla El Norte de Castilla El Norte de Castilla El Norte de Castilla La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Rioja La Verdad La Verdad La Voz de Galicia
VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO VOCENTO
Source: Project “Media in Cyberspace. The impact of Internet in traditional communication structures. Spanish On-line Environment. Trends”
Lately, weblogs seem to be a core asset in the development of spanish on-line newspapers, but as far as the news format is regarded, fostering movement in content as well as consolidating the multimedia options and broadening the range of interactivity are still pending. This, together with the prominence of the news agencies signature in the texts, confirms the “translation effect” pattern. The existence of a profile for the Spanish communication Groups in Internet is confirmed by this study: there is a tendency to configure an homogeneous structure of added value in the different dailies of the same chain of newspapers, though differences are noted between media, however, even when a shared use is detected in texts and resources. 6. Bibliography ALMANSA, A.; POSTIGO, I. del (2004): “Periodismo on-line, ¿Especialización digital o traslación de soporte?”, FERNÁNDEZ, J.J, Prensa y Periodismo especializado I, Guadalajara, Asociación de la prensa de Guadalajara. Págs. 613-626.
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