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Approved Oc1ober 22, 1966


Dynamic Response Testing of Process Control Instrumentation

1 Purpose

ThiS ISA stanoarc and control


11 series

recommending processes.


test procedures

for measurement


fur production

With the continuing


and appucahon

of dynamic

anaiysts important

to systems


dynamic response test data are becoming an incteasingly data. Proper use of this standard should result in: aJ Data lhat will characterize dynamic

part of overall performance

performance In a uniform comparable

b) data of va lu e IllI can trol sy ste ms d ~sign as well as tor pertorm 11 nee eha racier lza tion,
and OJ 11 maximum elTlllunt of useful data pe, 1esUng dollar.

2 Scope

This ISA Standard control equipment extsrnally applicable standard, precedes

9stablistles I H) basis for dynamic res ponse tesbng of measurement and with pneumatic output and electric output and for dosed loop actuators lar

actuated control ""Ives and other final control elements. G .. neral reccmmendsuons to all dynamic response testirl9 and a brief glossary. defining terms as used ln thiS are also included. with dynamic the tabulation Tabular response format testing. tests. is used to simplify

those familiar

A minimum

of recommended

application in the laboratory by discussion and d(lscrip~ve material for Sine wave. Slep, and of

sig nals are in clu Final control pneumatiClltty, most common pump. motor

take many forms, and the actuators may be powered and signalled


electrical1y, or in commnanon. Externally actuated valves for corltrolling in the process industries, but the final control element can be a controlled speed

flow are

control, or manyothers. be desirable
speed pump

It WOUld, ot course, valve or

a variable

committee's For

to have a system which relates the flow response of a control to the input signal of the Closed loop actuator. It was the feeling that it would not be practical to require this. of this ISA Standard, motion all final

the purpose

control elements
and no distinction


input signal media.

and an output

or rotation

be considered as hav<rlg an will be mad .. between power

J Factors to be considered in dynamic response testing
3.1 Use of data
The application

of dynamic

response Isst data can be generally
of a design.


into two


1) characterization

ntro I or measuring


2) control



Non·specific interpr.eUng which

designations such as nat or gced dynamie response test data far measurement


("spO.ns" should
and control

net to be used in devices. Such terms,

are bo rrowed fro maud i 0 wor~, a re not applicab le in In e centro I fiel d. It i5 recornme Olded thai data be lakenand' preserned according to the appropriate sectlons Of thi$ standard and that tha performance be judged only in the light 01 requirements for a spaclflc appllcatlon, For exampla, a devic'e whose dynamic response is too slow lOr one application might be idea.! tOr where undesirable h·tgh frequency noise signals





Interaction usua Ily consists of a nu m ber

A control system

of "I ems n \S. Ea ch el e m on I has on e or more input
ana 8S

a no 0 utpe 1 s ign;)I$. Two e Ierne nts a re said to be inlera enng wMn th e rei ati 0 n M!Ween in put output of one element isatrectcd by cllanging 1I1e cnaracterlstlcs of the other element. In
studying dynamic a unit. It is lmpcrtant

response of a control system, elements which interact to note that Interaction Is not necessaril.y mutual.

.are often


An exa m pie of inte racti

"9 el em ents

to it. The response

attac ~M) lor a giv~n inpu t <I i-sturMnc~

is a poe urna! io trans mille rand th e eu matic tubi n9 which is transmjtter (measured at the point where the tubing is dep ends upon the a me unto of tubing attached. In the


usual case the gre~te, the amount of tubing, the "lower ll1e response. This system. could· be made nOfl"interacbng by placing a booster relay ba-twaen the toilnsmitter and the Than the

~pead of response
to t he boo

of the transmitter


be virtually


of the amount

of 1u~ing


ste r,

3.3 No;:rnlineari\y

can have a prcfcund

C~U$ing large variations

in perf(l(manc.e

common types of nonline<orifies exponc nlial measu rem ants, a nd va Iva cha racta rtsncs,

effact on the o.ynami~ response Qf '-' device. particularly 'in with changes In output load or input signal stze. Some are dead spot. fr'letio", hysteresis, velocrty limiting, saturation,
No nli naarlty not only ca uses distortion of

tne sig na I' sn ape, bIJ t. a1.5·0 may re 5U 1.1 aeo iliona I pha se shift and atten uatton. in

3,4 Pow~r $upply to deVice being te$led The p arlo'
conslderable calibration frequency 'be used, manee of the p<>w~ r supply influanco> on tho> dynamic maybe but an totally Inadequate are used. tnput signals

$yste m

YMd fo r the d avice under test can exe rt test results. A power supply that is adequate for static demands Ihat can occur specIfy when 11igh level to practice for vendOrs!O the anergy

lor lt1e large power

It is common

Iy 10 the e Iectrica] Ii eld is it com m on pia cuce to spe c;i/y a d 99 ro e of reg ula1.10n
devices ln a uniform, comparable t>e used. manner, It is sup ply tc lmportaot

SinGe these be capable tests are to characterlze of regulating to ra comme nde(l lila t the e ne rgy level spe cifie(l

Ily th e vendor

and that !l1 e power


of this level at all test concmcns.

It is extr~mely

en e "" this ra 9 u lation lrnrne dia tely at the power iop u t co onectlon 01 th" d€lvic~ bein 9 tested because In pneumatic and hydraulic unexpected, large supply line drops can occur during


high f,equency 3.5 Tesl



T hi s tSA Standa rd

u IIi nes rneth ods fu r obta ini ng two types

01 dynam lc da ta.

The fl rst are data

that ca n be used Ie r math ema tical analysis, fo r graphical solu tlon of COntw I probie rns and 10r cham cte rizatio n of dyn a m ie performance. Th esa data can be' Obtai n ea by use of eitl1 er s.inewave or pulse-type evaluation forcing nrncnons. The second under type of dynamic data provides a qualilatiV€O of tI1e nonlinea'.ity or the device test and are obtained


use of step tests.

The Choice of whether to use sine-wave or pulse-type forCing fum;.tions is a matter af converuence and is left to the discretion or the person p!lrfQrming the test Either type forCing iun otlon wh e n used as 0" ~ineo i0 this standa rd, will yield the sa m e i~lofmatklfi. The com m Iltee is in agreement that the pulse method provides a marginal ad,vantage over me sine-wave memoc lor obtaining d~namic data of instrument comconents, However, the pulse method does offer d istincl adva r\tag 9 s when the ge n erati all of si n u so idal in put si,gnals fOI a g ivan devi ce is d Ifflou It. The committee fe~la' the greatest potential use of the pulse method ls not an certain lnstnrment components bul on plant process equipment and processes Ihemselves. The scope 011lli8 sta ndard is Iimiled to in strurnen t components, This Standard is organized in a manner that, ;t is hoped, will i.e convenient to th e user, All refsrences toai ne wave and slep tests app ea r befcre a II ,efere nee to pu I te sts, Re dundan cy se has been kepi 10 a minimum.

3.6 Qualifications of personnel performing


This ISA Siandard, as stated in the Purpose, is designed to present standardized procedures for performing dynamic tests, It is not the intent of tile committee that this document be, used as a textbook or instruction sheets but serve as a guide for use, by personnertralned in the field of d.ynamic analysls,

4 Recommended tests -

sine wave and step

4,1 Input !jlgnals

is recommended Ihat slne wa,ve and step Input signals be used with various

output loads.

Sine wave test data are most ganerdlly useful for methernancel analysrs, for graphieal solujicn 01 oootro! P' Oblems, and fQr ella ra oI" rlzatit)n of dyne m lo perfo rrnance. ~ In ord er to arrive at II p'lIeti cal nu m bar of reco m me nd ad tests, lhe nu m be' or 0 ulp lI; load and Input si{lnal oonfi9"rafions must 'be minimized. This could re$ult in nonllneari!ie$ being unnottcad. To permit a quatitaliva evaluation of the nonlinearity of the device under lest. step
tests It



nd ed.

is rea li2!edthat the Ima I da ta fro m both the recorn mended step and sin e wave tests will nOI ,suffice to ,describe nonlinearity in tile device baing tested quantitati ve ly. However, thls standard is a practical compromise which will give actual dat~ (jSMul for most applications, and II qualitative indication of tile effect of unusually large signals or load~. Sine wave and step (1)$18shown in Figure 1 belOWara recommended. The, input span '"ferred· to he rs Is tha t in put Signal tha t will drive the output ~ig na I Ih '0 ugh its lull I";l n9C~









" ?::;
OJ "




'" ~ ,'" oi.
:f z

~ ~ 5li
0 $




50 0








Figu ra 14.1.1 SInu wave in~ul signals It is recommended
that" sine wave

test signals
peak-to-peak magnitude

input signal

be used whose


percent of me actual input signal span of the device being teste<J. The sine wave should have the arithmetical mid point of the input signal span as its center. The input spa" preferred is tnat span which will drive the ou(put signal

through its full range.


of tnc

recemmendation are

discussed The lest

in the later documents.

esse.ntially frequency

snould start at a frequency low enough that the magnlbJde of the output sine wave equals tl1al of lhe steady state output for Ihe same input and there is essentially no phase shift between them ("",,capt if the device has pure integral or derivative functions). The
should signal cover be increased until tM span of magnitude of the output lag is sine wave Generally is 10 percenl speaking. or less at zero frequency frequency or the phase

of the output test should


at least


a response

three decades. enough lncrements to

Cam should be taken to vary the frequency
cna nges in the response

in small

describe abrupt


4.1.2 Slep Input II is recommended

signals that the following step input signals be used (in percent

of actllal



1) 45 to S5 2) 55 to 45 3) 10 1090 4) 90 to 10

4.2 Loading
The load presented performance 1.0the output 3.2). of the device In selecting has a

y significanl


on dynamic must be considered:

(see Section


to be used.

two factors


ISA·8 28-1968

1) The loadings




representative system design,

ot actual field C(lnditions but to permit realistic

as possibl

.. , not only 01 the

to make the data usefulfer element.


2) The number

of tests should

be kept to a minimum.

load configurations

lor the various




4,3 Load configurations
4,3,1 Pneumatic standard load configurations are recommended in Figures 2-6. It shOUld be noted tnat lhe 01 the piCk-off point before Ihe load will result in date which give the or system alone when coupled to lI1e given load. To get the over-all response, il is necessary to comomc I'M device or system response wilh IMI Of tile load. {See
Five recommended location response of Ihe device references 1,8 for dynamic needed 10 describe typical the device field piping response, or configurations including load, response of pneumatic field installations when as a unit. the same which of these appear signal tUbing.) Fewer load co~figurations are this pick,off point location is LJSOO,than when

system and load are tested

For example,
\0 a transmitter,


can M several Th .. effect


even though

the over-all of the load on


might be quite


the response of the device or system only, when tested as recommended, value as the load gets greater. For example, there is usually a difference

reach .. s a limiting in the system or device tubing, but expanence alone when inc coil


U1S load is changed from ten to Ifty feet of cne-quarter-Inch
little difference b .. tween the response curves for the device

or system

load is changed from 100 feel of one-quarter-inch tubing and a volume to quarter-lnch tubing (oee Section 4,2). To avoid restricllons due to flattened diameter for one-Quarter-inch symbols, used copper tubing snould be 16 incnss:

200 feet of one'
lubing, minimum tubing, 30 mcnes. ISA

for 318-inch

The following

to illustrate


load confiQu rations,

are consistent


Standard S5.1 (Y32.20).·

·ANSI accepted





Load eonfi'gura!ions for pneumatic devl""s




_JI---- ..... bel"9 leoled;' 00."'" er sy.lem



hiP1.J1 ,j!i nd culpul '5!g~ flitl pick..~p BlillfTlt!'r'ltS

pne l,.lmaljr;;; rec~lver erernent (~.2 I;[J. in.


114" lulling, 0.030'
wall -


l'8" IUoi"g" 0.095 ln,

• ff th B device baing tssteo is e. can trolle." tne auto rnatlc-rn a n ual switch or cu loft reiaysno uld tJ e include(l as oa II of tM controlls r an d Iha coni", [[er Should be pi pad for bu mpl BSS Iran ~far_


Fig ... ." 2 - Configl-lration A r
[[manufa cturers recorn mended min im urn is more tna n 10 II,,, use Ih is m i nimu m 10 p revent insta~ility. TlliS [eSI wi[1 men give data for Ine srnetlest load the cevrcecr system can handle. This configuration represents a:typical dose-coupled pneumatic device such as a field transmitter and a controller with no long blanch lines.



This load looks lille a long transmission line to the transmitter, 01 a short lran.mission line will' a long branoh. The response alihe transmitter is Ihe same for eithsr case, In using Ihe data for a field lnstallatlori it will ba nece.$$IIry to add th~ ~f!ects of the particular load used, Experience indicate$ihat longer Irsosmission lines will not significantly affect the response at the transmitter.

Figurll 4 -

Configuration C

This configyration rcpresenl~ the case of a large load such as a diaphragm motor, It was not fe'lt Ih at an othe r te st with long cr tu bin 9 and this la e lood was nee ded since a, booste r or Positionar wauld normally ne Interposed If dynamic; response was critical. Ale.o. experlence indicates Ihat th is load is lar9 e 'anough tMat increasi ng it by Ier\gIhenl ng th e tubi n9 will not have a sign iflaanl <lite 010n tt1 e response a t the instru me nt.






This .configuratiQn represents. the case of a close-coupled large load such as WOUldbe seen by 8 devic·~ lntenceo prlmarll y 1.0deliver pneurnatic power such a booste r orposl lione r,




Figure 6 - Configurat'lon E
This c(lOfigu rati() nts U51'o to test til e re se I fu net iOOin 8 :pn9Um attc contron er. TM control Ie r Ie edba r::kconn ac.tion should be hooked up in a norm a I way, in "dd i bon to the con ne cnon S shown above. It is possible to make dynamic tests of controllor ro.el functions with an open loop hookup, but u 'equires mencuous care and very stable lest signals. For this reason, the above hOOKup, wilha feedbaCk loop to stabi lim tn a corrro IIe r, is recommended, The restri ctio nand volume provide suffi(>lent time d~lay to permit the effecls of lhe reset circuit (0 be seen. (See the scene n on In tegral 01 RJ,set Actto n and rete re nee , 7. J

4.3.2 Electrical
Oev;008 designed tor aspecif,.:; receiv,ing element or load, such aacornmerciat electronic comrol systems, should be tsstsd with Ihe actual element they would normally use as tne load. Equivalent r1;!$isti"" loads should be used only if the element thus replaced would present a purely r~$ill~oo load to the, unit under last .. A spacialloa~ configuration integra I a clio n. tsracommanded lor tM optional dynamic lest of controner reset or

OIF fEFilEW;::e



uc ER


Figure 7 - Test configuration forresat function
The configuration ofFI,gure 7 Is used to test the reset function in·an eiecrroracconvcaer. The controller feedbad< ccnnecson should 'be 'hooked up in a normal way, in addition to the connections shown a.bove. It is possible to make dynamic tests of controller reset functlons wilh an open loop hookup, but it requires meticulous care and very stable test si:gnals. For this reason, lhe above hookup" Willl a fee~bac;k loop to stabilize th$ controller, is recommended. ne restriction and volume provide Sufficient time d.elay to permit the ~ct$ of the reset ci'rcuil to be sean,



It is easier 10lntrcduce the dnlay pneumatically, since many electronic controller output signals are not oompa.tible with the input signals, and hardware of some sort is needed in any case (see Reference 18 and Section 4.5.2).

4.4 Signal generation
The general recommendations or this ISA Standard coversignal generation lor standard pneumatic pressure ranges or electrical inputs .. In the case of precess variable transmitters, signal generation can become a considerable problem. Where extremely high-range Instruments are involved, it may be necessary 10 test similar instruments 01 lowe, range, because the test signals needed are too large to be practical. The following reeommendauons and comments on generating test signals for threa of Ihe more difficult types of measurements are intended to plOviCleuniform and realistic tests. 4.4.1 Dltfcrenllal


is recornrnendec that dynamic tests be run on differential pressure measuring devices Iirs! with ~Ir Jnd then with water in the measuring chamber and connecting piping. In a liquid·filled system, even a slight movement of the nleasuring element displaces the liqUid into or from the measuring chamber Ihrougn me impulse lines. The mass of liquid in the lilies is moved due to the incompressibility 01 the liqUid. Experience indicates that this can significantly affect the dynamiC response of the differential pressure device. The magnitude of the effect depends on measuring element Size, port size, measuring chamber geometry, and mass of liquid in the impulse lines. Fig"re 8 illustrates the recommended setup for the input side of the transmitler ror th e ·wet test.·









RP 3_1.DETAIL3.1.2


Figure 8 - Recommended wet tast setup
Even a ,'Iight amount of unvanted gas I~ the measuring cMamber will change the test results markedly. Experience indicates that a sy~t~m lefl slanding overnight should be vented jn case therB are trapped bubbles coming from air mar had been ctssoivad in the water.
10 both the "wet" and "dry" tests, the tow- pressure connection should be vented to atmosphere rather than held at a reference pressure level. to prevent jne dynamiC effects of a reference pressure system fmm affecting the test.

4.4.2 Temperature Genera~on 01 slnusoldal, step. or pulse-Iypa temperature signals which will provide uselul data not only for comparison but fOI control system design requires that the heal trans er coefficient of the film surrounding the temperature element be known, since this is the dominant resistance to heat flow. Response in any other liquid or gas may thon be computed, if the heat transler



It is easier to introduce the delay pneurl1atically, .Ine,,, many electronic controller output signals are not compatible with the input signals, and hardware of some sort is needed in any case (see Reference 18 and Section 4.5.2).

4A Signal generation
The general recommendations of this ISA Standard cover signal generation for standard pneumatic pressure ranges or electrical inputs. In !he case 01 process variable transmitters, signal generntion "an become a considerable problem, Wl'lere extremely higl'l-rangs instruments are involved, it may be nece.sary to test similar instruments of lower range, becauss the test signals needed are too large to be pracUcal. The following recomrnendatlons and comments on generating test signals for three of the more aifficult types of measurements are inlended 10 provide uniform and realistic tests. 4.4.1 Differo:.nlial pressure It is reeomrnanded that dynamic tests be run on differential pressure measuring devices first with air and then with water in the measuring chamber and connecljng piping. In a liquid-filled system, even a slight movement of the measuring element displaces the liquid into or from the measuring chamber through the impulse lines, The mass of liquid in the Ilne.~is moved due 10 Ihe incompressibility of the liquid. Experience indicate,s that this can signlfica.ntly affect the dynamic response of the differential pressure deviCe. The magn.itude of the effecl depends on meJsurlng element size, port Size, measuring chamber geometry, and mass of liquid in the Impulse lines. Figure 8 illustrates the recommended setup lor the inpul side of the transmitter for the "wet test"







Figure 8 - Recommended wet test setup
Even 8 slight amount of uoventec gas In the measuring chamber will ChaJ\{J9 the test results rnarkadIy. E. perience indIcates Ihat a system le Ftsl and in9 OVBrn Ight shou Id be I'll nted incase thers are trapped bubbles coming from air that had bCM dissolved in the waler, In both the ·wel" and "dry· tests, the low-pressure connection should be vented to atmosphere rather than held at " reference pressure level, to prevent the dynamic effeots of a reference pressure syslem from affBGtlng the test 4.4.2 Temperature Generatio(r of Sinusoidal, step, or pulse-type temperature signals which will provide useful data net only for comparison but for control system design requires that the heallraosfef coefficient of the film surrounding tno temperature element be known, since this is the dominant resistance to heat fi.ow. Response in any other liquid or gas may then be computed, il the heat 'raMier



CQeffl'clent su:rl'OIJl1ding the- temperature technique In ord sen$ing Is beyond' Ihe scope


in the process

Fluid is known.


of this

or this Standard

(see releren",esI2·14),

er to obtain dynamic data wlt.h a Kn own Mat tra nsre r coefficient. it 19,re com mended tIlat ttl a e lern ent be mstatled in a 2-inch S ched u Ie 40 pi pe tee or e qu iva Ie nl so 111t Ille a.J. of the a element is parallel to the flow axis, and a flow 01 water at two tee!lseoond Impl'lgos on the and of Il1e element, well, orhulb. A bare thermooowIe of #22-gauge wire with smallest feasible Junction 3 he ,lid be used to measure temp erature of lh e stream iust ucsire a m of the e Iem ent, we ll, or bu lb. Tho tem~ro tura 01 the flowing water strea m oa n tI e m odulate<:l a,pp roxima !ely sl nuse i cia Ily ,by SWitCh i ng from hot to cold sources. (Su eh lest u nits a rs descri bed in references 9 and 10,)
The, following i'nput signals method has been trie,d and used of 5UCCe5s!ullylo measuring generate sine wav" and pulse fur the dynamic lesting


devices: upon the
to produce was

A "team water mi><er was used 10 ""an90 the temperatur" ternperanrre mea.uring' element. This !levi"" is designed

01 the water impinging to mix steam aM wate,

relatively instantaneous hot water, The temperature of the w<!ter leaving this unit is directly propcrtionat to both lhE! entering steam and water 'Pressures, The entering water pressure held constant

by a con~en~onal pneumatic pressure indiC<lting' controller (PIC) system' The pressure' 01 the "nlorlng steam WOlSconfrolted by an el'ectriG pressure indicating controller. The output of an electronic sine wave ganemlor was cascaded i'nte the steam PIC loop and used to
obtain phy.ical slnuscldaj dimensions and pulse variations In water temperature.

respcnse data Irom step test data Or 110m lnstrurnerus, because of tila d illicu Itias en countered in genera a signa I a nd converting 111 data to tho ca seat hand, (8 ucn e methods are dsscrjnsd in references 11 and 15,)
It shOUld of Sine wave is prdefredby many. in the case of temperature.

ec pornteo out tnat calcutation

H oweller. If a sl ep tesl. is made bY plung ing th e e Ierne nt, well. or bu Ib in to en all irated tern ce ralule bath. it Is almost Impesslble to determine a reasonabte film cooffi~ient value for the lest conditio ns, he nee th e data are difflcu It to a pp Iy 1.0 process confroi design. It is 'recommend ad th.t such step tests, and ca Icu lated 5i ne W",", response data. be clearl y lab elled as such,
For til r~a rBaSO ns impossl bl e: 1) The

the te 6t Ilh ould be mad e


ith the

ete m ent un protected

un less this is physic~lIy

data lor any

~i1':eand configuration of'POSSible protecting tubes Of wells are so varied as 10 make sp cone app II<>'Ibte "nly 10 a lew ca ses,


Z) Whare dynamiC
elemant estimated cannot la irly

response be inserted

is critica],

a minimum


protecting e!feels

well is often of such

built il the


The dynamiC

a well Can be

a ccu ra tfili' 0 r delerml n ed separately

by a dyna mit test.

3) T11 data with th e el ement un protected e
CO rnpa risen It should be amphasized pu rposes, that this standard

are th e best poss ibl e data. lor de" ig n or si n ce ltd "scribes the u I~mata csps bi Ii ty of thlo davice. is Intended tests any other

nu mb er of tssts.

and no t to exc.luda

to present an acceptable minimum th at rnlgh t be desired !ol a particular case.
instruments Moutd indicata whether the

Response data for all sine wave tests of temperature e Ierne n t wa S unp rote-cte d 0 r In a thermowell,

piping These

liquid and


The geometry chamber,

va lvas

01 pOssible


Or nelo fabMcated can significantly

disptacercnambars affect the overall

and their connecting pa rtl cutar response. dynamic installation.

i$ so va ried that no a tternnt or determined'

is made' to re oomme nd test ingi na by tests of the particular

illlllgughtheseronfigura~ons can be calculated


The tests


la"en from 15A 55.1 {Yn.20),lnstrumematiQ"

5yml>als and Idan@oallol1.

recommended below work. (See reference Very few tests have sinusoidal motion resonant process

will 16.) been

bA mors generally
run to date in which Most tests dlsptacer.

usAful for performance


and design

a displace, made

or fioat was actually coupling actual

disturbed Ihe



level change. effects control

have been

by mechanical

of a sinusoidal
in practical

to the dry float

Such t.. sting, without and torque

level cl1ar>ge.s, omits

of the displacsr problems.

(or fioal)

lube, whlc.h can be significant

It is possible to calculate oombine this data from
reasonable accuracy

the resonant frequency of me displacer (or flOal) and torque lube, and a dry test of the remainder 01 the instrument. This will normally result in for control design purpo ses, Any data so obtained should be clearly

teen fied as such. A proper dynamic test should include this spring-mass relationship. A chamber whose diameter is at least four times that 01 the fioat or displaoo, should be used for the dynamiC lesting and tne liq uid 16"" I sho [lid be varied by: 1) raising
and lowering a sinusoidally driven cylinder

In the level chamber
the float

to generate



level change

by displacement. around

2) raising and lowering th .. whole level chamber mechanical drivel or
3) coupling (This a reCiprocating be a modified piston to

or dis placer by a
sinusoidal level changes.

a level


to generate pump piston


pOSitive displacement

and "YlindBr.)

It is known that the first scheme has been used successfully. Such a test wilt give the frequency response the instrument would ha"" if the lIoat or displacer were placed directly in the process vessel. It does not take the varying viscosities of process nuids into account. but such a test could be run for any process fluid once the apparatus is built.

Any 01 tne three methods

above could be used to generate
the cylinder,

a pulse


by removing or piston


sinusoidal driving mechanism and actuatlnq with a program meo pulse SOurce.

lovel chamber;




Pa.rameters tests

The recommended

are a compromise


the desire

to reduce


costs and keep

",,' amount of data to a minimum and the desire for a detailed study of the effect on dynamic response of parameters such as proportional band. reset rate, derivative actlon, damping. and loading.

II is not intended
greater practical variety

that these of conditions.

reccrnmendauons be,construed to· exclude olher tests under a Ralher, they srouio lie considered as Iho;> minimum needed for a
response of a device.


of the dynamic

4.5.1 Transmitting
Damping with stable adjustments operation,

on transmitting usually band, devices should be set to give minimum damping Figures consistent 26 and 27 3 db down from first sign

of instability.


call fur 1 00% proportional mea. ureme nt, not

or gain of one, this setting

be determined

by actual

by dia I mark; n9 s.


4.5.2 Controllers Dynamic response testing of pneumatic or electric controllers can be divided iMO two paris;

Finding the dynamic response of the oontrcllerwith various loads, when the parameters are set at an arbitrary fixed value.

2) Denni n 9 th e dynam ic rasp onse of the varia us con troll er para meters at several sig nili ca nt setl.;ngs, with a constant load. Item 1) Is self-explanatory, but ~em 2) requires additional exptanatlon. The test recommendations for this item are considered optional by the writing. committee and are Included 10 provide a unilorm way of performing the tests if they are desired. Rate or derivative action Tesbng for dynamic response of the rate or derivative function can be performed in a relatively straight-forward manner. using an open-loon test oonfiguration. Reset action should be rnintrmzsd Of removed during tllis test. The gain of the rate circuit will tend to Gause sarura.tion at higher test frequencies .. For Ihls reason, the input signal magnitude should be such Ihat at high test frequencles the output signal is 10 percent of the output span of tha device. The required input signal value can be calculated by dividing 10 pere<>ntof the output signal span by the derivative or rate gain. It can also be determined by experimenting wltll the lest setup. Integra! or resel action The reset circuit 01practically all process controllers has a magnitLJde ratio response curve as shown in Figure g.


FREOuENCY ---;..




200 TO



Figure 9 -


ratio response

It is worthwhile to run step or static tests to f9calibrate the reset gain and to determine the maximum de gain of the reset circuit. Delails of this procedure are not within the scope of dynamic testing. (See Reference 17 tor further dlscussion.) Dynamic testing of reset oircults is difficult 10 perform Sinusoidally, especially with an open-loop deSign. Tne ciosec-iocp test senrp 01Figure 6 is recommended. Dynamic testing of reset circuits is a relatively simple and straight-forward task when performed by the pulse method (see Section 7.4). Hthe controller design is such that the set point is adjusted by a mechanical knob or link, the test setup of Figure 6 requlrss that a pneumatic-mechanical link, such as a bellows, be provided to move the set point from the test Signal. The ojncr cnoke for such controllers is to use an open loop test which is very difficult Ie perform without meticulous care and extremely stable test signals.

The time constant of the feedback network, with a 0.012 inch orifice, is such that the feedback system dynamics can be neglected (or test frequencies of 0.01 cps and up. Lower test frequenoies will reqUire a smaller orifice diameter or larger tank volume. This network i& included only 10 provide correction of any de drift thaI may occur. The differential pickup measures the actual input of the reset elmuil (deviation). Thus, any slight dynamic effects of the feedback circuit are eliminated by measuring the effective input 51gnallo the controller. Sine wave tests of reset circuits require low frequency test signals and muen ume, Care must be taken to minimize or remove rate or derivative action, Other tests Further tesHng can ba done to determine the degree of interaction between reset, derivalive, and proportional settings, as desired. These are not recommended as standard tests.

4.6 Air or pOWersupply and operating conditions
The ai' supply pressure, electrical pow"'", or hydraulic pressure should be set at the level recommended tJy tha equipment rnarurtacturer, Where pressure or electrical settings are provided within the equipment (cushion load pressure, second-stage hyd",ulio booster, Wheatstone Bridge supply voltage) they should be set at the level recommended by the equipment manufacturer. Provisions should be made to measure the power supply value immediately before it enters the aquipment. The suppl'l source should be capable of regulating to ±2% 01 the desired leve.!at all te st cond Itions.

4.7 Final control elements
Final control elements may be divided into two classes. open-loop devices and c!osed-Ioop devices. For example, the pneumauc spring-opposed diaphragm-actuated control valve Is an
open-loop dSWG8. If a positioner is added, it becomes a closed-loop dsvit;_e.

Tne frequency response of an open-loop actuating devi"" is principally dependent upon the dynamic cnaracterlsucs and ability to deliver power of the controlling instrument as well as the Impedance of the connecting tubing and paris, and therefore cannot be determined by itself. The familiar spring and diaphragm actuator on a valve body is usually also nonlinear to some degree due to dead band caused by stllfling box or other friction forces and frequency response data may have limited significance (see Sections 3.1 and 7.'). Methods have been developed to compute the response of open-toop actuators from knowledge of phySical dimensions, spring constants, Bnd mass of plug or load. The dlscusslon of these methods is beyond the scope of this Standard (see Reference 35), Such a computation, combined with a dynamic lest 01the pneornauc power source can yield reasonable results fer a specific system, as can in some cases a dynamic test of the power source and actuator as one single system, This practice however, is limited to recommendations for testing cicsce-tocp systems. Sine wave and step tests as given in Figure 1 ara recomma ndad. The input span referred to here Is that input signal that will drive the output sigr'l9llhrough its full range. If the recommenced 10 percent peak· to-peak sine wave Signal size causes excessive distortion, Indicative 01saturation, of the output signal before the attenuation or phase shift limits indicated below are reached, the test should be stopped and rerun with a 1 pement peak-to-peak sine wave signal, If the 10 percent signal causes excessive distor~on, and the 1 percent signal is too 8mailio be practlcal for tIm device being lested, a test may be run at an intermediate amplitude, This should be done only if the 10 percent and 1 pe,,,,,nt signals provide results which are not usable. The data for both tests should b. plotted and clearly identified.



I)f cll)secHI)I)p



The nu m be' of different lI)adlngs that might ec put on a ctoscd-loop e clu a lor who n it is us cd wi Ih some final ele men t are so va,i ad th at th ere Is lit~ a p ur po se to re commend ing a n arb ltra ry IOJ <:II g n

when testing the actuator alone, Tests of closed.loop actuators alone should: be made without a, These data might be' useful for comparison purposes and also fOI applications Where the element btiing moved presents a negligible load 1,0the actuator,
load. 4.7.2

Tasting of ctO"d-loOp
valves, It condition


coupled 10 final control


In the case of control

unde r fiowin9

Is extremely desirable to test the valve and actuator assembly s, The i nf n ite var i ety of p ressu re drop. dam pi ng. and coercive forces
fluK:ls and conditions make Ihis irnpractica], in the opinion 01 the under no 'load, conditions. or 51mting boxshould ,06 vaw.;, body will not be Significantly

by varying


cornrnittee. Acniators coupled to control valve bodies should be tested with the valve body drain~d and open to the atmosphere. The packing
tightened,as required

to hold

a hydrostatiC

teet pressure


to the nominal

pressure rating. tn most cases" !he response under flowing ccndltlcns different from the response under such a dry test (see Reference 36). When the actuator is coupfed to other efem.ents


tile possible



such as varia'bl'a speed drive cranks or eleclrical be adjusted to simulate as closely as possible the

no rmal operation 01 tho system. For c.,amplc, in case 01 a va riable spee d drive or a rneterln 9 pes iii "" di apia cement pu rnp, the pu m p or d ri ve sno u Id be run nin 9 s o that tI1 e actuator makes its excursions It is of prime in the against

me resistance

it normall:y

encounter from th a


. all: parameters
be clearl'y dascrib"d'


d at~ o r


In all: casas

that the adJustme"ts

Ih e cu rves til at ara plotted

da tao

4,.7.3 Tost cllnfig u ratio n s
The disc ussion S of loa di n9 in the' prevlo us Seonon S I~a d 10 111 reco m m enda tion th at Ina II cases e
tll" me ti on delivered by the actu ator bemeasu red as the 0 utpu t si Q na I and the pne urns uc, hydrauliC. or electrical signal to the actuator as tha input (see Figu", 10).

4.7.1 Tesllng of closed-loop actuators
Tha number or diflerenlloadings

be put on a c~osed-klop actuator when

thai might

it is used wilh

some flna I e Iement a m so va rie d ttl at th era is littl e purpose to recom m e ndin 9 a n arb il '8 'yloading who n testl ng the actuator a lone, TII.ts ofclosed-loop actuate rs alan II shoul d bII made withaut II load, These data might be useful fur comparison purposes and also fur applications whl!re the element being moved presents a negligibte toad to ttla actuator.

4.. .2 Testing of cJosed..toop 7
I n the Case of control under flowing valves, conditions.

actuators coup ted to final

ccntrel elements

it is extrem e Iy d esi rable to, test th e valva an d actu alar II ssemb Iy fluids

variety of pressure drop, damping, and coercive furces and conditions make this impractical. in tne opinion 01 the committe". Actuators coupled t<)OOI1\'ol valve bodies should be tested under no 10(l.dconditions, with the ""Ive body drained and open to tho;, atmosphere. The packing Or stuffing box should be lightened as required to hold a hydrostatic test pressure equal 10 lha nominal valva body pressure raUrlQ. In most cases, the, response under flowing conditions win not be signlfir;:snUy The r"finlte'


by vary;ng


diffefent W~en

from the response the actuator is coupled


such a dry test (.ee el~ments


36), speed drr.e cranks or etectrsca:

to other

such as variable adjusted to slmulate

rheostats. po.i~ve,

the pos$ible



as Okleely as pO$.Sible the

inease of a O/llri"ble speed drive or a metering should be running so that the acjuator makes its excursions against tim resistance it ,nQrmaHyencounters.
of the system. For example. displacement pump" me pump or drive

norma' operation

;It is cf prune imoortence

In all cases

that the adjustments from the data.

of all parameters

be clearly


in the data or on the curves 4.1.3 Tes t

that are plotted

;con'figu ra tic n S of loading In the prev;lous ;ec~ons lead 10 thn rceommendatlon th~t in all cases detive red by the actuator be mea su red: cas Ih e 0 Lltput sig nal and, th e p ne uma tlc,
$i g n al

The dtscusslons th e monon hydraulic,

or elecUlcal


I he a ctuator

as the input (see Fig";,,,









I I ,_

r - -;:-OAl)




(\IAc;"E aODY


I I -'




Figure 10 - Recommended loading test configuration

5 Test equipment and procedures -

sine wave and step

5.1 Data required
5.1.1 Sine,wave tests 1) Signal frequancy
2) Ampl i lu de

of in pu t and 0 utpu l sia na Isat each f req uency.

:3) Phase relatiOnship 01 in put and output

$19 na Is at

ea ch freque

ISA-S 26·1 S68




a .~w;






Figure 11 - Generalized dynamic test setup
4) Power supply variation (to devi(le' being tesled.lfrllm lowest to highest frequency at 9 rea Isst toad. 5) Condition of system (~dju$tment&. etc). 5.1.2 Step te8te 1) Input sigoalform from time zero to eteady state.

2) Outpu t sig naI form from tim ~ ze co to sl~ady stale. 3) Power su ppty (to dlWice bel ng tested) va nanon duri n,gtes t. 4) Condition Of system (adjustments" etc.).


S.1.3 Support
See Section

In 9 data

5.2 Generalized lest.setup
5.2.1 Block d lall ram (ref ..r to Flgu",
The transducers and ~mplifier·cQnv"rteJs

convert the mput andoutput signals

to the form

req ul red for the display e qu ipm e nt. Wi th ce rta in oombln aliOns of in PU! sign at type and display equipment flor .....ample electrical sine wave signats and oscitloscope) !he transducers or amplifier-converters or both would not be necessary;

5.2.2 Loca tlon of <> utp u t s i9na I plck,off po in t
The output ,ignal can be measured at either point "A" or

'"S"ln Figure


Figure 12 -Measurement
If there is


no lnteractlon bstween the load and the device, tt is obviously better to pio!< off the output a t point • A." In system d esig n, the response of the device ca n 111 n M combined with th e e
response of any load since the load does not affect the device response. If the load will inier a ct and affe"r measuring; the outp ut at be used in all cases,

9 tested, a case C.)O be made lor p oln t "8," A thorou 9 h "tudy has led \0 the recomm enca non III at poi m •A"'
th e response of the device bein

This choice does oot anect the cnaractanzajton functiono,f these tests since the Only requirsrnent here is tha t all lasts :ba on th e sa me bas is.
The choice the

of poinl"A"
alone (with

as the output Ihe specific


point gi,ves the system data

deSigner 'plus


data fm of the load



He must then add the response

itself, The choice of pain! "S" would give response differs nt kJadS Tni,"

for the device

the load as a unit, far


reoomme nd anon ;s based prl ma rily on t he tact tha t fewa r tests are nee oed If POi" I •A' is due to the nature of the vanous load conflqurations encountered (primar'ily in pneumatic work, where Ihere tsa major prctnem). 5.3 Test equipment 5.3.1 Sig na t 9 en eran en

Sin" waves
Many devices
hydraulic lorgeneraling electrical are not sine waves are comrnerciauy available, Pneumat'ic and

as genersllY6vaiiable, although some commercial units are rrrade . .one so'll.J:tron to use an electrical sins wave ge;nerator w~th a. commercial s:lQna.1 is
Sine WIiNe generatOrs devi~e conoerUng signal drives (usLJaily an electromechanical servo operating a pi!Qt valve) whose cutpul is p"~umatic or hydraulic., Many 'combinations of 1Idju~tll.bl6 sp~ed !;inusoidal rnechamcat coupled to a rheostat. pneumatic raqutator, hydrauilio regulator, or a oombina tion of these

can be con 5 tructed,

It is rece mme nded tha t the sin e wave

ge ne ratlnQ devi'c>e,meet

the' following

cnte ria:

I) Allhollgh.lhe freQlIencyrange to be covered: will vary (see Paragraph5,1,I)for process control work, the generator snoum rover frequencles from 0 ..001 cps 10 2.0 cps, l) The $i"", wavs 9 en era torm ust be ca pablo of no Idin 9 a given frequency wi 11"0utag deal of variaHon. It is recom mend ad th at aC(:'eplable pe rforman At"

re at


defin ed ass hown in Fl gu re 13.

given freQoency, Ihe period (A. 8. C) of any two cyoles should not vary more than ;!-2'10.

Figure 13 - Definition of acceptable performance




;Sf¢.RAlQe nAn





." .




Figu",14 - Step signal generating circuit
$/fIp Tesls Step signals can be generated by a. signel generatOl,transducer combination similar to that men ti oned a bove, A basic circu it fur 9 snera ~n9 a ste p s ;goal is 9 Ivan in Figure 14. The iollowingl criteria should be met in constructing or hl'draulic testing: SUCh a devi(:6 ror eillw' etectrtcst pnaurnatte,

1) The ""nnaming wiring or pipinO between the st.on!ge units find the device being tested (i nclud in9 the sw it.Ch should prssen t as srna II a rasl Slance as pcssrb: e, 1 21 lh e step In put sig nal shou ld ri sa (0 95 peree nt of th e fi n ~Iva Iue in flva pe rce ntor less of the time required lor the output of the device under test to rise 1095 percent 01 the final V1llua.


5.3.2 DisplayaquiprnMI high speed, recorder ts (he fundamental tool lor dynamic test work, This' recorder ,lnd output sine or step signals 0/\ the same, time axis. Magnitude rauols obtained by measurements of the relative dlislances, Phase shill Is determined bY' rnsasu rin 9 dis pia ce men I on the time a xis and conve rhnO 10 angUlar unlts, Slep test input and outpular"e recorded and can be read directly. Such a recorder leaves a permanent record for reexarnlnatlon Thls method Is recommended even though Ihe dala conversion lor sine WlWe tests can M quite time consuming.
plots both input

A multi·channel

Va ';OUS co m btn anons 01types of osci lIosoopesC<l n co us od to disp lay 'i np ut a nd output sine w.we signa'is. Lissajous ligu,es or calibrated phass shift networks can be uS~<lIO determine phase relationship, wl1ile tile rnaqnjtude ratlo can be determlned by peak-to-peak meaaurament, Camera attaChments permit a permanent recorc toce mace; however. these rnethocs can cause consloe rabl", error un Iess us ed with extre III e ca re by experien ce d p ersonn el. TMy are- no I generally recom m end ad. 5.3.3 Transducers and ampli'ier-converters

The Ira nsdu cer <Indam plille' -conver ter systems nee dad wi II de pend u pan the type of Signa.[
needed to driw the di sp lay equ ipme 01as wall as the na tu re G I the "ig nal S used lor th e Ie,sl. l.e .• pneumat le, <lI eetrleal, :hyd ra ulie, e r mech a" i~a I. S lrajn -ga:ge transd ucers arecorn monly Used for co nverling pressu res 10 e lectrlca ISi9 na I~. Un es r va ria bl!} dilfe ra.nlial tra nstor rners or mu ItHu", varl able rests tors are used 1m m echan ICilI mellon. The amp Iin",,- conve rter un iIs nor malty ca n best be selected by oon"l!lllng the dis~layoq,,;pmenl vendor, or in some oases the transducer manufacturer. 5.3.4 Teat equlpm~nt
performance speclftcatlone

Prom th e sta nd point of res U[t5 only, the 10110wln9 I'an sduce r-a mplifie rl(;(lMerter equlprnan I system performa nee is recommend ed. 1) SignaC Amplitude cps), 2) Prrase shill-less CpsjH2.).
3) -

disp lay

~1 db Irom 0.001 cps to maximum IrsQu"ncy 01test (at :Ieast 10 20 than S· from 0001 cps 10 maximum frequ.ency cf test (atleast 1020

It Is a 9 en era lru Ie that lh e reopen se criteria fo r lest e qu iprn e nl '. hou Id hold over a f(eq~E)ncy range len times as greal as tile fr(!q'uency range over whioh Ille equipmenl be ing tested will mee t this respons e C' ile rta. Items should be calOfully considered and

Tn minimi~e

test difficul~es. the following "electing Ie st eq uip menl:


1) Drlit. wheiher due 10ambient temperature. supply V()ltags. or aqulpment Insl~bility,"an causehours 01 e:dra test lime. Overall drill should be less than S% of the fUll span in four hours,
2) The chart excene nt J)

serilji ng me Chan ism can C9uSe diffi ~ Itie$ at high SDBed's unless it is in operating cone i tion.


Macha ntcal co rnpone nts (~haJt drive" ,.geoer,;\0 rl i nkages. etc.) shou loj be rugged and to cnance ann adj~SI.



S.A Test procedures
The lo.lloW;ng procedures are recommended results in m Inl'mum time.. :;,4,1 61afl~ ru n Whenever a new test setup i$ completed, make a "lilank" run. bypassing \I1e device being ~ated in such a man na r m at th e phase snifl a nd ane nua tIO n remain at zero, as freq uen cy in crease s, Points deserving particular attention are: 1) AMnua tion 010 ne 0 r both signa Is, phase shill, me eh a ni p roble rns 01 inki "9 and ch art drive_ 2) If the equipment i's new, rewcrkec, Of nas not been in use, leave all eQuipmenl·on· in about mi.d-s;:ale position, noting displayed readings and toltermacHelesIgnals il,possi:bl",.
R-ocheck after" toll r In

as good practice and will aid 'in giving reliable

position. drift shou'ld be !es~ than 5 perc:e,nt of full scale

of displa,y equipment. 3) lose rt delfiee to be lested and ru n qUi ck che 01< from min Imum to max imum Ire qu aoey, reading p.:lwer supply level, at the device beltl>L tested, to check Ior:t2% spe<:ifi<:ation (see Paragraph 3,d)_ 4) If step tes ts are LObe ru n, che ci< test seto p as sp eem ed above. 5) Ched<: ref",rencing ottracss of simultaneous recorder pens wlthrespe~1 m~y be an in Illal offsel due to I",parleet align menr of the pens. 5.4,2 Slallc. ~attbr3tlon ft is recorn me nded til at the overa II sy·.tem be statiCally ca,l;bra te d with an ;nd epa nde r"lt standa rd (manometer or VTVM) on the actual Signals. Tha displa.y equtpment rea.ding ls thus kl1<)wn accurately at tne start of 1M test. If d@ts a problem, this should be repeated perlodrcally. Calibration by test equlpment ~noll setttnqs should not be .• ubstituted lor the above. 5.4.3 Selecting lest frequecncies
to tim

e. There

The frsquane)' polnts should be :>elecl.ed as the test progresses In order to provide small increments at the 'on Uca;1 points andavo id a bru pt cna n9 ~s in th e p'ha$e 0 r rna gn; lud e curves, A geneJa I rute is to use at least twa nly poi nts tor three decad as of Ireq ue ncy. 5,4.4- Correlating r.sults

Interpretation of the display equipment information ls generally straigtltforwardexcept when tile sine W<We is quite dlstorred. In thiS caee, it is recommended that phase ~hift be determined as sh own In Figure 15. a ssurn ing a mu Itichann 01 reco rder is used for d isrilay. In such a ease, where precise results am deSired, 1M ma,gnjtude rauo anephase snit! may be obtained by a Fourier analysi.s of the output weve. Procedures lor this analysis are gi"<,,, in many Ski ndard retere nco works In the ele otrl cal fIe Id. The usa of lissajo us fig u res can be h alpful In obtaining accurate phase shilt data where distortion .is a nrcmem.




Pl\ai!iie ~.111'"

4 1, ....fl'-2


Figure 15 - Determination of phase shift

6 Data presentation


sine wave and step

6.1 Sine wave test data
Oata from each sine wave test should be presented as two curves. One curve should !llOW the magnitude ratio 01 the output signal to the input signal as a function of frequency, Ihe other curve should show the phase shift of the output signal from the input signal as a function ot trequency, Actual data paints should be shown on curves. The choice 01type and slze of paper, as well as the number of tests recorded on each sheet of paper are left 10 the discretion and needs of the originator of the data, with IhQ ".cQplion of the recommended coordinates and list of suppor~ng data given below. The recommendations below are based on the stsndarda recommended Dy tne ASMEIIRD Dynamic Systems Cornmlttse in ASME Standard 107, "Praferrad stancarns for the Presentation 01 Frequency Response Data.' The reeommendanons in this document differ from those of the ASMEIIRD only in having added some recommendations for the vertic a 1axis of the magnitude ",tio plot, and in reoommending semi-log paper ratherthan log ••og paper as a first choice for this plot 6.1.1 Magnitude rallo plot

1) Ths prererred recommendation is Il1at sernl-lcq paper be used with magnitude ratio plolled In de<;; ets Iinearlyon the vertical axis, wh ich eh0uld have an absoluta mag nitudo b ratio scale supenmposec, Frequency should ne planed in "I'des per unit time on the horfzo nlal, loga ri th mic axis, 2) An alternate recommendation is to use log· log graph paper, with magnitude ratio ploUed in absolute unitson the verllcallogarithmic scale, with a decibel scale superimposed. FreqlJ~noy should be plotted in cycles per unit time on the hcrizontal lcqarithm!c axls,