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BRAIN GATE
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CONTENTS 
          

INTRODUCTION WHAT IS BRAIN GATE OBJECTIVE OF BRAIN GATE TYPES OF BRAIN GATE HISTORY PRINCIPLES OF BRAIN GATE IMPLEMENTATION SOFTWARE BEHIND BRAIN GATE APPLICATION LIMITATION FURTHER CONCERNS CONCLUSION

When it is implemented in brain.What is Brain Gate/Brain Machine Interface/Brain Computer Interface??? Brain gate is an electrode chip which can be implemented in the brain. Those signals are sent to the brain and it executes body movement. The signal sends to the computer and then the computer is controlled by patient. All the signaling process is handled by special software. Whenever a man forgotten about his past due to certain accidental matter or he had lost his part of his body. at that time this electrode chip can be implemented on his brain and active the man as well. the electrical signal exchanged by neurons within the brain. .

The µBrain Gate¶ device can provide paralysed or motor-impaired patients a mode of communication through the translation of thought into direct computer control. .Objective of Brain Gate !!!! The goal of the Brain Gate program is to develop a fast and reliable connection between the brain of a severely disabled person and a personal computer .

Types of Brain Computer Interface(BCI):  One way BCI Computers either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it Two way BCI Allow brains and external devices to exchange information in both directions.  .

 Brain gate was developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjuction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University.History of Brain Gate« Research on BCIs has been going on for more than 30 years.  . but from the mid-1990s there has been a dramatic increase in working experimental implants.

rats were implanted with BCI . Signals recorded from the cerebral cortex of rat to operate BCI to carry out the movement. .Brain Gate Research in animals: At first.

.Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh had demonstarted on a monkey that can feed itself with a robotic arm simply by using signals from its brain.

.It Worked! Using only its mind the monkey was able to control a cursor on a computer monitor via Brain Gate.

Since there were no complications in trials with monkeys Next Step: Humans! .

a 25-year-old man who had sustained a spinal cord injury leading to paralysis in all four limbs three years prior to the study. brain-computer interface had been clinically tested on a human by an American company Cyberkinetics. moving a computer cursor to open simulated e-mail. he took part in 57 sessions during which the implanted Brain Gate sensor recorded activity in his motor cortex while he imagined moving his paralyzed limbs and then used that imagined motion for several computer-based tasks such as. draw circular shapes and play simple video games. 2004. Over a period of nine months.   In December 7. . The Nature report describes the first participant in these trials.

offering the user an alternate´BRAIN GATE PATHWAY´ to control a computer with thought. brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms. .hands and legs.just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands. The principle is that the intact brain functions.The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements.PRINCIPLE: The system consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain (Pedestal) and a Brain Gate Neural Interface Device that analyzes the brain signal.

HOW IT IMPLEMENTS ? .

connected by a 13-cm ribbon cable to the Pedestal (Black arrow). resting on a US penny.The Brain Gate sensor (Red arrow). Neural signals are recorded while the pedestal is connected to the remainder of the Brain Gate system . which is secured to the skull.

Those signals are sent when the brain executes a body movement.   This is one of electrode implemented in brain. Individual electrodes are 1-mm long and spaced 400m apart. . in a 10x10 grid. The electrical signal exchanged by neurons within brain.

Software behind Brain Gate«  The computers translate brain activity and create the communication output using custom decoding software. . JAVA and MATLAB. The algorithms are written in C. System uses adaptive algorithms and patternmatching techniques to facilitate communication.

he was playing the computer game Pong. The wires run from 100 tiny sensors implanted in his brain and out to a computer. a 25year-old quadriplegic sits in a wheelchair with wires coming out of a bottle-cap-size connector stuck in his skull. Using just his thoughts.APPLICATIONS: In Foxborough. .

 As a brain controlled switch for asynchronous control.  Actuated control of mobile robot by human EEG.  In multimedia communication.  In evaluation of spike detection algorithms.  In evaluating the machine learning algorithms.APPLICATIONS: In classification of EEG signal.  .

iii.Limitation in information transform rate.Challenges faced by Brain Gate« i. ii. Difficulty in adaptation and learning. The latest technology is 20 bits/min. It is very expensive. .

.Further concerns« Emphasis should be on improving the information transform rate.  Stronger algorithm should be implemented.

two patients have been implanted with the Brain Gate system. turn lights on or off and change channels or adjust the volume of a television set. the patient was able to control the TV and carry on a conversation and move his head at the same time.      . called Brain Gate. the patient can read e-mail. play video games. communicate by using e-mail and Internet-based phone systems.CONCLUSION  According to the Cyberkinetics' website. and be independent by controlling items such as televisions and thermostats. The results are spectacular and almost unbelievable. In early test sessions. Brain Gate can help paralyzed people move by controlling their own electric wheelchairs. Finally BRAIN GATE has proved to be a boon for paralyzed patient . Using the system.

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