How To Shoot

The U. S. Army Rifle
A graphic handbook
on correct shooting
THE INFANTRY JOURNAL, INC.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
How To Shoot
The U. S. Army Rifle
A graphic handbook
on correct shooting
THE INFANTRY JOURNAL, INC.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Cop yright '943 by The Infant ry Journal, rnc., Send me men who can shoot. .. ..
I J I , ' 7th St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
P F.RSHt!'.'G
Fir st editio n
l' ri.ll<·d ill the U.S.A.
Cop yright '943 by The Infant ry Journal, rnc., Send me men who can shoot. .. ..
I J I , ' 7th St., N. W., Washington, D. C.
P F.RSHt!'.'G
Fir st editio n
l' ri.ll<·d ill the U.S.A.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This book was prepared by Fi rst Li eutenant Arthur Goodfriend,
Army of the United States, creator of the Army's graphic portfolio on
rifle marksmanship.
Gratitude for invaluable assistance in preparation of the material
is due:
To the editors of Life, who loaned the cream of their staff to the
Army for this project.
To Gjon Mili, photographer for Life, whose repeti tive flash camera
dissects the rapid-fi re positions.
To The Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, Vir ginia, and The Infantry
School, Fort Benning, Georgia, where the doctri ne was shaped and
pi ctu res taken.
And to Brigadier General C. R. Huebner, General Staff Corps,
Director of Training, Services of Supply, who initiat ed the preparation
of the official training portfolio upon which this book is based, and
who gave it the benefit of hi s long experience gain ed on battlefields
abroad and in training camps at home.
THE EDITORS
The Infantry [oarual
[7]
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This book was prepared by Fi rst Li eutenant Arthur Goodfriend,
Army of the United States, creator of the Army's graphic portfolio on
rifle marksmanship.
Gratitude for invaluable assistance in preparation of the material
is due:
To the editors of Life, who loaned the cream of their staff to the
Army for this project.
To Gjon Mili, photographer for Life, whose repeti tive flash camera
dissects the rapid-fi re positions.
To The Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, Vir ginia, and The Infantry
School, Fort Benning, Georgia, where the doctri ne was shaped and
pi ctu res taken.
And to Brigadier General C. R. Huebner, General Staff Corps,
Director of Training, Services of Supply, who initiat ed the preparation
of the official training portfolio upon which this book is based, and
who gave it the benefit of hi s long experience gain ed on battlefields
abroad and in training camps at home.
THE EDITORS
The Infantry [oarual
[7]
FOREWORD
(
\
1)
The last war proved that if you hit a German in the right place with
a caliber .30 rifle bullet, he falls over dead. This is also true in this war.
It applies, moreover, to [aps as well as to Nazis.
The U. S. Army Rifle-be it the M1903 (Springfield), M1917 (En­
field), or Ml (Garand)-has the range, caliber, power, and accuracy
to kill Nazis and [aps, All that is required is a soldier well enough
trained in rifle marksmanship to hit the enemy in the right places.
The U. S. Army believes in this training. Its rifle marksmanship
course is the most thorough in the world. In the last war , the deadliness
of American marksmanship amazed both our Allies and our enemies.
In this war, reports from far-flung battlefields reveal that the hours
of marksmanship training in our camps have not been spent in vain.
Deadly marksmanship depends on correct shooting habits. In stress of
battle, you must do the right things without thinking about them. You
must know the correct sight picture. You must take a rock-steady posi­
tion. You must squeeze the trigger. You must shoot rapidl y. And all the
while, your sights must be correctly set for range, wind, and weather.
How to do these things the right way is shown on the following
pages. Pictures and text are taken from the U. S. Army's graphic port­
folio on rifle marksmanship. They apply, with minor modifications,
to the M1903, M1917 and Ml rifles. The method is that developed by
The Infantry School for the semiautomatic Ml rifle, a method that
enables you to get the most out of-any rifle you may ever have to shoot.
Put aside your own ideas on rifle shooting for the duration of the
war . Where life and death, victory or defeat, depend on the result, it is
wise to follow this method. It is based on countless hours of test and
trial, on the range and the battlefield.
Every detail in these pictures is important. Study them carefully. A
few minutes with this book in your bunk before going out on the
drill field wilJ make your work easier. A little time spent on review
before firing on the range will mean more bull's-eyes, Later these
lessons, wel1 learned, will cause many a Nazi and [ap to echo the
words of that German in the last war who, dying, wrote:
"God save us from these Americans. They shoot like devils . . .
They are the best marksmen in the world."
(9]
FOREWORD
(
\
1)
The last war proved that if you hit a German in the right place with
a caliber .30 rifle bullet, he falls over dead. This is also true in this war.
It applies, moreover, to [aps as well as to Nazis.
The U. S. Army Rifle-be it the M1903 (Springfield), M1917 (En­
field), or Ml (Garand)-has the range, caliber, power, and accuracy
to kill Nazis and [aps, All that is required is a soldier well enough
trained in rifle marksmanship to hit the enemy in the right places.
The U. S. Army believes in this training. Its rifle marksmanship
course is the most thorough in the world. In the last war , the deadliness
of American marksmanship amazed both our Allies and our enemies.
In this war, reports from far-flung battlefields reveal that the hours
of marksmanship training in our camps have not been spent in vain.
Deadly marksmanship depends on correct shooting habits. In stress of
battle, you must do the right things without thinking about them. You
must know the correct sight picture. You must take a rock-steady posi­
tion. You must squeeze the trigger. You must shoot rapidl y. And all the
while, your sights must be correctly set for range, wind, and weather.
How to do these things the right way is shown on the following
pages. Pictures and text are taken from the U. S. Army's graphic port­
folio on rifle marksmanship. They apply, with minor modifications,
to the M1903, M1917 and Ml rifles. The method is that developed by
The Infantry School for the semiautomatic Ml rifle, a method that
enables you to get the most out of-any rifle you may ever have to shoot.
Put aside your own ideas on rifle shooting for the duration of the
war . Where life and death, victory or defeat, depend on the result, it is
wise to follow this method. It is based on countless hours of test and
trial, on the range and the battlefield.
Every detail in these pictures is important. Study them carefully. A
few minutes with this book in your bunk before going out on the
drill field wilJ make your work easier. A little time spent on review
before firing on the range will mean more bull's-eyes, Later these
lessons, wel1 learned, will cause many a Nazi and [ap to echo the
words of that German in the last war who, dying, wrote:
"God save us from these Americans. They shoot like devils . . .
They are the best marksmen in the world."
(9]
CONTENTS
PAGE
Today-the Bull's-eye. Tomorrow-The Enemy . . 12
Yom Rifle is Better than the Enemy's. . . . . . . . . . .. 14
Six Steps to Perfec t Marksmanship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
You Are Both a Coach and Pupil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sighting and Aiming _. . . . . 20
Why There is Only One Correct Sight Picture . , , , 24
First Sighting and Aiming Exercise , .. , , , , , .. , ." , . . , ' . 26
Clean and Blacken Your Sights . . . . . . 28
Second Sighting and Aiming Exercise. . . . . 30
Third Sighting and Aiming Exercise . . . 32
The Rock of the Marne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . 34
How to Adjust the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
How to Tighten the Loop . . . . . . . . - .. 38
A Tigh t Sling Means a Steady Rifle . . . _. . . . . . . . . . 40
Take Up the Slack , _ 42
Hold Your Breath While Aiming , . " . " . , . , , , . . . . " " . " 44
Support the Rifle 'With Your Bones , ' . . . . 46
The Prone Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . 48
The Sandb ag Rest Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . 50
The Sitt ing Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . - . . . - . . 52
The Kneeling Position - . 54
The Squatting Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56
How to Adjust t he Hasty Sling . _ . .. 58
Sling Goes Well Up on Arm - 60
Final Ph ases of the Hasty Sling . , . , . . , , . , ". . . , , 62
The Standing Position , . ' , . , . . , . - . . , , . , , . , . . , . , , .. _. . 64
What's the Matter With This Pictur e? . . . . 66
The Best "Marks-Man" Wins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Squeeze- Don' t Jerk 70
Call Your Shots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72
Your Life-Or His . . . . . . . . . . .. 74
Prone Position-First Method . ' . , . . , , , .. , , , 76
Skirmisher's Method , . ... . .. . . . . .. " .. , , 78
Prone Position-Rushing . ' - - 80
[ t o}
PAGE
The Sitting Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H2
The Kne eling Position. . . . . . . . . .. 84
Cover to Cover-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . - 86
Cover to Cover-Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Loading in Four Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Firs t Rapid Fire Exercise. . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Second Rapid Fire Exercise_ , . . , . , . . . . .. . _. . . . , . . . . . 92
Third Rapid Fire Exercise .. "" " .. , . """ ' , . . , , . . 92
Will You Kill These Nazis? . . . . . . . . . _ 94
This is the Rear Sight . . .. . _. . . . . .. . , _. 96
Windage Knob _. . _. 98
Elevating Knob .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Wind Changes Path of Bullet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 102
How to Correct Sights for Wind . . . . . _. ' . . . . . . . . . . . ... 104
Windage to Allow for First Shot . . . . . . . . . . .. 106
Your Rifle is Like Your Gi.rl. 108
How to Zero the Rifle. . , . . ' , . . , , . , , . ' , , . , , , . 110
Adjust the Sights , . . , . . , . , ' .' , . , . , " . . , - . . . . . . . 112
Adjust the Elevating Knob . . 114
Sight Changes _' . . . . . . . . . 116
Wind Gauge and Elevating Drum' . . 118
And Now You Shoot for Record . . . _. . . . . . . . . . 120
Answers to Problems , . . . . 122
[In
CONTENTS
PAGE
Today-the Bull's-eye. Tomorrow-The Enemy . . 12
Yom Rifle is Better than the Enemy's. . . . . . . . . . .. 14
Six Steps to Perfec t Marksmanship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
You Are Both a Coach and Pupil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sighting and Aiming _. . . . . 20
Why There is Only One Correct Sight Picture . , , , 24
First Sighting and Aiming Exercise , .. , , , , , .. , ." , . . , ' . 26
Clean and Blacken Your Sights . . . . . . 28
Second Sighting and Aiming Exercise. . . . . 30
Third Sighting and Aiming Exercise . . . 32
The Rock of the Marne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . 34
How to Adjust the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
How to Tighten the Loop . . . . . . . . - .. 38
A Tigh t Sling Means a Steady Rifle . . . _. . . . . . . . . . 40
Take Up the Slack , _ 42
Hold Your Breath While Aiming , . " . " . , . , , , . . . . " " . " 44
Support the Rifle 'With Your Bones , ' . . . . 46
The Prone Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . 48
The Sandb ag Rest Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . 50
The Sitt ing Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . - . . . - . . 52
The Kneeling Position - . 54
The Squatting Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56
How to Adjust t he Hasty Sling . _ . .. 58
Sling Goes Well Up on Arm - 60
Final Ph ases of the Hasty Sling . , . , . . , , . , ". . . , , 62
The Standing Position , . ' , . , . . , . - . . , , . , , . , . . , . , , .. _. . 64
What's the Matter With This Pictur e? . . . . 66
The Best "Marks-Man" Wins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Squeeze- Don' t Jerk 70
Call Your Shots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72
Your Life-Or His . . . . . . . . . . .. 74
Prone Position-First Method . ' . , . . , , , .. , , , 76
Skirmisher's Method , . ... . .. . . . . .. " .. , , 78
Prone Position-Rushing . ' - - 80
[ t o}
PAGE
The Sitting Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H2
The Kne eling Position. . . . . . . . . .. 84
Cover to Cover-Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . - 86
Cover to Cover-Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Loading in Four Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Firs t Rapid Fire Exercise. . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Second Rapid Fire Exercise_ , . . , . , . . . . .. . _. . . . , . . . . . 92
Third Rapid Fire Exercise .. "" " .. , . """ ' , . . , , . . 92
Will You Kill These Nazis? . . . . . . . . . _ 94
This is the Rear Sight . . .. . _. . . . . .. . , _. 96
Windage Knob _. . _. 98
Elevating Knob .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Wind Changes Path of Bullet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 102
How to Correct Sights for Wind . . . . . _. ' . . . . . . . . . . . ... 104
Windage to Allow for First Shot . . . . . . . . . . .. 106
Your Rifle is Like Your Gi.rl. 108
How to Zero the Rifle. . , . . ' , . . , , . , , . ' , , . , , , . 110
Adjust the Sights , . . , . . , . , ' .' , . , . , " . . , - . . . . . . . 112
Adjust the Elevating Knob . . 114
Sight Changes _' . . . . . . . . . 116
Wind Gauge and Elevating Drum' . . 118
And Now You Shoot for Record . . . _. . . . . . . . . . 120
Answers to Problems , . . . . 122
[In
TODAY-The Bull's-Eye
TOMORROW-The Enemy
Tod ay's bull's-eye will be a well-trained, well-armed [ap or Nazi
tomorrow.
You hit him. Or you miss.
For that reason, there's no such thing as shooting that is about right.
It is either perfect-or it is wrong. Your life depends upon it.
In camp, you shoot at a fixed target. On the battlefield, the target
moves. You must learn to hit the first-before you can hope to hit
the second.
By learning right shooting habits-by constant practice-every man
can learn to shoot.
It seems hard at first. Later, when your body limbers up- when you
learn the rules of good marksmanship-it becomes easier.
lIZ]
TODAY-The Bull's-Eye
TOMORROW-The Enemy
Tod ay's bull's-eye will be a well-trained, well-armed [ap or Nazi
tomorrow.
You hit him. Or you miss.
For that reason, there's no such thing as shooting that is about right.
It is either perfect-or it is wrong. Your life depends upon it.
In camp, you shoot at a fixed target. On the battlefield, the target
moves. You must learn to hit the first-before you can hope to hit
the second.
By learning right shooting habits-by constant practice-every man
can learn to shoot.
It seems hard at first. Later, when your body limbers up- when you
learn the rules of good marksmanship-it becomes easier.
lIZ]
YOUR RIFLE IS BETTER THAN THE ENEMY'S
The Ml rifle costs about $80 to build. It is semiautomatic. It has an
8-shot clip. It has adjustable sights. It can shoot straighter and faster
than standard rifles issued to the [aps and Germans.
The M1903 (Springfield) proved itself against the Germans in the
last war, and is still a masterpiece of riAe construction today. It is a
high-precision weapon, with adjustable sights and an effective range
of 600 yards
The [ap has an Arisaka rifle. It has a shorter range than the Ml and
M1903. It hres a lighter bullet. It has no windage scale. It is only fairl y
accurate beyond 500 yards.
The Germans are equipped with the Karbiner 98. Like our Spring­
field it is bolt-operated, with a 5-shot clip. But it has no windage or
elevation. It hasn't the accuracy of our American rifle.
Your rifle should give yOll an advantage over the enem y. But actually,
your rifle is no better dian the man who shoots it. If you can't shoot
your rifle accurately, you might just as well meet the Axis with your
bare fists.
t14J
YOUR RIFLE IS BETTER THAN THE ENEMY'S
The Ml rifle costs about $80 to build. It is semiautomatic. It has an
8-shot clip. It has adjustable sights. It can shoot straighter and faster
than standard rifles issued to the [aps and Germans.
The M1903 (Springfield) proved itself against the Germans in the
last war, and is still a masterpiece of riAe construction today. It is a
high-precision weapon, with adjustable sights and an effective range
of 600 yards
The [ap has an Arisaka rifle. It has a shorter range than the Ml and
M1903. It hres a lighter bullet. It has no windage scale. It is only fairl y
accurate beyond 500 yards.
The Germans are equipped with the Karbiner 98. Like our Spring­
field it is bolt-operated, with a 5-shot clip. But it has no windage or
elevation. It hasn't the accuracy of our American rifle.
Your rifle should give yOll an advantage over the enem y. But actually,
your rifle is no better dian the man who shoots it. If you can't shoot
your rifle accurately, you might just as well meet the Axis with your
bare fists.
t14J
SIX STEPS TO PERFECT MARKSMANSHIP
Before you can shoot well, you must take six important steps. When
you hi t the l ap or Nazi, it is because you remembered these steps. If you
miss, it is because you forgot.
These steps are shown on the opposite page.
Practice until you do these things t he right way from habit!
Then you can't forget, no mat ter what is going on around you. That
will give you confidence in your self. It will give the other men in your
platoon confidence in you. That 's what wi ns battles.
These steps are so import ant your platoon leader will keep a record
of how well you do them. The "Progress Chart" on which this record
will be kept by your platoon leader is also shown. In addition to th e
six points, you will also be mark ed on other important things you must
learn to do.
REMEMBER: The more crosses on your pr ogress chart, the more
crosses over th e Axis.
[l(i]
- .
SIX STEPS TO PERFECT MARKSMANSHIP
'@
1. Correct sighting and aiming
e:
2. Correct positions
3. Correct trigger squeeze
~
4. Correct rapid fire
~
5. Correct sight adjustment
~ ' ' ' '
1!lJ
6. Final examination
2
SIX STEPS TO PERFECT MARKSMANSHIP
Before you can shoot well, you must take six important steps. When
you hi t the l ap or Nazi, it is because you remembered these steps. If you
miss, it is because you forgot.
These steps are shown on the opposite page.
Practice until you do these things t he right way from habit!
Then you can't forget, no mat ter what is going on around you. That
will give you confidence in your self. It will give the other men in your
platoon confidence in you. That 's what wi ns battles.
These steps are so import ant your platoon leader will keep a record
of how well you do them. The "Progress Chart" on which this record
will be kept by your platoon leader is also shown. In addition to th e
six points, you will also be mark ed on other important things you must
learn to do.
REMEMBER: The more crosses on your pr ogress chart, the more
crosses over th e Axis.
[l(i]
- .
SIX STEPS TO PERFECT MARKSMANSHIP
'@
1. Correct sighting and aiming
e:
2. Correct positions
3. Correct trigger squeeze
~
4. Correct rapid fire
~
5. Correct sight adjustment
~ ' ' ' '
1!lJ
6. Final examination
2
YOU ARE BOTH A COACH AND A PUPIL
Throughout your course in rifle marksmanship, the "coach and pupil"
method is used. These four pictures show you a few examples of the
"coach and pupil" method in action.
First are coach and pupil with a sighting bar-the first of the sighting
and aiming exercises.
Next are coach and pupil in one of the basic firing positions.
And th en come coach and pupil practicing correct trigger squeeze.
And finally are coach and pupil in a rapid fire exercise.
Note that in each picture there are two men. One man is the pupil.
The other man is the coach. They wor k in pairs. They usually change
places throughout each lesson.
You, too, will work in pairs. Each man in the pair is both a pupil and
a coach. The man who is giving instruction is the coach. The man who
is getting instruction is the pupil. Wh en y Oll change places, your roles
are rever sed. To repeat, every man is here to teach as well as to learn.
Why does the Army use the coach and pupil method?
For three reasons:
( 1) To teach you how to shoot.
(2) To http you corr ect errors of which yOll are not aware.
(3) To teach you how to teach oth ers-for in an army as fast-growing
as ours, we need men to train new troops coming into camp.
08]
YOU ARE BOTH A COACH AND A PUPIL
Throughout your course in rifle marksmanship, the "coach and pupil"
method is used. These four pictures show you a few examples of the
"coach and pupil" method in action.
First are coach and pupil with a sighting bar-the first of the sighting
and aiming exercises.
Next are coach and pupil in one of the basic firing positions.
And th en come coach and pupil practicing correct trigger squeeze.
And finally are coach and pupil in a rapid fire exercise.
Note that in each picture there are two men. One man is the pupil.
The other man is the coach. They wor k in pairs. They usually change
places throughout each lesson.
You, too, will work in pairs. Each man in the pair is both a pupil and
a coach. The man who is giving instruction is the coach. The man who
is getting instruction is the pupil. Wh en y Oll change places, your roles
are rever sed. To repeat, every man is here to teach as well as to learn.
Why does the Army use the coach and pupil method?
For three reasons:
( 1) To teach you how to shoot.
(2) To http you corr ect errors of which yOll are not aware.
(3) To teach you how to teach oth ers-for in an army as fast-growing
as ours, we need men to train new troops coming into camp.
08]
IN SIGHTING AND AIMING, THERE'S NO SUCH
THING AS "ALMOST RIGHT"
To hit the bull's-eye, you must know exactl y what your eye should
see when it looks through the r ear sight of your rifle.
Cut out the white center of the circle on the opposite page and you
are looking through the peep sight of a rifle, somewha t enlarged.
On page 23 are pictures of the front sight of an Ml903 and Ml rifle.
There is also a picture of a bull's-eye. Cut them out and mount them on
cardboard. Pl ace the front sight in correct position within the r ear sight.
Then place the bull's-eye in correct position above the front sight.
To hi t the bull 's-eye-the peep sight , front sight and bull's-eye mu st
be lined up in a cert ain way: A ver tical line drawn through the center
of the fro nt sight must coincide with the vertical diameter of the peep
sight. The top of the front sight must lie exactly on the horizontal
di ameter of the peep sight. The bull's-eye must be tangent to the top
of the front sight-at its midpoint.
There is only one correct sight picture; every other position is wrong.
Only the corr ect position of peep sight, front sight and bull 's-eye will
give you a perfect hit .
[20)
IN SIGHTING AND AIMING, THERE'S NO SUCH
THING AS "ALMOST RIGHT"
To hit the bull's-eye, you must know exactl y what your eye should
see when it looks through the r ear sight of your rifle.
Cut out the white center of the circle on the opposite page and you
are looking through the peep sight of a rifle, somewha t enlarged.
On page 23 are pictures of the front sight of an Ml903 and Ml rifle.
There is also a picture of a bull's-eye. Cut them out and mount them on
cardboard. Pl ace the front sight in correct position within the r ear sight.
Then place the bull's-eye in correct position above the front sight.
To hi t the bull 's-eye-the peep sight , front sight and bull's-eye mu st
be lined up in a cert ain way: A ver tical line drawn through the center
of the fro nt sight must coincide with the vertical diameter of the peep
sight. The top of the front sight must lie exactly on the horizontal
di ameter of the peep sight. The bull's-eye must be tangent to the top
of the front sight-at its midpoint.
There is only one correct sight picture; every other position is wrong.
Only the corr ect position of peep sight, front sight and bull 's-eye will
give you a perfect hit .
[20)
Cut out these pictures and mount them on card­
board. Place them in position behind the rear sight
on the preceding page, and practice with bull's-eye
and each front sight until you get the sight picture
Bull's-eve
speedily and accurately.
(22J
1.
Cut out these pictures and mount them on card­
board. Place them in position behind the rear sight
on the preceding page, and practice with bull's-eye
and each front sight until you get the sight picture
Bull's-eve
speedily and accurately.
(22J
1.
THIS IS WHY THERE IS ONLY ONE CORRECT
SIGHT PICTURE
t 24J
THIS IS WHY THERE IS ONLY ONE CORRECT
SIGHT PICTURE
t 24J
FIRST SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE
The first thing to learn about the correct sight picture is the correct
alinement of the front and peep sights-without the bull's-eye.
What should you see through the eyepiece of the sighting bar?
You should see the top of the front sight through the middle of the
circle. A vertical line drawn through the center of the front sight
should coincide with the vertical diameter of the peep sight.
The first sight picture (upper left) is correct; the others, of course,
are wrong.
The next thing to learn about the correct sight picture is the correct
alinement of the front and peep sights-with the bull's-eve.
The first sight picture at the bottom of the page (left) is what you
should see through the eyepiece of the sighting bar-the bull's-eye is in
proper position. This is the correct alinement. The others show common
errors you should never make.
In the correct picture, the top of the front sight is seen at the middle
of the circle and just touches the bottom of the bull's-eye, so that all
the bull's-eye can be dearly seen. The eye should be focused on the
bull's-eye,
[26J
- .
FIRST SIGHTING ANQ AIMING EXERCISE
., :! ,. 1>"' ,:;' J _ ~ ~ . ~ J
1 T i ! ~
FIRST SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE
The first thing to learn about the correct sight picture is the correct
alinement of the front and peep sights-without the bull's-eye.
What should you see through the eyepiece of the sighting bar?
You should see the top of the front sight through the middle of the
circle. A vertical line drawn through the center of the front sight
should coincide with the vertical diameter of the peep sight.
The first sight picture (upper left) is correct; the others, of course,
are wrong.
The next thing to learn about the correct sight picture is the correct
alinement of the front and peep sights-with the bull's-eve.
The first sight picture at the bottom of the page (left) is what you
should see through the eyepiece of the sighting bar-the bull's-eye is in
proper position. This is the correct alinement. The others show common
errors you should never make.
In the correct picture, the top of the front sight is seen at the middle
of the circle and just touches the bottom of the bull's-eye, so that all
the bull's-eye can be dearly seen. The eye should be focused on the
bull's-eye,
[26J
- .
FIRST SIGHTING ANQ AIMING EXERCISE
., :! ,. 1>"' ,:;' J _ ~ ~ . ~ J
1 T i ! ~
CLEAN AND BLACKEN YOUR SIGHTS
You are now ready to line lip the bull's-eye through the sights of
your rifle. In order to see your rifle sights and the bull's-eye clearly, you
mus t always do two things fir st :
(1) Clean your sights
(2) Blacken your sights.
Why? Look at these diagrams at the bottom of the opposite page.
These dirty sigh ts will make you aim too low. With clean sights , you
line up the bull's-eye squarely on top of the front sight itself, and not
on di rt,
Shiny sights glint in the sunshine. They cause a reflection in your
eye. They are hard to see.
Clean and blackened sights stand alit clear and bold-they are easy
to see.
Al ways clean and blacken your sights before sighting and aim ing
your rifle.
These pi ctur es show how. Be sure all traces of oil are removed. Then
hold each sight for a few seconds in the poin t of a small flame, so that
a uniform coatin g of lampblack is deposited on the metal.
A carbide lamp is ideal. But you can use a kerosene lamp, candle,
small pine stick, smudge pot or even match sticks when a carbide
lamp is not available.
[28)
CLEAN AND BLACKEN YOUR SIGHTS
You are now ready to line lip the bull's-eye through the sights of
your rifle. In order to see your rifle sights and the bull's-eye clearly, you
mus t always do two things fir st :
(1) Clean your sights
(2) Blacken your sights.
Why? Look at these diagrams at the bottom of the opposite page.
These dirty sigh ts will make you aim too low. With clean sights , you
line up the bull's-eye squarely on top of the front sight itself, and not
on di rt,
Shiny sights glint in the sunshine. They cause a reflection in your
eye. They are hard to see.
Clean and blackened sights stand alit clear and bold-they are easy
to see.
Al ways clean and blacken your sights before sighting and aim ing
your rifle.
These pi ctur es show how. Be sure all traces of oil are removed. Then
hold each sight for a few seconds in the poin t of a small flame, so that
a uniform coatin g of lampblack is deposited on the metal.
A carbide lamp is ideal. But you can use a kerosene lamp, candle,
small pine stick, smudge pot or even match sticks when a carbide
lamp is not available.
[28)
SECOND SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE ·
Now you are ready to practice lining up the bull's-eye through the
cleaned. and blackened sights of your rifle.
The method used is shown in these pictures:
The rifle is placed in rifle rest. It points at the blank piece of paper
mounted on box 20 feet away. Without touching rifle or rifle rest, the
coach takes his position and looks through sights. He then directs
marker by signal to move disk until bottom of bull's-eye is in correct
alinement with sights. He then commands marker to "Hold." The
Iii' coach then moves away and directs the pupil to look through sights,
I as shown in the upper picture, in order to observe correct aim.
The marker then moves the disk out of alinement. The pupil takes
position with his eye as close to the rifle as it would be in actual nring­
and directs the marker to move the disk until bottom of bull's-eye is
in correct line with sights. The coach then looks through sights to see
if the alinement is correct. Be careful not to move the rifle rest. Sand­
bags placed in both the rifle rest and the box on which marker sits will
help to prevent movement.
The coach will aline the sights 011 the bull's-eye with various slight
errors to determine whether or not you can detect them.
But before you start, go back to the enlarged peep sight of your rifle
(page 21) and practice setting the exact position of your peep sight,
front sight, and bull's-eye.
,
I
[30]
SECOND SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE ·
Now you are ready to practice lining up the bull's-eye through the
cleaned. and blackened sights of your rifle.
The method used is shown in these pictures:
The rifle is placed in rifle rest. It points at the blank piece of paper
mounted on box 20 feet away. Without touching rifle or rifle rest, the
coach takes his position and looks through sights. He then directs
marker by signal to move disk until bottom of bull's-eye is in correct
alinement with sights. He then commands marker to "Hold." The
Iii' coach then moves away and directs the pupil to look through sights,
I as shown in the upper picture, in order to observe correct aim.
The marker then moves the disk out of alinement. The pupil takes
position with his eye as close to the rifle as it would be in actual nring­
and directs the marker to move the disk until bottom of bull's-eye is
in correct line with sights. The coach then looks through sights to see
if the alinement is correct. Be careful not to move the rifle rest. Sand­
bags placed in both the rifle rest and the box on which marker sits will
help to prevent movement.
The coach will aline the sights 011 the bull's-eye with various slight
errors to determine whether or not you can detect them.
But before you start, go back to the enlarged peep sight of your rifle
(page 21) and practice setting the exact position of your peep sight,
front sight, and bull's-eye.
,
I
[30]
THIRD SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE
The object of this exercise is to show the importance of uni form and
corr ect aiming, and to instill in the mind a sense of exactness.
The rifle with sights blackened is pl aced in rifle rest and pointed at a
blank sheet of paper mounted on a box 50 feet away. The pup il takes
the position illustrated and looks through the sights without moving
the rille or rifle rest. The pupil directs the marker, by comma nd or
signal, to move the disk un til th e bottom of the bu ll's-eye is in correc t
alinement with the sights. He th en commands the marker to "Hold."
The coach then looks through the sights to see if the alinement is
corr ect. Then without comment to the pupil, he commands the marker
to "1vlark."
The marker, without moving the disk, makes a dot on the paper with
a sharp-pointed pencil inserted through the hol e in the center of the
bul l's-eye. The marker then moves the disk to change the alinerncnt.
Pupil and coach repeat this operation until three dots, numbered 1, 2,
and 3, respectively, have been made. Th ese dots t hen outline the shot
group, and the pupil's name is writt en under it.
The size and shape of the shot group determine how well you are
<dining your sights with the bul l's-eye. At the bottom of thi s chart are
thr ee shot groups. A "horizontal" triangle (left ) is generally caused
by a horizontal movement of the front sight- a failure to rest the bull's­
eye squarely on the center of the top of the front sight.
A vertical triangle (cen ter) generall y comes from an up-and-down
movement of the front sight- a failure to keep the bull 's-eye directly
tangent to the top of the front sight.
A tight, close triangle ( right) shows steady, correct sighting. At 50
feet, you should make triangles which can be covered by the unsharp ­
ened end of an ordinary lead pencil. At 200 feet, your triangle should
be covered by a silver dollar.
[32]
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3
THIRD SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE
The object of this exercise is to show the importance of uni form and
corr ect aiming, and to instill in the mind a sense of exactness.
The rifle with sights blackened is pl aced in rifle rest and pointed at a
blank sheet of paper mounted on a box 50 feet away. The pup il takes
the position illustrated and looks through the sights without moving
the rille or rifle rest. The pupil directs the marker, by comma nd or
signal, to move the disk un til th e bottom of the bu ll's-eye is in correc t
alinement with the sights. He th en commands the marker to "Hold."
The coach then looks through the sights to see if the alinement is
corr ect. Then without comment to the pupil, he commands the marker
to "1vlark."
The marker, without moving the disk, makes a dot on the paper with
a sharp-pointed pencil inserted through the hol e in the center of the
bul l's-eye. The marker then moves the disk to change the alinerncnt.
Pupil and coach repeat this operation until three dots, numbered 1, 2,
and 3, respectively, have been made. Th ese dots t hen outline the shot
group, and the pupil's name is writt en under it.
The size and shape of the shot group determine how well you are
<dining your sights with the bul l's-eye. At the bottom of thi s chart are
thr ee shot groups. A "horizontal" triangle (left ) is generally caused
by a horizontal movement of the front sight- a failure to rest the bull's­
eye squarely on the center of the top of the front sight.
A vertical triangle (cen ter) generall y comes from an up-and-down
movement of the front sight- a failure to keep the bull 's-eye directly
tangent to the top of the front sight.
A tight, close triangle ( right) shows steady, correct sighting. At 50
feet, you should make triangles which can be covered by the unsharp ­
ened end of an ordinary lead pencil. At 200 feet, your triangle should
be covered by a silver dollar.
[32]
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3
THE ROCK OF THE MARNE
This is a scene from the Second Battle of the Marne in 1918, when
the Germans made their last, most desperate drive for Paris. One
American regiment-the 38th Infantry of the 3d Division-faced two
German divisions. In the confusion of battle, the higher command lost
touch with the regimental units. Each company-each squad-each
man was on his own.
In twenty-four hours, this one American regiment disorganized two
German divisions. How? By rifle fire alone. By good mark smanship.
A few days later, a letter was found on the body of a German officer.
It read: "God save us from these Americans. They shoot like devils.
They kill us like animals with their rifles. They are the best marksmen
in the world."
W e must prepare ourselves to carryon this tradition of Am erican
marksmanship,
[34j
THE ROCK OF THE MARNE
This is a scene from the Second Battle of the Marne in 1918, when
the Germans made their last, most desperate drive for Paris. One
American regiment-the 38th Infantry of the 3d Division-faced two
German divisions. In the confusion of battle, the higher command lost
touch with the regimental units. Each company-each squad-each
man was on his own.
In twenty-four hours, this one American regiment disorganized two
German divisions. How? By rifle fire alone. By good mark smanship.
A few days later, a letter was found on the body of a German officer.
It read: "God save us from these Americans. They shoot like devils.
They kill us like animals with their rifles. They are the best marksmen
in the world."
W e must prepare ourselves to carryon this tradition of Am erican
marksmanship,
[34j
HOW TO ADJUST THE LOOP SLING
We are now ready for the second step-correct position s.
You won't hit the bull's-eye ever y time unless you are steady. Three
things control your steadiness.
The Gun Sling
Your Breathing
Your Position
The gun sling supports your arm and rifle. It binds th e rille to your
ann in a single, tight, stead y unit.
There are two ways to adjust your gun sling-the Loop and the
Hasty. The Loop takes longer to fix, but it is steadier. It is used in all
positions except the standing position . This is how to adjust it:
. Place butt of rifle on right thigh, barrel to right and muzzle point­
mg up.
Rest rifle against inside of right forearm so that both hands are free
to fix sling, and loosen lower loop, as shown here. Fasten it again near
the butt swivel leaving yourself plenty of sling. Adjust the upper hook
until the loop has the proper length. Then insert left arm through the
upper loop, from right to left. Another simple way is to twist the sling
one quarter turn to the left, then insert the left arm into the loop
between the D-ring and tbe lower keeper until the loop is around the
upper arm.
[36]
HOW TO ADJUST THE LOOP SLING
We are now ready for the second step-correct position s.
You won't hit the bull's-eye ever y time unless you are steady. Three
things control your steadiness.
The Gun Sling
Your Breathing
Your Position
The gun sling supports your arm and rifle. It binds th e rille to your
ann in a single, tight, stead y unit.
There are two ways to adjust your gun sling-the Loop and the
Hasty. The Loop takes longer to fix, but it is steadier. It is used in all
positions except the standing position . This is how to adjust it:
. Place butt of rifle on right thigh, barrel to right and muzzle point­
mg up.
Rest rifle against inside of right forearm so that both hands are free
to fix sling, and loosen lower loop, as shown here. Fasten it again near
the butt swivel leaving yourself plenty of sling. Adjust the upper hook
until the loop has the proper length. Then insert left arm through the
upper loop, from right to left. Another simple way is to twist the sling
one quarter turn to the left, then insert the left arm into the loop
between the D-ring and tbe lower keeper until the loop is around the
upper arm.
[36]
HO\V TO TIGHTEN THE LOOP
These pictures show how to tighten the loop into position on the arm.
(1) Pull on both parts of sling- jockeying them until the loop and
keeper are close against the arm.
(2) Pull the D-ring for ward and push the lower keeper and hook
close against the arm to keep the loop in place.
(3) If necessary, push the out er part of the sling away from you witln
the thumb-tightening the sling still more.
(4) Push the upper keeper down toward the hook.
[38]
HO\V TO TIGHTEN THE LOOP
These pictures show how to tighten the loop into position on the arm.
(1) Pull on both parts of sling- jockeying them until the loop and
keeper are close against the arm.
(2) Pull the D-ring for ward and push the lower keeper and hook
close against the arm to keep the loop in place.
(3) If necessary, push the out er part of the sling away from you witln
the thumb-tightening the sling still more.
(4) Push the upper keeper down toward the hook.
[38]
A TIGHT SLING MEANS A STEADY RIFLE
'When the loop sling is properly adjusted on the upper arm, place
the left hand, knuckles out, so that the sling passes around the side
of the left wrist near the wrist bone. If properly adjusted, the sling is
flat against the wrist.
Then, before you take your position, place the left hand so that
the riAe lies in the center of the V formed by th e th umb and the finger s
of the ieft hand, with the hand forward against the upper sling swivel.
Note that some leeway is permitted in the position of the loop on the
arm. The Manual prescribes that the loop should come above the bicep.
But experience at The Infantry School shows that many men get
better results with a lower sling. It is important that "light" be visible
between the sling and the forearm.
Be sure the sling is doing its share of the work in giving your rifle
full support. A tight sling means a stead y rifle.
We will discuss the hasty sling later-when we are read y for the
standing position.
[40]
A TIGHT SLING MEANS A STEADY RIFLE
'When the loop sling is properly adjusted on the upper arm, place
the left hand, knuckles out, so that the sling passes around the side
of the left wrist near the wrist bone. If properly adjusted, the sling is
flat against the wrist.
Then, before you take your position, place the left hand so that
the riAe lies in the center of the V formed by th e th umb and the finger s
of the ieft hand, with the hand forward against the upper sling swivel.
Note that some leeway is permitted in the position of the loop on the
arm. The Manual prescribes that the loop should come above the bicep.
But experience at The Infantry School shows that many men get
better results with a lower sling. It is important that "light" be visible
between the sling and the forearm.
Be sure the sling is doing its share of the work in giving your rifle
full support. A tight sling means a stead y rifle.
We will discuss the hasty sling later-when we are read y for the
standing position.
[40]
TAKE UP THE SLACK
Before we go into the positions, it is important to know how to take
up the slack in the trigger. This is part of the position exercise because
the slack must be taken up by the finger as soon as the correct position
is assumed and before careful aiming is begun.
The "slack" in the trigger of a rifle is like the "play" in the clutch
of a car. That "play" is built into the clutch by the manufacturer as an
extra safety allowance-a preparatory motion that enables both the car
and you to get set for a shift in gears. There's «play" in the brake too­
if there weren't, you'd stop so suddenly that you'd break your teeth on
the dashboard the moment you pushed down on the brake pedal.
Your rifle also has this "safety allowance"-a small amount of slack
that brings the trigger lug just to a point where it begins to release the
hammer. Squeeze the trigger beyond the slack and the trigger releases
the hammer. This causes the rifle to fire.
The entire amount of slack in the trigger is taken up by one positive
movement of the finger.
Take up the slack as soon as the correct position is assumed, and
before careful aiming is begun.
(42)
TAKE UP THE SLACK
Before we go into the positions, it is important to know how to take
up the slack in the trigger. This is part of the position exercise because
the slack must be taken up by the finger as soon as the correct position
is assumed and before careful aiming is begun.
The "slack" in the trigger of a rifle is like the "play" in the clutch
of a car. That "play" is built into the clutch by the manufacturer as an
extra safety allowance-a preparatory motion that enables both the car
and you to get set for a shift in gears. There's «play" in the brake too­
if there weren't, you'd stop so suddenly that you'd break your teeth on
the dashboard the moment you pushed down on the brake pedal.
Your rifle also has this "safety allowance"-a small amount of slack
that brings the trigger lug just to a point where it begins to release the
hammer. Squeeze the trigger beyond the slack and the trigger releases
the hammer. This causes the rifle to fire.
The entire amount of slack in the trigger is taken up by one positive
movement of the finger.
Take up the slack as soon as the correct position is assumed, and
before careful aiming is begun.
(42)
HOLD YOUR BREATH WHILE AIMING
Obviously, if your chest and back are moving, your riAe will move
up and down.
To prevent this, take a br eath. Then let out a little air. Then stop
breathing.
Hold your breath naturally. If you don't get your shot off, exhale­
then inhale, let out a little air, and stop breathing again. Don' t tighten
up. Don't become breathless. Pr actice will teach you to cont rol your
br eathing without discomfor t.
Coaches must check pupils carefully on this point. Watch the pupil's
back. ]f it rises and falls while aiming, he is br eathing, and hi s rille
is bound to be unsteady.
Watch the muzzle of the r ifle. If it "seesaws," the pupi l is breathi ng.
[44]
HOLD YOUR BREATH WHILE AIMING
Obviously, if your chest and back are moving, your riAe will move
up and down.
To prevent this, take a br eath. Then let out a little air. Then stop
breathing.
Hold your breath naturally. If you don't get your shot off, exhale­
then inhale, let out a little air, and stop breathing again. Don' t tighten
up. Don't become breathless. Pr actice will teach you to cont rol your
br eathing without discomfor t.
Coaches must check pupils carefully on this point. Watch the pupil's
back. ]f it rises and falls while aiming, he is br eathing, and hi s rille
is bound to be unsteady.
Watch the muzzle of the r ifle. If it "seesaws," the pupi l is breathi ng.
[44]
Ii
SUPPORT THE RIFLE WITH YOUR BONES
DON'T HOLD IT WITH YOUR MUSCLES
Now you are ready for the positions. Taking positi ons is a matter of
bones, not muscle. For some of yqu, taking correct positions won 't -be
easy until your bodies limber up. In a few Jays, after some pra ctice and
stretching exercises, you will take correct positions easily.
The whole idea behind positions is to give your rifle steady suppor t.
Only you r bones can do that. The strongest man will tremble after a
few seconds if he tries to support his rifle by muscle alone. The weakest
man can hold his rifle steady, if he uses his bones to form a firm base.
These pictures make the idea a littl e clearer. In the upper picture the
stick stands straight up and down. The lO-pound weight on it has good,
stead YSll Pport.
In the lower picture the stick is tilted. It gives the weight poor support.
Same way with your rifle. The upp er picture shows the right way to
hold your rifle. The arm hone is straight up and down.
If your arm bone is tilted, as in the lower picture, your rifle will
wobble. Your muscles can' t hold it in place very long.
"Use your bones " and your position is sure to be steady.
[ 46J
SUPPORT YOUR RIFLE WITH YOUR BONES
Ii
SUPPORT THE RIFLE WITH YOUR BONES
DON'T HOLD IT WITH YOUR MUSCLES
Now you are ready for the positions. Taking positi ons is a matter of
bones, not muscle. For some of yqu, taking correct positions won 't -be
easy until your bodies limber up. In a few Jays, after some pra ctice and
stretching exercises, you will take correct positions easily.
The whole idea behind positions is to give your rifle steady suppor t.
Only you r bones can do that. The strongest man will tremble after a
few seconds if he tries to support his rifle by muscle alone. The weakest
man can hold his rifle steady, if he uses his bones to form a firm base.
These pictures make the idea a littl e clearer. In the upper picture the
stick stands straight up and down. The lO-pound weight on it has good,
stead YSll Pport.
In the lower picture the stick is tilted. It gives the weight poor support.
Same way with your rifle. The upp er picture shows the right way to
hold your rifle. The arm hone is straight up and down.
If your arm bone is tilted, as in the lower picture, your rifle will
wobble. Your muscles can' t hold it in place very long.
"Use your bones " and your position is sure to be steady.
[ 46J
SUPPORT YOUR RIFLE WITH YOUR BONES
i
I
THE PRONE POSITION
This position is best used on level ground.
The two large pictures show the correct position of pupil and coach.
These smaller pictures stress vi tall y important details.
The coach, as you see, moves around the pupil, checking carefully
on the following points:
The angle made by the pupil's spine and the rifle is 30 degrees or
less. He mu st be well behind the rifle, so that his weight will act
against the recoil of the piece, and cause the muzzle to drop back into
position after each shot. This is especially important in shooting the Ml ,
The left elbow is under th e ri lic.
The left wrist is str aig ht.
Fing ers and thumb of lef t hand are loose and relaxed.
Rille rests in the V formed by thumb an d linger of left han d.
The left hand is for war d aga inst the upper sling swivel.
The left shoulder is relaxed forward and down.
The spi ne is straight. Legs arc comfortably spread apart. The toes ar e out.
Right elbow is far enough out from the body so that the r ight shoulder is no t
hunched up.
The butt is seated well into the pocket for med in the shoulder as the right elbow
is moved for ward . Note how it is held there by the sling. It is important that this
be done correctly.
With the we ig ht rolled ove r all the left elbow, grasp the bun with th e r ight
hand-the heel of the hand near the butt. Then shove -the butt well into place. If
you can pl ace your r iRe butt com fortably on your shoulder with your right hand
at the sma ll of the stock, then your sling is adjusted.
The right thumb is over or on top of the stock.
The trigger finger may rest against the trigger at any point betw een t he tip and
the bend between the first and second joints.
The neck is relaxed. The cheek rests firmly against the stock without muscular
effort.
The weight is relaxed forward against the tension of the sling.
Mus cul ar relaxation is important-particularly of the hands, arms and shoulders.
Breathing should be controlled. If the back moves, the pupil is not hold ing hi s
breath.
Aft er the above points have been checked, the coach lies down next,
to the pupil. The coach watches the pupil, not the target.
[48}
4
i
I
THE PRONE POSITION
This position is best used on level ground.
The two large pictures show the correct position of pupil and coach.
These smaller pictures stress vi tall y important details.
The coach, as you see, moves around the pupil, checking carefully
on the following points:
The angle made by the pupil's spine and the rifle is 30 degrees or
less. He mu st be well behind the rifle, so that his weight will act
against the recoil of the piece, and cause the muzzle to drop back into
position after each shot. This is especially important in shooting the Ml ,
The left elbow is under th e ri lic.
The left wrist is str aig ht.
Fing ers and thumb of lef t hand are loose and relaxed.
Rille rests in the V formed by thumb an d linger of left han d.
The left hand is for war d aga inst the upper sling swivel.
The left shoulder is relaxed forward and down.
The spi ne is straight. Legs arc comfortably spread apart. The toes ar e out.
Right elbow is far enough out from the body so that the r ight shoulder is no t
hunched up.
The butt is seated well into the pocket for med in the shoulder as the right elbow
is moved for ward . Note how it is held there by the sling. It is important that this
be done correctly.
With the we ig ht rolled ove r all the left elbow, grasp the bun with th e r ight
hand-the heel of the hand near the butt. Then shove -the butt well into place. If
you can pl ace your r iRe butt com fortably on your shoulder with your right hand
at the sma ll of the stock, then your sling is adjusted.
The right thumb is over or on top of the stock.
The trigger finger may rest against the trigger at any point betw een t he tip and
the bend between the first and second joints.
The neck is relaxed. The cheek rests firmly against the stock without muscular
effort.
The weight is relaxed forward against the tension of the sling.
Mus cul ar relaxation is important-particularly of the hands, arms and shoulders.
Breathing should be controlled. If the back moves, the pupil is not hold ing hi s
breath.
Aft er the above points have been checked, the coach lies down next,
to the pupil. The coach watches the pupil, not the target.
[48}
4
THE SANDBAG REST POSITION
This is exactl y like the normal prone, except that the sandbag sup
ports th e: left forear m, wrist and hand. These pictures show how th
sandbag is used to steady the pupil's aim.
Not e the position of the coach in this exercise. Note how he pack
and adjusts the sandbag.
Note that the sandbag is slightly higher than the back of the lei
hand. Note that the rifle rests on the hand-and not on the sandbag.
Because it is so easy, relaxed and steady a position, the sandbag r es
is ideal for practicing the trigger squeeze, which is the most importa n
single factor in rille marksmanship.
I
I
[50J
THE SANDBAG REST POSITION
This is exactl y like the normal prone, except that the sandbag sup
ports th e: left forear m, wrist and hand. These pictures show how th
sandbag is used to steady the pupil's aim.
Not e the position of the coach in this exercise. Note how he pack
and adjusts the sandbag.
Note that the sandbag is slightly higher than the back of the lei
hand. Note that the rifle rests on the hand-and not on the sandbag.
Because it is so easy, relaxed and steady a position, the sandbag r es
is ideal for practicing the trigger squeeze, which is the most importa n
single factor in rille marksmanship.
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[50J
THE SITTING POSITION
This position is best used when firing from ground that slopes down­
ward in front. In this position (and the kneeling position) the sling
is adjusted with the loop about two holes shorter than for the prone.
The coach should check th e pupil on these important points.
Before taking position, face the target; then half-face to the right
and sit down.
Weight is well forward . Ankles are relaxed. Toes point forward.
Feet are far enough apart so that they give body lateral support-yet
not so far apart that the elbows cannot rest on top of legs. The kn ees
are no farther apart than the feet.
Notice the back : it is straigh t without a hump in the shoulders. The
body is bent forward from the hips.
The left elbow is under the rifle. The rifle rests in the V formed by
the thumb and finger of the ldt hand. The left hand is all the way
forward against the stock ferrule swivel (except for men with very
short arms). The left wrist is straight.
Note the surface-to-surface contact between arms and legs. The left
elbow is forward of the left kneecap-at least 4 or 5 inches. That part
of the upper arm just above the left elbow is parallel to and rests
squarely on that part of the left lower leg just forward of the kn eecap
which is, in most cases, outside of the arm.
The right thumb is over or on top of the stock. The right cheek rests
snugly against stock. The weight of the body is relaxed forward from
the hips into the sling.
Notice that the knees are not held together by muscular effort. The
weight of the upper part of the body is transmitted to the legs through
the upper arms-so that the weight comes on top of the legs, causing,
the toes to relax forward.
Notice that the rifle is kept in the pocket of the shoulder by the
taut sling.
The picture at lower right corner shows an alternative cross-legged
position, which should be used only with the consent of an officer. The
open-legged position is the standard and most effective sitting position.
[52J
THE SITTING POSITION
This position is best used when firing from ground that slopes down­
ward in front. In this position (and the kneeling position) the sling
is adjusted with the loop about two holes shorter than for the prone.
The coach should check th e pupil on these important points.
Before taking position, face the target; then half-face to the right
and sit down.
Weight is well forward . Ankles are relaxed. Toes point forward.
Feet are far enough apart so that they give body lateral support-yet
not so far apart that the elbows cannot rest on top of legs. The kn ees
are no farther apart than the feet.
Notice the back : it is straigh t without a hump in the shoulders. The
body is bent forward from the hips.
The left elbow is under the rifle. The rifle rests in the V formed by
the thumb and finger of the ldt hand. The left hand is all the way
forward against the stock ferrule swivel (except for men with very
short arms). The left wrist is straight.
Note the surface-to-surface contact between arms and legs. The left
elbow is forward of the left kneecap-at least 4 or 5 inches. That part
of the upper arm just above the left elbow is parallel to and rests
squarely on that part of the left lower leg just forward of the kn eecap
which is, in most cases, outside of the arm.
The right thumb is over or on top of the stock. The right cheek rests
snugly against stock. The weight of the body is relaxed forward from
the hips into the sling.
Notice that the knees are not held together by muscular effort. The
weight of the upper part of the body is transmitted to the legs through
the upper arms-so that the weight comes on top of the legs, causing,
the toes to relax forward.
Notice that the rifle is kept in the pocket of the shoulder by the
taut sling.
The picture at lower right corner shows an alternative cross-legged
position, which should be used only with the consent of an officer. The
open-legged position is the standard and most effective sitting position.
[52J
THE KNEELING POSITION
This position is best used on level ground, and ground . that slopes;
upward.
The coach should check the pupil on each of the following points: '
Firer kneels half-faced to right on right knee. He .sits on right heel.
Left lower leg is vertical. Left elbow rests on it so that left arm and left
leg form one straight up-and-down line. Notice that point of left elbow
is a few inches forward of the knee; this helps to throw the weight
forward.
Right elbow is held high-at height of shoulder.
Left hand is forward against the stock ferrule swivel-relaxed-with
rifle passing through the V formed by thumb and fingers of the hand,
The cheek rests against the stock. The right thumb is over or on the
top of the stock.
Breathing is controlled.
Position of the right leg is very important. Note that right knee is
so placed that the right thigh is perpendicular to axis of rifle.
Note that toe is so placed that shooter sits on his heel, with his instep
on the ground. Note that entire surface of the lower leg, from knc
to toe, is in contact with the ground. The weight is forward. If this posi­
tion is difficult at first, dig a hole for your toe. Later when your faa
limbers up, discontinue the use of a hole.
·1 ·
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[54}
THE KNEELING POSITION
This position is best used on level ground, and ground . that slopes;
upward.
The coach should check the pupil on each of the following points: '
Firer kneels half-faced to right on right knee. He .sits on right heel.
Left lower leg is vertical. Left elbow rests on it so that left arm and left
leg form one straight up-and-down line. Notice that point of left elbow
is a few inches forward of the knee; this helps to throw the weight
forward.
Right elbow is held high-at height of shoulder.
Left hand is forward against the stock ferrule swivel-relaxed-with
rifle passing through the V formed by thumb and fingers of the hand,
The cheek rests against the stock. The right thumb is over or on the
top of the stock.
Breathing is controlled.
Position of the right leg is very important. Note that right knee is
so placed that the right thigh is perpendicular to axis of rifle.
Note that toe is so placed that shooter sits on his heel, with his instep
on the ground. Note that entire surface of the lower leg, from knc
to toe, is in contact with the ground. The weight is forward. If this posi­
tion is difficult at first, dig a hole for your toe. Later when your faa
limbers up, discontinue the use of a hole.
·1 ·
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[54}
THE SQUATTING POSITION
This position has important advantages in combat. It can be quickl y
assumed with either the loop or hasty sling. Or it may be used without
the sling. As onl y the feet are in contact with the ground, it is
desirable when firing in mud, shallow water, snow, or a gas con­
taminated area.
To take the squatting position, the firer half-faces to the right,
places both feet flat on the ground and a foot or more apart , and
squats as low as possible. The backs of the upper and lower legs,
should be in the full est possible contact from the knees downward. The
inner part of the left, mid-upper arm rests on the left knee; the left'
elbow is directly under the rifle. The right elbow is braced against the
inner part of the right knee. The weight of the body should be relaxed!
and well forward over the left leg. The rifle rests in the crotch. of the:
left hand as explained for the prone position. The grasp of the rifle
by the right hand and the position of the face against the stock are
as prescribed for the prone position.
[56]
THE SQUATTING POSITION
This position has important advantages in combat. It can be quickl y
assumed with either the loop or hasty sling. Or it may be used without
the sling. As onl y the feet are in contact with the ground, it is
desirable when firing in mud, shallow water, snow, or a gas con­
taminated area.
To take the squatting position, the firer half-faces to the right,
places both feet flat on the ground and a foot or more apart , and
squats as low as possible. The backs of the upper and lower legs,
should be in the full est possible contact from the knees downward. The
inner part of the left, mid-upper arm rests on the left knee; the left'
elbow is directly under the rifle. The right elbow is braced against the
inner part of the right knee. The weight of the body should be relaxed!
and well forward over the left leg. The rifle rests in the crotch. of the:
left hand as explained for the prone position. The grasp of the rifle
by the right hand and the position of the face against the stock are
as prescribed for the prone position.
[56]
HOW TO ADJUST THE HASTY SLING
The final position is the standing position. In this position you usc
the Hasty Sling.
Speed of adjustment is its great advantage. But it gives less support
than the Loop in positions other than the standing.
This is how to adjust the Hasty Sling:
First, place butt of riAe on right thigh. Grasp the rifle just in rear
of the stock ferrule swivel with the right hand. Loosen the sling.
Then give the sling a half twist to the left with the thumb, as shown
in the lower picture.
'j
[58)
HOW TO ADJUST THE HASTY SLING
The final position is the standing position. In this position you usc
the Hasty Sling.
Speed of adjustment is its great advantage. But it gives less support
than the Loop in positions other than the standing.
This is how to adjust the Hasty Sling:
First, place butt of riAe on right thigh. Grasp the rifle just in rear
of the stock ferrule swivel with the right hand. Loosen the sling.
Then give the sling a half twist to the left with the thumb, as shown
in the lower picture.
'j
[58)
..
SLING GOES WELL UP ON ARM
Now, throw the sling to the left and catch it above the elbow, and
high on the arm-s-as shown in the upper picture.
Then pass the left hand under the sling and then over the sling.
Then regrasp the rifle with the left hand-as shown in the lower
picture-so as to make the sling lie along the back of the hand and
wrist.
The right h and gra sps the but t of rifle as shown.
(60)
.. 4 ,. ~ ~ - -'­-,---=" 7" •
1
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SLING GOES WELL UP ON ARM
Now, throw the sling to the left and catch it above the elbow, and
high on the arm-s-as shown in the upper picture.
Then pass the left hand under the sling and then over the sling.
Then regrasp the rifle with the left hand-as shown in the lower
picture-so as to make the sling lie along the back of the hand and
wrist.
The right h and gra sps the but t of rifle as shown.
(60)
.. 4 ,. ~ ~ - -'­-,---=" 7" •
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FINAL PHASES OF THE HASTY SLING
Now bring the butt of rifle up into the shoulder-pushing it firrnl
into place in the hollow of the shoulder.
Finally, with the right arm held high, to support the rifle in plac
bring the finger to the trigger. Holding the arm high gives you
better shoulder pocket into which the rifle can be placed.
Be sure arm, sling and rifle are bound into one firm, steady unit.
(62)
FINAL PHASES OF THE HASTY SLING
Now bring the butt of rifle up into the shoulder-pushing it firrnl
into place in the hollow of the shoulder.
Finally, with the right arm held high, to support the rifle in plac
bring the finger to the trigger. Holding the arm high gives you
better shoulder pocket into which the rifle can be placed.
Be sure arm, sling and rifle are bound into one firm, steady unit.
(62)
THE STANDING POSITION
This is used for all kinds of firing, regardless of slope or level.
Coaches will check the following points:
Firer stands half-faced to the right.
Feet are from 1 to 2 feet apart. Body is erect and well-balanced.
Left elbow is well under the rifle.
Left hand is in front of balance. W fist is straight. The rifle is placed
in crotch formed by thumb and index finger, resting on the heel 06
the hand.
Butt of piece is high up on the shoulder, and firmly held. Right
elbow is approximatel y at the height of the shoulder.
Cheek is pressed against stock, as far forward as possible without
strain.
Breathing is controlled.
In the lower right picture is shown an exercise that makes for steadi­
ness in the standing position. Note how the rifle is held by the hones
of the shoulder and the right arm. By practicing this exercise, greater
steadiness is developed in the standing position-a steadiness further
increased, of course, when the left hand grasps the rifle below the swivel.
[64J
THE STANDING POSITION
This is used for all kinds of firing, regardless of slope or level.
Coaches will check the following points:
Firer stands half-faced to the right.
Feet are from 1 to 2 feet apart. Body is erect and well-balanced.
Left elbow is well under the rifle.
Left hand is in front of balance. W fist is straight. The rifle is placed
in crotch formed by thumb and index finger, resting on the heel 06
the hand.
Butt of piece is high up on the shoulder, and firmly held. Right
elbow is approximatel y at the height of the shoulder.
Cheek is pressed against stock, as far forward as possible without
strain.
Breathing is controlled.
In the lower right picture is shown an exercise that makes for steadi­
ness in the standing position. Note how the rifle is held by the hones
of the shoulder and the right arm. By practicing this exercise, greater
steadiness is developed in the standing position-a steadiness further
increased, of course, when the left hand grasps the rifle below the swivel.
[64J
WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH THIS PICTURE?
Take a good look at how Private Joe Jerk takes the four positions,
Private Jerk is the man who sleeps through the demonstrations. H e's
the man who tells the coach about what he did to the shooting galleri es
at Coney Island. He's the man who wins the medals 011 the tirin g
range-the "Order of Maggie's Drawers"-with palms.
Study the four pictures carefully. Pick out the things you se
wrong with Private Jerk's technique.
r66J
WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH THIS PICTURE?
Take a good look at how Private Joe Jerk takes the four positions,
Private Jerk is the man who sleeps through the demonstrations. H e's
the man who tells the coach about what he did to the shooting galleri es
at Coney Island. He's the man who wins the medals 011 the tirin g
range-the "Order of Maggie's Drawers"-with palms.
Study the four pictures carefully. Pick out the things you se
wrong with Private Jerk's technique.
r66J
THE BEST "MARKS-MAN" WINS
Every American has probably heard of Sergeant York. Perhaps yo
have seen the movie, from which this picture was taken. The story 0
Sergeant York is a story of expert marksmanship.
On October 6, 1918, York's division was engaged in breaking througlli
the Hindenburg Line in the Argonne. The going was hard. There had
been no artillery preparation. The advance was held lip by German
machine-gun nests. Men were falling all around York.
York's rifle settled the issue. He worked his way to the flank of one
key machine-gun nest after the other. One by one he picked them off!
When he was finished, twenty-five Germans lay dead at their guns.
One hundred thirty-two others surrendered. The Americans swept over.
Marksmanship will help to win this war. Each one of you rnus
qualify as a marksman. You arc the men who must win this war.
(68)
THE BEST "MARKS-MAN" WINS
Every American has probably heard of Sergeant York. Perhaps yo
have seen the movie, from which this picture was taken. The story 0
Sergeant York is a story of expert marksmanship.
On October 6, 1918, York's division was engaged in breaking througlli
the Hindenburg Line in the Argonne. The going was hard. There had
been no artillery preparation. The advance was held lip by German
machine-gun nests. Men were falling all around York.
York's rifle settled the issue. He worked his way to the flank of one
key machine-gun nest after the other. One by one he picked them off!
When he was finished, twenty-five Germans lay dead at their guns.
One hundred thirty-two others surrendered. The Americans swept over.
Marksmanship will help to win this war. Each one of you rnus
qualify as a marksman. You arc the men who must win this war.
(68)
SQUEEZE-DON'T JERK
The most important single factor in marksmanship is the trigger
squeeze.
It's as easy to squeeze a trigger as it is a tube of shaving cream.
Squeeze the tube and you get exactly the amount of cream you require.
The tube and cream are "under control." There's no waste-no mess.
But jerk the tube and control is lost-cream squirts alit all over the
place-wasted. You may even get some in your eye-so you duck, and
the result is a terrible mess.
The same story applies to the trigger of a rifle. Squeeze it and your
shot is controlled. It hits the bull's-eye-e-it isn't wasted. The rifle does
what you want it to do. You squeeze for a bull's-eye. You get a bull's-eye.
But jerk the trigger, and control is lost. You expect the shock of the
explosion. You flinch. You shut your eyes. You fire blind. You waste
your shot.
To repeat, the trigger squeeze is the most important item in shooting.
To squeeze the trigger, you press it to the rear with a steady increase
of pressure, in such a manner that you cannot know the exact insta nt
when the gun will go off. The pressure is applied by the independent
action of the trigger finger straight to the rear.
Avoid "pulling" the trigger to either side. When you practice the
trigger squeeze, you must "follow through"-that is, press the trigger
all the way to the rear and keep aiming before, during, and after th e
riAe fires. Keep the rifle to your shoulder after the rifle fires. Watch th e
sights carefully. If your sights do not remain on the target, your posi­
tion or your trigger squeeze-or both-are wrong.
I Coaches must check pupils carefully in the trigger squeeze. Shown
I ' here are two methods. In one, the pupil puts his finger on the trigger.
The coach puts his finger over the pupil's finger, and demonstrates
the correct squeeze. In the second, the coach puts his finger on the
trigger; the pupil squeezes the trigger through the coach's finger. In:
this way, the coach can judge whether pupil correctly squeezes the
trigger.
[70)
SQUEEZE-DON'T JERK
The most important single factor in marksmanship is the trigger
squeeze.
It's as easy to squeeze a trigger as it is a tube of shaving cream.
Squeeze the tube and you get exactly the amount of cream you require.
The tube and cream are "under control." There's no waste-no mess.
But jerk the tube and control is lost-cream squirts alit all over the
place-wasted. You may even get some in your eye-so you duck, and
the result is a terrible mess.
The same story applies to the trigger of a rifle. Squeeze it and your
shot is controlled. It hits the bull's-eye-e-it isn't wasted. The rifle does
what you want it to do. You squeeze for a bull's-eye. You get a bull's-eye.
But jerk the trigger, and control is lost. You expect the shock of the
explosion. You flinch. You shut your eyes. You fire blind. You waste
your shot.
To repeat, the trigger squeeze is the most important item in shooting.
To squeeze the trigger, you press it to the rear with a steady increase
of pressure, in such a manner that you cannot know the exact insta nt
when the gun will go off. The pressure is applied by the independent
action of the trigger finger straight to the rear.
Avoid "pulling" the trigger to either side. When you practice the
trigger squeeze, you must "follow through"-that is, press the trigger
all the way to the rear and keep aiming before, during, and after th e
riAe fires. Keep the rifle to your shoulder after the rifle fires. Watch th e
sights carefully. If your sights do not remain on the target, your posi­
tion or your trigger squeeze-or both-are wrong.
I Coaches must check pupils carefully in the trigger squeeze. Shown
I ' here are two methods. In one, the pupil puts his finger on the trigger.
The coach puts his finger over the pupil's finger, and demonstrates
the correct squeeze. In the second, the coach puts his finger on the
trigger; the pupil squeezes the trigger through the coach's finger. In:
this way, the coach can judge whether pupil correctly squeezes the
trigger.
[70)
CALL YOUR SHOTS
One way to teach yourself to squeeze the tri gger and not to jerk il­
is to call your sho ts.
If you can tell where your shot will hi t-e-bull's-eyc or otherwise­
you are shooting wi th open eyes. You are squeezi ng th e trigger-you
are foll owing the rules.
If you can't call your shot correctl y, it means you jerked th e trigger.
You did not k now where th e sigh ts were pointing at the time the
rifle was fired. You shut your eyes and fired after ward. You almost
surely missed th e: bu ll' s ~ e y c .
These pict ures show what happens when you squeeze your trigger.
These pictures also show what h appens whe n you jerk it.
Remember-squeezing the trigger and call ing your shots art: two
vitally impor tant rul es of good shooti ng.
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[72J
Shot one: he Jerked and flinched Shot two: he squeezed the t rigger
Shot one: he " guessed" a hull's-eye
CALL YOUR SHOTS
One way to teach yourself to squeeze the tri gger and not to jerk il­
is to call your sho ts.
If you can tell where your shot will hi t-e-bull's-eyc or otherwise­
you are shooting wi th open eyes. You are squeezi ng th e trigger-you
are foll owing the rules.
If you can't call your shot correctl y, it means you jerked th e trigger.
You did not k now where th e sigh ts were pointing at the time the
rifle was fired. You shut your eyes and fired after ward. You almost
surely missed th e: bu ll' s ~ e y c .
These pict ures show what happens when you squeeze your trigger.
These pictures also show what happens whe n you jerk it.
Remember-squeezing the trigger and call ing your shots art: two
vitally impor tant rul es of good shooti ng.
I
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[72J
Shot one: he Jerked and flinched Shot two: he squeezed the t rigger
Shot one: he " guessed" a hull's-eye
YOUR LIFE-OR HIS
Some day you may find yourself suddenly faced by this [ap-e-or a
German.
Look at this man carefully. His uniform may not fit-but his face
is determined. At this very moment, the training camps of Japan and
Germany arc filled with men like him-training hard, working day
and night, practicing marksmanship with one end in view: To kill
YOU!
When you meet thi s enemy, the man who will come out of that
meeting alive will be the man who can shoot most accurately and
rapidly.
Chances are all in your favor if you learn to make quick and proper
use of your rifle. That means the ability to {ire it accurat ely and rapidly .
Note the order in which the above words are written. Accuracy and
correctness of execution of each shot in rapid fire are vitally important:
Speed is secondary.
(74]
vVOUR LIFE .•. OR HIS
YOUR LIFE-OR HIS
Some day you may find yourself suddenly faced by this [ap-e-or a
German.
Look at this man carefully. His uniform may not fit-but his face
is determined. At this very moment, the training camps of Japan and
Germany arc filled with men like him-training hard, working day
and night, practicing marksmanship with one end in view: To kill
YOU!
When you meet thi s enemy, the man who will come out of that
meeting alive will be the man who can shoot most accurately and
rapidly.
Chances are all in your favor if you learn to make quick and proper
use of your rifle. That means the ability to {ire it accurat ely and rapidly .
Note the order in which the above words are written. Accuracy and
correctness of execution of each shot in rapid fire are vitally important:
Speed is secondary.
(74]
vVOUR LIFE .•. OR HIS
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PRONE POSITION-FIRST METHOD
The enemy will not wait while you get into firing position. You rnus
do it quickl y. Here is how to take the correct prone position quickl y.
For purposes of practice, first mark on the ground the points wher
your right and left elbows normally rest in prone position, and the
point on ground just below the butt of the rifle when in firing position :
These "rapid-action" pictures show how it is done:
(1) Rifle is grasped with left hand just below the lower band and
right hand at the heel of the stock.
(2) Bend both kn ees to ground.
(3) Place bu tt of rifle on ground at point marked.
(4) Place left elbow on ground.
(5) Place butt of rifle again st right shoulder with fight hand.
(6) Grasp small of stock with right hand and place right elbow on
ground.
(7) Assume firing position.
(76)
I
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PRONE POSITION-FIRST METHOD
The enemy will not wait while you get into firing position. You rnus
do it quickl y. Here is how to take the correct prone position quickl y.
For purposes of practice, first mark on the ground the points wher
your right and left elbows normally rest in prone position, and the
point on ground just below the butt of the rifle when in firing position :
These "rapid-action" pictures show how it is done:
(1) Rifle is grasped with left hand just below the lower band and
right hand at the heel of the stock.
(2) Bend both kn ees to ground.
(3) Place bu tt of rifle on ground at point marked.
(4) Place left elbow on ground.
(5) Place butt of rifle again st right shoulder with fight hand.
(6) Grasp small of stock with right hand and place right elbow on
ground.
(7) Assume firing position.
(76)

SKIRMISHER'S METHOD
Here are a front view and a back view of a soldier taking the prone
position by the skirmisher's method.
He places right foot well back and bends left knee as low as possible.
He places butt of rifle on ground four or five inches to left and slightl y
in front of spot where ri ght elbow is to rest. Grip of rifle isretained wi th
both hands.
He places right elbow on the ground .
He places left leg hack near the right one, feet apart, and slides well
back wh ile lying on belly.
He takes but t of rifle off the ground, and places it against righ
shoulder.
He lowers the left elbow to the ground.
The rifle comes up to the shoulder just as in the prone position.
[78]

SKIRMISHER'S METHOD
Here are a front view and a back view of a soldier taking the prone
position by the skirmisher's method.
He places right foot well back and bends left knee as low as possible.
He places butt of rifle on ground four or five inches to left and slightl y
in front of spot where ri ght elbow is to rest. Grip of rifle isretained wi th
both hands.
He places right elbow on the ground .
He places left leg hack near the right one, feet apart, and slides well
back wh ile lying on belly.
He takes but t of rifle off the ground, and places it against righ
shoulder.
He lowers the left elbow to the ground.
The rifle comes up to the shoulder just as in the prone position.
[78]
PRONE POSITION-RUSHING
Command is: PREP ARE TO R USH. UP .
At command PREPARE TO RUSH, draw th e arms in until the hands are
opposite chin, elbows down, and away from body.
At command UP, raise body by straightening arms.
Shif t weight of body to right leg and arm and bring left leg forward
with kn ee fully bent.
Spr ing up and r un forwa rd. Grasp rifle with both hands, left hand
just below lower band and r igh t hand at small of stock.
Upon arriving at firing point :
Advance left foot , turning it across front of body.
Drop forward on outsid e of left knee and at same time extend rifle:
grasped in both ha nds and held vertically, so that butt strikes the
ground at arm's length, dir ectly in fron t of the left knee.
Pivoting on left knee and butt of rifle, roll forw ard onto left elbow
and left side.
Simulate loading, and with right hand place butt of rifle on righ
shoulder and set safety in its forward position.
Grasp the small of stock with right hand and place right elbow on
the ground.
[SO}
6
PRONE POSITION-RUSHING
Command is: PREP ARE TO R USH. UP .
At command PREPARE TO RUSH, draw th e arms in until the hands are
opposite chin, elbows down, and away from body.
At command UP, raise body by straightening arms.
Shif t weight of body to right leg and arm and bring left leg forward
with kn ee fully bent.
Spr ing up and r un forwa rd. Grasp rifle with both hands, left hand
just below lower band and r igh t hand at small of stock.
Upon arriving at firing point :
Advance left foot , turning it across front of body.
Drop forward on outsid e of left knee and at same time extend rifle:
grasped in both ha nds and held vertically, so that butt strikes the
ground at arm's length, dir ectly in fron t of the left knee.
Pivoting on left knee and butt of rifle, roll forw ard onto left elbow
and left side.
Simulate loading, and with right hand place butt of rifle on righ
shoulder and set safety in its forward position.
Grasp the small of stock with right hand and place right elbow on
the ground.
[SO}
6
THE SITTING POSITION
In practicing for range firing sit down and aim at target in normal
sitting position. Mark position of heels and spot on which you sit.
At command READY ON FIRING LINE, stand with heels on marked
places.
As target appears sit down on marked spot, breaking fall with right
hand. Keep your eye 011 the target.
Grasp small of stock with right hand and assume aiming position.
Remember, in all these positions: Even if it takes a little longer, get,
into correct position before starting to shoot. Correct technique first­
speed later.
Only if your position is correct will your sights automatically return
to the aiming point after you fire.
[82J
THE SITTING POSITION
In practicing for range firing sit down and aim at target in normal
sitting position. Mark position of heels and spot on which you sit.
At command READY ON FIRING LINE, stand with heels on marked
places.
As target appears sit down on marked spot, breaking fall with right
hand. Keep your eye 011 the target.
Grasp small of stock with right hand and assume aiming position.
Remember, in all these positions: Even if it takes a little longer, get,
into correct position before starting to shoot. Correct technique first­
speed later.
Only if your position is correct will your sights automatically return
to the aiming point after you fire.
[82J
--
THE KNEELING POSITION
Kneel and aim at target in normal kneeling position. Mark position
of feet and right knee.
At command READY ON FrRrNG LINE>stand with feet in places marked
for them.
As target appears, kneel with right knee on spot marked. Keep Jlour
eyes on the target!
Place the butt of rifle on shoulder with right hand. Note the change
in the position of the right hand in pictures 1 and 2. Grasp small of stock
with right hand and assume aiming position.
fR4}
- - - ~ - - - - - -
--
THE KNEELING POSITION
Kneel and aim at target in normal kneeling position. Mark position
of feet and right knee.
At command READY ON FrRrNG LINE>stand with feet in places marked
for them.
As target appears, kneel with right knee on spot marked. Keep Jlour
eyes on the target!
Place the butt of rifle on shoulder with right hand. Note the change
in the position of the right hand in pictures 1 and 2. Grasp small of stock
with right hand and assume aiming position.
fR4}
- - - ~ - - - - - -
COVER TO COVER-UP
Soldier lies prone. Rifle is grasped by right hand about 3 inches below
stock ferrule swivel.
On order-DP-he pushes up on both arms and right knee-and
dashes forward.
COVER TO
To take cover-right hand grasps rifle at butt (as in taking prone
position in rap id fire) .
Pivoting on left foot-knee well bent-soldier Rings himself for­
ward and down, breaking hi s fall with butt of rifle.
He then flat tens to ground, rifle grasped in right hand.
These pictures show the need for perfect physical conditioning. Good
soldiers must be good athletes.
{86}
COVER TO COVER-UP
Soldier lies prone. Rifle is grasped by right hand about 3 inches below
stock ferrule swivel.
On order-DP-he pushes up on both arms and right knee-and
dashes forward.
COVER TO
To take cover-right hand grasps rifle at butt (as in taking prone
position in rap id fire) .
Pivoting on left foot-knee well bent-soldier Rings himself for­
ward and down, breaking hi s fall with butt of rifle.
He then flat tens to ground, rifle grasped in right hand.
These pictures show the need for perfect physical conditioning. Good
soldiers must be good athletes.
{86}
LOAD1NG IN FOUR POSITIONS
Upper Lett
Hold rifle wi th left hand, but t down.
With right hand, take clip from belt and place on top of follower.
Upper Right
With the thumb on the clip, and the fingers drawn up in a fist, press
the dip down into receiver until it engages dip latch. This new
method enables you to use full, firm pressure.
Thumb is swung to right, so as to clear bolt in its forward mo ve­
ment, and operating handle is released .
L O U J e ~ ' Left
Closing of bolt may be assisted hy a push forward on operating rod
handle with the heel of right hand.
Lower Right
In standing position, where single rounds are inserted into the breech,
note position of hand. While thumb pushes in round, heel of hand
engages operating handle and prevents it from shutting until thumb
is removed.
wn
.. ~
LOAD1NG IN FOUR POSITIONS
Upper Lett
Hold rifle wi th left hand, but t down.
With right hand, take clip from belt and place on top of follower.
Upper Right
With the thumb on the clip, and the fingers drawn up in a fist, press
the dip down into receiver until it engages dip latch. This new
method enables you to use full, firm pressure.
Thumb is swung to right, so as to clear bolt in its forward mo ve­
ment, and operating handle is released .
L O U J e ~ ' Left
Closing of bolt may be assisted hy a push forward on operating rod
handle with the heel of right hand.
Lower Right
In standing position, where single rounds are inserted into the breech,
note position of hand. While thumb pushes in round, heel of hand
engages operating handle and prevents it from shutting until thumb
is removed.
wn
.. ~
FIRST RAPID FIRE EXERCISE
A most important element in rapid fire is the development of cor­
rect timing in firin g. Correct timing in firing will vary from above
five seconds per shot for the beginner to about two seconds for the
experienced man .
The developmen t of proper timing in firing rests mainly on the
corr ect position of the firer. The firer's position is not correct unless
the sights return aut omatically to the aiming point, the firer concen­
trates on the sight picture, and squeezes the trigger quickly. This is
repeated for each sho t.
The first r apid fire exercise is an exercise in cadence. These pictures
show the correct prone position of pupil and coach. With the MI , the
coach must be in a position to press back the operating han dle with a
sharp motion to cock the piece, and then release pressure to permit
the operating handle to go forward .
The cadence of the exerci se is set by the instructor who commands:
COMMENCE FIRINC. At regular intervals, he calls: Boer. The coach then
operates th e bolt for his pupil. The pupil squeezes the trigger. In the.
beginning, the time interval is five seconds. Later it is shortened by a
half second for each succeeding exercise until it becomes three seconds,
[90}
,>:;
FIRST RAPID FIRE EXERCISE
A most important element in rapid fire is the development of cor­
rect timing in firin g. Correct timing in firing will vary from above
five seconds per shot for the beginner to about two seconds for the
experienced man .
The developmen t of proper timing in firing rests mainly on the
corr ect position of the firer. The firer's position is not correct unless
the sights return aut omatically to the aiming point, the firer concen­
trates on the sight picture, and squeezes the trigger quickly. This is
repeated for each sho t.
The first r apid fire exercise is an exercise in cadence. These pictures
show the correct prone position of pupil and coach. With the MI , the
coach must be in a position to press back the operating han dle with a
sharp motion to cock the piece, and then release pressure to permit
the operating handle to go forward .
The cadence of the exerci se is set by the instructor who commands:
COMMENCE FIRINC. At regular intervals, he calls: Boer. The coach then
operates th e bolt for his pupil. The pupil squeezes the trigger. In the.
beginning, the time interval is five seconds. Later it is shortened by a
half second for each succeeding exercise until it becomes three seconds,
[90}
,>:;
T ---­
SECOND RAPID FIRE EXERCISE
In thi s exercise, the necessar y commands are given to simulate load
ing, and to indicate appearance of the targets. As the "targets" appear
[he shoot er assumes the prescribed position and "dry-shoots" a scar
of 16 shots in the prescribed time. Each time the trigger is squeezed
the coach oper ates the bolt. Shooters count their shots aloud; this causes
them to breathe after each shot. After the eighth shot, simulate rel oad
ing from the belt. Instructor calls: FIRST ROUND, RELOAD, NINTH ROUND
and LAST ROUND, at the proper time interval. Blocks are used in rifles.
Example. Open bolts. Simulate LOAD . Ready on the right. Ready on
the left. Ready on the firing line. Targets Up. After 9 seconds: FIRS'!,
ROUND. After 30 seconds: EIGHTH ROUND, RELOAD. After 39 seconds:
NINTH ROUND. After 60 seconds: SIXTEENTH ROUND. After 65 seconds:
CEA SE FIRING.
THIRD RAPID FIRE EXERCISE
The exercise is conducted with wooden block removed, and with
one clip loaded with dummies. This clip is placed in the cartridge belt ,
in the third pocket from the right.
Command is given to open bolt. Command is given: ONE ROUND,
SIMULATE LoAD. At the command, shooters lock and simulate loading
one round. At signal "Targets Up," shooters take prescribed position ,
and squeeze off one dry shot. Then they load the clip of dummies from
the belt and squeeze off a dry shot with each dummy. Every time
the trigger is squeezed, coach operates bolt. The time allowed is 40
seconds.
(92}
T ---­
SECOND RAPID FIRE EXERCISE
In thi s exercise, the necessar y commands are given to simulate load
ing, and to indicate appearance of the targets. As the "targets" appear
[he shoot er assumes the prescribed position and "dry-shoots" a scar
of 16 shots in the prescribed time. Each time the trigger is squeezed
the coach oper ates the bolt. Shooters count their shots aloud; this causes
them to breathe after each shot. After the eighth shot, simulate rel oad
ing from the belt. Instructor calls: FIRST ROUND, RELOAD, NINTH ROUND
and LAST ROUND, at the proper time interval. Blocks are used in rifles.
Example. Open bolts. Simulate LOAD . Ready on the right. Ready on
the left. Ready on the firing line. Targets Up. After 9 seconds: FIRS'!,
ROUND. After 30 seconds: EIGHTH ROUND, RELOAD. After 39 seconds:
NINTH ROUND. After 60 seconds: SIXTEENTH ROUND. After 65 seconds:
CEA SE FIRING.
THIRD RAPID FIRE EXERCISE
The exercise is conducted with wooden block removed, and with
one clip loaded with dummies. This clip is placed in the cartridge belt ,
in the third pocket from the right.
Command is given to open bolt. Command is given: ONE ROUND,
SIMULATE LoAD. At the command, shooters lock and simulate loading
one round. At signal "Targets Up," shooters take prescribed position ,
and squeeze off one dry shot. Then they load the clip of dummies from
the belt and squeeze off a dry shot with each dummy. Every time
the trigger is squeezed, coach operates bolt. The time allowed is 40
seconds.
(92}
W ILL YOU KILL THESE NAZIS.
OR WILL THEY KILL YOU?
This is how a squad of German soldiers may look to you when you
spot them on the battlefield.
They make a small target. And to make matters tougher, there is a
wind blowing across the field betw een you and these men. This wind
will push a bullet in the direction it is blowing-just as it does the
smoke in the background .
To score a hit under these conditions requires a high precision
weapon-one that enables you to cut down the margin for error.
Your rifle is just such a weapon-providing it is properly used. It is
equipped with a rear sight. This enabl es you to mak e clue allowance for
wind . A few simple rules enable you to control the wind.
[9.4)
W ILL YOU KILL THESE NAZIS.
OR WILL THEY KILL YOU?
This is how a squad of German soldiers may look to you when you
spot them on the battlefield.
They make a small target. And to make matters tougher, there is a
wind blowing across the field betw een you and these men. This wind
will push a bullet in the direction it is blowing-just as it does the
smoke in the background .
To score a hit under these conditions requires a high precision
weapon-one that enables you to cut down the margin for error.
Your rifle is just such a weapon-providing it is properly used. It is
equipped with a rear sight. This enabl es you to mak e clue allowance for
wind . A few simple rules enable you to control the wind.
[9.4)
THIS IS THE REAR SIGHT
At the top of the page is a pi cture of th e rear sight of an Ml ri fle.
In the cen ter of the page are pictures of the A) B, and D targets.
At the bo ttom is a page from your score book.
All three have a bearing on each other.
The eleva ting knob raises or lowers the peep sight. This ra ises or
lowers th e strike of th e bullet on the target.
The windage k nob moves the peep sight right or left-moving the
strike of the bullet righ t or left on the target.
These knobs move a click or a q uarter point at a time-each click or
qu arter po int moving th e bullet a cer tain distance. These di stan ces
have been ruled off on the target to show you how much one click of
the knob ( on the M1) moves th e strike of the bullet on a 200-yard
target.
The score book enables you to keep a record of each shot you fire)
for no one can rem emb er for long the results and conditions of each
shot he fired . Yet these data ar e very valuable to you in improving you r
marksman ship.
I !
!
[96J
,.;,
Wlndago knob moves
Is., or Jowers
path of bullot
01 bullot
right or Jelt
[levaling knob
_..- ... ... n...- .... ., • •• _ v, __ ..... ._..__ ... ,._..._..........
MillO» pLJoU
"".
",
nOlor Wind IIIon(l,
.c
r,° cJ.tlol;: k LI "II, 'Ift " ..... r

Rio..,,, J'o llllloo.
"
.

:El tv WlIIlII V" l .
\
..@
I 0
I
4 Q . •


T
,
• 0
"
.,

':'
1 u
.,
I,a.a ...
.@)
I
');
.'0'0 • ..... t'4 . I'lli

COoI lfil t IUIII .,.
"
"""

_ _ '- _ -----.-J
7
THIS IS THE REAR SIGHT
At the top of the page is a pi cture of th e rear sight of an Ml ri fle.
In the cen ter of the page are pictures of the A) B, and D targets.
At the bo ttom is a page from your score book.
All three have a bearing on each other.
The eleva ting knob raises or lowers the peep sight. This ra ises or
lowers th e strike of th e bullet on the target.
The windage k nob moves the peep sight right or left-moving the
strike of the bullet righ t or left on the target.
These knobs move a click or a q uarter point at a time-each click or
qu arter po int moving th e bullet a cer tain distance. These di stan ces
have been ruled off on the target to show you how much one click of
the knob ( on the M1) moves th e strike of the bullet on a 200-yard
target.
The score book enables you to keep a record of each shot you fire)
for no one can rem emb er for long the results and conditions of each
shot he fired . Yet these data ar e very valuable to you in improving you r
marksman ship.
I !
!
[96J
,.;,
Wlndago knob moves
Is., or Jowers
path of bullot
01 bullot
right or Jelt
[levaling knob
_..- ... ... n...- .... ., • •• _ v, __ ..... ._..__ ... ,._..._..........
MillO» pLJoU
"".
",
nOlo r Wind IIIon(l,
.c
r,° cJ.tlol;: k LI "II, 'Ift " ..... r

Rio..,,, J'o llllloo.
"
.

:El tv WlIIlII V" l .
\
..@
I 0
I
4 Q . •


T
,
• 0
"
.,

':'
1 u
.,
I,a.a ...
.@)
I
');
.'0'0 • ..... t'4 . I'lli

COoI lfil t IUIII .,.
"
"""

_ _ '- _ -----.-J
7
- -
WINDAGE KNOB
Let's see exactly what this windage knob does.
One click of this knob moves the strike of the bullet 1 inch-to the
right or to the left-on the target for each 100 yards of range.
Let's look down on the little man from straight above.
In this first picture, his rear sight is fixed at 1 click of windage to the
left. That means the bullet moves to the left 1 .inch in 100 yards- Z
inches in 200 yards.
Aiming at the same target , the little man now moves his windage"?
clicks to the right. At 100 yards, the bullet now strikes Z inches to the
right of the first bull et. At 200 yards, the bullet strikes 4 inches from
the first bullet.
Now he moves his windage knob again-l click left. That moves the
bullet 1 inch to the left in 100 yards-2 inches in 200 yards.
The inset at the left shows how simply this works. One click of
windage at 100 yards moves strike of bullet on target 1 inch. At 200
yards, 2 inches. At 400 yards, 4 inches. And so on,
{98)
One click of this knob moves strike of bullet 1 Inch,
rIght or left, on target for each 100 yards of range
.. '>Ji
Turn!ng I<nob
moves pee.. to lett

\.,-, r. • ' ._- .,
. tiIl :
Y
.. . . . ..
b ....If, ... -e__",;.':;;';;: ":::::":;"":-":'""' - - - - ---- ­
... ..... ,. -
.


•': ,:,i.:-,""" "-i: ,'_;'; .. ,"-,-"
-i
,
t
'. ; .....
,>I' ,
;'" ,
,'.
.
;i .
>f ;jO
. ... .,.­
of,..,. '; l' ..

i
.
100)'d.. 1ln'h
D
D
2Clt)'ds.. 21l'lchct
300)'dsj 11.... ro hn;
"')'dt. 41n,OO
JOG fda. S Inchn
.do.
-
.•---- - 100 )'d... .'
J. ,-- __ u u _. _
.. ,." --"

____ 1/1 -'"
J 2"
-- -­
5'0Cr;:.fld bullttl .... -:=-.
- -
WINDAGE KNOB
Let's see exactly what this windage knob does.
One click of this knob moves the strike of the bullet 1 inch-to the
right or to the left-on the target for each 100 yards of range.
Let's look down on the little man from straight above.
In this first picture, his rear sight is fixed at 1 click of windage to the
left. That means the bullet moves to the left 1 .inch in 100 yards- Z
inches in 200 yards.
Aiming at the same target , the little man now moves his windage"?
clicks to the right. At 100 yards, the bullet now strikes Z inches to the
right of the first bull et. At 200 yards, the bullet strikes 4 inches from
the first bullet.
Now he moves his windage knob again-l click left. That moves the
bullet 1 inch to the left in 100 yards-2 inches in 200 yards.
The inset at the left shows how simply this works. One click of
windage at 100 yards moves strike of bullet on target 1 inch. At 200
yards, 2 inches. At 400 yards, 4 inches. And so on,
{98)
One click of this knob moves strike of bullet 1 Inch,
rIght or left, on target for each 100 yards of range
.. '>Ji
Turn!ng I<nob
moves pee.. to lett

\.,-, r. • ' ._- .,
. tiIl :
Y
.. . . . ..
b ....If, ... -e__",;.':;;';;: ":::::":;"":-":'""' - - - - ---- ­
... ..... ,. -
.


•': ,:,i.:-,""" "-i: ,'_;'; .. ,"-,-"
-i
,
t
'. ; .....
,>I' ,
;'" ,
,'.
.
;i .
>f ;jO
. ... .,.­
of,..,. '; l' ..

i
.
100)'d.. 1ln'h
D
D
2Clt)'ds.. 21l'lchct
300)'dsj 11.... ro hn;
"')'dt. 41n,OO
JOG fda. S Inchn
.do.
-
.•---- - 100 )'d... .'
J. ,-- __ u u _. _
.. ,." --"

____ 1/1 -'"
J 2"
-- -­
5'0Cr;:.fld bullttl .... -:=-.
.,/
"
2"
"
8"-1 A"
/1
11
.:
0,..(: Cl.'CK
'l'Wo CLICMS
ELEVATI·NG KNOB
One click of this knob moves strlkeo! bullet linch
up or down on target for each 100 yards of range
j , 100 YOS.
FOUR CLICKS
0 ne ,lIc1l; of C1tn,aC Ion
m6wn ltd ki& or
at bulltt 011 brett
100 yd.. 11 neh
.200 ydl* 2 InchK
300 )'ds. .2lndl8
~ yd.. 4 In<h..
540 yell. 5 Ineh ..
ELEVATING KNOB
000)
The elevating knob works exactly the same as the windage knob.
Only instead of left and right-l click of this knob moves the strike
of the bullet 1 inch-up or down-on the target for each 100 yards of
range.
Let's look at our little man again-this time from the side. With 4
clicks of elevation, the bullet strikes 4 inches above his line of sight at
100 yards. At 200 yards, it strikes 8 inches above the line of sight.
With 2 clicks of elevation, the bullet strikes 2 inches above the line
of sight at 100 yards-and 4 inches above at 200 yards.
With 1 dick of elevation, the bullet strikes 1 inch above the line of
sight at 100 yards-2 inches above at 200 yards.
The inset tells the tale:
One click of elevation at 100 yards moves strike of bullet on the
target 1 inch. At 200 yards, 2 inches. At 500 yards, 5 inches. And so on.
.,/
"
2"
"
8"-1 A"
/1
11
.:
0,..(: Cl.'CK
'l'Wo CLICMS
ELEVATI·NG KNOB
One click of this knob moves strlkeo! bullet linch
up or down on target for each 100 yards of range
j , 100 YOS.
FOUR CLICKS
0 ne ,lIc1l; of C1tn,aC Ion
m6wn ltd ki& or
at bulltt 011 brett
100 yd.. 11 neh
.200 ydl* 2 InchK
300 )'ds. .2lndl8
~ yd.. 4 In<h..
540 yell. 5 Ineh ..
ELEVATING KNOB
000)
The elevating knob works exactly the same as the windage knob.
Only instead of left and right-l click of this knob moves the strike
of the bullet 1 inch-up or down-on the target for each 100 yards of
range.
Let's look at our little man again-this time from the side. With 4
clicks of elevation, the bullet strikes 4 inches above his line of sight at
100 yards. At 200 yards, it strikes 8 inches above the line of sight.
With 2 clicks of elevation, the bullet strikes 2 inches above the line
of sight at 100 yards-and 4 inches above at 200 yards.
With 1 dick of elevation, the bullet strikes 1 inch above the line of
sight at 100 yards-2 inches above at 200 yards.
The inset tells the tale:
One click of elevation at 100 yards moves strike of bullet on the
target 1 inch. At 200 yards, 2 inches. At 500 yards, 5 inches. And so on.
HOW TO FIGURE FORCE OF WIND
i ~
-=L tEl
G:::::"
~
l
~ :
~ , ~
~ :=:;::::
WIND CHANGES PATH OF BULLET
40 .
"4= 10 mil es per hour
WIND CHANGES PATH OF BULLET
[102J
These rules of windage and elevation are fairly simple. Repeat them a
few times, and you've learned them forever.
Now we are ready for the next step-the effect of wind on the path
of a bullet. Just as wind has enough force to blow flags one way or an­
other, so has it enough force to blow a bullet.
We therefor e must know a little about the wind.
First thing to know is that it blows from different directions. This
alarm clock makes it easy to describe the directions of the wind. Make
believe you are looking down on it from above. When a wind blows
across the field from the right-from 3 o'clock-it is called a 3 o'clock
wind. One that blows from 8 o'clock is an 8 o'clock wind. And so on
for the rest.
The next thing to know is how hard the wind is blowing. For the
harder it blows, the more it will move the bullet.
One way to figure the force of the wind is to look at the range
flag. Note the angle the Rag makes with the pole. Then divide this angle
by 4. The result is the force of the wind in miles per hour. Another
way is to pluck some dry grass, hold it out and let the wind carry it
off. Follow the direction in which it falls with your arm. The angle
your arm makes with your body, divided by 4, gives you the force of
the wind.
Here are a few typical examples: A strong wind might blow the
flag to an 80.degree angle with the pole. Then­
80
4 = 20 miles per hour
A 40-degree angle of the arm indicates a wind of 10 miles per hour­
figured this way:
HOW TO FIGURE FORCE OF WIND
i ~
-=L tEl
G:::::"
~
l
~ :
~ , ~
~ :=:;::::
WIND CHANGES PATH OF BULLET
40 .
"4= 10 mil es per hour
WIND CHANGES PATH OF BULLET
[102J
These rules of windage and elevation are fairly simple. Repeat them a
few times, and you've learned them forever.
Now we are ready for the next step-the effect of wind on the path
of a bullet. Just as wind has enough force to blow flags one way or an­
other, so has it enough force to blow a bullet.
We therefor e must know a little about the wind.
First thing to know is that it blows from different directions. This
alarm clock makes it easy to describe the directions of the wind. Make
believe you are looking down on it from above. When a wind blows
across the field from the right-from 3 o'clock-it is called a 3 o'clock
wind. One that blows from 8 o'clock is an 8 o'clock wind. And so on
for the rest.
The next thing to know is how hard the wind is blowing. For the
harder it blows, the more it will move the bullet.
One way to figure the force of the wind is to look at the range
flag. Note the angle the Rag makes with the pole. Then divide this angle
by 4. The result is the force of the wind in miles per hour. Another
way is to pluck some dry grass, hold it out and let the wind carry it
off. Follow the direction in which it falls with your arm. The angle
your arm makes with your body, divided by 4, gives you the force of
the wind.
Here are a few typical examples: A strong wind might blow the
flag to an 80.degree angle with the pole. Then­
80
4 = 20 miles per hour
A 40-degree angle of the arm indicates a wind of 10 miles per hour­
figured this way:
HOW TO CORRECT SIGHTS FOR WIND
Once you know the di rection and force of the wind, it isn't hard to
make correct allowances for it.
This soldier aimed at the bul l's-eye. But the wind blew his bullet
clean off th e target. So he adjusted his sights to allow for the wind , and
he hit the bull 's-eye squarely.
Let' s see what he did to accomplish this:
He figured the dir ection and force of the wind. Then he applied thi s
rule-the wind rule at the bot tom of the page.
He multiplied the force of the wind by the range (in 100s of yards)
and divided by 10. Result : The number of clicks of windag-e needed
to put the bull et int o the bull's-eye.
Then he 1110ved the rear sight into the wind by turning the windage
knob the correct number of clicks.
For example: If a 9 o'clock wind blew at 20 mph and the range was
200 yards, he multipl ied 20 by 2 and divided by 10. The result-4-was
the number of clicks of windage needed to hit the bull's-eye. Since the
wind blew from 9 o' clock, he moved the windage knob into th e
wind-that is, to the left-4 clicks.
The windage rule applies to a 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 10 o'clock wind. For a
1, 5, 7, or 11 o'clock wind, use one-half of the windage given in the
formu la.
OQ4)
HOW TO CORRECT SIGHTS FOR WIND





"'J


-::3)

...l
-
(=:.J

TO CORRECT FOR WIND . •
Move r ear sight wind by turning
t ho knob. How much? The
wInd rule tell s you:
lore" of wind X .ango (In 100'. of yd• •) _ click
10 - •
Examplo: 2 =4 ellcko
HOW TO CORRECT SIGHTS FOR WIND
Once you know the di rection and force of the wind, it isn't hard to
make correct allowances for it.
This soldier aimed at the bul l's-eye. But the wind blew his bullet
clean off th e target. So he adjusted his sights to allow for the wind , and
he hit the bull 's-eye squarely.
Let' s see what he did to accomplish this:
He figured the dir ection and force of the wind. Then he applied thi s
rule-the wind rule at the bot tom of the page.
He multiplied the force of the wind by the range (in 100s of yards)
and divided by 10. Result : The number of clicks of windag-e needed
to put the bull et int o the bull's-eye.
Then he 1110ved the rear sight into the wind by turning the windage
knob the correct number of clicks.
For example: If a 9 o'clock wind blew at 20 mph and the range was
200 yards, he multipl ied 20 by 2 and divided by 10. The result-4-was
the number of clicks of windage needed to hit the bull's-eye. Since the
wind blew from 9 o' clock, he moved the windage knob into th e
wind-that is, to the left-4 clicks.
The windage rule applies to a 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 10 o'clock wind. For a
1, 5, 7, or 11 o'clock wind, use one-half of the windage given in the
formu la.
OQ4)
HOW TO CORRECT SIGHTS FOR WIND





"'J


-::3)

...l
-
(=:.J

TO CORRECT FOR WIND . •
Move r ear sight wind by turning
t ho knob. How much? The
wInd rule tell s you:
lore" of wind X .ango (In 100'. of yd• •) _ click
10 - •
Examplo: 2 =4 ellcko
THE WINDAGE TO ALLOW FOR THE FIRST SHOT
This picture explains itself. Study it carefully.
It is taken from the U. S. Army Score Book. In firing on the range;
and in practice in camp, it is helpful to check your windage with these
windage diagrams.
In combat, however, you will not have a score book with you. There­
fore, memorize the wind rules on page 102. As long as you know the
range and wind velocity, you can always adjust your rifle properly.
(106)
THE WINDAGE TO ALLOW FOR THE FIRST SHOT
This picture explains itself. Study it carefully.
It is taken from the U. S. Army Score Book. In firing on the range;
and in practice in camp, it is helpful to check your windage with these
windage diagrams.
In combat, however, you will not have a score book with you. There­
fore, memorize the wind rules on page 102. As long as you know the
range and wind velocity, you can always adjust your rifle properly.
(106)
YOUR RIFLE, LIKE YOUR GIRL, HAS HABITS
FOR WHICH YOU MUST ALLOW
The zer e of a rIfle is 1ho
polnl at which rear s ight
must be placed for eleva•
tion and wlnda go to hit
center or bull's-eye on
a norma l windless day
ALLOWING FOR RIFLE'S HABI TS IS CALLED
" ZEROING THE RIFLE"
~
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[l08J
So much for wind allowances. Now let's discuss one other allow­
ance you must learn to make. This allowance is for certain habits 06
your r ifle it self .
In a way, your rifl e is like your girl friend. She probably has certain
habits you learned about before you really got along with her . She
didn't wear a sign telling you about those habits. You had to learn
from experience.
Same way with your rifle. Every rifle h as a personality all its own.
Like peopl e, it has cert ain ha bits you have to catch on to before you get
the most out of it. And you too have certain traits th at the rifle m ust
get used to. Obviously, a rifle will act differently wh en held by a
6·footer than wh en it' s held by a much shorter man.
For example: One ri fle mi ght shoot a little to the left. Another mi gh t.
tend to shoot a little high and to the right. A tall m an leans right into
the rear sight. A short man can't get quite as cleise-so hi s sighting is 11
little diff erent.
These are things each of you must discover yourself in shooting the
rifle. Once you recognize these habits, it's easy to make th e necessary
all owances for them.
Allowing for a ri fle's habi ts is call ed "zeroing the ri fle."
The zero of the rifle is the point at which the rear sight must be
placed for elevation and windage to hit the center of the bull's-eye on a
normal, windless day.
To see how you do it, turn the page.
YOUR RIFLE, LIKE YOUR GIRL, HAS HABITS FO
WHICH YOU MUST ALLOW
YOUR RIFLE, LIKE YOUR GIRL, HAS HABITS
FOR WHICH YOU MUST ALLOW
The zer e of a rIfle is 1ho
polnl at which rear s ight
must be placed for eleva•
tion and wlnda go to hit
center or bull's-eye on
a norma l windless day
ALLOWING FOR RIFLE'S HABI TS IS CALLED
" ZEROING THE RIFLE"
~
•....
~ ..
• a,> ~ ~ ~
"' y . .....
. '"
.._ ' . ~ . , . ' ~
...:: ' : ; ~ : t
[l08J
So much for wind allowances. Now let's discuss one other allow­
ance you must learn to make. This allowance is for certain habits 06
your r ifle it self .
In a way, your rifl e is like your girl friend. She probably has certain
habits you learned about before you really got along with her . She
didn't wear a sign telling you about those habits. You had to learn
from experience.
Same way with your rifle. Every rifle h as a personality all its own.
Like peopl e, it has cert ain ha bits you have to catch on to before you get
the most out of it. And you too have certain traits th at the rifle m ust
get used to. Obviously, a rifle will act differently wh en held by a
6·footer than wh en it' s held by a much shorter man.
For example: One ri fle mi ght shoot a little to the left. Another mi gh t.
tend to shoot a little high and to the right. A tall m an leans right into
the rear sight. A short man can't get quite as cleise-so hi s sighting is 11
little diff erent.
These are things each of you must discover yourself in shooting the
rifle. Once you recognize these habits, it's easy to make th e necessary
all owances for them.
Allowing for a ri fle's habi ts is call ed "zeroing the ri fle."
The zero of the rifle is the point at which the rear sight must be
placed for elevation and windage to hit the center of the bull's-eye on a
normal, windless day.
To see how you do it, turn the page.
YOUR RIFLE, LIKE YOUR GIRL, HAS HABITS FO
WHICH YOU MUST ALLOW
HOW TO ZERO THE RIFLE
On a windless day, set the rear sight of your rifle this way:
Turn the elevating knob as far down as it will go-then move it up
10 clicks- which usually insures your hi tting the target at 200 yards
( providing you do everything else right).
Adjust the windage knob, so that the wind gauge stands at dead
center.
Next, take a prone position, aim, squeeze your trigger, and call your
shot. Note this in your Score book. (For purposes of practice, mark the
strike of the bull et on the target, under "shoot once" with a pencil.)
Now, shoot again and mark your score book. (Mark strike of bull et
with pencil under "shoot again.")
Study your first two shots. If you have been shooting properly, they
should he close together. If you aren't sure of one of these first two
shots, fire a third. (Mark it with pencil under "If necessary, shoot
.
again .
")
Two or all three shots should form a group on the target-and in
your score book. They reveal your rifle's habits. They tell you your rifle
tends to fire high or low-left or right. They tell you what adjust­
ments you must make in your rear sight to allow for your rifle's
"personality."
[110]
ON A WINDLESS DAY, SET REAR SIGHT THIS WAY
knob
alilho way downl
Set wl"dogo kn01>
III on meve It up
at ""'0 windage
10 clicks lor 200 yds.
IF NECESSARY,
SHOOT AGAIN

-t-­
-;-&-­

r- i
-
,
H..-­
+
e-.
'=x
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1
£CORDIN Q SHEE.T
__.. eae... _
:tf. ""

!k Qrt C'llllu l " .lU f l' .
HOW TO ZERO THE RIFLE
On a windless day, set the rear sight of your rifle this way:
Turn the elevating knob as far down as it will go-then move it up
10 clicks- which usually insures your hi tting the target at 200 yards
( providing you do everything else right).
Adjust the windage knob, so that the wind gauge stands at dead
center.
Next, take a prone position, aim, squeeze your trigger, and call your
shot. Note this in your Score book. (For purposes of practice, mark the
strike of the bull et on the target, under "shoot once" with a pencil.)
Now, shoot again and mark your score book. (Mark strike of bull et
with pencil under "shoot again.")
Study your first two shots. If you have been shooting properly, they
should he close together. If you aren't sure of one of these first two
shots, fire a third. (Mark it with pencil under "If necessary, shoot
.
again .
")
Two or all three shots should form a group on the target-and in
your score book. They reveal your rifle's habits. They tell you your rifle
tends to fire high or low-left or right. They tell you what adjust­
ments you must make in your rear sight to allow for your rifle's
"personality."
[110]
ON A WINDLESS DAY, SET REAR SIGHT THIS WAY
knob
alilho way downl
Set wl"dogo kn01>
III on meve It up
at ""'0 windage
10 clicks lor 200 yds.
IF NECESSARY,
SHOOT AGAIN

-t-­
-;-&-­

r- i
-
,
H..-­
+
e-.
'=x
I
-
,
1
£CORDIN Q SHEE.T
__.. eae... _
:tf. ""

!k Qrt C'llllu l " .lU f l' .
ADJUST THE SIGHTS
In this case-let's say your shot group has been 4 inches right and'
4 inches above the center of the bull's-eye,
So, applying the windage and elevation rules-you move the elevating
knob 2 clicks down. At 200 yards, that means 4 inches down. You move
the windage knob 2 clicks left. At 200 yards, that is 4 inches left. Now
you should hit the center of the bull's-eye.
To be sure, you shoot again with the adjusted sights. Two shots
should convince you that you are now wise to your rifle's "habits"-and
that you've licked them.
If you're doubtful-if you've flinched or are not sure of your position
or sights-shoot again until you are satisfied that your sights are
erly adjusted.
[112}
8
.",,:':'::-7;;....
_
(: OIl , .. _
ADJUST THE SIGHTS
In this case-let's say your shot group has been 4 inches right and'
4 inches above the center of the bull's-eye,
So, applying the windage and elevation rules-you move the elevating
knob 2 clicks down. At 200 yards, that means 4 inches down. You move
the windage knob 2 clicks left. At 200 yards, that is 4 inches left. Now
you should hit the center of the bull's-eye.
To be sure, you shoot again with the adjusted sights. Two shots
should convince you that you are now wise to your rifle's "habits"-and
that you've licked them.
If you're doubtful-if you've flinched or are not sure of your position
or sights-shoot again until you are satisfied that your sights are
erly adjusted.
[112}
8
.",,:':'::-7;;....
_
(: OIl , .. _
ADJUST THE ELEVATING KNOB
Your rifle is now read y for the final phase of zeroing.
Hold the elevating knob so it will not turn. Using the combination
tool screwdriver, loosen the elevating kn ob-screw.
Pull out the elevating knob and rotate down until the figure 2 on
l h ~ drum (representing the 200-yard sight setting) is opposite the index
line in the rear sigh t base.
Then, holding the elevating knob so it cannot slip, tighten the elevat­
ing knob-screws. The rifle is now zeroed for elevation.
The wind gauge zero is at the poi nt where we have set the windage
ill order to bring the strike of the bullet into the center of the bu ll's-eyc,
The wind gauge itself need not be changed. You must remember I "
the corrected or zeroed windage, however, and base all further wind
calculations on it. You always start off with this zero windage-the [
win dage you needed on a windle ss day to hit the cent er of the target.
Your wind gauge and elevating knob do not have to be-nor are
they likely to be-the same as the zero marked on the rifle by the
man ufact urer .
But remember-the rifle is your rifle, not the manufacturer's.
Now the rifle is adapted to your own personality.
And you are adapted to the rifle's.
(114)
ADJUST THE ELEVATING KNOB
Your rifle is now read y for the final phase of zeroing.
Hold the elevating knob so it will not turn. Using the combination
tool screwdriver, loosen the elevating kn ob-screw.
Pull out the elevating knob and rotate down until the figure 2 on
l h ~ drum (representing the 200-yard sight setting) is opposite the index
line in the rear sigh t base.
Then, holding the elevating knob so it cannot slip, tighten the elevat­
ing knob-screws. The rifle is now zeroed for elevation.
The wind gauge zero is at the poi nt where we have set the windage
ill order to bring the strike of the bullet into the center of the bu ll's-eyc,
The wind gauge itself need not be changed. You must remember I "
the corrected or zeroed windage, however, and base all further wind
calculations on it. You always start off with this zero windage-the [
win dage you needed on a windle ss day to hit the cent er of the target.
Your wind gauge and elevating knob do not have to be-nor are
they likely to be-the same as the zero marked on the rifle by the
man ufact urer .
But remember-the rifle is your rifle, not the manufacturer's.
Now the rifle is adapted to your own personality.
And you are adapted to the rifle's.
(114)
SIGHT CHANGES
At the top of thi s picture is an A target. At the bottom is a model
of a wind gauge and an "unro lled" elevating drum.
With your pencil poi nt, ind icate shot groups on the target. Then,
using different wind conditions, make the necessary adjustment s in
windage and elevation.
Practice zeroing your rifle on windy days. Be sure you understand
the theory and practice of sight changes by illustrating on this chart
the following examples ( the answers are on page 122):
(1) Range: 500 yards. Wind: 10 mil es at 3 o'clock. Set your sights
for first shot.
(2) Range: 600 yards. Wind : 10 mil es at 9 o'clock. Set your sights for
first shot. Suppose your shot was spotted as a 3 o'clock 4, and you wer e
sure your hold and trigger squeeze were good. Change your sights to
bring the next shot int o center of bull' s-eye.
(3) Set your sights at 600 yards plus 1 click with 1Yz points or 6
clicks of left windage. Suppose you fire 4 shots hitting in the bull' s-eye
and your fifth shot is an 11 o'clock 3. What would you do to your
sights ?
(4) Range: 600 yards. Wind: Varies from 8 to 12 miles per hou r
in velocity and from 1 to 3 o'clock in di rection. When you fire first shot,
wind seems to steady at 8 mil es an hour at 3 o'clock. How would you
set your sights ?
( 5) You fire your first shot. Spotter marks it a 7 o'clock 4. How would
you set your sights?
( 6) Your second shot hit s center of bull 's-eye; your third hi ts bull's­
eye at 12 o'clock ; your fourth hits a 9 o'clock 5. Your fifth shot is a
9 o'clock 4. What would you do?
(7) Your sixth shot hits bull's-eye near edge at 3 o'clock. W hat
change would you make ?
(8) Before you fire your seventh shot, you noti ce that the wind has
shifted to about 1 o'clock, at the same rate. How would you set sights?
(9) Your seventh shot is a 4 at 6 o'clock. What correction shou ld
you make?
[ 116]
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If
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-
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,
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-
J
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.."
.,
I
'lll..
!'IllIo...
V
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'-..
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,
SIGHT CHANGES
At the top of thi s picture is an A target. At the bottom is a model
of a wind gauge and an "unro lled" elevating drum.
With your pencil poi nt, ind icate shot groups on the target. Then,
using different wind conditions, make the necessary adjustment s in
windage and elevation.
Practice zeroing your rifle on windy days. Be sure you understand
the theory and practice of sight changes by illustrating on this chart
the following examples ( the answers are on page 122):
(1) Range: 500 yards. Wind: 10 mil es at 3 o'clock. Set your sights
for first shot.
(2) Range: 600 yards. Wind : 10 mil es at 9 o'clock. Set your sights for
first shot. Suppose your shot was spotted as a 3 o'clock 4, and you wer e
sure your hold and trigger squeeze were good. Change your sights to
bring the next shot int o center of bull' s-eye.
(3) Set your sights at 600 yards plus 1 click with 1Yz points or 6
clicks of left windage. Suppose you fire 4 shots hitting in the bull' s-eye
and your fifth shot is an 11 o'clock 3. What would you do to your
sights ?
(4) Range: 600 yards. Wind: Varies from 8 to 12 miles per hou r
in velocity and from 1 to 3 o'clock in di rection. When you fire first shot,
wind seems to steady at 8 mil es an hour at 3 o'clock. How would you
set your sights ?
( 5) You fire your first shot. Spotter marks it a 7 o'clock 4. How would
you set your sights?
( 6) Your second shot hit s center of bull 's-eye; your third hi ts bull's­
eye at 12 o'clock ; your fourth hits a 9 o'clock 5. Your fifth shot is a
9 o'clock 4. What would you do?
(7) Your sixth shot hits bull's-eye near edge at 3 o'clock. W hat
change would you make ?
(8) Before you fire your seventh shot, you noti ce that the wind has
shifted to about 1 o'clock, at the same rate. How would you set sights?
(9) Your seventh shot is a 4 at 6 o'clock. What correction shou ld
you make?
[ 116]
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,
WIND GAUGE AND ELEVATING DRUM
These pictures show how to make the diagram of the wind gauge
and elevating drum on page 117 movable, so that you can work out the
suggested problems on them.
(1) With a razor blade, slit the wind gauge and elevating drum on
page 117 as indicated by the dotted lines in diagram C.
(2) Cut out diagrams A and B, and slip them into position through
the slits on page 117 so that they may be moved as shown in diagram C.
[lI8)
I I l ~ l ~ l ~ ~ b I I A
B
I I I I I
i
~
c
WIND GAUGE AND ELEVATING DRUM
These pictures show how to make the diagram of the wind gauge
and elevating drum on page 117 movable, so that you can work out the
suggested problems on them.
(1) With a razor blade, slit the wind gauge and elevating drum on
page 117 as indicated by the dotted lines in diagram C.
(2) Cut out diagrams A and B, and slip them into position through
the slits on page 117 so that they may be moved as shown in diagram C.
[lI8)
I I l ~ l ~ l ~ ~ b I I A
B
I I I I I
i
~
c
AND NOW . . . YOU SHOOT FOR RECORD
You have finished the course. You have shot on the range "for
record", but the real shooting for record is still before you. This pair
of Axis partners on the opposite page will henceforth do the marking
for you. And they payoff only on bull's-eyes.
You start with th e advantage. You go into battle not only with the
best shooting rifle and best shooting training but also with best shoot­
ing tradition. For our country was bu ilt-and maintained-by marks­
men , Kentucky riflemen, Concord farmers with their muskets, Blue
and Gray riflemen of The War Between the States, and the men of
the First AEF whose accurate and murderous fire won at the Marne
twenty-five years ago.
If you have worked hard, studied hard, and treated your rifle right,
you'll keep the advantages you started with. You'll get bull 's-eyes.
You 'll win.
.... ~ l ,
. ~ t
~ ; .. ' I
[1201
; ,
AND NOW . . . YOU SHOOT FOR RECORD
You have finished the course. You have shot on the range "for
record", but the real shooting for record is still before you. This pair
of Axis partners on the opposite page will henceforth do the marking
for you. And they payoff only on bull's-eyes.
You start with th e advantage. You go into battle not only with the
best shooting rifle and best shooting training but also with best shoot­
ing tradition. For our country was bu ilt-and maintained-by marks­
men , Kentucky riflemen, Concord farmers with their muskets, Blue
and Gray riflemen of The War Between the States, and the men of
the First AEF whose accurate and murderous fire won at the Marne
twenty-five years ago.
If you have worked hard, studied hard, and treated your rifle right,
you'll keep the advantages you started with. You'll get bull 's-eyes.
You 'll win.
.... ~ l ,
. ~ t
~ ; .. ' I
[1201
; ,
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS ON PAGE 116
(1) 1Y4 points or 5 clicks right windage.
(2) 2 points or 8 clicks left windage.
(3) Nothing.
(4) 1Y4 or 5 points of right windage.
(5) Move windage :4 point or one click to right . Move elevation
Y4 point or 1 click up.
(6) Sights should be at 1}.1 points or 7 clicks of right windage.
(7) The 4 on the fifth shot must have been due to an error in aim
or trigger squeeze, so put your sight back to where it was before. (I Yz
points or 6 clicks.)
(8) For 1 o'clock wind you need almost half as much windage as
for a 3 o'clock wind. You should llOW have }.j point or 3 clicks of right
windage.
(9) No change. Your lowshot wasdue to poor aimor trigger squeeze.
Do not try to correct personal errors by moving sights around.
[I22}
SHOOTING N OTES
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS ON PAGE 116
(1) 1Y4 points or 5 clicks right windage.
(2) 2 points or 8 clicks left windage.
(3) Nothing.
(4) 1Y4 or 5 points of right windage.
(5) Move windage :4 point or one click to right . Move elevation
Y4 point or 1 click up.
(6) Sights should be at 1}.1 points or 7 clicks of right windage.
(7) The 4 on the fifth shot must have been due to an error in aim
or trigger squeeze, so put your sight back to where it was before. (I Yz
points or 6 clicks.)
(8) For 1 o'clock wind you need almost half as much windage as
for a 3 o'clock wind. You should llOW have }.j point or 3 clicks of right
windage.
(9) No change. Your lowshot wasdue to poor aimor trigger squeeze.
Do not try to correct personal errors by moving sights around.
[I22}
SHOOTING N OTES
STANDARD MILITARY
BOOKS AND MANUALS
Trmk-Fiqhter Team . . . . . . $ .25
What to Do Aboard the Transport .25
The Fight at Pearl Harbor . . .25
(For sa le to the Armed For ces only)
Sergeant Terry Bull . . . .25
New Soldier's Handbook . . .25
Company Duties: A Checklist .25
Keep 'em Rolling. . . . .50
Infantry in Battle. . . . . 3.00
What's That Plane? (U.S. and Iop) .25
Aircraft Recognition (British , German,
Halian). . . . . . .25
Modem Battle. . . . . . .25
American vs. Germans .25
Leadership for American Army Leaders 1.00
Guerilla Wadare . . . .25
The.Officer's Guide . .
2.50
Machine Gunner's Handbook .50
60!l1m. Mortar Handbook
.50
8lmm. Mortar Handbook
.50
·-,Warfare .
3.00
T'Id E INFANTRY JOURNAL
1115 Seventeenth si.. N. W.
WASHINGTON, D. C.

.

S. Army Rifle A graphic handbook on correct shooting THE INFANTRY JOURNAL. WASHINGTON.How To Shoot The U. C. D. . INC.

·d .ll< ill th e U.Cop yright '943 by The Infant ry Journal... r nc.A . Washington. Fir st editio n l' ri..S. ' 7th St. C. W. D. I J I. N.

P F.'G . ..RSHt!'.Send me men wh o can shoot.. .

.

THE EDITORS The Infantry [oaru al [7] . and Th e Infantry School. Gratitude for invaluable assistance in preparation of the material is due: To the ed itors of Life. Fort Benning.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book was prepared by Fi rst Li euten ant Arthur Goodfriend . who initiated the preparation of the official training portfolio up on wh ich th is book is based. creator of th e Army's graph ic portfolio on rifle marksmanship. Fort Belvoir. Huebner. and who gave it the benefit of hi s lon g experience gain ed on battlefields abroad and in training camps at home. photographer for Life. And to Brigadier General C. R . To Gjon Mili. Arm y of the United States. To The E ngineer School. who loaned the cream of th eir staff to the Army for this project. G eneral Staff Corps. whe re th e doctri n e was shaped and pi ctu res taken. whose rep eti tive flash camera dissects the rapid-fire positions. Director of Training. Vir gin ia. Service s of Supply. Georgia.

\ (1) .

Where life and death. S. Later these lessons. And all the while." (9] \ (1) . They shoot like devils . Army Rifle-be it the M1903 (Springfield). M1917 and Ml rifles. wrote: "God save us from these Americans. It applies.30 rifle bullet. a method that enables you to get the most out of-any rifle you may ever have to shoot. You must squeeze the trigger. your sights must be correctly set for range. will cause many a Nazi and [ap to echo the words of that German in the last war who. You must know the correct sight picture. caliber. on the range and the battlefield. dying. A few minutes with th is book in your bunk before going out on the drill field wilJ make your work easier. . the deadliness of American marksmanship amazed both our Allies and our enemies. Deadly marksmanship depends on correct shooting habits. Put aside your own ideas on rifle shooting for the duration of the war . You must shoot rapidl y. power. wel1 learned. victory or defeat. S. or Ml (Garand)-has the range. Army believes in this training. Pictures and text are tak en from the U. and accuracy to kill Nazis and [aps. It is based on countless hours of test and trial. you must do the right things without thinking about them. In stress of battle. All that is required is a soldier well enough trained in rifle marksmanship to hit the enemy in the right places. Every detail in these pictures is important. depend on the result. Its rifle marksmanship course is the most thorough in the world. moreover. They apply. M1917 (En­ field). Study them carefully. They are the best marksmen in the world. and weather. wind. The method is that developed by The Infantry School for the semiautomatic Ml rifle.FOREWORD The last war proved that if you hit a German in the right place with a caliber . A little time spent on review before firing on the range will mean more bull's-eyes. In this war. it is wise to follow this method. The U. . In the last war . S. How to do these things the right way is shown on the following pages. Army's graphic port­ folio on rifle marksmanship. reports from far-flung battlefields reveal that the hours of marksmanship training in our camps have not been spent in vain. to [aps as well as to Nazis. The U. You must take a rock-steady posi­ tion. This is also true in this war. to the M1903. he falls over dead. with minor modific ations.

. A T igh t Sling Means a Steady Rifle . .. . . You Are Both a Coach and Pupil . . . .. . . . . . . ... .. '.. . . .. . " " . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . Six Steps to Perfec t Marksmanship . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. The Prone Position . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skirmisher's Method . . . . . . ". How to Adjust the Loop Sling . . . . . .D on' t Jerk Call Your Shots .. . . . . . . . . _ Hold Your Breath While Aiming .. . . . . ' [ t o} 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 . . Sling Goes W ell Up on Arm Final Ph ases of the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . First Sighting and Aiming Exercise .... . . . .. . . The Standing Position . . . . . . . . Sighting and Aiming _. . . . .. . . . . . . . . The Rock of the Marne.. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . _ .. -.. . . . . ..." . . The Sandb ag Rest Po sition. . " . .. The Squatting Position .. . . . . . . . ... Why There is Only One Correct Sight Picture . . Clean and Blacken Your Sights . . . . The Best "Marks-Man" Wins . . . . . . .. .. . . . ' . . Tomorrow-The En emy .. _. . ... . . . .. How to Tighten the Loop . . .. .. . Prone Position-Rushing .. . . .. Yom Rifle is Better than the Enemy's. . . . . . . " Support the Rifle 'With Your Bones .. . " . .. ...CONTENTS PAGE Today-the Bull's-eye.. ' . . .. . . Third Sighting and Aiming Exercise .. . . . Prone Position-First Method . . . . . Your Life-Or His .. . . . . .. . . . Second Sighting and Aiming Exercise . . . The Kneeling Position -. . Take Up the Slack . .. .. . . . . . . . '.. . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . The Sitting Position . . . . . . How to Adjust t he Hasty Sling . . . . -. . .. . . . . . . . What's the Matter With This Pictur e ? . _. . ." .. . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . Squeeze. . . . .. . . . .. _. . .

.. .. . . . _.. . .rl. . ... . . . . . . .. . . .' . . How to Zero the Rifle . . . Answers to Problems . . . . . . . . . Wind Gauge and Elevating Drum'. .. . ... . . . . . . And Now You Shoot for Record .... . . . . Adjust th e Sights . . . ..... . . .. . -.. H 2 84 86 86 88 90 92 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 [In . .. _. . . . . . Sight Ch anges _' .. . . . . . . . How to Correct Sights for Wind . . . . . Elevating Knob ... .. ... ... . _. . . _. .. . .. . . . """ ' . . . . . . . Adju st th e Elevating Knob . . ' . .. ' .. ... . . . . .. _. . .... . . . . .. The Kne eling Position. . . ' .. .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . Third Rapid Fire Exercise . . ..Cover to Cover-Up. _... _ This is the Rear Sigh t ... .. . .PAGE The Sitting Position . ... . .. _.. ... . Firs t Rapid Fire Exercise . .. ... ' . . . . . . Second Rapid Fire Exercise _ . . . . . . . . " . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . ... . . Your Rifle is Like Your Gi... . . . . . . . . . . Cover to Cover-Down . . .. . . . . . . . . .. Will You Kill These N azis? . . . . . . .. .. ... Loading in Four Position s . . . Windage to Allo w for F irst Shot .. . .. "" " . . . Windage Knob _. Wind Changes Path of Bullet . . . .. . ..... . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .

It seems h ard at first. there's no such thing as shooting that is about right. Or you miss. For th at reason. the target moves. you shoot at a fixed target. It is eith er perfect-or it is wron g. You hit h im. well-armed [ap or Na zi tomorrow. Your life depends upon it. On the battlefield . Later.wh en you learn the rules of good marksmanship-it becomes easier. lIZ] . when your body limbers up. You must learn to h it the first-before you can hope to hit the second. By learning right shooting habits-by constant practice-every man can learn to shoot. In camp.TODAY-The Bull's-Eye TOMORROW-The Enemy Tod ay's bull's-eye will be a well-trained.

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But it has no windage or elevation. It hres a lighter bullet. The M1903 (Springfield) proved itself against the Germans in the last war.YOUR RIFLE IS BETTER THAN THE ENEMY'S The Ml rifle costs about $80 to build. and is still a masterpiece of riAe con struction today. with a 5-shot clip. The Germans are equipped with the K arbiner 98. It has an 8-shot clip. with adjustable sights and an effective range of 600 yards The [ap has an Arisaka rifle. It is semiautomatic. It can shoot straighter and faster than standard rifles issued to the [aps and Germans. It is only fa irl y accurate beyond 500 yards. It has no windage scale . It hasn't the accuracy of our American rifle. If you can 't sh oot your rifle accurately. your rifle is no better dian the man who shoots it. Like our Spring­ field it is bolt-operated. It is a high-precision weapon. It has adjustable sights. But actually. Your rifle should give yOll an advantage over th e enem y. you might just as well meet the Axis with your bare fists. It has a shorter range than the Ml an d M1903. t14J .

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R EMEMBER: T he more crosses on your pr ogress chart. These steps are so import ant your platoon leader will keep a record of how well you do th em. you will also be mark ed on other important th ings you m ust learn to do. th e more crosses over th e Axis. [l(i] .SIX STEPS TO PERFECT MARKSMANSHIP Before you can shoot well. it is because you forgot. it is because you remembered th ese steps. W hen you hi t the l ap or N azi. T hese steps are shown on the opposite page . In add ition to th e six points. T h e "Prog ress Ch art" on which this record will be kep t by your platoon leader is also shown. Practice until you do these th ings the righ t way from habit! T hen you can't forget. If you miss. you m ust take six im portant steps. T hat's wh at wins battles. It will give th e other men in your platoon confidence in you. no mat ter what is goin g on around you. That will give you confid ence in your self.

Correct sighting and aiming 2. SIX STEPS TO PERFECT MARKSMANSHIP '@ ~ ~ e: 1. Correct rapid fire 5.- . Correct positions 3. Final examination ~' ''' 1!lJ 2 . Correct trigger squeeze 4. Correct sight adjustment 6.

And finally are coach and pupil in a rapid fire exercise. Why does the Army use the coach and pupil m ethod? For three reasons: ( 1) To teach you how to shoot. And th en come coach and pupil practicing correct trigger squeeze. the "coach and pupil" method is used.YOU ARE BOTH A COACH AND A PUPIL Throughout your course in rifle marksmanship. You. (2) To http you corr ect errors of which yOll are not aware. First are coach and pupil with a sighting bar-the first of the sighting and aiming exercises. The man who is getting instruction is the pupil. Wh en y Oll change places. Each man in the pair is both a pupil and a coach . every man is here to teach as well as to learn. The oth er man is the coach. 08] . (3) To teach you how to teach oth ers-for in an army as fast-growing as ours. we need men to train new troops coming into camp. your roles are rever sed. One man is the pupil. will work in pairs. Next are coach and pupil in one of the basic firing positions. To repeat. They usually change places throughout each lesson. too. They wor k in pairs. These four pictures show you a few examples of the "coach and pupil" method in action. Note that in each picture there are two m en. The man who is giving instru ction is the coach.

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you must know exactl y wh at your eye should see when it look s through th e r ear sight of your rifle. THERE'S NO SUCH THING AS "ALMOST RIGHT" To hit th e bull's-eye. On page 23 are pictures of the front sight of an Ml903 and Ml rifle. The bull's-eye must be tan gent to the top of th e front sigh t-at its midpoint. Cut them out and mou nt th em on cardboard. Pl ace the front sight in correct position within the r ear sigh t. front sight and bull's-eye mu st be lin ed up in a certain way : A ver tical line drawn through the cen ter of the fro nt sight mu st coincide with the vertical diam eter of the peep sigh t. The top of the front sight mu st lie exactly on the horizontal di am eter of the peep sigh t. [20) . Th en place th e bull's-eye in correct position above the front sight. To hit th e bull 's-eye-the peep sight . some wha t enlarged . every other position is wrong. Only the corr ect position of peep sight. There is only one correct sight picture. Cut ou t th e white center of the circle on the opposite page and you are looking through th e peep sig ht of a rifle. There is also a picture of a bull's-eye. front sight and bull 's-eye will give you a perfect hit .IN SIGHTING AND AIMING.

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Place them in position behind the rear sight on the preceding page. (22J . and practice with bull's-eye and each front sight until you get the sight picture speedily and accurately.Cut out these pictures and mount them on card­ board.

1. Bull's-eve .

THIS IS WHY THERE IS ONLY ONE CORRECT SIGHT PICTURE t 24J .

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[26J . In the correct picture. A vertical line drawn through the center of the front sight should coincide with the vertical diameter of the peep sight. The eye should be focused on the bull's-eye. the top of the front sight is seen at the middle of the circle and just touches the bottom of the bull's-eye. The others show common errors you should never make. What should you see through the eyepiece of the sighting bar? You should see the top of the front sight through the middle of the circle. of course. This is the correct alinement. The first sight picture at the bottom of the page (left) is what you should see through the eyepiece of the sighting bar-the bull's-eye is in proper position.FIRST SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE The first thing to learn about the correct sight picture is the correct alinement of the front and peep sights-without the bull's-eye. The next thing to learn about the correct sight picture is the correct alinement of the front and peep sights-with the bull's-eve. so that all the bull's-eye can be dearly seen. The first sight picture (upper left) is correct. are wrong. the others.

1>"' .:. .. ~ J .- . FIRST SIGHTING ANQ AIMING EXERCISE .' J _~ ~. :! .

Shiny sigh ts g lin t in the sunshine.CLEAN AND BLACKEN YOUR SIGHTS You are now read y to line lip the bull's-eye through the sights of your rifle. These dirty sigh ts will make you aim too low. But you can use a kerosene lam p. sma ll pine stick. In ord er to see your rifle sights and the bull's-eye clearly. you line up the bull's-eye sq uarely on top of the front sight itself. Be sure all traces of oil are removed. [28) . A carbide lam p is ideal. Clean and black ened sigh ts stand alit clear and bold-they are easy to see. and not on di rt. candle. With clean sights . Why? Look at these diagrams at the bottom of the opposite page. Al ways clean an d blacken your sights before sighting and aim ing your rifle. They are h ard to see. Then ho ld each sight for a few seconds in the poin t of a small flame. so that a uniform coatin g of lampblack is deposited on the metal. sm ud ge pot or even match sticks when a carbide lamp is not available. Th ese pictur es show how. you mus t always do two things fir st : (1) Clean your sights (2) Blacken your sights. They cause a reflection in your eye.

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I [30] . Be careful not to move the rifle rest. The coach will aline the sights 011 the bull's-eye with various slight errors to determine whether or not you can detect them. The marker then moves the disk out of alinement. and blackened sights of your rifle. He then directs marker by signal to move disk until bottom of bull's-eye is in correct alinement with sights. It points at the blank piece of paper mounted on box 20 feet away. and bull's-eye. front sight. go back to the enlarged peep sight of your rifle (page 21) and practice setting the exact position of your peep sight." The coach then moves away and directs the pupil to look through sights. in order to observe correct aim. He then commands marker to "Hold. The pupil takes position with his eye as close to the rifle as it would be in actual nring­ and directs the marker to move the disk until bottom of bull's-eye is in correct line with sights. the coach takes his position and looks through sights. The coach then looks through sights to see if the alinement is correct. The method used is shown in these pictures: The rifle is placed in rifle rest. Sand­ bags placed in both the rifle rest and the box on which marker sits will help to prevent movement. Iii' I . But before you start. as shown in the upper picture.SECOND SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE · Now you are ready to practice lining up the bull's-eye through the cleaned. Without touching rifle or rifle rest.

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At 200 feet. you should make triangles which can be covered by th e unsharp ­ ened end of an ordinary lead pencil. The pupil directs the marker. respectively. The marker then moves the disk to change the alinerncnt.a failure to rest the bull's­ eye squarely on the center of the top of the front sight. He th en commands the marker to "Hold. correct sighting. h e commands th e marker to "1vlark.THIRD SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE The object of this exercise is to show th e importance of uni form and corr ect aiming. At the bottom of this chart are thr ee shot groups. close triangle ( right) shows stead y. to move the disk un til th e bottom of the bu ll's-eye is in correc t alinement with the sights. The rifle with sights blackened is pl aced in rifle rest and pointed at a blan k sheet of paper mounted on a box 50 feet away. makes a dot on the paper with a sharp-pointed pencil inserted through the hol e in the center of the bul l's-eye. The size and shape of th e shot group determine how well you are < dining your sights with the bul l's-eye." The coach then looks th rou gh the sights to see if th e alinemen t is corr ect." The marker. withou t moving the disk. A tight. your triangle should be covered by a silver dollar. and the pupil's n am e is written under it. A vertical triangle (cen ter) generally comes from an up-and -down movement of the front sight. 2. Then without comment to the pupil. numbered 1. have been made. and 3. [32] . The pup il takes th e position illustrated and looks through the sights without moving th e rille or rifle rest.a failure to keep th e bull 's-eye directly tangent to the top of the front sigh t. At 50 feet. Th ese dots then outline the shot group. and to instill in the mind a sense of exactness. by comma nd or signal. Pupil and coach rep eat this opera tion until three dots. A "horizon tal" triangle (left ) is generally caused by a horizontal movemen t of the front sigh t.

1 ~ ~ ~ F· = ~:::: 3 ru [j] m [i] .6. J f I 2 3.'/\3 jj .

[34j . One American regiment-the 38th Infantry of the 3d Division-faced two German divisions.THE ROCK OF THE MARNE This is a scene from the Second Battle of the Marne in 1918. when the Germans made their last. In the confusion of battle." W e must prepare ourselves to carryon this tradition of Am erican marksmanshi p. It read: "God save us from these Americans. this one American regiment disorganized two German divisions. the higher command lost touch with the regimental units. Each company-each squad-each man was on his own. They kill us like animals with their rifles. most desperate drive for Paris. They shoot like devils. A few days later. By good mark smanship. How? By rifle fire alone. In twenty-four hours. a letter was found on the body of a German officer. They are the best marksmen in the world.

n e o st h o r. s. n n .

Then insert left arm through the upper loop. This is how to adjust it: . Adjust the upper hook until the loop has th e proper length. Place butt of rifle on right thigh. There are two ways to adjust your gun sling-the Loop and the Hasty. Rest rifle against inside of right forearm so that both hands are free to fix sling. as shown here. The Loop takes longer to fix. barrel to right and muzzle point­ mg up. You won't hit the bull's-eye ever y time unless you are stead y. and loosen lower loop. but it is steadier. [36] . Fasten it again near the butt swivel leaving yourself plenty of sling. Three things control your steadiness. It is used in all positions except the standing position . stead y unit. The Gun Sling Your Breathing Your Position The gun sling supports your arm and rifle. tight. Another simple way is to twist the sling one quarter turn to th e left. It binds th e rille to your ann in a single.HOW TO ADJUST THE LOOP SLING We are now ready for the second step-correct position s. from right to left. then insert the left arm into the loop between the D-ring and tbe lower keeper until the loop is around the upper arm.

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(3) If necessary.HO\V TO TIGHTEN THE LOOP These pictures show how to tighten the loop into position on the arm. (2) Pull the D-ring for ward and push the lower keeper and hook close against the arm to keep the loop in place. (1) Pull on both parts of sling. push th e outer part of the sling away from you witln the thumb-tightening the sling still more.jockeying them un til the loop and keeper are close against the arm. [38] . (4) Push the upper keeper down toward th e hook.

d ok ln .m.

A TIGHT SLING MEANS A STEADY RIFLE 'When the loop sling is properly adjusted on the upper arm. But experience at The Infantry School shows that many men get better results with a lower sling. place the left hand. It is important that "light" be visible between the sling and the forearm. the sling is flat against the wrist. Then. [40] . with the hand forward against the upper sling swivel. If properly adjusted . before you take your position. knuckles out. The Manual prescribes that the loop should come above the bicep. We will discuss the hasty sling later-when we are read y for the standing position. place th e left hand so that the riAe lies in the center of the V formed by th e th umb and the finger s of the ieft hand. Be sure the sling is doing its share of the work in giving your rifle full support. so that the sling passes around the side of the left wrist near the wrist bone. A tight sling means a stead y rifle. Note that some leeway is permitted in the position of the loop on the arm.

e . t e e e .e e s t s .

and before careful aiming is begun. That "play" is built into the clutch by the manufacturer as an extra safety allowance-a preparatory motion that enables both the car and you to get set for a shift in gears. Squeeze the trigger beyond the slack and the trigger releases the hammer.TAKE UP THE SLACK Before we go into the positions. (42) . The "slack" in the trigger of a rifle is like the "play" in the clutch of a car. Take up the slack as soon as the correct position is assumed. it is important to know how to take up the slack in the trigger. The entire amount of slack in the trigger is taken up by one positive movement of the finger. This causes the rifle to fire. This is part of the position exercise because the slack must be taken up by the finger as soon as the correct position is assumed and before careful aiming is begun. you'd stop so suddenly that you'd break your teeth on the dashboard the moment you pushed down on the brake pedal. Your rifle also has this "safety allowance"-a small amount of slack that brings the trigger lug just to a point where it begins to release the hammer. There's «play" in the brake too­ if there weren't.

e h r n k e s e .

Pr actice will teach you to cont rol your br eathing without discom for t. ]f it rises and falls wh ile aim ing. he is br eathing. take a br eath.HOLD Y OUR BREATH WHILE AIMING Obviously. let out a little air." the pupi l is breathi ng. Don't become breathless. To prevent this. Th en stop breathing. W atch the muzzle of the r ifle. your riAe will move up and down. Hold your breath naturally. if your chest and back are moving. Don't tighten up. Then let ou t a little air. W atch the pupil's back. If you don 't get your shot off. Coaches must check pupils carefully on this point. [44] . and hi s rille is bound to be unsteady. If it "seesaws. and stop breathing aga in. exhale­ then inhale.

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Ii [ 46J . The whole idea behind positions is to give your rifle steady suppor t. The arm hone is straight up and down. if he uses his bones to form a firm base. stead YSll Pport. Th e lO-pound weight on it h as good. taking correct positions won 't -be easy until your bod ies limber up. you will take correct positions easily. If your arm bone is tilted. as in the lower picture. after some pra ctice and stretching exercises. your rifle will wobble. Your mu scles can't hold it in place very long. Only you r bones can d o that. The strong est m an will tremble after a few seconds if he tries to su pport his rifle by mu scle alon e. In a few Jays. It gives the weight poor support. not muscle. Taking positions is a m atter of bones. The weakest man can hold his rifle stead y. "Use your bones " and your position is sure to be steady. In th e lower picture the stick is tilted. In th e upper picture th e stick stands straight up and down. These pictures mak e th e idea a littl e clearer. For some of yqu. The upp er picture shows the right way to hold your rifle.SUPPORT THE RIFLE WITH YOUR BONES DON'T HOLD IT WITH YOUR MUSCLES Now you are read y for th e positio ns. Same way with your rifle.

o l . e . t.SUPPORT YOUR RIFLE WITH YOUR BONES f e d . a t .

[48} . The left wrist is str aig ht. th en your sling is impl'0p~1"ly adjusted. It is important that this be d one correctly. arms an d shoulders. If you can place you r r iRe butt com fortably on your shoulder with your rig h t hand at th e sma ll of th e sto ck. This is especially important in shooting the Ml . He mu st be well behind the rifle. The left elbow is under th e rilic. and cause the muzzle to drop back into position after each shot. I i Aft er the above points have been checked. so that his weight will act against the recoil of the piece. Breathing should be controlled . to the pupil. The coach. If the back moves. The rig h t thumb is over or on top of the stock. F ing ers and thumb o f lef t hand a re loose and relaxed.THE PRONE POSITION This position is best used on level ground. Right elbow is far enough out from the body so that the r ight shoulder is no t hunched up. The spine is straight. The left shoulder is relaxed forward an d down. With the we ig ht rolle d ove r all the left elbow. The cheek rests firmly against the stock withou t muscular effort. The toes ar e out. These smaller pictures stress vitally important details. The weight is relaxed forward against the tension of the sling. Rille re sts in th e V form ed by thumb an d linger of left han d. The left hand is for w ar d aga inst the upper sling swivel. Note how it is held there by the sling. Mus cul ar relaxation is important-particularly of the hands. The two large pictures show the correct position of pupil and coach. grasp the bun with th e r ig ht hand-the heel of th e hand nea r the bu tt. moves around the pupil. The coach watches the pupil. checking carefully on the following points: The angle made by the pupil's spine and the rifle is 30 degrees or less. the pupil is not hold ing hi s breath. The trigger finger may rest against the trigger at any point betw een the tip a nd the bend between the first and second joints. Then shove -the butt well into place . not the target. The butt is seated well into the pocket for m ed in the shoulder as th e right elbow is mo ved for w ard . Legs arc comfortably spread apart. The neck is relaxed. the coach lies down nex t. as you see.

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Because it is so easy. which is the most imp orta n single factor in rille marksmanship. Note how he pack and adjusts the sandbag. Note that the sand bag is slightly higher than the back of the lei hand.THE SANDBAG REST POSITION This is exactl y like the normal prone. except that the sandbag sup ports th e: left forear m. the sandbag r es is ideal for practicing the trigger sq ueeze. relaxed and steady a position. I I [50 J . Not e th e position of the coach in this exercise. wrist and h and. These pictures show how th sand bag is used to stead y the pupil's aim . N ote th at the rifle rests on the hand-and not on the sandbag.

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That part of the upper arm just above the left elbow is parallel to and rests squarely on that part of the left lower leg just forward of the kn eecap which is. Before taking position. which should be used only with the consent of an officer. in most cases. the toes to relax forward. [52J . then half-face to the right and sit down. Weight is well forward . Feet are far enough apart so that they give body lateral support-yet not so far apart that the elbows cannot rest on top of legs. The kn ees are no farther apart th an the feet. The open-legged position is the standard and most effective sitting position. Notice that the knees are not held together by muscular effort. The weight of the upper part of the body is transmitted to the legs through the upper arms-so that the weight comes on top of the legs. The coach should check th e pupil on these important points . outside of the arm. Notice the back : it is straigh t without a hump in the shoulders. Note the surface-to-surface contact between arms and legs. The picture at lower right corner shows an alternative cross-legged position. The left wrist is straight.THE SITTING POSITION This position is best used when firing from ground that slopes down­ ward in front. Ankles are relaxed. In this position (and the kneeling position) the sling is adjusted with the loop about two holes shorter than for the prone. The right thumb is over or on top of the stock. Notice that the rifle is kept in the pocket of the shoulder by the taut sling . face the target. The left elbow is und er the rifle. Toes point forward. The body is bent forward from the hips. causing. The rifle rests in the V formed by the thumb and finger of the ldt hand. The left elbow is forward of the left kneecap-at least 4 or 5 inches. The left hand is all the way forward again st the stock ferrule swivel (except for men with very short arms). The right cheek rests snugly against stock. The weight of the body is relaxed forward from the hips into the sling.

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with his instep on the ground. Left elbow rests on it so that left arm and left leg form one straight up-and-down line. ·1 · I \' [54} . this helps to throw th e weight forward. Notice that point of left elbow is a few inches forward of the knee. from knc to toe.sits on right heel. Position of the right leg is very important. Note that right knee is so placed that the right thigh is perpendicular to axis of rifle. dig a hole for your toe. The right thumb is over or on th e top of the stock. Note that toe is so placed that shooter sits on his heel. Left hand is forward against the stock ferrule swivel-relaxed-with rifle passing through the V formed by thumb and fingers of the hand. Note that entire surface of the lower leg. Breathing is controlled. and ground .THE KNEELING POSITION This position is best used on level ground. that slopes. is in contact with the ground. The weight is forward. The cheek rests again st the stock. He . upward. If this posi­ tion is difficult at first. Later when your faa limbers up. Right elbow is held high-at height of shoulder. The coach should check the pupil on each of the following points:' Firer kneels half-faced to right on right knee. discontinue the use of a hole. Left lower leg is vertical.

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Or it may be used without the sling. of the: left hand as explained for the prone position. T he inner part of th e left. To take the squatting position. shallow water. the firer half-faces to the right. The weight of the body should be rela xed! and well forw ard over the left leg. The grasp of the rifle by the right hand and the position of the face again st the stock are as prescribed for the prone position. or a gas con­ taminated area. it is desirable when firing in mud.THE SQUATTING POSITION This position has important advantages in combat. mid-upper arm rests on the left knee. The right elbow is braced against the inner part of the right kne e. The rifle rests in the crotch. should be in the fullest possible contact from the kne es downward. snow. places both feet flat on th e ground and a foot or more apart . and squats as low as possible. The backs of the upper and lower legs. the left' elbow is dire ctly und er the rifle. As onl y the feet are in contact with th e ground. It can be quickl y assumed with either the loop or hasty sling. [56] .

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HOW TO ADJUST THE HASTY SLING The final position is the standing position. But it gives less support than the Loop in positions other than the standing. In this position you usc the Hasty Sling. Grasp the rifle just in rear of the stock ferrule swivel with the right hand. as shown in the lower picture. 'j [58) . place butt of riAe on right thigh. Then give the sling a half twist to the left with the thumb. Speed of adjustment is its great advantage. Loosen the sling. This is how to adjust the Hasty Sling: First.

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SLING GOES WELL UP ON ARM
Now, throw the sling to the left and catch it above the elbow, and high on the arm-s-as shown in the upper picture. Then pass the left hand under the sling and then over the sling. Then regrasp the rifle with the left hand-as shown in the lower picture-so as to make the sling lie along the back of the hand and
wrist.

The right h and gra sps the but t of rifle as shown.

(60)

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FINAL PHASES OF THE HASTY SLING

Now bring the butt of rifle up into the shoulder-pushing it firrnl into place in the hollow of the shoulder. Finally, with the right arm held high, to support the rifle in plac bring the finger to the trigger. Holding the arm high gives you better shoulder pocket into which the rifle can be placed. Be sure arm, sling and rifle are bound into one firm, steady unit.

(62)

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Coaches will check the following points: Firer stands half-faced to the right. Left elbow is well under the rifle. of course. Che ek is pressed against stock. and firmly held. Right elbow is approximatel y at the height of the shoulder. In the lower right picture is shown an exercise that makes for stead i­ ness in the standing position. when the left hand grasps the rifle below the swivel. regardless of slope or level. Note how the rifle is held by the hon es of the shoulder and the right arm. [64J . greater steadiness is developed in the standing position-a steadiness furth er increased . Breathing is controlled. W fist is straight.THE STANDING POSITION This is used for all kind s of firing. The rifle is placed in crotch formed by thumb and index finger. Butt of piece is high up on the shoulder. resting on the h eel 06 the hand. Feet are from 1 to 2 feet apart. By practicing this exercise. Body is erect and well-balanced. Left hand is in front of balance. as far forward as possible without strain.

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He's the man who wins the medals 011 the tirin g range-the "Order of Maggie's Drawers"-with palms. H e's the man who tells the coach about what he did to the shooting galleri es at Coney Island. r66J . Study the four pictures carefully. Pick out the things you se wrong with Private Jerk's technique.WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH THIS PICTURE? Take a good look at how Private Joe Jerk takes the four positions. Private Jerk is the man who sleeps through the demonstrations.

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The story 0 Sergeant York is a story of expert marksmanship. from which this picture was taken. The going was hard. The Americans swept over.THE BEST "MARKS-MAN" WINS Every American has probably heard of Sergeant York. 1918. Men were falling all around York. Perhaps yo have seen the movie. Each one of you rnus qualify as a marksman. He worked his way to the flank of one key machine-gun nest after the other. One by one he picked them off! When he was finished. On October 6. There had been no artillery preparation. York's rifle settled the issue. The advance was held lip by German machine-gun nests. twenty-five Germans lay dead at their guns. (68) . Marksmanship will help to win this war. York's division was engaged in breaking througlli the Hindenburg Line in the Argonne. One hundred thirty-two others surrendered. You arc the men who must win this war.

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The rifle does what you want it to do. In one. But jerk the trigger. Squeeze the tube and you get exactly the amount of cream you require. the pupil puts his finger on the trigger. You may even get some in your eye-so you duck. the trigger squeeze is the most important item in shooting. You shut your eyes. in such a manner that you cannot know the exact insta nt when the gun will go off. Shown here are two methods. It hits the bull's-eye-e-it isn't wasted. Avoid "pulling" the trigger to either side. When you practice th e trigger squeeze. You fire blind. the coach puts his finger on the trigger. You squeeze for a bull's-eye. I I ' [70) . In the second. and demonstrates the correct squeeze. you press it to the rear with a steady increase of pressure. your posi­ tion or your trigger squeeze-or both-are wrong. You get a bull's-eye. The same story applies to the trigger of a rifle. and the result is a terrible mess. In: this way. during. You expect the shock of th e explosion. If your sights do not remain on the target. press the trigger all the way to the rear and keep aiming before. You waste your shot. the pupil squeezes the trigger through the coach's finger.SQUEEZE-DON'T JERK The most important single factor in marksmanship is the trigger squeeze. It's as easy to squeeze a trigger as it is a tube of shaving cream. To repeat. and after th e riAe fires. To squeeze the trigger. Squeeze it and your shot is controlled. and control is lost. Coaches must check pupils carefully in the trigger squeeze. The tube and cream are "under control. you must "follow through"-that is. You flinch. Keep the rifle to your shoulder after the rifle fires. But jerk the tube and control is lost-cream squirts alit all over the place-wasted. The pressure is applied by the independent action of the trigger finger straight to the rear. Watch th e sights carefully. The coach puts his finger over the pupil's finger. the coach can judge whether pupil correctly squeezes the trigger." There's no waste-no mess.

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I I [72J . I . If you can't call your shot correctl y. If you can tell where your shot will hit-e-bull's-eyc or oth erwise­ you are shooting wi th open eyes. You are squee zi ng th e trigger-you are foll owing the rules. it means you jerked th e trigg er. You almo st surely missed th e: bu ll' s~eyc . T h ese p ictures show what h ap pen s wh en you squeeze your trigger.CALL YOUR SHOTS One way to teach yourself to sq ueeze th e trigger and no t to jerk il­ is to call your sho ts. You sh ut your eyes and fired after ward . Remember-squeezing the trigger and call ing your shots art: two vita lly im por tan t rul es of good shooti ng. These pictures also show what h appens whe n you jerk it. You d id not k now wh ere th e sigh ts w ere pointin g at the time th e rifle was fired.

Shot one: he Jerked and flinched Shot two: he squeezed the t rigger Shot one : he " guessed" a hull's-eye .

At this very moment. His uniform may not fit-but his face is determin ed. Accuracy and correctness of execution of each shot in rapid fire are vitally important: Speed is secondary.YOUR LIFE-OR HIS Some day you may find yourself suddenly fac ed by th is [ap-e-or a German. Chances are all in your favor if you learn to make quick and proper use of your rifle. the man who will come out of that meeting alive will be the man wh o can shoo t most accurately and rapidly. That means th e ability to {ire it accurately and rapidly . (74] . Note the order in which the above words are written. practicing marksmanship with one end in view: To kill YOU! When you m eet this enemy. Look at this man carefully. working day and night. the training camps of Japan and Germany arc filled with men like him-training hard .

OR HIS .•.v VOUR LIFE .

(5) Place butt of rifle again st right shoulder with fight hand . Here is how to take the correct prone position quickly. You rnus do it quickly. (2) Bend both kn ees to ground. and th e point on ground just below the butt of the rifle when in firing position : These "rapid-action" pictures show how it is done: (1) Rifle is grasped with left hand just below the lower band and right hand at the heel of the stock.PRONE POSITION-FIRST METHOD The enemy will not wait while you get into firing position. (4) Place left elbow on ground. (6) Grasp small of stock with right hand and place right elbow on ground. first mark on the ground the points wher your right and left elbows normally rest in prone position. (7) Assume firing position. j • I (76) . For purposes of practice. (3) Place bu tt of rifle on ground at point marked.

.

and slides well back wh ile lyin g on belly. H e lowers the left elbow to the gro und. I· [78] .SKIRMISHER'S METHOD H ere are a front view and a back view of a soldier taking the prone position by th e skirmisher's meth od. feet apart. He takes but t of rifle off the ground . He places left leg hack near the right one. The rifle comes up to the shoulder just as in the prone position. He places right foot well back and bend s left knee as low as possible. Grip of rifle is retained wi th both hands. He places right elbow on the ground . and places it against righ shoulder. H e places butt of rifle on ground four or five inches to left and slightly in front of spot wh ere ri ght elbow is to rest.

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Simulate loading. so that butt strikes the ground at arm's length. Drop forward on outsid e of left kn ee and at same tim e extend rifle: grasped in both ha nds and held vertic ally. UP . raise body by straightening arms. Pivoting on left knee and butt of rifle. At command UP. and away from body. At command PREPARE TO RUSH. dir ectly in fron t of the left knee. and with right hand place butt of rifle on righ shoulder and set safety in its forward position. left hand just below lower band and r igh t hand at small of stock. draw th e arms in until the hands are opposite chin. Upon arriving at firing point : Advance left foot . elbows down. Spr ing up and r un forwa rd. Grasp rifle with both hands. Shif t weight of body to right leg and arm and bring left leg forward with kn ee fully bent. [SO} . roll forw ard onto left elbow and left side. turning it across front of body.PRONE POSITION-RUSHING Command is: PREP ARE TO R USH. Grasp the small of stock with right hand and place right elbow on the ground.

6 .

Mark position of heels and spot on which you sit. [82J . Only if your position is correct will your sights automatically return to the aiming point after you fire. breaking fall with right hand . Grasp small of stock with right hand and assume aiming position. into correct position before starting to shoot. stand with heels on marked places. Keep your eye 011 the target. As target appears sit down on marked spot. Remember.THE SITTING POSITION In practicing for range firing sit down and aim at target in normal sitting position. get. Correct technique first­ speed later. in all these positions: Even if it takes a little longer. At command READY ON FIRING LINE.

THE KNEELING POSITION

Kneel and aim at target in normal kneeling position. Mark position of feet and right knee . At command READY ON FrRrNG LINE> stand with feet in places marked for them. As target appears, kneel with right knee on spot marked. Keep Jlour eyes on the target! Place the butt of rifle on shoulder with right hand. Note the change in the position of the right hand in pictures 1 and 2. Grasp small of stock with right hand and assume aiming position.

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These pictures show the need for perfect ph ysical conditioning. COVER TO COVER~DOWN To take cover-right hand grasps rifle at butt (as in taking pron e position in rap id fire) .COVER TO COVER-UP Soldier lies prone. H e then flattens to ground. rifle grasped in right hand. Good soldiers must be good athletes. breaking his fall with butt of rifle. Rifle is grasped by right hand about 3 inches below stock ferrule swivel. On order-DP-he pushes up on both arms and right kn ee-and dashes forward. {86} . Pivoting on left foot-knee well bent-soldier Rings himself for­ ward and down.

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and operating handle is released . press the dip down into receiver until it engages dip latch. so as to clear bolt in its forward mo ve­ ment. This new method enables you to use full. Upper Right With the thumb on the clip . With right hand. but t down. LOUJe~' Left Closing of bolt may be assisted hy a push forward on operating rod handle with the heel of right hand . note position of h and. ~ .. firm pressure. and the fingers drawn up in a fist.LOAD1NG IN FOUR POSITIONS Upper Lett Hold rifle wi th left hand . While thumb pushes in round. heel of hand engages op erating handle and prevents it from shutting until thumb is removed . Thumb is swung to right. wh ere single rounds are inserted into the breech . Lower Right In standing position. take clip from belt and place on top of follower. wn .

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The cad ence of the exercise is set by the instru ctor who commands: COMMENCE FIRINC. beginning. The coach th en operates th e bolt for his pupil. he calls: Boer.FIRST RAPID FIRE EXERCISE A most important element in rapid fire is the development of cor­ rect timing in firin g. The pupil squeezes the trigger. [90} . . the coach must be in a position to pre ss back the operating han dle with a sharp motion to cock the piece. This is repeated for each sho t. The first r apid fire exercise is an exercise in cadence. Later it is shortened by a half second for each succeeding exercise until it becomes three seconds. At regular intervals. In the. th e firer concen­ trates on the sight picture. th e tim e inte rval is five seconds. With the MI . Correct timing in firing will vary from above five seconds per shot for the beginner to about two seconds for the experienced m an . The developmen t of proper timing in firing rests mainly on the corr ect position of the firer. These pictures show the correct pron e position of pupil and coach .>:. The firer's position is not correct unless the sights return aut omatically to th e aim ing point. and th en release pressure to permit the operating handle to go forward . and sq ueezes the trigger quick ly.

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E THIRD RAPID FIRE EXERCISE The exercise is conducted with wooden block removed. and to indicate appearance of the targets. Open bolts. Example. at the proper time interval. Command is given to open bolt. Every time the trigger is squeezed.SECOND RAPID FIRE EXERCISE In thi s exercise. Ready on the firing line. Shooters count their shots aloud. Each time the trigger is squeezed the coach operates th e bolt. (92} . in the third pocket from the right. Command is given: ONE ROUND . This clip is placed in the cartridge belt. After the eighth shot. RELOAD. th e necessar y commands are given to simulate load ing. simulate reload ing from the belt. After 65 seconds: CEA S FIRI NG. Ready on the right. coach operates bolt. As the "targets" app ear [he shooter assumes the prescribed position and "d ry-shoots" a scar of 16 shots in the prescribed time. Then they load the clip of dummies from th e belt and sq ueeze off a dry shot with each dummy. Ready on the left." shooters take prescribed position . ROUND. After 30 seconds: EIGHTH ROUND. Simulate LOAD . Instructor calls: FIRST ROUND. The time allowed is 40 seconds. this cau ses them to breathe after each shot. shooters lock and simulate loading one round. and sq ueez e off one dry shot. SIMULATE LoAD. At the com mand. RELOAD. A fter 60 seconds: SIXTEENTH ROUND. Blocks are used in rifles. NINTH ROUND and LAST ROUND. Targets Up. At signal "T argets Up. and with one clip load ed with dummies. After 9 second s: FIRS'!. After 39 second s: NINTH RO UND.

T ---­ .

W ILL YOU KILL THESE NAZIS. This enabl es you to mak e clue allowance for wind . It is equipped with a rear sight. They make a small target. And to make matters tougher. To score a hit under these conditions requires a high precision weapon-one that enables you to cut down the margin for error. O R WILL THEY KILL YOU? This is how a squad of German soldiers may look to you when you spot them on the battlefield. A few simple rules enable you to control the wind. Your rifle is just such a weapon-providing it is properly used.4) . This wind will push a bullet in the direction it is blowing-just as it does the smoke in the background . there is a wind blowing across the field betw een you and these men. [9.

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. This ra ises or lowers th e strike of th e bullet on the target. . These knobs move a click or a q uarter point at a time-each click or qu arter po int m oving th e bullet a cer tain distance. The windage k n ob m oves the peep sight right or left-moving th e strike of th e bullet righ t or left on the target. The score book enables you to keep a record of each sh ot you fire) for no on e can rem emb er for long the results and conditions of each shot he fired . . The eleva ting knob raises or lowers the peep sight. These di stan ces have been ruled off on the target to show you how much one click of the knob ( on the M1) moves th e strike of the bullet on a 200-yard target.THIS IS THE REAR SIGHT At the top of the page is a pi cture of th e rear sight of an Ml ri fle. and D targets. I ! ! [96J . Yet these data ar e very valuable to you in improving you r marksm an ship.. All three h ave a bearing on each oth er. In the cen ter of the page are pictures of the A) B. At the bo ttom is a page from your score book.

... 'Ift " .~ . __ .._.p~th [levaling knob r~ Is. ""..a ... ':' 1 ~N1W I ~4J... ..._._.-J 7 .. t'4 . u " " _ 4 . ..'0'0 • ...?~~ l~ """ COoIlfil t IU III..a.... ..1 ' . I'lli pL U Jo nOlo r r. .. IIIon(l. .. ft ~gUlJklI \ I I 0 Q..: k v..@) ').. Wind ~ ~ "..c ~ ~ ' J ~ Rio . • • T .. _ '- _ -----... ....tlol.. " • I • 0 ~ I.° cJ. J'o llllloo..@ . or Jowers 01 bullot Wlndago knob moves path of bullot right or Jelt _... • •• _ MillO» ...... ..~:l.... n.... N~ :El tv WlIIlII C~ lI V" l . .. LI "II.. r .__ .

Z inches in 200 yards.WINDAGE KNOB Let's see exactly what this windage knob does. At 400 yards. Aiming at the same target . 4 inches. At 200 yards. One click of windage at 100 yards moves strike of bullet on target 1 inch. the bullet strikes 4 inches from the first bullet. The inset at the left shows how simply this works. the bullet now strikes Z inches to the right of the first bull et. One click of this knob moves the strike of the bullet 1 inch-to the right or to the left-on the target for each 100 yards of range. And so on. T t . the little man now moves his windage"? clicks to the right. That means the bullet moves to the left 1 . his rear sight is fixed at 1 click of windage to the left. Let's look down on the little man from straight above.inch in 100 yards. At 200 yards. At 100 yards. 2 inches. In this first picture. Now he moves his windage knob again-l click left.i i {98) . That moves the bullet 1 inch to the left in 100 yards-2 inches in 200 yards.

One click of this knob moves strike of bullet 1 Inch, rIght or left, on target for each 100 yards of range

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ELEVATING KNOB
The elevating knob works exactly the same as the windage kn ob. Only instead of left and right-l click of this knob moves the strike of the bullet 1 inch-up or down-on the target for each 100 yards of range. Let's look at our little man again-this time from the side. With 4 clicks of elevation, the bullet strikes 4 inches above his line of sight at 100 yards. At 200 yards, it strikes 8 inches above the line of sight. With 2 clicks of elevation, the bullet strikes 2 inches above the line of sight at 100 yards-and 4 inches above at 200 yards. With 1 dick of elevation, th e bullet strikes 1 inch above the line of sight at 100 yards-2 inches above at 200 yards. The inset tells the tale: One click of elevation at 100 yards moves strike of bullet on the target 1 inch. At 200 yards, 2 inches. At 500 yards, 5 inches. And so on.

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ELEVATI·NG KNOB
One click of this knob moves strlkeo! bullet linch up or down on target for each 100 yards of range

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Repeat them a few times. The result is the force of the wind in miles per hour. We therefor e must know a little about the wind.degree angle with the pole. Just as wind has enough force to blow flags one way or an­ other. One that blows from 8 o'clock is an 8 o'clock wind. Note the angle the Rag makes with the pole. Then divide this angle by 4. gives you the force of the wind. Here are a few typical examples: A strong wind might blow the flag to an 80. The angle your arm makes with your body. and you've learned them forever. One way to figure the force of the wind is to look at the range flag.WIND CHANGES PATH OF BULLET These rules of windage and elevation are fairly simple. so has it enough force to blow a bullet. the more it will move the bullet. Follow the direction in which it falls with your arm. Then­ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 80 = 20 miles per hour A 40-degree angle of the arm indicates a wind of 10 miles per hour­ figured this way: "4 = 40 10 mil es per hour . Another way is to pluck some dry grass. This alarm clock makes it easy to describe the directions of the wind. Make believe you are looking down on it from above. First thing to know is that it blows from different directions. Now we are ready for the next step-the effect of wind on the path of a bullet. [102J . divided by 4. hold it out and let the wind carry it off. And so on for the rest. For the harder it blows. When a wind blows across the field from the right-from 3 o'clock-it is called a 3 o'clock wind. The next thing to know is how hard the wind is blowing.

WIND CHANGES PATH OF BULLET ~: ~ ~ ~ l .~ :=:.:::: -=L i~ tEl G:::::" HOW TO FIGURE FORCE OF WIND .

HOW TO CORRECT SIGHTS FOR WIND Once you know the direction and force of the wind. 3. ~ ~ ~ OQ4) . 5. He multiplied the force of the wind by the range (in 100s of yards) and divided by 10. For example: If a 9 o'clock wind blew at 20 mph and the range was 200 yards. But the wind blew his bullet clean off th e targ et. Since the wind blew from 9 o'clock. 9. it isn't hard to make correct allowances for it. or 11 o'clock wind. and 10 o'clock wind. h e multipl ied 20 by 2 and divided by 10. 4. The windage rule app lies to a 2. he mo ved the wind age knob into th e wind-that is. to the left-4 clicks. use one-half of the windage given in the formu la. The result-4-was the number of clicks of windage needed to hit the bull's-eye. 8. 7. R esult : The number of clicks of windag-e needed to put the bull et int o the bull's-eye. Then he applied this rule-th e wind rule at the bot tom of the page. Then he 1110ved the rear sight into the wind by turning the wind age knob th e correct n umber of clicks. This soldier aimed at th e bul l's-eye. So he adju sted his sights to allow for the wind . For a 1. Let's see wh at he did to accomplish this: H e figured the dir ection and force of the wind . and he hit the bull 's-eye squarely.

How much? The wInd rule tell s you: lore" of wind Examplo: X .ango (In 100'.HOW TO CORRECT SIGHTS FOR WIND ~ ~ -::3) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (=:. • Move r ear sight I~to wind by turning t ho wl~dn!:o knob.J ~ ~ "'J - . of yd• •) _ click 10 • 2 01~ 2 = 4 ellcko ...l TO CORRECT FOR WIND .

(106) . memorize the wind rules on page 102. It is taken from the U. Army Score Book. In combat.THE WINDAGE TO ALLOW FOR THE FIRST SHOT This picture explains itself. Study it carefully. however. S. it is helpful to check your windage with th ese windage diagrams. you will not have a score book with you. you can always adjust your rifle properly. and in practice in camp. There­ fore. As long as you know the range and wind velocity. In firing on the range.

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A short man can 't get quite as cleise-so hi s sighting is 11 little diff erent. Allowing for a rifle's h abi ts is call ed "zeroin g the rifle. She probably has certain habits you learned about before you really got along with her . a rifle will act differently wh en held by a 6·footer th an wh en it's held by a much shorter man . turn the page. your rifle is lik e your girl friend. tend to sh oot a little high and to the right. Same way with your rifle. [l08J . Like peopl e. This allowance is for certain habits 06 your r ifle itself . And you too have certain traits th at th e rifle m ust get used to. In a w ay. Once you re cognize th ese h abits. A tall m an leans right into the rear sight. Sh e didn't w ear a sign telling you about those habits. Now let's discuss one other allow­ ance you must learn to m ake." The zero of th e rifle is th e point at which the rear sigh t must be placed for elevation and windage to hit the center of th e bull's-eye on a normal. LIKE YOUR GIRL. it has cert ain ha bits you have to catch on to before you get th e most out of it. Another mi gh t. You had to learn from experienc e. Obviously.YOUR RIFLE. Every rifle h as a personality all its own. These are things each of you must discover yourself in shooting th e rifle. For example: One rifle might shoot a little to the left. To see how you do it. windless d ay. HAS HABITS FO WHICH YOU MUST ALLOW So much for wind allowances. it's easy to make th e ne cessary allowan ces for th em.

' ~ •...YOUR RIFLE. LIKE YOUR GIRL._ '..> ~. .:: ' :.. .. tion and wlnda go to hit center or bull's-eye on a norma l windles s day "' y ... HAS HABITS FOR WHICH YOU MUST ALLOW AL LOWING FOR RIFLE'S HABI TS IS CALLED " Z EROING THE RIFLE" The zer e of a rIfle is 1ho polnl at which rear s ight mus t be plac ed for eleva• .. ~ ~ ~~ .. . ~'" • a. ~: t ... .

under "shoot once" with a pencil.") Two or all three shots should form a group on the target-and in your score book. and call your shot. If you have been shooting properly." [110] . shoot again and mark your score book. Note this in your S core book.) Now. they should he close together. They tell you your rifle tends to fire high or low-left or right.wh ich usually insures your hi tting the target at 200 yard s ( pro viding you do everything else right). squeeze your trigger. shoot .HOW TO ZERO THE RIFLE On a windless day. Adjust the windage knob . (Mark it with pencil under "If necessary. so that the wind gauge stands at dead center. set th e rear sight of your rifle this way: Turn th e elevatin g knob as far down as it will go-then move it up 10 clicks. take a prone position. (Mark strike of bull et with pencil under "shoot again. aim. fire a third. (For purposes of practice. They tell you what adjust­ ments you must make in your rear sight to allow for your rifle's "personality. If you aren 't sure of one of these first two shots. mark th e strike of the bull et on the targ et. They reveal your rifle's habits.") Study your first two shots. again . Next.

ON A WINDLESS DAY.-­ '= x .T - r..i + I 1 __. Set wl"dogo kn 01> at ""'0 windage IF NECESSARY.l f l' . SET REAR SIGHT THIS WAY Mo~e elo~all"g knob alilho way downl III on meve It up 10 clicks lor 200 yds.. ~l eae.-&-­ =~ -t.N) \Y I~ O C'l lllu l " . £CORDIN Q SHEE.. _ !k Qrt :tf. SHOOT AGAIN -. "" W1r"lI« ~ :r t .. -­ -t-­ - H . e-. U .

that is 4 inches left. Now you should hit the center of the bull's-eye. [112} . that means 4 inches down.ADJUST THE SIGHTS In this case-let's say your shot group has been 4 inches right and' 4 inches above the center of the bull's-eye. At 200 yards. You move the windage knob 2 clicks left. you shoot again with the adjusted sights. To be sure. If you're doubtful-if you've flinched or are not sure of your position or sights-shoot again until you are satisfied that your sights are prop~ erly adjusted. Two shots should convince you that you are now wise to your rifle's "habits"-and that you've licked them. So. applying the windage and elevation rules-you move the elevating knob 2 clicks down. At 200 yards.

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The rifle is now zeroed for elevation. I [ (114) . h owever. The wind gauge itself need not be changed. no t the manufacturer's. loosen th e elevating kn ob-screw. and base all further wind calculations on it. You must remember the corrected or zeroed windage. Now the rifle is adapted to your own personality. The wind gauge zero is at th e point where we have set the windage ill order to bring the strike of the bullet into the center of the bu ll's-eyc. And you are adapted to the rifle's. H old the elevating knob so it will not turn. Pull out the elevating knob and rotate down until the figure 2 on lh ~ drum (representing the 200-yard sigh t setting) is opposite the index line in the rear sigh t base. T hen. tighten the elevat­ ing knob-screws. You always start off with this zero windage-the win dage you needed on a windle ss day to hit the cent er of the target.ADJUST THE ELEVATING KNOB Your rifle is now read y for th e final ph ase of zeroing. Using th e combination tool screwdriver. But remember-the rifle is your rifle. Your wind gau ge and elevating knob do no t h ave to be-nor are th ey likely to be-the same as the zero marked on th e rifle by the man ufacturer . holding the elevating knob so it cannot slip.

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How would you set your sights ? ( 5) You fire your first shot. Be sure you understand the theory and practice of sight changes by illu strating on th is chart th e following exam ples ( the answers are on page 122): (1 ) Range: 500 yards. make the necessary adju stments in windage and elevation . and you wer e sure your hold and trigg er squeeze were good. Spotter mark s it a 7 o'clock 4. How wou ld you set your sights? ( 6) Your second shot hits center of bull 's-eye. At the bottom is a model of a wind gauge and an "unro lled" elevating drum. your fourth hits a 9 o'clock 5. Wh en you fire first shot. wind seems to steady at 8 mil es an hour at 3 o'clock. Suppose your shot was spotted as a 3 o'clock 4.. Practice ze roing your rifle on windy days. W hat correction shou ld you ma ke? [ 116] .SIGHT CHANGES At the top of this picture is an A target. W hat change would you ma ke ? (8) Before you fire your seventh shot. ind icate shot groups on the target. (2) Ran ge: 600 yards. Set your sigh ts for first shot. t· . using different wind conditions. Set your sigh ts for first shot. Wind: 10 miles at 3 o'clock. T hen. How would you set sigh ts? (9) Your seventh shot is a 4 at 6 o'clock. W ind: Varies from 8 to 12 miles per hou r in velocity and from 1 to 3 o'clock in di rection . you noti ce th at th e win d has sh ifted to about 1 o'clock.. Supp ose you fire 4 shots hitting in th e bull' s-eye and your fifth shot is an 11 o'clock 3. Your fifth shot is a 9 o'clock 4. What would you do? (7) Your sixth shot hits bull's-eye near edge at 3 o'clock. (3) Set your sigh ts at 600 yards plus 1 click with 1 Yz points or 6 clicks of left windage. your third hits bull's­ eye at 12 o'clock . Wind : 10 mil es at 9 o'clock . W hat would you do to your sights ? (4) Range: 600 yards. at the same rate. With your pencil poi nt. Chan ge your sigh ts to bring the next shot int o center of bull's-eye.

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(1) With a razor blade. so that you can work out the suggested problems on them. (2) Cut out diagrams A and B. [lI8) .WIND GAUGE AND ELEVATING DRUM These pictures show how to make the diagram of the wind gauge and elevating drum on page 117 movable. slit the wind gauge and elevating drum on page 117 as indicated by the dotted lines in diagram C. and slip them into position through the slits on page 117 so that they may be moved as shown in diagram C.

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. ~l . you'll keep the advantages you started with.. and treated your rifle right. but the real shooting for record is still before you. You'll get bull 's-eyes. . For our country was bu ilt-and maintained-by marks­ men . ' I . You start with th e advantage. . . ~t ~. Kentucky riflemen. This pa ir of Axis partners on the opposite page will henceforth do the marking for you.AND NOW . If you have worked hard .. Blue and Gray riflemen of The War Between the States. YOU SHOOT FOR RECORD You have finished th e course. You go into battle not only with the best shooting rifle and best shooting training but also with best shoot­ ing tradition.. studied hard. You 'll win. Concord farmers with their muskets. . .. and the men of the First AEF whose accurate and murderous fire won at the Marne twenty-five years ago . [1201 . And they payoff only on bull's-eyes. You have shot on the range "for record".

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1 points or 7 clicks of right windage. (3) Nothing. (2) 2 points or 8 clicks left windage. [I22} . Do not try to correct personal errors by moving sights around.) (8) For 1 o'clock wind you ne ed almost half as much windage as for a 3 o'clock wind. (9) No change. (7) Th e 4 on the fifth shot must have been due to an error in aim or trigger squeeze. You should llOW have }. (4) 1Y4 or 5 points of right windage. Move elevation Y4 point or 1 click up.j point or 3 clicks of right windage. (5) Move windage :4 point or one click to right . (I Yz points or 6 clicks. so put your sight back to where it was before. Your low shot was due to poor aim or trigger squeeze.ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS ON PAGE 116 (1) 1Y4 points or 5 clicks right windage. (6) Sights should be at 1}.

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SHOOTING N OTES .

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