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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SYLLABUS UNIT 1 Introduction to Organisational Behaviour, Meaning; scenario. Elements; Need; Approaches; Models; Global
UNIT 2 Individual Behaviour; Personality; Learning; Attitudes; Perception; Motivation; Ability; Their relevant organizational behaviour. UNIT 3 Group dynamics; Group norms; Group cohesiveness; Group Behance to organizational behaviour.
UNIT 4 Leadership Styles; Qualities; Organisational communication; Meaning importance, process, barriers; Methods to reduce barriers; Principle of effective communication. UNIT 5 Stress; Meaning; Types; Sources; Consequences; Management of stress. Power and Politics; Definition; Types of Powers; Sources; Characteristics; Effective use of Power. UNIT 6 Organisational Dynamics; Organisational design; Organisational effectiveness; Meaning, approaches; Organisational culture; Meaning, significance; Organisational Climate; Implications on organizational behaviour. Organisational Change; Meaning; Nature; Causes of change; Resistance of change; Management of change; Organisational development; Meaning; OD Interventions. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Fred Luthans, Organisational Behaviour, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1995. 2. Stephen P. Bobbins, Organisational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, 1997. 3. Keith Davis, Human Behaviour at Wor/c,.-M.cGraw Hill Book Co., 1991. 4. Gregory Moorehead and R.S. Griffin, Organisational Behaviours: Managing People and Organisations, Jaico, 1994. 5. Judith R. Gordon, A Diagnostic Approach to Organisational Behaviour, Allyn & Bacon, 1993.
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODELS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR GLOBAL SCENARIO OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR PERSONALITY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR JOB SATISFACTION GROUP DYNAMICS GROUP CONFLICT ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS LEADERSHIP IN ORGANISATIONS STRESS MANAGEMENT POWER AND POLITICS ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE. ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE CASE ANALYSIS
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LESSON – 1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Learning Objectives After reading this lesson, you should be able to understand: • • • • The major environmental challenges and the paradigm shift that the management faces today The management perspective of organizational behaviour The historical background of modern organizational behaviour The modern approach to organizational behaviour
The knowledge and information explosion, global competition, total quality and diversity are some of the bitter realities that the managers are facing today. There are many solutions being offered to deal with these complex challenges. Yet the simple but most profound solution may be found in the words of Sam Walton, the richest person in the world and the founder of Wal-Mart. Sam was once asked the key to successful organizations and management. Sam quickly replied, "People are the key". The term paradigm comes from the Greek word 'paradigma', which means ''model, pattern or example". First introduced over thirty years ago, by the philosophy and science historian Thomas Khun, the term "paradigm" is now used as, a broad model, a framework, a way of thinking, and a scheme for understanding reality. The impact of information technology, total quality and diversity mentioned earlier has led to a paradigm shift. NEW PARADIGM The organizational behaviour has a goal lo help the managers make a transition to the new paradigm. Some of the new paradigm characteristics include coverage of second-generation information technology and total quality management such as empowerment, reengineering and benchmarking, and learning organization for managing diversity of work. The new paradigm sets the stage for the study, understanding, and application of the time-tested micro-variables, dynamics and macro-variables. One must know why management needs a new perspective to meet the environmental challenges and to shift to a new paradigm. A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR MANAGEMENT Management is generally considered to have three major dimensions—technical, conceptual and human. The technical dimension consists of the manager's expertise in particular functional areas. They know the requirements of the jobs and have the functional knowledge to get the job done. But the practicing managers ignore the conceptual and human dimensions of their jobs. Most managers think that their employees are lazy, and are interested only in money, and that if you could make them happy in terms of money, they would be productive. If such assumptions are accepted, the human problems that the management is facing are relatively easy to solve. But human behaviour at work is much more complicated and diverse. The new perspective assumes that employees are extremely complex and that there is a need for theoretical understanding given by empirical research before applications can be made for managing people effectively. MODERN APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The modern approach to organizational behaviour is the search for the truth of why people behave the way they do. The organizational behaviour is a delicate and complex process. If one aims to manage an organization, it is necessary to understand its operation. Organization is the combination of science and people. While science and technology is predictable, the human behaviour in organization is rather unpredictable. This is because it arises from deep needs and value systems of people. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FOR MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Scientific Management Approach Scientific management approach was developed by F.W. Taylor at the beginning of the 20th century. This theory supported the use of certain steps in scientifically studying each element of a job, selecting and training the best workers for the job arid making sure that the workers follow the prescribed method of doing the job. It provided a scientific rationale for job specialization and mass production. His assumption was that employees are motivated largely by money. To increase the output, Taylor advised managers to pay monetary incentives to efficient workers. Yet, his theory was criticized by many employers and workers. Workers objected to the pressure of work as being harder and faster. Critics worried that the methods took the humanity out of labor, reducing workers to machines
responding to management incentives. Therefore, Taylor's view is now considered inadequate and narrow due to the points given by the critics. Bureaucratic Approach While scientific management was focusing on the interaction between workers and the task, me researchers were studying how to structure the organization more effectively. Instead of trying to make each worker more efficient, classical organization theory sought the most effective overall organizational structure for workers and managers. The theory's most prominent advocate, Max Weber, proposed a 'bureaucratic form' of structure, which he thought would work for all organizations. Weber's idea! bureaucracy was , logical, rational and efficient. He made the naive assumption that one structure would work best for all organizations. Henry Ford, Henry Fayol and Frederick W. Taylor, the early management pioneers, recognized the behavioral side of management. However, they did not emphasize the human dimensions. Although there were varied and complex reasons for the emerging importance of behavioral approach to management, it is generally recognized that the Hawthorne studies mark the historical roots for the field of organizational behaviour. Hawthorne Studies Even, as Taylor and Weber brought attention with their rational, logical approaches to more efficient productivity, their views were criticized on the ground that both approaches ignored worker's humanity. The real beginning of applied research in the area of organizational behaviour started with Hawthorne Experiments. In 1924, a group of professors began an enquiry into the human aspects of work and working conditions at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago. The findings of these studies were given a new name 'human relations' the studies brought out a number of findings relevant to understanding human behaviour at work. The Human element in the workplace was considerably more important. The workers are influenced by social factors and the behaviour of the individual worker is determined by the group. Hawthorne studies have been criticized for their research methods and conclusions drawn. But their impact on the emerging field of organizational behaviour was dramatic. They helped usher in a more humanity centered approach to work. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR There are mainly four approaches to organizational behaviour. They are: • Human resources approach ' • Contingency approach • Productivity approach • Systems approach Human Resources Approach The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment, because people are the central resource in any organization. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can contribute to the best of their improved abilities. This approach is also known as 'supportive approach' because the manager's primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance. A Contingency Approach A contingency approach to organizational behaviour implies that different situations require different behavioral practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. Thus, it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the most appropriate manner. Productivity Approach Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Productivity is considered to be improved, if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. But besides economic inputs and outputs, human and social inputs and outputs also arc important. Systems Approach A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the organization 'people' employ 'technology' in performing the 'task' that they are responsible for, while the 'structure' of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their different activities. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organization, if the
organization as a whole is to function effectively. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on the interaction between the organization and its broader environment,, which consists of social, economic, cultural and political environment within which they operate. Organizations arc dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways: First, the organization requires 'inputs' from the environment in the form of raw material, people, money, ideas and so on. The organization itself can be thought of as performing certain 'transformation' processes, on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of products or services. Secondly, the organization depends on environment such as, public to accept its output. The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that organizations must manage. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the interdependencies among people, tasks, technology and structure in order to perform their transformation processes effectively and efficiently. Organizations must also recognize their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist.
CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR A Separate Field of Study
Organizational behaviour can be treated as a distinct field of study. It is yet to become a science. Now efforts are being made to synthesize principles, concepts and processes in this field of study. Interdisciplinary Approach Organizational behaviour is basically an interdisciplinary approach. It draws heavily from other disciplines like psychology, sociology and anthropology. Besides, it also takes relevant things from economics, political science, law and history. Organizational behaviour integrates the relevant contents of these disciplines to make them applicable for organizational analysis. e.g. it addresses issues, which may be relevant to the case, such as the following: • What facilitates accurate perception and attribution? • What influences individual, group and organizational learning and the development of individual attitudes toward .work? • How do individual differences in personality, personal development, and career development affect individual's behaviours and attitudes? • What motivates people to work, and how. does the organizational reward system influence worker's behaviour and attitudes? • How do managers build effective teams? • What contributes to effective decision-making? • What are the constituents of effective communication? • What are the characteristics of effective communication? • How can power be secured and used productively? • What factors contribute to effective negotiations? • How can conflict (between groups or between a manager and subordinates) be resolved or managed? • How can jobs and organizations be effectively designed? • How can managers help workers deal effectively with change? An Applied Science The basic objective of organizational behaviour is to make application of various researches to solve the organizational problems, particularly related to the human behavioral aspect. Normative and Value Centered Organizational behaviour is a normative science. A normative science prescribes how the various findings of researches can be applied to get organizational results, which are acceptable to the society. Thus, what is acceptable by the society or individuals engaged in an organization is a matter of values of the society and people concerned. Humanistic and Optimistic Organizational behaviour focuses the attention on people from humanistic point of view. It is based on the belief that needs and motivation of people are of high' concern. Further, there is optimism about the innate potential of man to be independent, creative, predictive and capable of contributing positively to the objectives of the organization. Oriented towards Organizational Objectives Organizational behaviour is oriented towards organizational objectives. In fact, organizational behaviour tries to integrate both individual and organizational objectives so that both are achieved simultaneously. A Total System Approach
both as members of the society at large and as a part of an organisation interact with each other and are inter-dependent. the interface between human behaviour and the organisational context. Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of beliefs. you should be able to: • • • Define and explain the meaning of organizational behaviour Understand the nature and importance of organizational behaviour Relate the organizational behaviour to manager’s job DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Management is commonly defined as "Getting work done through other people". the cooperation of the workers is crucial to the success or failure of the organisation. Hence. values. As Nadler and Tushman put it. Therefore. this goal is inter-related with many other goals. feelings. any organisational goal must integrate in itself the personal goals of all individuals associated with the organisation. emotions and actions in setting up a work. These reasons are the goals towards which all organisational efforts are directed. While the primary goal . but understanding group behaviour in an organisational environment is a monumental managerial task. hospitals. the organisation and the (interface between the two. individual's nature is quite complex and organizational behaviour by applying systems approach tries to find solutions for this complexity. fraternal groups. to ''predict'" what behavioural responses will be elicited by various managerial actions and finally to use this understanding and these predictions to achieve "control". There are three significant aspects in the above definition. and the organisation itself. LESSON –2 FOUNDATION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Accordingly. "Understanding one individual's behaviour is challenging in and of itself. Thus.An individual's behaviour can be analyzed keeping in view his psychological framework. own or in collaboration with technology. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour is concerned with people's thoughts. • Accomplishing Goals: All organisations have reasons for their existence. interpersonal-orientation. This definition covers wide variety-of groups such as businesses. which require further analysis. DEFINITION OF ORGANISATION According to Gary Johns. Understanding an individual behaviour is in itself a challenge. They are as follows: • Social Inventions: The word "social" as a derivative of society basically means gathering of people. individually or collectively. attitudes and other personal characteristics and these characteristics of all individuals must interact with each other in order to create organisational #7 . the management of organisational behaviour is central to the management task—a task that involves the capacity to "understand" the behaviour patterns of individuals. government agencies and so on. religious bodies. "Organisations are social inventions for accomplishing goals through group efforts". Individuals in themselves have physical and intellectual limitations and these limitations can only be overcome by group efforts. This simple definition explains the significance of the role of people. schools. Organisational behaviour can then be defined as: "The study of human behaviour in organisational settings. groups and organisations. Ultimately. understanding a group that is made up of different individuals and comprehending the many relationships among those individuals is even more complex." The above definition has three parts—the individual behaviour. on their. It is the people that primarily make up an organisation.of any commercial organisation is to make money for its owners. • Group Effort: People. the organisation's work gets done through people. The work will not be done unless "people" want to do the work and if the work is not done then there will be no organisation. group influence and social and cultural factors.
In considering the people working in an organisation. changes. as a function of both the personal experiences and the organisation. People make the decisions. solve the problems. structure. One cannot understand an individual’s behaviour completely without learning something about that individual's organisation. • Environment: All organisations operate within an external environment. guide and direct its course. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationships. people as resources and people as people. Organisational behaviour is concerned with the characteristics and behaviours of employees in isolation. organisations are people. Above all. Organisational behaviour offers three major ways of understanding this context. As managers increasingly recognise the value of potential contributions by their employees. too.. • Technology: Technology such as machines and work processes provide the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. In addition to understanding. They have a right to expect satisfaction and to learn new skills.settings. But individuals do not work in isolation. Thus. Points of contact include managers. co-workers. NATURE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of personal characteristics. The groups may be big or small. The organisational behaviour is specifically concerned with work-related behaviour. it will become more and more important for managers and employees to grasp the complexities of organisational behaviour. the individual. organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. organisational settings. Thus. Finally. the environment surrounding the organisation and1 they also posses a personal background. official or unofficial. Groups are dynamic and they work in the organisation to achieve their objectives. formal policies and procedures of the organisation. 'and the characteristics and behaviours directly resulting from people with their individual needs and motivations working within the structure of the organisation. Different people in the organisation are performing different type of jobs and they need to be (elated in some structural way so that their work can be effectively co-ordinated. They consist of individuals and groups. managers must understand the basic human element of their work. technology and the environment in which the organisation operates. and vitalise and revitalise it. mostly as employees.an argument derived from the simple notion of humanistic management. he cannot understand how the organisation operates without. they must first understand the people who make up the organisations. and without people there would be no organisations. They come in contact with other individuals and the organisation in a variety of ways. #8 . It is the part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as government. experiences from other organisation. As resources. family and other organisations. people are one of the organisation's most valuable assets. and answer the questions. the study of organisational behaviour must consider the ways in which the individual and the organisation interact. An understanding of organisational behaviour can help the manager better appreciate the variety of individual needs and' expectations. People create the organisation. Clearly. ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The key elements in the organisational behaviour are people. It allows people to do more and work better but it also restricts' people in various ways. They have a right to expect something in return beyond wages and benefits. • Structure: Structure defines the formal relationships of the people in organisations. in 'their own jobs. the on-going behavioural processes involved. if managers are to understand the organisations in which they work. the organisation influences and is influenced by individuals. there is people as people . The organisation is also affected by the presence and eventual absence of the individual. • People: People make up the internal and social system of the organisation. Over time. and various changes implemented by the organisation. All of these mutually influence each other in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people. Similarly. the characteristics and processes that are part of the organisation itself. formal or informal. studying the people who-make it up. people as organisations. which takes place in organisations. People spend a large part of their lives in.
Thus. interpersonal level.An organisation. Analysis of reciprocal relationships. organisational behaviour can be understood at the individual level. blind spots and weaknesses. Human behaviour is a complex phenomenon and is affected by a large number of factors including the psychological. More specifically. hang-ups. group level and inter-group level. Organisational behaviour does not provide solutions to all complex and different behaviour puzzles of organisations. goals. Organisational behaviour integrates these factors to provide* simplicity in understanding the human behaviour. Thus. Organisational behaviour provides means to understand and achieve co-operative group relationships through interaction. Barnard has observed that an organisation is a conscious interaction of two or more people. NEED FOR STUDYING ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The rules of work are different from the rules of play. Organisational behaviour only assists in making judgements that are derived from tenable assumptions. procedures. organisational behaviour serves three purposes: • What causes behaviour? • Why particular antecedents cause behaviour? • Which antecedents of behaviour can be controlled directly and which are beyond control? A more specific and formal course in organisational behaviour helps an individual to develop more refined and workable sets of assumption that is directly relevant to his work interactions. they are often modified by group pressures. Organisational behaviour helps to analyse 'why' and 'how' an individual behaves in a particular way. Understanding the effect of group relationships is important for managers in today's organisation. individuals should be studied in groups also. social and cultural implications. Group Level: Though people interpret anything at their individual level. #9 . Organisational behaviour provides opportunity to management to analyse human behaviour and prescribe means for shaping it to a particular direction. It is only the intelligent judgement of the manager in dealing with a specific issue that can try to solve the problem. exists before a particular person joins it and continues to exist after he leaves it. they should be given adequate importance in managing the organisation. avoidance of win-lose situation and focussing on total group objectives. communication pattern and leadership. • • • Interpersonal Level: Human behaviour can be understood at the level of interpersonal interaction.. role analysis and transactional analysis are some of the common methods. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organisational behaviour offers several ideas to management as to how human factor should be properly emphasised to achieve organisational objectives. cohesion. Organisational behaviour provides • means for understanding the interpersonal relationships in an organisation. These research results are advancing managerial knowledge of understanding group behaviour. The uniqueness of rules and the environment of organisations forces managers to study organisational behaviour in order to learn about normal and abnormal ranges of behaviour. which provide such understanding. Inter-group Level: The organisation is made up of many groups that develop complex relationships to build their process and substance. rotation of members among groups. judgement that are assigned due recognition to the complexity of individual or group behaviour. which is very important for organisational morale and productivity. Research in group dynamics has contributed vitally to organisational behaviour and shows how a group behaves in its norms. motives. judgement that takes into account the important variables underlying the situation. Understanding Human Behaviour Organisational behaviour provides understanding the human behaviour in all directions in which the human beings interact. the organisation itself represents a crucial third perspective from which to view organisational behaviour. Organisational behaviour helps in predicting human behaviour in the organisational setting by drawing a clear distinction between individual behaviour and group behaviour. This suggests that since an organisation is Ihe interaction of persons. Thus. which then become a force in shaping human behaviour. Inter-group relationship may be in the form of co-operation or competition. judgement that explicitly takes into account the managers own goals. characteristically. The co-operative relationships help the organisation in achieving its objectives.
Thus. which are formally defined by the organisation. organisational behaviour can be analysed from the perspective of the organisation as a whole. This frequently results in people working together in teams. • Organisation at the Organisational Level: Some organisational behaviour researchers take the organisation as a whole as their object of study. A second level of analysis focuses upon the interaction among organisational members as they work in' teams. managers are required to control and direct the behaviour at all levels of individual interaction. motivation. Therefore. An important component of organisational behaviour involves the application of knowledge and theories from social psychology to the study of groups in organisations. Use of Power and Sanction: The behaviours can be controlled and directed by the use of power and sanction. At one level. they have to necessarily work in coordination to meet the organisational goals. the organisation can be viewed as consisting of individuals working on tasks in the pursuit of the organisational goals. Organisational Climate: Organisational climate refers to the total organisational situations affecting human behaviour. • Organisation at the Individual Level: Organisational behaviour can be studied in the perspective of individual members of the organisation. Besides improving the satisfactory working conditions and adequate compensation. Instead they are complementary. communication and building organisational climate favourable for better interaction. LEVELS OF ANALYSIS Organisational behaviour can be viewed from different perspectives or levels of analysis. This approach to organisational behaviour draws heavily on the discipline of psychology and explains why individuals behave and react the way they do to different organisational policies. perceptions and personalities are taken into account and their impact upon individuals’ behaviour and performance on the job is studied. managers are required to control and direct the behaviour so that it conforms to the standards required for achieving the organisational objectives. as dynamic entities are characterised by pervasive changes. To achieve organisational objectives.be utilised so that both organisational and individual objectives are achieved simultaneously. How do people work together in groups? What factors determine whether group will be cohesive and productive? What types of tasks could be assigned to groups? These are some of the questions that can be asked about the effective functioning of groups in organisations. Organisational behaviour explains how various means of power and sanction can . • Organisation at the Group Level: People rarely work independently in organisations. leadership. organisational climate includes creation of an atmosphere of effective supervision. Within this perspective. individuals and situations. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR #10 . Emphasis is placed upon understanding how organisational structure and design influences the effectiveness of an organisation. satisfaction and leadership are brought to bear upon the behaviour and performance of individual members of an organisation. practices and procedures.• • • • • • Controlling and Directing Behaviour: After understanding the mechanism of human behaviour. Factors such as attitudes. psychologically based theories of learning. committees and groups. Other factors such as the technology employed by the organisation. Thus. Researchers seek to understand the implications of the relationship between the organisation and its environment for the effectiveness of the organisation. the opportunity for the realisation of personal goals. Power is referred to as the capacity of an individual to take certain action and may be utilised in many ways. the size of the organisation and the organisation's age are also examined and their implications for effective organisational functioning are explored. Communication: Communication helps people to come in contact with each other. managers can adopt styles keeping in view the various dimensions of organisations. beliefs. congenial relations with others at the work place and a sense of accomplishment. The communication process and its work in inter-personal dynamics have been evaluated by organisational behaviour. groups and departments. Organisational Adaptation: Organisations. organisational behaviour helps managers in controlling and directing in different areas such as use of power and sanction. These different perspectives on the study of organisational behaviour are not in conflict with one another. Leadership: Organisational behaviour brings new insights and understanding to the practice and theory of leadership. It identifies various leadership styles available to a manager and analyses which style is more appropriate in a given situation. This j macro perspective on organisational behaviour draws heavily on theories and concepts from the discipline of 'sociology'. A full and complete understanding of the nature of organisations and the determinants of their effectiveness requires a blending of knowledge derived from each perspective. internal arrangements such as convincing employees who normally have the tendency of resisting any changes. Finally. Organisational climate takes a system perspective that affect human behaviour. Organisations have to adapt themselves to the environmental changes by making suitable. the communication must be effective.
whole group. A political and economic system based on the holding of. #11 . because even though the views are different they have a shared concern for similar objectives. age. Meritocracy: This is a social system. his personal life cannot be separated from his work life since people function as total human beings. Social System: A system is a group of independent and interrelated elements comprising a unified whole. This belief that each person is different from all others is typically called the 'Law of Individual Differences'. Every job. This helps to build sustainable and harmonious activities that can operate in the mutual direct interests of the organisation. • Value of the Person: It is more an ethical philosophy. entitles the people who do it to proper respect and recognition of their unique aspirations and abilities. Segregation: This is a social system. Holistic Organisational Behaviour: When the above six concepts of organisational behaviour are considered together. and to incorporate the perspectives of their colleagues. It stresses that people are to be treated with respect and dignity. Since organisational behaviour involves people. This means that individual does not have only the skill and intelligence but he has a personal life. In other words. The nature of an organisation can be understood with the help of tjie description of following two points: • o o o o o o • Mutual Interest: Organisational relationships are most likely to be strong if different groups can negotiate strategies. Holistic organisational behaviour interprets people-organisation relationships in terms of the whole person. Patriarchate: This is social system. and forfeiture. in which a female is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through her chain. Individuals who have shared mutual interests are likely to make their organisation the strongest. It is also called social organisation or social structure. in which power vests in the hands of the person with superior intellects. however simple. power lies in her hands. land and relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage. It can be further divided into following categories: Feudal system: This is a social system. they provide a holistic concept of the subject.Organisational behaviour starts with the following six fundamental concepts revolving around the nature of people and organisations: The nature of people: • Individual differences • A whole person • Motivated behaviour • Value of the person The nature of organisation: • Social system • Mutual interest • Individual Differences: Individuals are different in their physical and mental traits. In context with an organisation. they employ the 'whole person'. the individuals of a society are considered as a system organised by a characteristic pattern of relationships having a distinctive culture and values. In other words. ethical philosophy is involved in one way or the other. Motivation is essential for the proper functioning of organisations. Matriarchate: This is social system. whole organisation and whole social system. When management practices organisational behaviour. The organisation can show to its employees how certain actions will increase their need fulfilment. This can be defined as the interests that are common to both the parties and are related to the accomplishment of their respective goals. The motivation could be positive or negative. Individual differences mean that the management has to treat them differently to get the best out of them. It is important for the individuals to think about their issues openly. needs and desires as well. They are different not only in the physical appearance such as sex. power lies in his hands. legal and military service of tenants. which is developed in Europe in the 8th Century. Class Structure: This is a social system of different classes with in a society. which provides separate facilities for minority groups of a society. motivation and perception. in fact. • A Whole Person: Though the organisation may feel that they are employing only the individual's skill or intelligence. This space for sharing ideas builds trust. The benefit will extend beyond the firm into the larger society in which each employee lives. in which a male is considered to be the family head and title or surname is traced through his chain. • Motivated behaviour: It is the urge of the individual to satisfy a particular need that motivates him to do an act. height. In other words. it is not only trying to develop a better employee but it also wants to develop a 'better person' in terms of all round growth and development. complexion and so on but also different in their psychological trait such as intelligence. weight. attitude.
#12 .Thus. the blending of nature of people and organisation results in an holistic organisational behaviour.
regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. #13 . you should be able to understand: • • • • The concept of organizational behaviour system The different models of organizational behaviour The importance of organizational behaviour to managers The future of organizational behaviour Organizations have undergone tremendous change in the behaviour of their employee's. However. The primary advantage of organizational behaviour system is to identify the major human and organizational variables that affect organizational outcomes. level of customer service. though. CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SYSTEM Organizations achieve their goals by creating. They have a greater chance of being successful. The outcomes are measured in terms of quantity and quality of products and services. The figure 3. The primary advantage of organizational behaviour system is to identify the major human and organizational variables that affect organizational outcomes. level of customer service. today increasing many organizations are experimenting with new ways to attract and motivate their employees. employee satisfaction and personal growth and development. They have a greater chance of being successful. managers can exert some control over them. For some variables managers can only be aware of them and acknowledge their impact whereas for other variables. Organizational behaviour system defines organizational structure and culture and explains their impact on employees. managers can exert some control over them. employee satisfaction and personal growth and development. but sometimes in varying forms. if they have been consciously created. For some variables managers can only be aware of them and acknowledge their impact whereas for other variables. Earlier employers had no systematic program for managing their employees instead their simple rules served as a powerful influence on employees. communicating and operating an organizational behaviour system. regularly examined and updated to meet new and emerging conditions. These systems exist in every organization. but sometimes in varying forms.LESSON –3 Models of organizational behaviour Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. The outcomes arc measured in terms of quantity and quality of products and services.1 shows the major elements of a good organizational behaviour system: These systems exist in every organization. if they have been consciously created. though.
Autocratic model B. #14 . Supportive Model The supportive model depends on 'leadership' instead of power or money. the purpose for these activities. Collegial Model The term 'collegial' relates to a body of persons having a common purpose. employees are required to follow their orders. Under this model organizations satisfy the security and welfare needs of employees. organization. Hence. This results in enthusiasm in employees' performance. Collegial model Autocratic Model In an autocratic model'. As a result of economic rewards and benefits. The psychological result of this model on employees is their increasing dependence on their boss. These differences are substantially caused by different models of organizational behaviour that dominant management's thought in each organization. which is unpredictable. Management believes that it knows what is best for an organization and therefore. Therefore. It is a team concept. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit. Management is the coach that builds a better team. The following four models of organizational behaviour are as follows: A. Since management supports employees in their work. The primary challenge for management is to identify the model it is actually using and then assess its current effectiveness. Custodial model C. FOUR MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Autocratic Power Authority Dependence on boss Subsistence Minimum Custodial Economic resources Money Dependence on organization Security Passive cooperation Supportive Leadership Support Participation Status and recognition Awakened drives Collegial Partnership Teamwork Self-discipline Self-actualization Moderate enthusiasm Basis of Model Managerialorientation Employee psychological result Employee needs met Performance result It is wrong to assume that a particular model is the best model. Supportive model D. employees are happy and contented but they are not strongly motivated. Its main weakness is its high human cost. The philosophy of organizational behaviour held by management consists of an integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are. management's direction is to 'Support' the employee's job performance rather than to 'support' employee benefit payments. develop a drive to contribute and improve them if management will give them a chance. This model leads to employee dependence on an organization rather than on boss. the manager has the power to command his subordinates to do a specific job. The management is seen as joint contributor rather than as a boss. Custodial Model This model focuses better employee satisfaction and security. Organizations differ in the quality of organizational behaviour that they develop. it is known as custodian model. Through leadership. This is because a model depends on the knowledge about human behaviour in a particular environment. as in the custodial approach. The employee response to this situation is responsibility. This model assumes that employees will take responsibility. The model that a manager holds usually begins with certain assumptions about people and thereby leads to certain interpretations of organizational events. In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment and worthwhile contribution towards their work.ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM The system's base rests in the fundamental beliefs and intentions of those who join together to create it such as owners and managers who currently administer it. in the minds managers. and the way they should be. the psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in an. management provides a climate to help employees grow and accomplish in the interest of an organization. The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is 'selfdiscipline'.
primarily. superiors. The roles. These duties include greeting visitors. subordinates. He must be an ideal leader so that his subordinates follow his directions and guidelines with respect and dedication. In addition to these functions there are ten managerial roles. In this role. are duties of a ceremonial nature but are important for the smooth functioning of an organization. All these. The second category. which can be defined as organized set of behaviors identified with the position. The first category called the interpersonal roles arises directly from the manager's position and the formal authority given to him. government officials and community leaders. • Leadership Role: The influence of the manager is most clearly seen in the leadership role as a leader of a unit or an organization. These ten managerial roles are divided into three categories. taking important customers to lunch. in the context of organizational behaviour. All these interactions require an understanding of interpersonal behaviour.2 shows the categories of managerial roles. This can be achieved by attending meetings and professional conferences. In addition. Studies show that interacting with people takes up nearly 80% of a manager's time. directing and controlling. environmental conditions help in determining which model will be the most effective model. All these roles. These interactions involve the following three major interpersonal roles: • Figure/lead Role: Managers act as symbolic figureheads performing social or legal obligations. personal phone calls. These roles are developed by Henry Mintzberg in 1960s after a careful study of executives at work. the managers build up their own external information system. trade journals and informal personal contacts with outside agencies. social changes or changes in governmental rules and regulations. Figure 3. Since he is responsible for the activities of his subordinates therefore he must lead and coordinate their activities in meeting task-related goals and motivate them to perform better. are as follows: Interpersonal Roles In every organization managers spend a considerable amount of time in interacting with other people both within their own organizations as well as outside. attending a subordinate's wedding and speaking at functions in schools and churches. in one form or other deal with people and their behaviour. #15 . customers. peers and superiors in order to assess the external environment of competition. suppliers. the existing philosophy. the informational role arises as a direct result of the interpersonal roles and these two categories give rise to the third category called decisional roles. In addition. • Liaison Role: The managers must maintain a network of outside contacts. These people include peers.The selection of model by a manager is determined by a number of factors such as. organizing. they need to have a constant contact with their own subordinates. signing legal documents. vision and goals of manager. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR TO MANAGERS Managers perform four major functions such as planning.
• People who lack system understanding may develop a 'behavioral basis'. It is a way to improve but not an absolute answer to problems. holding strategy meetings with project managers and R&D personnel. • A significant concern about organizational behaviour is that its knowledge and techniques could be used to manipulate people without regard for human welfare. research and managerial practice. machine breakdowns. • Negotiator Role: The managers in their negotiator role represent their organization in negotiating deals and agreements within and outside of an organization. In this capacity of information processing. It has provided and will provide much improvement in the human environment. FUTURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The growing interest in organizational behaviour stems from both a philosophical desire by many people to create more humanistic work places and a practical need to design more productive work environments. • Resource Allocation Role: The managers establish priorities among various projects or programs and make budgetary allocations to different activities of an organization based on these priorities. For example. individual meetings and group meetings. employee grievances. They are constantly on the lookout for new ideas for product improvement or product addition.. even though some roles may be more influential than others depending upon the managerial position. The concept implies that for any situation there is an optimum amount of a desirable practice. hearsay and speculation. phone calls. which gives them a narrow view point. collecting and studying information regarding their organization. a manager executes the following three roles. Although organizational behaviour has certain limitations. All these ten roles are important in a manager's job and are interrelated.e. as entrepreneurs are constantly involved in improving their units and facing the dynamic technological challenges. In this way organizational behaviour will contribute to social improvements. • It is only one of the many systems operating within a large social system. cash flow shortages and interpersonal conflicts. • Information Disseminator Role: The managers must transmit the information regarding changes in policies or other matters to their subordinates. The keys to its past and future success revolve around the related processes of theory development. customer complaints. In that respect. too much security may lead to less employee initiative and growth. a tunnel vision that emphasizes on satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of an organization in relation to all its public. a manager plays four important roles. Mangers must anticipate such problems and take preventive action and take corrective action once the problem arises. Improved organizational behaviour is not #16 . This can be done through memos. • Monitor Role: The managers are constantly monitoring and scanning their internal and external environment. interrogating their liaison contacts and through gossip. their peers and to other members of an organization. By building a better climate for people. • Conflict Handling Role: The managers are constantly involved as judge in solving conflicts among the employees and between employees and management. It states. They initiate feasibility studies. People who lack ethical values could use people in unethical ways. • Spokesman Role: A manager has to be a spokesman for his unit and represent his unit in either sending relevant information to people outside his unit or making some demands on behalf of his unit. by virtue of his interpersonal contacts. negative returns. The field of organizational behaviour has grown in depth and breadth. sales manager gives more importance to interpersonal roles. This can be done by reading reports and periodicals. As a result of these forces. while the production manager may give more importance to decisional roles. i. They negotiate contracts with the unions. When that point is exceeded. These problems may involve labor disputes.Information Roles A manager. Sales managers may negotiate prices with prime customers. Decision Roles A manager must make decisions and solve organizational problems on the basis of the environmental information received. arrange capital for new products and ask for suggestions from the employees to improve organization. Purchasing managers may negotiate prices with vendors. This can be achieved through suggestion boxes. • Entrepreneur Role: Managers. organizational behaviour is now a part of the curriculum of almost all courses including engineering and medical. emerges as a source of information about a variety of issues concerning an organization. it has a tremendous potential to contribute to the advancement of civilisation. LIMITATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • Organizational behaviour cannot abolish conflict and frustration but can only reduce them. organizational behaviour will release their creative potential to solve major social problems. that at some point increase of a desirable practice produce declining returns and sometimes. This relationship shows that organizational effectiveness is achieved not by maximizing one human variable but by working all system variables together in a balanced way. there is a decline in returns. For example. • The law of diminishing returns also operates in the case of organizational behaviour.
Another significant social condition in many countries is that the local culture is not familiar with advanced technology. political and economic differences among countries" influence international organizational behaviour. These multinational operations add new dimensions to organizational behaviour. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS The most significant economic conditions in less developed nations are low per capita income and rapid inflation. In some nations. communication and control becomes difficult. POLITICAL CONDITIONS Political conditions that have a significant effect on organizational behaviour include instability of the government.easy to apply but opportunities are there. organized labor is mostly an arm of the authoritarian state and in some other nations labor is somewhat independent. SOCIAL CONDITIONS In many countries due to poorly developed resources. The social. you should be able to understand: • • The global scenario of organizational behaviour The barriers to cultural adaptation and measures to overcome those barriers Due to globalization of economy. Therefore. LESSON – 4 GLOBAL SCENARIO OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. The managerial personnel entering another nation need to adjust their leadership styles. These limiting conditions cannot be changed rapidly because they arc too well established and woven into the whole social fabric of a nation. there is shortage of managerial personnel. They may fail to recognize the key differences between their own and other cultures. many organizations now operate in more than one country. They are more concerned about themselves than the host country. a nationalistic drive is strong for locals to run their country and their organizations by themselves without any interference by foreign nationals. organizations become cautious about further investments. It should produce a higher quality of life in which there is improved harmony within each individual. communication patterns and other practices to fit their host country. When the government is unstable. In spite of instability. Naturally. Their role is to provide fusion of cultures in which employees from both countries adjust to the new situation seeking a greater productivity for the benefit of both the organization and the people of the country in which it operates. Hence the required skills must be temporarily imported from other countries. MANAGING AN INTERNATIONAL WORKFORCE Whenever an organization expands its operations to other countries. workers' participation in management are restricted by law while in other countries they are permitted. scientists and technicians. State tends to be involved in collective bargaining and other practices that affect workers. For example. restricting industries to a particular area and nationalistic drives such as self-sufficiency in latest technologies. • Another category of managers called 'individualistic' place greatest emphasis on their personal needs and welfare. A few countries arc agriculture dominated and a few other manufacturing industries dominated. political and economic environments. A developed country can easily adopt advanced technology when compared to a less developed country. These people are called. 'parochial'. Barriers to Cultural Adaptation • Managers and other employees who come into a host country tend to exhibit different behaviors and somewhat. It is a step into different social. see situation around them from their own perspectives. thereby spreading the training through masses. Inflation makes the economic life of workers insecure when compared to developed countries. Trained locals become the nucleus for developing others. it tends to become multicultural and will then face the challenge of blending various cultures together. the nature of their culture and work life will be different. and training programs need to be developed to train the local workers. #17 . In some nations. This organizational instability leaves workers insecure and causes them to be passive and low in taking any initiatives. among people and among the organizations of future. The different socio-economic and political conditions existing in countries influence the introduction of advanced technology and sophisticated organizational systems.
Hence. MANAGEMENT'S INTEGRATING ROLE Once managers are in a host country. These employees are 'trans-cultural’ employees because they operate effectively in several cultures. a cadre of employees with cross-cultural adaptability can be developed in organizations with large international operations. They are low in ethnocentrism and adapt readily to different cultures without major cultural shock. The manager's job is to make the employees adapt to the other culture and integrate the interests of the various cultures involved. social system. the language. Trans-cultural employees are especially needed in large. • Incentives and guarantees for better position will motivate employees for cultural adaptation in the new country. appropriate motivational techniques need to be implemented depending on the requirement of employees of that particular nation. Eventually. markets and managers #18 . it is difficult for expatriates to re-adjust to the surroundings of their home country. Overcoming Barriers to Cultural Adaptation • Careful selection. Organization structures and communication patterns need to be suitable for local operations. customs. This reflects the idea of cultural contingency that the most productive practices for a particular nation will depend heavily on the culture. it is helpful to understand the cultural distance between the two countries. This feeling interferes with understanding human: behaviour in other cultures and obtaining productivity from local employees. organizations need repatriation policies and programs to help returning employees obtain suitable assignments and adjust to the 'new' environments. Some of the more frequent reasons for cultural shock are as follows: • Different management philosophies • New language • Alternative food.• Another potential barrier to easy adaptation of another culture occurs. availability of goods • Attitude towards work and productivity • Separation from family. may fear losing face and self-confidence or may become emotionally upset. which is the insecurity and disorientation caused by encountering a different culture. economic development and employee's values in the host country. Hence. personnel practices and production methods need to be adapted to a different labor force. Hence. • Pre-departure training in geography. managers need to make adjustments in their communication suited to< local cultures. the different currency and work attitudes in another culture. Similarly. • Employees who return to their home country after working in another nation for sometime tend to suffer cultural shock in their own homeland. Motivating and Leading Local Employees Same motivational tools may not suit the employees of all the nations. Cultural shock is virtually universal. Labor policy. it does affect the responses of all individuals to business. dress. operations. their attention needs to be directed toward integrating the technological approaches with the local cultures involved. multinational firms that operate in a-variety of national cultures. when-people are predisposed to believe that their homeland conditions are the-best. If local culture is ignored. who can withstand/adjust cultural shocks for international assignments* is important. After adjusting to the culture of another nation and enjoying its uniqueness. Cultural Shock When employees enter another nation they tend to suffer cultural shock. This predisposition is known as the 'self-reference criterion' or 'ethnocentrism'. the expatriate managers must learn to operate effectively in a new environment with certain amount of flexibility. friends and colleagues • Unique currency system Many expatriates report difficulty in adjusting to different human resource management philosophies. Whatever may be the amount of cultural distance. communication problems may also arise between the expatriate manager and the employees of the host country. For a firm to be truly multi-national in character. the resulting imbalance in the social system interferes with the productivity. They may not know how to act. culture and political environment in which the employee will be living will help for cultural adaptation. of employees. They usually can communicate fluently in more than one language. Cultural Distance To decide the amount of adaptation that may be required when personnel moves to another country. Cultural distance is the amount of distance between any two social systems. it should have ownership. Cultural Contingencies Productive business practices from one country cannot be transferred directly to another country. Hence.
One specific aspect of managing psychological contracts is managing the person-job fit. the organization provides incentives such as pay. thus. is very difficult to define in absolute terms. it will achieve a perfect person-job fit. An individual makes a variety of contributions to an organization in the form of—efforts. In theory. Just as the contributions available from the individual must satisfy the organization's needs.truly diversified. A psychological contract is the overall set of expectations that an individual holds with respect to his or her contributions to the. differences in individual skills. they will be satisfied with the relationship and are likely to continue it.1 identifies five sets of factors that have an impact upon individual behavior in organizations. but they recognize each local culture. The figure 5. considered a complex phenomenon. If the organization can take complete advantage of those behaviors and abilities and exactly fulfill the employee's needs. which interpret them. considerable research into the human behavior and its causes. it may initiate a change. NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES #19 . when they begin a working relationship with an organization formulate a psychological contract with their employer. a car. The 'person-job fit' is the extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the incentives offered by the organization. ability. A major challenge faced by an organization. which can be both genetic and environmental. If both the individual and the organization consider the psychological contract fair and equitable. respect its integrity. acknowledge its benefits and use its differences effectively in their organization. such a precise. Similarly. you should be able to: • • Understand the nature of individual differences in organizations Identify the individual factors affecting organizational behavior INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Human behavior. the incentives must serve the employees' needs in return. promotion. A psychological contract is not written down like a legal contract. level of person-job fit is seldom achieved due to various reasons such as imperfect selection procedures. which is. If either party perceives an imbalance or iniquity in the contract. LESSON – 5 FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. constant change in the needs and requirements of people and organization. respond to them in an appropriate manner and learn from the result of these responses. Of course. each employee has a specific set of needs to fulfill and a set of job related behaviors and abilities to contribute. Psychologist Kurt Levin has conducted. In return for contributions. Its leaders look to the world as an economic and social unit. and job security to the employee. These responses would reflect psychological structure of the person and may be results' of the combination of biological and psychological processes. He believes that people are influenced by a number of diversified factors. The influence of these factors determines the pattern of human behavior. loyalty and so forth. Whenever people buy something. is to manage the psychological contracts. the behavior of individuals in organization is the primary concern of management and it is essential that the managers should have an understanding of the factors influencing the behavior of the employees they manage. time. organization and the organization's response to those contributions. most people. Thus. for example. These contributions presumably satisfy various needs and requirements of the organization. both the buyer and the seller sign a contract that specifies the terms of the sales agreement. skills. It is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli.
autonomy and challenges that suit the individual's values. and • Personal values and ethics. as in the past. IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES • Self-concept • Personality dimensions • Abilities. Strive for management-employee cohesiveness and trust building. Self-efficacy Self-efficacy is a person's belief about his' or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. those with low self-efficacy expectations tend to have low success rates. 1. 3. "Self-efficacy arises from the gradual acquisition of complex. Due to these reasons. Managers can build employee self-esteem in four ways: Be supportive by showing concern for personal problems. There is strong linkage between high self-efficacy expectations and success in terms of physical and mental tasks. High self-esteem individuals. or about one's behavior". high self-esteem subjects tended to become self-centered and boastful when faced with situations under pressure Hence moderate self-esteem is desirable. it must consider the situation in which that particular behavior occurs. Sociologists Viktor Gecas defines self-concept as "the concept the individual has of himself as a physical. pain tolerance and illness recovery. Assessing both individual differences and contributions in relation to incentives and contexts. opinion. Have faith in each employee's self-management ability. A self-concept would be impossible without the capacity to think. Individual differences make the manager's job extremely challenging. according to a recent research. "any knowledge. They do not feel good about themselves. or belief about the environment about oneself. linguistic. • • • • • Physical Differences Height Weight Body Shape Appearance Complexion Psychological Differences • Personality • Attitudes • Perception • Motivation • Learning figure 5. anxiety reduction. capable and acceptable. and are hampered by self-doubts. growing work force diversity compel managers to view individual differences in a fresh way. skills and abilities. Awareness of self is referred to as one's self-concept. In other words. Specifically. In fact. behavior. interests. high self-esteem is generally considered a positive trait because it is associated with better performance and greater satisfaction. #20 . Individuals who are satisfied in one context may prove to be dissatisfied in another context. 4. goal setting. Those with low self-esteem tend to view themselves in negative terms. tend to have trouble in dealing effectively with others. every individual recognizes himself as a distinct individual. According to one organizational behavior writer. today's managers need to better understand and accommodate employee diversity and individual differences. addiction control. social and spiritual or moral being". planning. Self-esteem Self-esteem is a belief over one's own worth based on an overall self-evaluation. Among many different types of cognitions.Individual differences are personal attributes that vary from one person to another. Leaders now talk frequently about "valuing differences" and learn to "manage diversity". So rather than limiting diversity.2 shows the attributes of physical and psychological differences. cognitive. The figure 5. "variability among workers is substantial at all levels but increases dramatically with job complexity. and/or physical skills through experience". social. Self-concept Self is the core of one's conscious existence. then. evaluating and setting personal standards are particularly relevant to organizational. Although. those involving expectation. This brings us to the role of cognitions. Offer work involving variety. reward successes. Oppositely. is a major challenge for organizations as they attempt to establish effective psychological contracts with their employees and achieve optimal fits between people and jobs. Cognitions represent. 2. recent research uncovered flaws among those having high self-esteem. status and contribution. in contrast. see themselves as worthwhile. Individual differences may be physical and psychological.2 Whenever an organization attempts to assess the individual differences among its employees.
For example. • To evolve suitable leadership. • To design suitable regards. agreeableness. Thus. Mental abilities such as reasoning. thoroughness. Self-efficacy requires constructive action in each of the following managerial areas: • To design recruitment selection procedure. but they too can be assessed by fairly objective means. fairly and equitably. the-individual to specialize in some field. these personality dimensions that correlate positively and strongly with job performance would be helpful in the selection.Self-efficacy Implications for Managers Managers need to nurture self-efficacy in them and in their employees. • For systematic self-management training. Abilities develop from an individual's natural aptitudes and subsequent learning opportunities. comprehension and inter-personal abilities can also be developed through practice and education. traits associated with a strong sense of responsibility and determination generally perform better than those who do not. • For designing job. such as physical. Competencies are skills that have been refined by practice and experience and that enable. for example. • For goal-setting and quality improvement. • Ability refers to an individual's skill to perform effectively in one or more areas of activity. skills and competencies in order to remain valuable to their organizations. when a particular ability is applied to a specialized area. Personality Dimensions The big. The abilities/skills and competencies of employees are both physical and intellectual qualities. • Rules and rewards should be administered impartially. Organizations have to ensure that people possess the necessary abilities to engage in the behaviors required for effective performance. Intellectual differences are somewhat more difficult to discern. endurance and stamina can be developed with exercise and training. Aptitudes are relatively stable capacities for performing some activity effectively. the terms business ethics and management ethics are often heard. The individuals who exhibit. • Competencies are skills associated with specialization. memory visualization. an individual with numerical ability who goes to school to learn accounting develops a numerical skill specific to that field'. he develops more competency as a tax expert. For example. Physical abilities such as strength. a value is "an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-stated of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct are end-state of existence". • To design interview questions to probe applicant's general self-efficacy for determining orientation and training needs. This can 6e accomplished either by careful selection of people or by a combination of selection and training. can be trained to apply their ability in the field of engineering. experience and formal training. They are also relatively easy to assess. Individuals with numerical ability. (for example accounting). an accountant with numerical "ability and accounting skill takes a position in the Taxation Department and as time passes. • Skills are generally thought of as being more task-specific capabilities than abilities. Learning opportunities translate aptitude into abilities through practice. mental or interpersonal work. achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Relative to the workplace. Ethics involve the study of moral issues and choices. training and appraisal of employees. many individuals manage their own careers in such a way as to continually upgrade their abilities. Even in the absence of such formal programs. PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL QUALITIES Physical differences among individuals are the most visible of all differences. accounting and computer science. Moral Principles for Managers • Judge actions by their consequences. PERSONAL VALUES AND ETHICS According to Milton Rokeach. • Basic human rights should be respected. Ideally. emotional stability and openness to experience. It is concerned with right versus wrong and good versus bad. Improving Organization's Ethical Climate #21 . flexibility. it becomes a skill. five personality dimensions are: extroversion.
Ethical behavior is a 1 top to bottom proposition. credentials.• • Managers are powerful role models whose habits and actual behavior send clear signals about the importance of ethical conduct. Screen potential employees by checking references. #22 . and other information for ascertaining their ethical behavior.
social and cultural. This concept of stages of growth provides a valuable perspective to organizational behavior. • Stages: According to Sigmund Freud human personality progresses through four stages: dependent. you should be able to: • • • • Understand perceptual clarity about personality Discuss main determinants of personality Explain nature and dimensions of personality Describe personality attributes that are relevant to organizational behavior Personality is a complex. facial features. Agreeableness: Good-natured. Experienced managers become aware of the stages that their employees often go through. 5. Characteristics of these traits can be summarized as follows: 1. 3. This helps them 19 deal with these stages effectively and promote maximum growth for the individual and for the organization.6 PERSONALITY Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. it asserts that individuals do not change all at once. Extroversion: Sociable. cooperative and trusting. occur gradually over a period of time. Personality traits are very important in organizational behavior. These three parts interact with • each other to shape personality. values and actions remain relatively stable over time. as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits. multi-dimensional construct and there is no simple definition of what personality is. From the above definition we can infer that all individuals have some universally common characteristics. the aspects of personality concerned with the self-concept such as self-esteem and self-efficacy and the person-situation interaction also play important roles. Conscientiousness: Responsible. People affect others depending primarily upon their external appearance such as height. Identifying the above "big five" traits related to performance reveals that personality plays an important role in organizational behavior. and the person and situation interaction. does not mean that people never change. oedipal and mature. #23 . In simple terms. Openness to Experience: Imaginative. artistically sensitive and intellectual. Such a social learning analysis is one of the most comprehensive and meaningful ways included in the overall study of organizational behavior. weight. which are as follows: • Determinants: The most widely studied determinants of personality are biological. however. Three major types of factors play important roles in personality formation. People grow up in the presence of certain hereditary characteristics (body shape and height). compulsive. therefore. Maddi defines personality as. In particular. From this perspective. talkative and assertive. Their thoughts.LESSON . dependable. This is equivalent to recognizing thd social learning aspects related to personality. personality means the way people affect others. Besides physical appearance and personality traits. Changes in individual's personality can. The managers should. This makes it difficult for the managers to assume that they can apply same reward types or motivation techniques to modify different individual behaviors. “A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behavior and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment". however. Yet they differ in some other specific attributes. PERSONALITY FORMATION The personality formation of an individual starts at birth and continues throughout his life. Some personality theorists stress the need 6f identifying person-situation as interaction. persistent and achievement-oriented. 2. It also involves people's understanding themselves. attempt to understand certain dimensions of personality. Emotional Stability: Viewed from a negative standpoint such as tense. the social context (family and friends) and the cultural context (religion and values). This can enable them to predict the behavior of their employees on a daily basis. The definition. As people grow into adulthood. their personalities become very clearly defined and generally stable. five personality traits especially related to job performance have recently emerged from research. feelings. 4. insecure and nervous. color and other physical aspects and traits.
on the other Hand. religious and aesthetic preferences but each individual's nature differentiates that person from all others. they are said to have an external locus of control. introspective. They may incline to structured jobs where standard procedures are defined for them. chance. all people share common traits. for example. Because. rather than the lack of skills or poor performance on their part. preferring to interact with a small intimate circle of friends. They are as follows: • • • • The need for achievement: Those with a high achievement need engage themselves proactively in work behaviors in order to feel proud of their achievements and successes. Since managers have to constantly interact with individuals both in and out of the organization and influence people to achieve the organization's goals. believe that if they work hard they will certainly succeed. where they can interact face to face with others. who have a low tolerance for ambiguity may be effective in structured work settings but find it almost impossible to operate effectively when things are rapidly changing and much information about the future events is not available. Locus of Control Locus of control is the degree to which an individual believes that his or her behavior has direct impact on the consequences of that behavior. personal relations unit. publicity office. are quiet. #24 . They may prefer a leader who makes most of the decisions and a reward system that considers seniority rather than merit. strongly believe that each individual is in control of his or her life. Introversion and Extroversion Introversion is the tendency of individuals. The need for dominance: Those high in need for dominance are very effective while operating in environments where they can actively enforce their legitimate authority. some people think that what happens to them is a result of fate. The need for affiliation: Those in greater need for affiliation like to work cooperatively with others. (political. especially when things are rapidly changing in the organization's external environment. in a relatively quiet atmosphere. they may prefer a decentralized organization where they have a right of decision-making and work with a leader who provides them freedom and autonomy. thoughts and ideas within themselves. The need for autonomy: Those in need for autonomy function in the best way when not closely supervised. Thus. tolerance for ambiguity is a personality dimension necessary for managerial success. For example. people with an external locus of control. Introverts. Extroverts are sociable. Introverts are more likely to be successful when they can work on highly abstract ideas such as R&D work. people tend to be dominant as either extroverts or introverts. Some people. luck or the behavior of other people. PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANISATIQN5 Some of the important personality factors that determine what kind of behaviors are exhibited at work include the following: Need Pattern Steers and Braunstein in 1976 ^developed a scale for the four needs of personality that became apparent in the 'work environment. According to some trait theories. Extroversion. They. locus of control has clear implications for organizations. and so on. which directs them to be inward and process feelings. certain individuals have an internal locus of control. Managers who have a high tolerance for ambiguity can cope up well under these conditions. refers to the tendency in individuals to look outside themselves. Managers have to work well under conditions of extreme uncertainty and insufficient information. and intellectual people. reflective. which means they have a relatively strong desire to participate in the management of their organizations and have a' freedom to do their jobs. Tolerance for Ambiguity This personality characteristic indicates the level of uncertainty that people can tolerate to work efficiently without experiencing undue stress. Conversely. While there is some element of introversion as well as extroversion in all of us. like social. Thus. searching for external stimuli with which they can interact. lively and gregarious and seek outward stimuli or external exchanges. Managers. As a personality attribute. are likely to prefer a more centralized organization where they need not take any decisions.• Traits: Traits to personality are also based on psychology.these individuals think that forces beyond their control dictate the happenings around them. They are said to have an internal locus of control. By contrast. on the contrary. Such individuals are likely to be most successful while working in the sales department. it is believed that extroverts are likely to be more successful as managers. They may like a reward system that recognizes individual performance and contributions.
might lead to premature physical and mental exhaustion and health problems. i. Self-esteem is an important personality factor that determines how managers perceive themselves and their role in the organization. The above ten different personality predispositions are important for individual. are highly achievement-oriented.e. Naturally. For example.. a manager with low risk propensity might lead to a stagnant and overly conservative organization. reinforces high self-esteem. A manager who is very receptive to hearing about and trying out new ideas in the same circumstances might be seen as more open-minded or less dogmatic. willing to twist and turn facts to influence others. express disagreement and even refuse to carry out requests if they arc for some reason objectionable. The extremely work oriented person gets greatly involved in the job. not dogmatic are most likely to be useful and productive organizational members. Risk Propensity Risk-propensity is the decree to which an individual is willing to take chances and make risky decisions. the two are mutually reinforcing. Type A individuals are significantly more prone to heart attacks than Type B individuals. Extreme work ethic values could lead to traits of "workahollism" where work is considered as the only primary motive for living with very little outside interests. A high level of work ethic orientation of members is good for the organization to achieve its goals. Authoritarianism and Dogmatism Authoritarianism is the extent to which an individual believes that power and status differences are important within' hierarchical social systems like organizations. handle situations as they come.. For example. and who do not experience the competitive drive. individuals who are. Therefore.Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Self-esteem denotes the extent to which individuals consistently regard themselves as capable. Individuals with a high selfesteem will try to take on more challenging assignments and be successful. however. Self-esteem is important to self-concept. In contrast. which are favourable "to managerial effectiveness and to the success of managers. they should be able to. in turn. a manager may be unwilling to listen to a new idea related to doing something more efficiently. successful. managerial and organizational effectiveness. the way individuals. but given the degree of change in the nature of organizations and their environments. Thus. exhibit a competitive drive. Too much "workahollism".dogmatic in their beliefs respectively. and are impatient when their work is slowed down for any reason. Dogmatism can be either beneficial or detrimental to organizations. several unpredictable factors are involved in any complex situation. without experiencing undue #25 . Type B persons are easy-going individuals who do not feel the time urgency. Thus. there arc some personality ^predispositions. An individual tends to be Machiavellian. Dogmatism is the rigidity of a person's beliefs and his or her openness to other viewpoints. they would tend to define themselves as highly valued individuals in the organizational system. especially when the system rewards them for their contributions. which. events and situations by manipulating the system to his advantage. Work-Ethic Orientation Some individuals are highly work-oriented while others try to do the minimum Work that is necessary to get by without being fired on-the-job. He is said to be a person who is close-minded or highly dogmatic. and try to gain control of people. A person who is not highly authoritarian might agree to carry out appropriate and reasonable directives from his boss. managers need to develop a high tolerance for ambiguity. the greater will be their contributions to the goals of the organization. which are beyond the managers’ control. important and worthy individuals. There are many changes taking place in the internal and the external environment of an organization. which might be detrimental to both themselves and the organization in the long run. if he tends to be logical in assessing the system around. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism is manipulating or influencing other people as a primary way of achieving one's goal. While Type A persons help the organization to move ahead in a relatively short period of time they may also suffer health problems.e. A manager with a high-risk propensity might be expected to experiment with new ideas and to lead the organization in new directions. DESIRED PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGERS Obviously. The higher the self-concept and self-esteem. But he may also raise questions. The popular terms 'close-minded' and 'open-minded' describe people who are more and less . an employee who is highly authoritarian may accept directives or orders from his superior without much questioning. For a workaholic turning to work can sometimes become a viable alternative to facing non-work related problems. High self-esteem provides a high sense of selfconcept. Type A and B Personalities Type A persons feel a chronic sense of time urgency. define themselves as to who they are and derive their sense of identity.. which is dysfunctional for both organization and the workaholic members. they will be enhancing their selfconcept i. Apart from possessing the necessary skills and abilities.
They are likely to be more successful in their jobs. Those with high self-efficacy feel capable and confident of performing well in a situation. personality is a very diverse and complex cognitive process. our latent needs can be activated and our skills in decision-making can be increased through training programs and by deliberately making the necessary changes. In sales and other people-oriented roles. It is concerned with external appearance and traits." #26 . our tolerance for ambiguity and ability to handle stress can be considerably enhanced. Selfefficacy. People's self-esteem has to do with their self-perceived competence and self-image. Recognizing the essential ingredients for managerial success is the first step towards making the changes. As defined above. extrovert managers will fit better in their jobs. Considerable research has been done on the role played by self-esteem outcomes in the organizational behavior. self and situational interactions. a high tolerance for ambiguity is a desired managerial trait. "to some extent. This self is particularly relevant to the concepts of self-esteem and self-efficacy in the field of organizational behavior. and like no other people's. Most recently done studies indicate that self-esteem plays an important moderating role in the areas of emotional and behavioral responses and stress of organizational members. Managers with a good mix of achievements. Probably the best statement on personality was made many years ago by Kluckhohn and Murray. This is because they will have the drive to achieve the goals and the interpersonal orientation to get the job done through others. self-efficacy is conceptually close to self-esteem. Thus. affiliations and power will be successful in most situations. but they need to know how to relax through exercises and self-monitor their stress levels. which have inbuilt performance pressures and deadlines. competent.stress. Personality is a relatively stable factor. Also. Similarly. to the people around them" Self-efficacy is concerned with self-perceptions of how well a person can cope with situations as they arise. Managers with good work ethic values. Miner points out the differences by noting that self-esteem tends to be a generalized trait (it will be present in any situation). In summary. Managers with Type A personalities may suit very well for some jobs. the attributions we make for success such as internal versus external-locus of control can be changed. In the field of organizational behavior. like some other people's. THE SELF-CONCEPT: SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-EFFICACY People's attempt to understand themselves is called the self-concept in personality theory. managers with internal locus of control will be more efficient as intellectual and skilled performers. empowered and connected. while self-efficacy tends to be situation specific. will get more involved in their jobs and make things happen. For instance. has been shown to have an empirical relationship with organizational performance and other dynamics of organizational behavior. a person's personality is like all other people's. The human self is made of many interacting parts and may be thought of as the personality viewed from within. It incorporates almost everything. "both research and everyday experience confirm that employees with high self-esteem feel unique. but our predispositions can be changed through conscious choice. It was recently noted that. personality means the whole person. secure.
any strong stimulus that impels action. Learning involves a change in behavior. Drives are basically of two types -primary (or physiological). you should be able to: • • • Understand various factors affecting human behavior Explain implications of behavior modification Describe reinforcement for inducing positive behavior Learning is an important psychological process that-determines human behavior. If two stimuli are exactly alike. Responses may be in the physical form or may be in terms of attitudes. 4.LESSON – 7 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Cue Stimuli Cue stimuli are those factors that exist in the environment as perceived by the individual. a supervisor can discriminate between two equally high producing workers. The idea is to discover the conditions under which stimulus will increase the probability of eliciting a specific response. Reinforcement Reinforcement is a fundamental condition of learning. stereotypes. The. Generalization occurs when a response is elicited by a similar but new stimulus. prejudices. the supervisor discriminates between the worker producing low quality products and the worker producing high quality products. The behavioral change must be based oh some form of practice or experience. Reinforcement may be defined as the environmental event's affecting the probability of occurrence of responses with which they are associated. 2. There may be two types i of stimuli with respect to their results in terms of response concerned: generalization and discrimination. The individual can borrow from past learning experiences to adjust more smoothly to new learning situations. Any temporary change in behavior is not a part of learning. behavioral change must be relatively permanent. 3. one with low quality and other with high quality. Learning can be defined as “relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or reinforced practice". Retention The stability of learned behavior over time is defined as retention and its contrary is known as forgetting. COMPONENTS OF THE LEARNING PROCESS The components of learning process are: drive. familiarity. Discrimination is a procedure in which an organization learns to emit a response to a stimulus but avoids making the same response to a similar but somewhat different stimulus. and positively responds only to the quality conscious worker. but bad habits. and work restrictions are also learned. Some of the learning is retained over a period of time while others may be forgotten. Discrimination has wide applications in 'organizational behavior. For example. reinforcement and retention. though this change is not necessarily an improvement over previous behavior. There are four important points in the definition of learning: 1. Responses The stimulus results in responses. Individuals operate under many drives at the same time. The practice or experience must be reinforced in order so as to facilitate learning to occur. Without reinforcement. The principle of generalization has important implications for human learning. cue stimuli. Because of generalization. response. It allows the members to adapt to overall changing conditions and specific new assignments. Learning generally has the connotation of improved behavior. no measurable modification of behavior takes place. they will have the same probability of evoking a specified response. perception or other complex phenomena. a person does not have to 'completely relearn each of the new tasks. it is necessary to establish which drives are stimulating the most. These two categories of drives often interact with each other. and secondary (or psychological). #27 . In the above example. Drive Learning frequently occurs in the presence of drive . To predict a behavior.
i. Operant Conditioning An operant is defined as a behavior that produces effects. suggests that individuals emit responses that are either not rewarded or are punished. When Pavlov presented a piece of meat to the dog in the experiment. without going through a lengthy operant conditioning process. In other words. Pavlov noticed a great deal of salivation. when Pavlov merely rang a bell. the dog did not salivate. Extinction Extinction is an effective method of controlling undesirable behavior. negative reinforcement. Operant conditioning is a voluntary behavior and it is determined. Negative reinforcers also serve to strengthen desired behavior responses leading to their removal or termination. Punishment Punishment is a control device employed in organizations to discourage and reduce annoying behaviors of employees. The dog eventually learned to salivate in response to the ringing of the-bell-even when there was no meat. Classical conditioning has a limited value in the study of organizational behavior. it salivated. He termed the food an unconditioned stimulus and the salivation an unconditioned response. which arc independent of past experiences. Primary reinforcers such as food. It is based on the principle that if a response is not reinforced. Pavlov had conditioned the dog to respond to a learned stimulus. As such it explains simple and reflexive behaviors. X learns the positive relationship between performance and rewards without actually obtaining the reward himself. Classical conditioning is passive. Cognitive Learning Here the primary emphasis is on knowing how events and objects are related to each other. praise and esteem result from previous association with a primary reinforcer. But behavior of people in organizations is emitted rather than elicited. water and sex are of biological importance and have effects. It is elicited in response to a specific. viz. Operant conditioning. classical conditioning represents an insignificant part of total human learning. On the other hand. Negative Reinforcement The threat of punishment is known as negative reinforcement. recognition.. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of a desirable consequence (reward). management must select reinforcers that are sufficiently powerful and durable. For instance. it will eventually disappear. In order to apply reinforcement procedures successfully. controlled and altered by the consequences. Cognitive learning is important because it increases the change that the learner will do the right thing first. X observes that Y is rewarded for superior performance. basically a product of Skinnerian psychology. Secondary reinforcers like job advancement. positive reinforcement. Pavlov subsequently introduced the sound of a bell each time the meat was given to the dog. #28 . maintained and controlled by its consequences. a positive reinforce is a reward that follows behavior and is capable of increasing the frequency of that behavior. As pointed out by Skinner. Thorndike called this the "law of exercise" which states that behavior can be learned by repetitive association between a stimulus and a response. Most behaviors in organizations are learned.LEARNING THEORIES Classical Conditioning The work of the famous Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov demonstrated the classical conditioning process.e. Management can use the operant conditioning process successfully to control and influence the behavior of employees by manipulating its reward system. a primary reinforcer like food satisfies hunger need and reinforced food-producing behavior. It refers to non-reinforcement. Four types of reinforcement strategies can be employed by managers to influence the behavior of the employees. and it is voluntary rather than reflexive. Primary reinforcers must be learned. It does not require an overt response. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Observational learning results from watching the behavior of another person and appraising the consequences of that behavior. When Mr. Reinforcement is anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behavior. The learning of these complex behaviors can be explained or better understood by looking at operant conditioning. There are two typos of positive: reinforces: primary and secondary. Something happens and we react in a specific or particular fashion. extinction and punishment. identifiable event. operant behaviors. Extinction is a behavioral strategy that does not promote desirable behaviors but can help to reduce undesirable behaviors. Observational learning plays a crucial role in altering behaviors in organizations. Operant conditioning is a powerful tool for managing people in organizations. Most of the learning that takes place in the classroom is cognitive learning. When the dog saw the meat.
disobeying orders.LEARNING THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The relevance of the learning theories for explaining and predicting of organizational behavior is marginal. the manager will attempt to educate more functional behaviors. Learning concepts provide a basis for changing behaviors that are unacceptable and maintaining those behavior that are acceptable. by manipulating its reward system. Managers can successfully use the operant conditioning process to control and influence the behavior of employees. Managers know that individuals capable of giving superior performance must be given more reinforces than those with average or low performance. #29 . When individuals engage in various types of dysfunctional behavior such as late for work. poor performance. Learning theory can also provide certain guidelines for conditioning organizational behavior. This does not mean that learning theories are totally irrelevant.
#30 . which supplies inferior products and that too irregularly could be described as follows: • • • "I don't like that company"—Affective component. you should be able to: • • • • • Explain the concept of attitude in organizations Understand the method of formation of attitude Discuss individual attitude in organizations and indicate their effect on behaviour Explain the concept of perception and perceptual process Describe perception attribution in organizations In simple words. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE Attitude has three components. Finally. Attitude is important because it is the mechanism through which most people express their feelings. an "attitude" is an individual's point of view or an individual's way of looking at something. situations or other people. "I will never do business with them again"'—Intentional component. which are as follows: • Affective component • Cognitive component • Intentional component The figure 8. which prepares him to react or make him behave in a particular pre-determined way. For example. To be more explicit. The cognitive component of an attitude is derived from 'knowledge' that an individual has about a situation. an "attitude" may be explained as the mental state of an individual. "a learned pre-disposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object".1 shows the components of attitude. "They are the worst supply firm I have ever dealt with"—Cognitive component.LESSON – 8 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the intentional component of an attitude reflects how an individual 'expects to behave' towards or in the situation. Attitude is the combination of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas. the different components of an attitude held towards a firm. An attitude is defined as. The affective component of an attitude reflects 'feelings and emotions' that an individual has towards a situation.
Involving employees in decision-making can also help to increase commitment. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE Individual attitude are formed over time as a result of repeated personal experiences with ideas. If the organization treats its employees fairly and provides reasonable rewards and job security. it may lead to low employee turnover and less absenteeism and vice-versa. people make interpretations of the stimulus or situation they are faced with. An attitude may change as a result of new information. makes positive contributions. interpretations. and stays with the organization. selectivity is affected by intensity.satisfaction. for our interaction with others. food in the canteen. a manager may come to realise that he is actually very talented and subsequently may develop a more positive attitude toward him. they do and help supervisors in winning cooperation from them. This directly affects organizational behaviour. There are a number of factors that lead to commitment and involvement. A manager may have a negative attitude about a new employee because of his lack of job-related experience. along with group and organizational factors such as relationships with co-workers and supervisors. attitudes provide knowledge base or prepare. satisfaction depends on individual factors like individual's needs and aspirations. and in turn organizational working. If employees are satisfied with their job. Externally. and with the world around us. designing jobs. The conflict that individuals may experience among their own attitudes is called 'cognitive dissonance. So. size. policies and procedures of the organizations and working conditions.factors such as an individual's needs and aspirations determine this attitude. perceptual selectivity is influenced by the individual's motivation.People try to maintain consistency among the three components of their attitudes. uniform etc. employees are more likely to be satisfied and committed.by his or her work. the observation that a department head and a subordinate may react quite differently to the same top management directive can be better understood and explained by the perceptual process. which is situationally specific and learned. Both may increase with an employee's age and years with the organization. A satisfied employee also tends to be absent less often. it is very essential for the efficient working of an organization. From a personal perspective. situations or people. contrast. working conditions. the incoming information is organized into a meaningful whole. with his sense of job security and participation in decision-making. After working with a new person. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is an attitude reflects the extent to which an individual is gratified or fulfilled . #31 . and may keep continually looking for another job. One of the very important ways to understand individual behaviour in an organization is that of studying attitude. a dissatisfied employee may be absent more often may experience stress that disrupts coworkers. Through this complex process. In particular. promotion possibilities. Attitude is an understanding or learning of why employees feel and act the way. fringe benefits. Perception Perception is an important mediating cognitive process. motion and novelty and familiarity. An employee with little involvement is motivated by extrinsic motivational factor and an employee with strong involvement is motivated by intrinsic motivational factors. Extensive research conducted on job satisfaction has indicated that personal . ATTITUDE: IT’S IMPORTANCE IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Attitudes of both workers and management react to each other and determine mutual relationships. Group factors such as relationship with co-workers and supervisors also influence job. Similarly. promotion. Individual differences and uniqueness are largely the result of the cognitive processes. superiors. can enhance job involvement. it is generally recognized that the perceptual process is a very important one. Organizational Commitment and Involvement Two other important work-related attitudes arc organizational commitment and involvement. Organizational commitment is the individual's feeling of identification with and attachment to an organization. Especially some important attitudes are job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. For example. In contrast. However. our mental state. Both selectivity and organization go 'into perceptual. work policies and compensation. which are interesting and stimulating. Involvement refers to a person's willingness to be a team member and work beyond the usual standards of the job. Work-Related Attitudes People in an organization form attitude about many things such as about their salary. organizational commitment and job involvement. Although there arc a number of cognitive processes. Internally. learning and personality. repetition. It is a process that takes place between the situation and the behaviour and is most relevant to the study of organizational behaviour. Organizational factors that influence employee satisfaction include pay. After the selective process filters the stimulus situation. conflicting circumstances often arise.
For instance. This pattern of attributions might cause the manager to decide that the individual's behaviour requires a change. if you observe that an employee is much more motivated than the people around (low consensus). For example. is consistently motivated (high consistency). In this case influenced by the selective perception process he too will disregard it. Conversely. these perceptions lead to the belief that an individual's sex determines which tasks he or she will be able to perform. Selective perception may make the manager to quickly disregard what he observed. assimilate them and then interpret them. people receive many different kinds of information through all five senses. Consensus is the extent to which other people in the same situation behave in the same way. if dishonesty is associated with politicians. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT Social perception is concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals. Perception plays a key role in determining individual behaviour in organizations. But if selective perception causes managers to ignore important information. projection. managers need to have a general understanding of the basic perceptual process. intensity. those messages are subject to distortion in the process of being perceived by organizational members. and subsequently recall that the same employee is sometimes late for work (low distinctiveness). she will be very often. a manager has a very positive attitude about a particular worker and one day he notices that the worker seems to be goofing up. the same person may perceive the same object very differently in different situations. and seems to work hard no matter what the task (low distinctiveness) you might conclude that internal factors are causing that particular behaviour. politician). impression management is the process by which the general people attempt to manage or control the perceptions that others form about them. Among these. by the characteristics of the person and by the situational processes. if a woman is sitting behind the table in the office. Perceptions based on stereotypes about people's sex exist more or less in all work places. attribution. The forces within the person (internal) or outside the person (external) lead to the behaviour. The details of a particular situation affect the way a person perceives an object. He might realize that this employee is the only one whois laic (low consensus). Attribution is a mechanism through which we observe behaviour and then attribute certain causes to it. Stereotyping consists of three steps: identifying categories of people (like women. In spite of organizations sending clear messages. consistency and distinctiveness. movement. a manager who has formed a very negative attitude about a particular worker and he happens to observe a high performance from the same worker. • Characteristics of the object include contrast. Selective Perception Selective perception is the process of screening out information that we are uncomfortable with or that contradicts our beliefs. Hence. associating certain characteristics with those categories (like passivity. organization. Basic Perceptual Process Perception is influenced by characteristics of the object being perceived. dishonesty respectively) and then assuming that any one who fits a certain category must have those characteristics. recall that he is often late for other meetings (high consistency). Thus. For example. People often tend to present themselves in such a way so as to impress others in a socially desirable manner. Different people perceive the same information differently. and the halo effect process. The processes through which a person's perceptions are altered by the situation include selection. the manager might meet the subordinate to establish some disciplinary consequences to avoid future delays. Consistency is the degree to which the same person behaves in the same way at different times. According to Attribution theory. Typically. For example. Organizations send messages in a variety of forms to their members regarding what they are expected to do and not to do. But it would induce holding an exactly opposite assumption about a man. At this point. selective perception is beneficial because it allows us to disregard minor bits of information. self-concept and personality. stereotyping process. we are likely to assume that all politicians are dishonest. • Characteristics of the person include attitude. once we observe behaviour we evaluate it in terms of its consensus. impression management has considerable' implications for activities like determining the validity of #32 . In one sense. it can become quite detrimental. perceived as a clerk and not an executive at first. Distinctiveness is the extent to which the same person behaves in the same way in other situations.In the process of perception. For example. PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION Perception is also closely linked with another process called attribution. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attribute. repetition and novelty. selective perception and stereotyping are particularly relevant to organizations. Another example is of a manager who observes that an employee is late for a meeting.
• Employees secretly tell their boss that they fought for the right thing. • Employees ascertain that they are seen with the right people at the right times. On the other hand. but received a lesser credit. The promotion enhancing strategies involve the following activities: • Employees harbor a feeling that they have not been given credit for a positive outcome. desired and undesired identity images. Managers must never underestimate. interests. Most recently. the discrepancy between the image one would like others to hold and the image one believes others already hold. Coping with Individual Differences Individual differences and people's perception of them affect every aspect of behaviour in organizations. there is still little known of how they select the way to manage others' perceptions of them. two separate components of impression management have been identified . • Employees point out that they did more. then they lean use a promotion-enhancing strategy. physical status. subordinates may be. perceptions and attributions. they may employ a demotion-preventative strategy. attitude change. • Employees apologies to the boss for some negative event. • Employees identify cither personal or organizational obstacles they had to overcome to accomplish an outcome and expect a higher credit. but were overruled. the differences between individuals. political tool for someone to climb the ladder of success in organizations. The Process of Impression Management As with other cognitive processes. trying to treat each individual as a unique person #33 . Successful managers constantly monitor their own assumptions. If employees are trying to minimize responsibility for some negative event or to stay out of trouble. The degree of this motivation to manage impression will depend on factors like the relevance that these impressions have on the individual's goals. Although some theorists limit the type of impression only to personal characteristics others include such things as attitudes. impression management has many possible conceptual dimensions arid has been researched in relation to aggression. or values. however. if they are seeking to maximize responsibility for a positive outcome or to look better than what they really are. among other things. Employees using this approach try to disassociate themselves from the group and from the problem. Although there has been a considerable research done on how these five factors influence the type of impression that people try to make. The demotion-preventative strategy is characterized by the following activities: • Employees attempt to excuse or justify their actions. Employee Impression Management Strategies There are two basic strategies of impression management that employees can use. Impression construction. role constraints. is concerned with the specific type of impression people want to make and how they create it. attributions and social facilitation. It serves as a pragmatic. five factors have been identified as being especially relevant to the] kinds of impression people try to construct: the self-concept.performance appraisals. the value of these goals.impression motivation and impression construction. motivated to control how their boss perceives them. target values and current social image. Especially in an employment situation. Using this broader approach. the other major process.
" According to Encyclopaedia of Management." In the words of Robert Dubin. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale. "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action. • Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance. fear. • The motivation process is influenced by personality traits. causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium. • Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness. craving or need that must be satisfied. you should be able to: • • • • Understand the meaning. • Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelising the energy of an individual for achieving set goals. • Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium. • It is a continuous activity. learning abilities. #34 . It is a tension of lacking something in his mind. Terry. • Motivation may be positive as well as negative. nature and importance of motivation Explain need-based theories of motivation Discuss expectancy theory of motivation Explain ways of enhancing employee motivation The word motivation is derived from ‘motive'. FEATURES OF MOTIVATION The following are the features of motivation: • It is an internal feeling and forces a person to action. it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction. • The process of Motivation helps the manager in analysing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons: • Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. • Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees. competence and other factors. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives. perception and competence of an individual." On the basis of above definitions. which means an active form of a desire. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives. needs. which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner. may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. • Motivating force an^ its degree.LESSON – 9 MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. the following observations can be made regarding motivation: • Motivation is an inner psychological force. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an important part of managing process. rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment. Positive motivation includes incentives. • Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency. • A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others. which may lead to higher efficiency. DEFINITION According to George R. • It varies from person to person and from time to time. by satisfying the need. which forces him to work more efficiently. • The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. • It may be positive or negative. use of force etc. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness.
If his hard work resulted in a pay rise. Esteem needs actually comprise of two different sets of needs: #35 . belongingness. "what factor(s) motivate people to choose certain behaviors?" Some of the widely known need-based theories are as follows: (a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow Abraham proposed his theory in the 1940s. They include the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by one's peers. he is motivated and 'moves up' the hierarchy to satisfy security needs. An individual is motivated first and foremost to satisfy physiological needs. the need to be free from worry about money and job security and the desire for safe working conditions. This 'moving up process continues until the individual reaches the self-actualization level. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance. Security or safety needs refer to the requirements for a secure physical and emotional environment. Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization. esteem and selfactualization needs.1 shows Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow suggested that the five levels of needs are arranged in accordance with their importance. Extensive research has been performed to find out what makes people work and how to motivate them. Physiological needs represent the basic issues of survival such as food. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option. In organizational settings. Belonging or social needs are related to the. Understanding these theories facilitates the managers to get a better insight into the human behavior. working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. Understanding human motivation is crucial for managing people. even though there is no universally acceptable motivation theory. adequate lighting. Managers can help ensure the 'satisfaction of these important needs by allowing social interaction and by making employees feel like part of a team or work group. a grievance resolving system and an adequate insurance and retirement benefit package. most physiological needs are satisfied by adequate wages and by the work environment itself. A number of theories have been developed. Thus. behaviorists and psychologists. he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. Security needs are satisfied for people in the work place by job continuity. water and air. Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale. This theory. The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. starting from the bottom of the hierarchy. sex. popularly known as the Hierarchy of Needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs: physiological. then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. The figure 9. social scientists. NEED-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION Need-based theories try to answer the question. For most people these needs are satisfied by a combination of family and community relationships and friendships on the job. For example. when an employee feels underpaid then what. When these needs are satisfied. the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. Examples include the desire for adequate housing and clothing. the cycle of motivation is constantly repeated. which provides employees with rest rooms. Since people have many different needs. This includes managers. comfortable temperatures and ventilation. security. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover. Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations.• • • • Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. social aspect of human life.
for example. Relatedness and Growth. an organization can help in fulfillment of these needs by encouraging employee’s participation in decision-making process and by providing them with an opportunity to learn new things about their jobs and organization. But research has revealed several shortcomings of the theory such as some research has found that five levels of needs are not always present and that the order of the levels is not always the same as assumed by Maslow. Relatedness needs refers to belongingness and esteem needs. #36 . and an opportunity to learn new skills (growth) all at the same time.2 shows ERG theory: ERG Theory the need hierarchy developed by Maslow into three 9. At a more fundamental level. ERG theory suggests that more than one kind of need might motivate a person at the same time. an employee should try to meet these needs on his own end. it is difficult for organizations to use the need hierarchy to enhance employee motivation. This process of contributing to actual organizational performance helps employees experience personal growth and development associated with self-actualizing. Moreover. This is termed as satisfaction—progression process. Growth needs refers to both self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Organizations can help address esteem needs by providing a variety of external symbols of accomplishment such as job titles and spacious offices. The existence needs in this theory refers to the physiological and security needs of Maslow. The figure 9. At the top of the hierarchy are those needs. These needs involve realizing one's potential for continued: growth and individual development. which Maslow defines the self-actualization needs. The letters E. self-actualization needs are perhaps the most difficult for managers to address. (b) ERG Theory of Motivation Clayton Alderfer has proposed an alternative hierarchy of needs . However. Maslow's concept of the need hierarchy possesses a certain intuitive logic and has been accepted universally by managers. Therefore. friendship (relatedness). ERG theory has an element of frustrations-regression that is missing from Maslow's need hierarchy. • Secondly. Maslow maintained that one heed must be satisfied before an individual can progress to needs at a higher level. • Firstly.called the ERG Theory of Motivation. from security needs to belongingness. For example. it allows for the possibility that people can be motivated by a desire for money (existence). The need for recognition and respect from others. Although ERG Theory assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy in somewhat the same fashion as suggested by Maslow.2. For instance. there are two important differences. Since these needs are highly individualized and personal. R and G stand for Existence.• • The need for a positive self-image and self-respect. organizations can also help satisfy esteem needs by providing employees with challenging job assignments that can induce a sense of accomplishment. an organization can help his employee by creating a climate for fulfillment of self-actualization needs.
Herzberg recommended that managers seeking to motivate employees should first make sure that hygiene factors are taken care of and that employees are not dissatisfied with pay. be satisfied. This is also known as Two-factor Theory. a worker previously motivated by money (existence needs) is awarded a pay rise to satisfy this needs. regress to a lower level and will begin to pursue low level needs again. For" example. such as recognition or accomplishment. several other factors. Herzberg identified two sets of factors responsible for causing either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Once a manager has eliminated employee dissatisfaction. Herzberg developed this approach after interviewing 200 accountants and engineers in Pittsburg. If for some reason an employee finds that it is impossible to become better friends with others in the work place. by improving opportunities for advancement. He asked them to recall such occasions when they had been dissatisfied and less motivated. The factors influencing satisfaction are called motivation factors or motivators. he recommends job enrichment as a means of enhancing the availability of motivation factors. recognition. he may eventually become frustrated and regress to being motivated to earn even more money. it also suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some higher level. Instead. Herzberg argued that attitudes and motivation consists of a dual structure. Specifically. The ERG theory emphasis on the following key points regarding needs: o Some needs may be more important than others. He found that entirely different sets of factors were associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The other structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction. They have also criticized Herzberg's theory for its inability to define the relationship between #37 . advancement and growth. For instance. were cited as causing satisfaction. therefore. Although widely accepted by managers. (c) The Dual-Structure Approach to Motivation Another popular need-based approach to motivation is the dual-structure approach developed by Frederick Herzberg. Then he attempts to establish more friendship to satisfy relatedness needs. One structure involves a set of factors that result in feelings ranging from satisfaction to no satisfaction. Other researchers who measured satisfaction and dissatisfaction based on different aspects reached very different conclusions. o People may change their behavior after any particular set of needs has been satisfied. an individual who identified 'low pay' as causing dissatisfaction did not necessarily mention 'high pay' as a cause of satisfaction. the individual will become frustrated. security and working conditions. which are related to the work environment in which the job is performed.Although the ERG theory includes this process. Hertzberg recommends focusing on a different set of factors to increase motivation. dissatisfied or somewhere in between. which are related specifically to the job itself and the factors causing dissatisfaction are called hygiene factors. This is termed as ‘frustration-regression' process. Employees would. This finding suggests that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are at opposite ends of a single scale. Motivators • Achievement • Recognition • Advancement • The work itself • The possibility of personal growth • Responsibility Hygiene or Maintenance Factors • Company policies • Technical supervision • Interpersonal relations with supervisor • Interpersonal relations with peers • Interpersonal relations with subordinates • Salary • Job security • Personal life • Work conditions • Status Based on these findings. Hertzberg’s dual structure approach however suffers from certain drawbacks.
'Participation' and 'Management by Objectives' are quite consistent with theory ' Y'. establish 'norms of production. while theory 'Y'. Organization should keep in mind that once theory 'X' is employed for organizational working. • Employees love work as play or rest. • Innovative spirit is not confined to managers alone. had a major impact on managers and has played a key role in increasing their awareness of motivation and its importance in type work place. 'X' AND ‘Y' THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Douglas McGregor observed two diametrically opposing viewpoints of managers 'about their employees. relies heavily on self-control -and self-direction. all of a sudden. The theory. The concepts of 'Job' Enlargement'. secures the commitment of employees to organizational objectives. Those with a high need for affiliation often behave the way they think other people want them to.satisfaction and motivation and to pay enough attention to differences between individuals. Such types of individuals generally look for positions of leadership. They prefer a #38 . have rigid rules and regulations. While applying this theory. Applicability of Theories 'X' and 'Y' Theory 'X' in its applicability. on the other hand. Need for Affiliation The need for affiliation means the desire for human companionship and acceptance. Some examples of such organizations are organizations that break down jobs into specialized elements. as an instrument of command and control is minimal. this theory of behavior is related to organizations that lay hard and rigid standards of work-behavior. • Employees accept and seek responsibilities. Theory 'X' points to the traditional approach of management. are likely to be superior performers and occupy supervisory positions. Hence. Employees exercise self-direction and self-control. Theory of Y Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of Y" regarding their employees. MC-CLELLAND's NEED THEORY OF MOTIVATION David C. shifting in the practical applicability of theory 'X' to theory ' Y' usually can be achieved. • Employees must be coerced. that are sometimes very vigorously enforced. instead of theory ‘X'. at present Herzberg's theory is not held in high esteem by researchers in the field of motivation. design equipment to control worker's pace of work. judicious and slow steps. Need for Achievement : : Need for Power According to this theory the need for power. with systematic. • Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction. they act effectively. most important of all other factors in the job and have very little ambition. Research suggests that people with a strong need for power. which might be defined as the desire to be influential in a group and to control one's environment is an important motivation factor. however. places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior. have a stubborn character and exert authority. one is negative called "Theory of X" and another is positive called "Theory of Y". These needs have been classified as: 1. • Most employees consider security of job. are outspoken. some employees also possess it. This motivational theory places emphasis on satisfaction of employees. • Employees dislike work. Theory 'Y’. McGregor supports the applicability of motivational theory 'Y'. in an effort to maintain friendship. • Employees are self-directed and self-controlled and committed to the organizational objectives. Literally. Need for Affiliation 3. However. McClelland and his associate Atkinson have contributed to an understanding of motivation by identifying three types of basic motivating needs. Need for Power 2. the use of authority. controlled or threatened to do the work. I Theory of X Following are the assumptions of managers who believe in the "Theory of X" regarding their employees. it is difficult for the management to shift to theory ' Y'.
• Enjoy company and friendship.job that entails a good deal of social interaction and offers opportunities to make friends.can probably get the job. he probably does not apply because he is aware that there is little chance of getting it. (a) Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy theory of motivation was developed by. He chooses to apply for this job because he wants it and also thinks that he has a reasonable chance of getting it. They do not explain why or how motivated behavior occurs.for themselves. goals and feelings of satisfaction. For instance. a person is looking for a job and reads an advertisement for a position of Marketing Executive with a starting salary of Rs. Two of the most useful process-based approaches to motivation arc expectancy theory and equity theory. are ever prepared to face challenging situations and set arduous goals . Vroom's expectancy theory views motivation as a. friendly. The expectancy theory tries to explain how and why people choose a particular behavior over an alternative. Basically. Need for Achievement People with a high need for achievement. 1 lakh per year.. and possess a high sense of personal responsibility in getting jobs done. #39 . Needs theories are content-oriented . PROCESS-BASED THEORIES TO MOTIVATION The field of organizational behavior has generally moved a way from the needs theories of motivation. They are prone to take calculated risks. • Excel in group task. Even though he might want the job. Figure 9. These questions relate to behaviors or actions. In this case he realizes that he . These people are concerned with their progress. 2 lakh per year. These concepts are addressed by various process-based theories to motivation. • Leadership qualities. and feel inclined to put in longer hours of work" Failures never dishearten them and they are always ready to put in their best efforts for excellent performance. Process-based theories to motivation are concerned with how motivation occurs. • Star attraction in gathering. but still doesn't apply simply because he doesn't want it. Persons with high motivation for power and affiliation have better chances of becoming good managers. who are sociable.Victor Vroom. cooperative and understanding. They focus on why people choose to enact certain behavioral options to fulfill their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goals. • Prefer cooperative situation.that is. This need is closely associated with the "social-type” of personality.process of governing choices. The principal characteristics of such peoples' traits are as follows: • Desire to like and be liked. 3 lakh per year. Then he comes across another advertisement for a Management Trainee in a big organization with a starting salary of Rs.3 shows the expectancy theory of motivation. always feel ambitious to be successful. they explain what are the causes leading to motivated behaviors. The theory suggests that motivation depends on two things: how much an individual desires a particular goal and how likely he thinks he can get it. Next he sees an advertisement is for Field Supervisor for a salary of Re.
its valence is negative. its valence is positive. expectancy is quite strong. that is close to 0. • It assumes that different people have different types of needs. in turn. he may also be subject to a lot of stress and incur resentment from co-workers. When an individual believes that effort will lead directly to high performance. leads to various outcomes—each of which has an associated value called its 'valence'. A high performer. its valence is zero.0 with a moderate expectancy.0. An individual who believes that high performance may possibly lead to a pay raise has a moderate expectancy between 1. For instance.00. Usually we are not sure about our expectations. so they fall somewhere between 0. • It assumes that people make decisions about their own behavior in organizations. Outcomes and Valences Expectancy theory recognizes that an individual may experience a variety of outcomes as a consequence. According to this model. if one feels sure that studying hard for an examination (effort) will result in scoring high marks (performance). result in performance. of behavior in an organizational environment.00. If an individual is indifferent to an outcome. Performance. For example. And an individual who believes that performance has no relationship to rewards has a low performance-to-outcome expectancy that is close to 0.0. If an individual does not want an outcome. • It assumes that people make choices from among alternative plans of behavior based on their perceptions of the extent to which a given behavior will lead to desired outcomes. desires and goals. Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy The performance-to-outcome expectancy means an individual's perception of the probability that performance will result in a specific outcome. that is close to 1. When an individual believes that effort and performance are unrelated. an index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome. fast promotions and praise from the boss. an individual who believes that high performance will lead to a pay raise has a high performance-to-outcome expectancy. the effort-to-performance expectancy is very weak. It is this advantage of expectancy theory that goes beyond the need-based approaches to motivation. for example. individuals develop some sense of these expectations before they exhibit motivated or non-motivated behavior. Effort-to-Performance Expectancy The effort-to-performance expectancy refers to an individual's perception of the probability that effort will result in high performance. that is close to 1. when combined with individual ability and environmental factors. may get big pay raises. If an individual wants an outcome.The expectancy theory rests on four assumptions: • The theory assumes that behavior is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and in the environment.0 and 1.. Each of these outcomes has an associated value or valence that is. approaching to 1. However. . then his effort-to-performance expectancy is high. The above model suggests that motivation leads to efforts and that effort. #40 .00 and 0.
which are as follows: • First. 7. which should not be ignored by the manger. Implications for Managers Expectancy theory can be useful for organizations attempting to improve the motivation of their employees. so as to make them feel confident that their energized efforts will be rewarded. They should ascertain that the desired levels of performance are attainable. they will systematically consider all the potential outcomes and their associated expectancies before selecting a particular behavior. an individual's initial effort is influenced by his perception regarding the value of reward and the likelihood that the effort will yield a reward. The manager will particularly see that the specific system. • Establish attainable performance goals. They should make sure that the overall system is equitable for everyone. Porter and Lawler suggest that there may indeed be a relationship between satisfaction and performance but that it goes in the opposite direction. communicate and clarify the level of performance that is desired. the effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero. The human relationists assumed that employee satisfaction causes good performance but research has not supported such relationship. Another important point. 6. the sum of the valences for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero. • Third. They should decide what kind and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. but much more work still needs to be put in. • Define. In conclusion. for example. Finally. as applicable in their case. that is. They should make sure that the rewards are large enough. few people actually make decisions in such a precise and rational manner. • Second. three conditions must be met. They should determine the primary outcomes that each employee likely desires. 1. The expectancy theory has also its limitations. Expectancy theory maintains that when all of these conditions are met. The model also distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. then he has to make sure whether the reward system is highly supportive to hard work or high quality. for motivated behavior to occur on the part of any individual. They should also analyze the complete work situation for conflicting expectancies. The expectancy theory also has several other important practical implications. • Link desired outcomes to performance goal achievement. 5. The probability that increased effort will lead to improved performance is affected by an individual's traits. which managers should keep in mind. application of this theory in the work place would require to identify all the potential outcomes for each employee. the performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero. superior performance can lead to satisfaction. before it can be accepted for use as an effective instrument of explanation of 'motivation' with all its implications. is communicated to them. The managers can perform the following activities in relation to this • Determine what outcomes employees prefer. It is quite difficult to apply. Practical Applicability of Expectancy Theory If a manager wishes to motivate his employees for increased and better performance. However.Thus. Nadler and Lawler suggest a series of steps for managers in applying the basic ideas of the theory. abilities and perception of his role in an organization. to determine all relevant expectancies and then to balance everything somehow to maximize employee motivation. no doubt 'expectancy' theory has gained much popularity with theorists. Porter-Lawler Model First. Expectancy theory also assumes that people are rational . the individual is motivated to expand effort. the Porter-Lawler model borrows from equity theory the idea that the employee's satisfaction depends on the perceived equity of the rewards relative to the 'effort expended and the level of performance attained. 2. #41 .therefore. is that rewards must correspond to the varying preferences of an individual employee. 4. The Porter-Lawer Extension Porter and Lawler have proposed an interesting extension to the expectancy theory. They should ensure that desired outcomes and performance are linked. 3.
This other 'person' may be someone in the work group. the expectancy theory focuses more on behavior choices and the latter is more concerned with the consequences of those choices. An employee's contributions or input to an organization include time. Both consider the processes by which an individual chooses behaviors in a particular situation. consequence will reduce an undesirable behavior again. Specifically. avoidance. This occurs when an individual chooses certain behavior in order to avoid unpleasant consequences. for example. • Over-rewarded. Reinforcement Based Approaches to Motivation A final approach to the motivation process focuses on why some behavior are maintained and changed overtime. contingency that can strengthen desired behavior is avoidance. the best way to avoid such problems is to make all employees aware of the basis for rewards. recognition and social relationships. punishing with fine for coming late. Reinforcement-based approaches explain the role of those rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same over time. However. • Under-rewarded. However. For instance. whereas behavior that results in punishing consequences are less likely to be repeated. It is a reward or a positive outcome after a desired behavior is performed. 2. promotions and awards. In the crucial step of equity theory an individual 'compares' the two treatments. reinforcement theory is based on the fairly simple assumption that behaviors that result in rewarding consequences are likely to be repeated.compare their ratio to the ratio of someone else. the laughter reinforces the behavior and the employee may continue #42 . Positive Reinforcement is a method of strengthening behavior. If an individual has the feeling of equity then he should maintain the status quo. Equity can be defined as an individual's belief that he is being treated fairly relative to the treatment of others. Stacy Adams developed equity theory of motivation. pay. First an individual evaluates the way he is being treated by an organization. Outcomes are what an individual receives from an organization such as. managers must remember that different employees have different sense towards basis for a reward and this may result in problems. There arc similarities between expectancy theory and reinforcement theory. The other reinforcement. The single most important idea for managers to remember about equity theory is that if rewards are to motivate employees. Hence. an employee may come to work on time to avoid criticism. When an employee tells a vulgar joke and the boss laughs. The comparison may result in three types of attitudes: • The individual may feel equitably rewarded. punishment and extinction. A person's perception of equity develops through a four-step process as shown below: 1. The theory suggests that people view their outcomes and inputs as ratio and then. An individual will experience a feeling of equity when the two ratios are equal. The logic is that the unpleasant. Other positive reinforces include pay. 4. specially that has previously been rewarded. In the fourth step he evaluate a sense of equity to see if the two treatments seem similar or if the are different. 3. The figure 9. Reinforcement Contingencies Reinforcement contingencies are the possible outcomes that an individual may experience as a result of his or her behaviors. they must be perceived as being equitable and^ fair. The four types of reinforcement contingencies that can affect individuals in an organizational setting are positive reinforcement. When a manager' observes an employee is doing a good job and offers praise then this praise helps in positive reinforcement of behavior.4 shows the equity process. The next step is for an individual to choose a co-worker who seems to be in a roughly similar situation and to observe how an organization treats him. Adam suggests that employees make these comparisons by focusing on input and outcome ratios. education. Punishment is used by some managers to weaken undesired behaviors. effort. If he has a feeling of inequity then he is likely to change the input. experience and loyalty. The equity theory argues that motivations arise out of simple desire to be treated fairly. Extinction can also be used to weaken behavior.(b) Equity Theory J.
Goal Setting in Practice The most obvious implication of goal-setting theory is that managers should be helping subordinates to set goals that are specific and reasonably difficult so that subordinates accept and internalize them as their own goals. it is essential that goals are set at realistic levels. new sales etc. the person has to feel some personal ownership of the goal and must have commitment to achieve it. there are a number of issues that arise in implementing goal setting in practice. Avoidance and extinction are generally used only in specialized circumstances. the higher the level of motivation and performance. Goal Acceptance In order to influence motivation and performance. They are goal specificity. It also gives a sense of personal satisfaction and accomplishment to workers if he is able to meet the specific goal. it should not affect in identifying meaningful and valid objective of goal attainment. a goal must be internalized by an individual. Goals must be set in terms of measurable criteria of work performance. By simply ignoring this behavior and not reinforcing it. rewards and personal satisfaction. The more difficult. o By assigning various rewards to the achievement of goals. employees see how their effort will lead to performance. #43 . Positive reinforcement and punishment are the most common reinforcement contingencies practiced by organizations. • The manager can stimulate goal acceptance in at least three ways: o By involving subordinates in goal-setting process. the boss can cause the behavior to subside which eventually becomes 'extinct'. The mere act of goal setting does not ensure higher levels of motivation among employees.e. • Though specificity of goal is essential and measurability is desirable. • Participation of setting goal. Besides this. In fact. • It increases performance. Rewards should be tied directly to accomplished goals. NEW APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS New approaches are emerging to supplement the established models and theories of motivation. • Goal setting theory has defined two factors.to tell similar jokes. number of units produced. Goal Specificity Goals must be stated in specific terms if they are to motivate effective performance. • Participation of employees in goal has mixed result.and challenging the goal is. However.' which influences the performance. o By demonstrating a supportive attitude and approach toward his subordinates. Salient features of this theory are as follows: • Specific goal fixes the needs of resources and efforts. there seem to be three important criteria that goals must meet if they are to influence the behavior of organization members. Most managers prefer a judicious use of positive reinforcement and punishment. Goal-setting theory suggests that managers and subordinates should set goals for an individual on a regular basis. goal difficulty and goal acceptance. When involved in goal-settings.. increases acceptance of goal and involvements. • Better feedback of results leads to better performances than lack of feedback. Two of the most promising are Goal-Setting Theory and the Japanese Approach. i. • Difficult goals result higher performance than easy job. These goals should be moderately difficult and very specific and of type that an employee will accept and make a commitment to accomplishing them. and must specify a lime period within which the goal is to be attained. (a) Goal-Setting Theory This approach to motivation has been pioneered in the USA by Edwin Locke and his associates in 1960s and refined in 1980s. Goal Difficulty/Challenge There exists a relationship between goal difficulty and work motivation. as suggested by MBO. Goals that are very difficult to achieve are unable to motivate since it is beyond the capacity of the concerned individual. These are given below: o Goal commitment o Self-efficiency. however. In other words.
• Don't whitewash unpleasant assignments: Prepare subordinates for unpleasant assignments well in advance and offer what support you can. • Show a personal interest in the people who work for you: Relations are always smoother between people who know each other on a personal basis than relations between people who merely want something from each other. Like goal-setting meow.Management by Objectives (MBO) is a managerial technique for improving motivation and performance using goal-setting principles. you won't have to rely on expensive financial bonuses. (b) Japanese Approach to Motivation The Japanese approach to motivation has gained increasing popularity around the world during the past few years. have been especially effective: linking pay to jot performance and quality of work-life programs. ail members are committed and motivated to work in the best interests of an organization. It tends to decrease overall level of motivation. team leader or coach and everyone owns the 'share' of an organization. which is prior to such rewards.' • Establish appropriate deadlines: Every project should have a deadline. • Admit mistakes: People will respect you for it and will be less likely to hide their own mistakes. The following steps promote intrinsic motivation: • Workers Participation in Management (WPM) • Management by Objectives (MBO) • Organization Behavior Modification • Job-Redesign • Alternative Work Schedules. to perform more effectively. Some of these theories are compatible and some are not. Since both of them see themselves as one group. which has an intrinsicmotivation content. Cognitive Evaluation Theory A researcher 'Charms' reported in 1960 that extrinsic motivation like pay or rewards for a job. Enhancing Motivation in Organizations Managers trying to enhance the motivation of their employees can. Managerial Approaches for Improving Motivation A number of approaches can help managers motivate workers. The basic tenet of the Japanese approach is that managers and workers should perform together as partners. But a pay plan also must be able to do the following tasks: #44 . This approach is rather a philosophy of management than a theory or model. Certain attempts are made in USA and elsewhere. • Be consistent in your own work and in your relations with others. the Japanese approach is likely to become more common in businesses throughout the world. Pay and Job Performance Pay often can be used to motivate employee performance. The real challenge that a researcher has to face is integration of all or at least some of these together so that their inter and intra-relationships are established. This proposal is called cognitive Evaluation Theory" which has been supported by a large number of research studies conducted subsequently. This will also improve the understanding of motivation. however. • Use incentive programs: Inducing the feeling that 'if you're creative enough. The organization can enhance motivation in following ways: • Humanize the work environment: Respect the need to treat each employee as an individual. No one is called an employee. • Publicize both short and long-term organizational goals: Encourage personal and departmental goal setting. of course. draw on any of the theories described above. instead everyone is a team member. They may in practice adopt specific interventions derived from one or more theories or they may influence motivation through the organization's reward system. Two approaches. • Promote from within: It's great for morale and simplifies hiring procedures. • Be liberal with praise: It's almost impossible to over praise and easy to under praise. Integration of Motivation Theories Thus several theories complicate our understanding.
in essence. Quality of Work Life Programs Quality of Work Life (QWL) is defined as an attempt through a formal program to integrate employee needs and well being with the intention of improved productivity. Expectancy theory helps explain the role of work design in motivation. Alternative Work Schedule Organizations also frequently use the modified 'work-week' as a way to increase employee motivation. participation in work improvement and challenge and opportunity for growth. job enrichment as part of motivational programme. which are as follows: Quality Circles Quality Circles (QC) are small groups of workers who meet regularly with their supervisor as their 'circle leader' to solve work-related problems. QCs give an employee an opportunity for involvement. vehicles for providing employees with opportunities to satisfy lower and upper-level needs as stated by Maslow. A modified 'work-week' can be any work schedule that does not conform to a traditional 8 hours a day or 5 days a week format. personnel and the utilization of resources.• • • Create the belief that good performance leads to high levels of pay. The idea pursued here is that mangers can use any of the alternatives job rotation. Programs for QWL improvements range from those requiring minor changes in an organization to those requiring extensive modifications in structure. #45 . greater worker involvement and higher levels of job satisfaction. social-need satisfaction. job enlargement. Job-Redesign Job-Redesign or changing the nature of people's job is also being used more as a motivational technique. The modified 'work-week' helps individual satisfy higher-level needs by providing more personal control over one's work schedule. Minimize the negative consequences of good performance. There are three types of QWL programs. through the motivators described in 'Herzberg's theory. and Create conditions in which rewards other than pay are evaluated as related to good performance. They are. It also provides an opportunity to fulfil several needs simultaneously.
The first approach is that work attitudes such as job satisfaction are dispositional in nature.e. Social and economic security to employees increases job satisfaction. which is based on the accumulation of cognitive information about the -work place and one's job. educational level. an effective downward flow of communications in an organization is also important to job satisfaction as employees are keen to know more about the company and its plans. i.LESSON – 10 JOB SATISFACTION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes the employee holds towards his job. Caldur and Schurr in 1981 suggested that there are three different approaches to evaluating job satisfaction. There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job experiences". as a number of research studies have shown that varied work generally brings about more satisfaction than routine work. The type of work is very important. The third approach is the if information processing model'. there will be high absenteeism and employee turnover and increased unionism. wages and salaries. towards related factors and towards life in general. skill required for work performance. In a sense. If they are not satisfied. Most of the evidence on the relation between age and satisfaction seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variables up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. which suggests that job satisfaction and other work place attitudes are developed or constructed out of experiences and information provided by others at the work place. then both the quantity and quality of his output will be low. which have less social status or prestige. There is no clear research evidence between educational level and job satisfaction. policies etc. working conditions etc. Job Factors These factors include the type of work to be performed. A person will be satisfied if there is no discrepancy between desired and actual conditions Importance of Job Satisfaction #46 . The importance of job Satisfaction is that if the people are satisfied with their work. fringe benefits. opportunities for advancement. age. it usually depends upon the level and range of intelligence and the challenge of the job. intelligence etc. as it argues that a person's job satisfaction is influenced directly by the characteristics of their job. occupational status involved in the job etc. The second approach is the 'social information processing model'. FACTORS RELATING TO JOB SATISFACTION Some of the most important factors relating to job satisfaction are briefly stated below: Personal Factors These factors include the individual employee's personality. they are stable. Besides. positive or negative disposition learned through experiences. As regards the relationship between the intelligence level and job satisfaction. For our purposes job satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect or feelings that individuals have towards their job. As regards the relation of occupational status to job satisfaction. Where skill exists to a considerable degree it tends to become the main source of satisfaction to the employee. As regards the relation of opportunity for advancement to job satisfaction.. job satisfaction is determined by the discrepancy between what individuals expect to get out of their jobs and what the job actually offers. Basically. Desirable working conditions are also important to job satisfaction. then there is an improvement in both the quality and quantity of production. Organizational Factors These factors include security. this is the most obvious approach. the wages and salaries and fringe benefits are definitely the main factors that affect job satisfaction of employees. research evidences indicate that employees are relatively more dissatisfied in those jobs. sex. you should be able to understand: • • • The concept of job satisfaction The various factors relating to job satisfaction The methods of enhancing job satisfaction The term 'job satisfaction' refers to an employee's general happiness with his or her job. it has been found that this factor is most important to skilled personnel and least important to unskilled personnel.
Your level of salary relative to your experience The design or shape of your organization’s structure The amount of work you are given to do whether too much or too little The degree to which you feel extended in your job 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MEASURES TO INCREASE JOB SATISFACTION Although management cannot change the personal factors in job satisfaction. 20. which contains all of the elements that usually make up a job satisfaction measure. 16. An organization can be substantially benefited if it develops general attitudes of its employees that can effectively contribute to job satisfaction. 9. 6. TABLE 10. job satisfaction significantly contributes to employee productivity and morale. Measuring Job Satisfaction There have been many measures of job satisfaction in the work place from the Job Description index to Job Satisfaction Scales to the more recent job satisfaction scale of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The relationships you have with other people at work. 14. it should appreciate the role-of such factors and must take care to place the employees where the personal factors of the individual help him in achieving job satisfaction. 8. 17. 3. 12. An example of a measure of job satisfaction from the OSI. satisfaction of individual expectations results in group integration and cohesiveness. The actual job itself The degree to which you feel “motivated” by your job Current career opportunities The level of job security in your present job The extent to which you may identify with the public image or goals of your organization The style of supervision that your superiors use The way changes an innovations are implemented The kind of work or tasks that you are required to perform The degree to which you feel that you can personally develop or grow in your job. 10. which explore pay. 13. working conditions. is given in the Table 10. The psychological “feel” or climate that dominates your organization. 19. turnover and absenteeism will be less and productivity will be more. work activities. 15. 7. 4. 11. The way in which conflicts are resolved in your company. 2. The scope your job provides to help you achieve your aspirations and ambitions The amount of participation which you are given in important decision making The degree to which your job taps the range of skills which you feel you possess The amount of flexibility and freedom you feel you have in your job.1. 21. #47 . Communication and the way information flows around your organization. career prospects.Obviously. 18. If employees are satisfied. and relationship with superiors and relationship with colleagues. The feeling you have about the way you and your efforts are valued. 5. Further.1: An Example of a Measure of Job Satisfaction from the OSI How You Feel About Your Job? Very much satisfaction 6 Much satisfaction 5 Some satisfaction 4 Some dissatisfaction 3 Much dissatisfaction 2 Very much dissatisfaction 1 1. 22. They all tend to involve scales.
while keeping in view the factors related to job satisfaction. job enrichment. working conditions. #48 .Similarly. fringe benefits. Management should also take necessary steps to raise the occupational status of the workers. wages. the management can use the factors inherent in the job to plan and administer jobs more advantageously for its personnel. the policy of job rotation. For example. Above all. The management should carefully develop appropriate policies and practices for promotions and transfers. It is evident from the above description that there are many factors that influence job satisfaction and the managements must be able to work out a broad strategies that may help increase job satisfaction and must also able to identify the specific factors that causes the individual differences and must evolve appropriate strategies that could raise the job satisfaction of those particular segment. grievance handling. and job enlargement may help increase job satisfaction. freedom to do work will also help increase job satisfaction. satisfactory hours of work and adequate rest pausing. the management must recognize the importance of the stability of employee attitudes that may lead to high morale and production. Proper delegation of authority. Management should also able to recognize and appreciate the good work done by the employees and give respect for their creative suggestion.
construction of a fly-over. They use project teams and work committees where workers get due recognition. Elton Mayo and his associates conducted the Hawthorne experiments and came to know that the group behavior has great impact on productivity. you should be able to: • • • Define the term group and describe types of groups Understand group formation and development Discuss group norms and group cohesiveness A group consists of a number of individuals working together for a common objective. It is difficult for members to interact sufficiently in a large group. For example. Need for a Group The reasons for the need. He must understand group psychology and should also understand individual behavior in the context of group behavior. DEFINITION OF A GROUP A group is a two or more individual who interact regularly with each other to accomplish a common purpose or goal. Individual and group behavior vary from each other. But for a group to work effectively. • While accomplishing tasks. working in a group. Groups or work teams are the primary tools used by managers. • Group has the ability to satisfy the needs of its members. • Group efforts affect an individual. individuals communicate with each oilier. "a group comprises. making of a movie. Types of Groups In an organization. The knowledge of group behavior as well as individual behavior is necessary for a manager. he need not explain the task to each and every individual. managers must pay attention to the needs of individuals. who move in groups. The importance of group behavior has been realized from time to time. tedious arid of repetitive nature. all members of a group together use their creative and innovative ideas than a single individual. Work committees. All these require coordinated and unified efforts of many individuals. building a ship. The key parts of this definition are the concepts of interaction and influence. Human behavior consists of individuals. According to Marvin Shaw. which also limit the size of the group.11 GROUP DYNAMICS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. there are three types of groups. Groups can make a manager's job easier because by forming a group. of two or more persons who interact with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'. • A group can judge in a better way as compared to an individual. Managers need groups to co-ordinate individual behavior in order to reach the organizational goals. Group efforts are required for its completion. the interactions between its members should be productive.LESSON . • Groups of all kinds and types help by cooperating in all the matters related to production and human relations to work effectively in the organization. The group in which he moves influences individual work. discuss their work performances and take suggestions from each other to make it better. • The tasks in modern industries are becoming more complex. job satisfaction and effective performance. work groups and teams are formed to monitor the work. In 1920. • Groups help in making participative management more effective. of groups are as follows: • Management of modern organizations make mutual efforts to introduce industrial democracy at workplace. The study of group behavior is essential for an organization to achieve its goals. which are as follows: #49 . Groups have significant influence on an organization and are inseparable from an organization. A manager can easily coordinate with the work of an individual by giving the group a task and allow them to co-ordinate with each other. They also make the environment at workplace more lively. They willingly participate in decision-making. They are useful for the organization as they form foundation of human resources. etc. • An individual cannot perform each and every task. his attitude and behavior. Therefore. • In a group.
evaluating a proposed grievance procedure. regulations and policy of the organization. o Reference group: Reference groups are the group where individuals shape their ideas. tastes and opinions. These groups can also be formed outside the plant or office and can be in the form of clubs and associations. A formal organizational group includes departments such as the personnel department. by mutual interests or both. the quality control department and the public relations department. increase in salary. • Task group Tasks groups are the groups formed by an organization to accomplish a narrow range of purposes within a specified time. the individuals join a group. • Informal group Informal groups are the groups formed for the purposes other than the organizational goals. GROUP FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT Groups can form when individuals with similar goals and motives come. which an organization cannot avoid. the advertising department. medical benefit and other facilities are the examples of interest groups o Membership group: Membership groups are the groups of individuals' belonging to the same profession and knowing each other. They suspect their integrity and consider as a virtual threat. They are also like a powerful force. They have to follow rules. Hence. There are certain motives because of which. These groups are spontaneous. The individuals of a group can join and leave the group any time and they can also change their tasks. Employees coming together for payment of bonus. etc. These are the groups formed by the employees themselves at the workplace while working together. teachers of the same faculty in a university. Informal committees. together. beliefs. Informal groups are of following types: o Interest group: Interest groups are the groups formed to attain a common purpose. Some managers consider them to be harmful to the interest of an organization. For example. task forces and work teams are included in task groups. These groups are temporary in nature. understanding how groups form and develop is important for managers. They also develop a solution to a problem or complete its purpose. According to Keith David. Informal groups form when individuals are drawn together by friendship. The organization does not take any active interest in their formation. These groups are permanent in nature. These groups work as an informal communication network forming a part of the grapevine to the organizations. They want support from the group.Functional or formal groups Functional groups are the groups formed by the organization to accomplish different organizational purposes. Groups are formed voluntarily. Informal groups are very effective and powerful. o Friendship group: Friendship groups are the groups of individuals belonging to same age group. Some managers do not consider them as threat and seek the help of group members in getting the organizational task accomplished. According to A L Stencombe. which are as follows: • #50 . assigns a narrow set of purposes such as developing a new product. having similar views. values etc. The organization after specifying a group membership. "a formal group is said to be any social arrangement in which the activities of some persons are planned by others to achieve a common purpose". "the network of persons and social relations which is not established or required form an informal organization".
2 These different stages of group development are explained as follows: • Mutual Acceptance The very first stage of a group development is called "Mutual Acceptance". the members of the group get familiar with one another and check. Some of these are shown in the figure 11. The factors that contribute to interpersonal attraction are sex. For example. a club. Mutual Acceptance • Making Acceptance • Sharing Acquaintances • Discussing Subjects • Testing Each Other • Being Defensive Slow Evolution to Next Stage Communication and Decision-Making • Expressing Attitudes • Establishing Norms • Establishing Goals • Openly Discussing Tasks • Being Defensive Burst of Activities to Next Stage Motivation and Productivity • Cooperating • Working Actively on Tasks • Being Creative Slow Evolution to Next Stage Control and Organization • Working Independently • Assigning Tasks Based on Ability • Being Flexible Figure 11. Retired/old aged individuals join groups to enjoy the companionship of other individuals in similar situation. Since joining these groups is voluntary. • Instrumental benefits: Group membership sometimes also helpful in providing other benefits to an individual. During this stage. For example. a manager might join a Rotary/ Lions club if he feels that being a member of this club will lead to important and useful business contacts. which inter-personal behavior is acceptable and which is #51 . which are depicted in the figure 11. such as these in order to donate their money and time to attain the goals they believe in and to meet other individuals with similar values. The closeness of group members may also be an important factor. as they arc also attracted to each other. The new group must pass s of development. • Need for affiliation: Another reason for individuals to join groups is to satisfy their need for attachment. which is dedicated to environmental conservation. Playing tennis. similar attitudes. personality and economic standing. all these are group activities that individuals enjoy. Individuals join groups. discussing current events or contemporary literature. • Support for group goals: The individuals may also be motivated goals by the other group members to join.• Organizational motives to join groups: Organizations form functional and task groups because such groups help the organization in structuring and grouping the organizational activities logically and efficiently.2. various personal motives affect membership. • Personal motives to join groups: Individuals also choose to join informal or interest groups for unimportant reasons. • Interest in-group activities: Individuals may also be motivated to join an informal or interest group because the activities of the group appeal to them. may motivate individuals to join. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Members of new group are unfamiliar with one another's personalities and : hesitant in their interactions.1: • Interpersonal attraction: Individuals conic together to form informal or interest group.
role conflict and role overload. which arc as follows: #52 . These leaders come forward on the basis of acceptance of all the group members. According to Michael Argyle. These goals are temporary and can be changed in accordance with the needs of the group members. the structure becomes clear and the group moves to the third stage. Norms define boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. in which the members perform the roles they have accepted and direct their group efforts toward goal attainment. They can be social and fair in nature. The failure in role development result in role ambiguity. This will make the group more organized Types of Group Norms There are two types of group norms. therefore. o Power of the group to influence its members. some focus on the group's task. personal characteristics of group members and frequency of interaction. behavioral norms. some interact with other groups and so on. Members also become more comfortable with each other and develop a sense of group identity and unity. During this stage. Role structure is the set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group members define and accept. beliefs. They are framed to achieve objectives of the group. According to Cartwright there are four principal consequences of cohesiveness. This helps all the members of a group to know each other better and helps the group to move to the next stage easily. Motivation and Productivity The third stage is "Motivation and Productivity". This reduces absenteeism and employee turnover. depending on the time. Through communication and decision-making. Each person recognizes and accepts his role as well as to accept and to understand the roles to others. group members share their opinions and formulate the group's goals. GROUP NORMS Norms refer to group behavior standard. Some individuals are leaders. The goals can be achieved effectively depending on the following factors: o The extent of cooperation with management. o Feeling of security on the part of the members. helps the group members to work more consistently and make greater contribution to the achievement of the organizational goals. The members of the group are expected follow the norms strictly. this developmental sequence varies from group to group. • Communication and Decision-making The second stage of group development is "Communication and Decision-making''. o Satisfaction of the needs of group members. role conflict and role overload. o Degree of participation and loyalty of members. which are as follows: o Ability of a group to retain its members. It.unacceptable by the other members of the group. • Cohesiveness Cohesiveness is defined as the attractiveness of group members towards the group. It also emphasizes on the group's ability to satisfy its members needs. • Role Structures A role is the part that an individual plays in a group to reach its goals. Norms play a significant role in disciplining the members of a group to make them to work regularly and properly. • Behavioral norms Although informal groups do not have any specific goals to accomplish. The primary leader has more influence on the group members than the secondary leaders. but they must have some goals over a period of time. Managers have to take steps to avoid role ambiguity. • • CHARACTERISTICS OF MATURE GROUPS As groups pass through the stages of development to maturity. In reality. • Informal leadership Each informal group has one or more leaders. which is characterized by a shared acceptance among members of what the group is trying to do. they begin show signs of the following four characteristics: a role structure. attitudes. They make the members to identify themselves with the group. "Group norms are rules or guidelines of accepted behavior which are established by a group and used to monitor the behavior of its members". It is also psychologically more satisfying to all of its members. o Maintenance of an efficient communication system. Every informal group has one primary leader apart from the secondary: leaders. cohesiveness and informal leadership. traditions and expectations shared by group members. Control and Organization The fourth stage is "Control and Organization".
Groups want to facilitate their performance and overcome barriers to reach their goals. Its members will not support one another and they may face difficulty in reaching their goals. which are as follows: • Some groups may exert more pressure for conformity than others because of the personalities of the group members. the members work well together. Conditions where group norms will be strongly enforced are as follows: • If the norms facilitate group success or ensure group survival.• Behavior norms: Behavior norms are rules that standardise how individuals act while working on a day-to-day basis. new group members are also asked to follow the same. Aswalhappa. "cohesiveness is understood as the extent of liking each member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remain as the member of the group". "do not come to committee meetings unless you have read the reports to be '"discussed"'. These norms tend to reflect motivation. Reasons for Strong Enforcement of Norms • norms are rules that standardize employee output and Groups don't have the time or energy. It refers to the attachment of members with the group. • Favourable evaluation from outsiders. However. even very similar work groups may develop different norms-. Performance norms: Performance number of hours worked. For example. Examples are. Uniqueness of Group Norms The norms of one group cannot be easily mixed with another group. The members of one group may be friendly with their supervisor whereas those of another group may not Norm Conformity Norms have the power to force a certain degree of conformity. Cohesiveness is the extent to which group members are loyal and committed lo the group and to each other. If the group was not successful in the past. to regulate each and every action of the group members. "greet every customer with a smile''. support and trust one another and are generally effective at achieving their chosen goals. • If the norms emphasize the roles of specific members within a group and • If the norms help the group to solve the inter-personal problems themselves. Managers should develop an understanding of the factors that increase and reduce group cohesiveness. • Individuals of cohesive groups have no anxiety at the workplace. • Members of cohesive groups are regular at their work. Attractiveness is the key to cohesiveness. • Organizations gain from the members of cohesive group because they communicate better they share ideologies and respect opinions of fellow employees. Moreover. Groups. The following factors can increase group cohesiveness: • Competitiveness with other groups. The following factors decrease cohesiveness: #53 . • The history of the group and its members also plays a part in conformity. • Frequent interaction. Group Cohesiveness According to Rcnsis Likert. Norms that will help groups meet these aims of performing successfully and keeping morale high are likely to be strongly enforced. a new group member may have greater freedom to exhibit other behaviors. • If the norms simplify or predict regarding the behavior which is expected from group members. like individuals. Only those behaviors that sound to-be important by group members should be brought under control. groups want to increase morale and prevent any interpersonal discomfort to their members. • The members don't have conflicting views. According lo K. • Inter-personal attraction. commitment to the organization and therefore result in high level of performance. Advantages of Group Cohesiveness The advantages of group cohesiveness are as follows: • The members of cohesive groups have high morale. Some differences are primarily due to the difference in structure of the groups. • Cohesiveness increases productivity. try to operate in such a way that they maximize their chances of task success and minimize (heir chances of task failure. There are several factors consist of norm conformity. which decreases the chances of in clash among the views of group members at the workplace or elsewhere. if the group has always been successful by following certain behaviors. In a highly cohesive group. A group that lacks cohesiveness will not be very much coordinated. "cohesiveness is the attractiveness of the members towards the group or resistance of the members leaving it". etc. • Agreement on goals.
• Incompatible goals: Inter-group conflict arises because of goal incompatibility. or a decision. The success of an organization depends upon the harmonious relations among all independent groups. They tend to develop their own unique vocabulary. different perceptions. Following is the sequence in which a conflict can arise: Latent conflict: Is a situation when the conditions for conflict arise. For example. goal attainment by one group may reduce the level of goal attainment by other groups. you should be able to understand: • • Conceptual clarity about nature and levels of conflicts The sources and effects of conflicts to manage conflicts Conflict arises from difference of opinion between the group members while attaining the organizational goals. Unpleasant experiences. The reasons for group conflicts are as follows: • Communication problems: Groups often become very involved with their own areas of responsibility. Managers may either directly resolve the conflicts or they may act as mediators between two or more employees. two groups competing for scarce resources. conflict among groups of different interests is unavoidable. departments. REASONS FOR CONFLICT There are many reasons for conflicts among groups and its members. but it can result in communication problems. Vertical conflict arises between higher and lower level of management. Manifest conflict: Is a situation when both the group try to frustrate each other. union and management are few examples of inter-group conflicts that arise because of incompatibility of goals. According to one survey. knowledge and understanding of conflict and the methods of resolving it are important. An organization is an interlocking network of groups. #54 . In other words. In either case. Perceived conflict: Is a situation when both the groups realize that there exists conflict between them. The conflict between production and marketing departments. attitudes and lack of clarity about responsibilities. In organizations everywhere. individuals because of their competitive roles. Horizontal conflict arises among the employees at same level. differences in interests and goals. Inter-group conflicts result from the ways in which organizations co-ordinate the work of different groups and distribute rewards among those groups. Misinformed receivers often become irritated and then hostile. Felt conflict: Is a situation when members involved in the conflict feel tense or anxious. line and staff departments. This may be due to horizontal differentiation and task specialization. The receiver of information should be considered when a group communicates an idea. Competitiveness within group. communication problems. which are of two types. TYPES OF CONFLICT The levels of group conflict are as follows: • Personal conflict: Are the conflicts that arise among employees. a proposal. Domination by one or more members. LESSON . Conflict outcome: Is a situation or consequence arising after the conflict is eliminated.12 LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. • Group conflict: Are the conflicts arising within two or more groups due to difference in their attitudes and behavior. managers spend an estimated 20 percent of their time dealing with group conflicts.• • • • • Large group size. sections or work teams. Paying attention to an area of responsibility is a worthy Endeavour. Disagreement on goals. Some of them are related to limited resources. • Infra-organizational conflict: Are the conflict arising between levels of an organization.
o Difference in work orientation: The ways in which employees do their work and deal with others vary widely with the functional areas of an organization. the potential for conflict increases. This can affect the success of a group to accomplish their work in an effective manner. there are three types of interdependence among groups. Each party of the conflict competes with each other to get a larger share. Inter-group conflict also arises when it is not clear which group is responsible for certain activities. the potential for conflict is greater. These differences between groups result in frustration.• Task interdependence: Task interdependence means to what extent a work. The conflict between management and the labor union-is the best example. The confusion may also arise regarding who has the final authority to execute the final decisions. Thompson. For example. However the staff groups are being rewarded for cutting costs and personnel provided the types of services asked for by line groups can prevent them from meeting their own goals. In such situations. Task ambiguity often arises where the organization is growing quickly or the organization's environment is changing rapidly. R&D scientists have a longer-range of goals than manufacturing groups. group relies on other organizational groups to complete its tasks. The range of work of manufacturing group is evaluated on how quickly it can manufacture high-quality products while the range of R&D scientists can be evaluated on the basis of product development and testing after a long period of time. o Different perceptions and attitudes: The attitudes. misinterpretation of the behaviors and activities of other groups. staff departments may be rewarded for cutting costs and personnel while line departments are rewarded for increasing the amount of products sold or services provided. arises because of the differences between aggregate demand of a group and available resources to meet them. the line group may have to depend even more heavily on staff groups such as advertising. According to J. working conditions and other related matters. If the group relations begin with the attitudes of distrust. Thus. finance. First. which depend on each other for their respective task such as production department and quality department. there is a possibility of conflicts. from the other group. Life and staff groups often have conflicts resulting from this type of interdependence. For example. functional groups differ in their time perspectives. it refers to the dependence of one group on another for resources or information. o Reciprocal interdependence: It arises between the groups. disagreements in their views and among themselves. accomplish its goal at the expense of other groups. In sequential task interdependence. which are as follows: o Pooled interdependence: It arises when groups have little interaction with each other but are affected by each other's activities. o Sequential task interdependence: It arises when one group is unable to commence its work until the work of other group gets completed. The greater the differences in goal and time between two groups. o Task ambiguity: The lack of clarity over job responsibilities is called task ambiguity and it frequently leads to aggression between groups. the more likely it is that conflict will arise between them while co-ordinating their work efforts. amenities. DYNAMICS OF INTER-GROUP CONFLICT The following points are covered in the dynamics of an inter-group conflict: #55 . A good example of task ambiguity is inter-group conflict arising in the recruitment of new employees. Conflicting reward systems inevitably result in poor inter-group relations. conflict of this nature. Inter-group conflict arises from reciprocal task interdependence over difference in performance expectations. It can be said in genera] that as interdependence increases. The production department provides the goods to the marketing department to sell and the marketing department prepares the orders and estimates on the basis of the volume produced by the production department. secrecy and closed communications. competitiveness. o Conflicting reward systems: Sometimes the ways in which reward systems in organizations arc designed create a situation in which one group can only. The only linkage between the two is that they share financial resources from a common pool and the success of each branch contributes to the success of the organization. For example. It may be the responsibility of either the personnel department or any of the functional departments such as marketing. To increase the amount of products sold. o Resource sharing: The relation between two groups can be affected by the degree to which they make use of a common pool of resources and the degree to which this common pool of resources is adequate to meet the demands of both the groups. Such conflicts take place in the quantum of wages. a branch in Delhi does not need to interact with a branch in Chennai. the output of one group becomes the input of another group. Second. Each group is dissatisfied will the quality or quantity of work received. In simple words. The goals of manufacturing groups are more specific and clear-cut than the goals of R&D groups. values and perceptions of members of various groups towards each other can be a cause and a consequence of the nature of their relationship. the goals of different functional groups vary to a large extent.
The groups try to find out those interests levels where they have the same say. Bargaining between two groups is successful if both groups are comfortable with the agreement between them. They are as follows: o The group demands more loyalty from individual members while facing an external threat. • Encouragement: This is another indirect method to solve the group conflicts. it is important for a group to respond quickly and in a unified manner to the activities of other groups. By doing so. For instance. • Influencing decision criteria: Groups can also sometimes exert power lo change criteria for decision-making that are selected as the basic for resource distribution. For example. But persuasion is possible only if there are no clashes between the groups and its members #56 . two or more groups cooperate or combine their resources in order to increase their power over other groups. contracting occurs between labor and management at the time collective bargaining. • Persuasion: This is the indirect method. This makes the accomplishment of the assigned task much easier. The changes that occur arc as follows: o There are distortions of perception about one's own group and about the other group. • Controlling Information: Gaining access to sensitive information and then limiting other group's access lo it increases the power of" the information-' rich group and other subunits. systematic changes take place in the perceptions. one group may agree to give the other. It includes avoidance of direct approaches on the part of managers to solve among groups. Management reaction to disruptive inter-group conflict can take many different forms. they can find out a solution without the involvement of management. Some of these strategies allow co-operation and sharing between groups while other strategies are more competitive and increase the power of one group at the expense of others. It includes encouragement on the part of managers to the groups so that they will be able to meet and discuss their differences. Methods to Solve Inter-group Conflict Indirectly The various methods to solve inter-group conflicts indirectly are as follows: • Avoidance: It is an indirect method often used by the managers. o There is increased ill feeling towards the rival group. the groups try to show how important it is to each of them in attaining organizational goals. Afterwards'. Union-Management relationships during contract negotiations are one of the examples of the group dynamics. Each group makes some compromises so that there can be some predictability and stability in their relationships. a quick turn around time on the repairs of needed equipment only if the Second group agrees to bring complaints about the quality of repairs to it before going to management. in which the groups find the areas of common interests among themselves. • Pressure tactics: These are applied to force other to use the most competitive strategy a group can use to gain power. POT example. o In an inter-group conflict. In an inter-group conflict. GROUP STRATEGIES TO GAIN POWER There are several strategies that various groups use to gain power in an inter-group conflict situation. a union might threaten to strike to pressurize management. o Changes in relation between groups: The nature of the relationships between groups also changes markedly during inter-group conflicts. o There is a shift among the groups from a problem-solving motive to a win-lose motive. o The interaction and communication between groups' decreases. • Co-opting: It occurs when a group gives some of its leadership positions to members of other groups or includes them in its policy-making committees. Each party undervalues the interests of the other group. But management usually tries to minimize the conflict indirectly and if this fails. representatives from financial institutions are included in the Board of Directors of a Company to participate in decision-making activities. • Forming association: In forming an association. But avoidance does not always minimize the problem. past differences and difficulties between group members are forgotten and group cohesiveness increases. Matters can get worse if nothing is done and the groups can become more aggressive and unfriendly.• Changes within each group: When there is inter-group conflict in an organization. For example. in which the groups agree as to what each of them will get and give others regarding their work. • Bargaining: This is the indirect method. become directly involved. It becomes difficult for each group to see the positive behavior and attitude of the other group. It leads to more coordination of activities. In the face of an external threat. • Contracting: It refers to the negotiation or an agreement between two groups. attitudes and behaviors of the participants. Members of groups co-operate with each other in order to compete more effectively with members of other groups. the organization and structure of the work group becomes more rigid. allocution of responsibilities to different group members.
The super ordinate goals are as follows: The assignment and coordination of work among groups should be clarified so that the daily disputes over minor issues can be avoided. The key figures that are to be removed may be leaders of the groups and removing them could lead to greater conflict. When conflicting groups have to cooperate to accomplish a goal. If a conflict arises because of personality differences between two individuals. o Managers should monitor reward systems to eliminate any win-lose conflicts among groups. These are goals desired by two or more groups that can only be accomplished through the cooperation of the groups. o Managers can establish rules and standard procedures to regulate conflict in more constructive and effective ways. The final method to minimize the conflicts is to find super-ordinate goals. Management can use domination to minimize the conflicts by exercising its authority and power over the groups and their members. o The use of co-operative approaches among groups in organizations often leads to more positive results than does the use of competitive approaches. But the disadvantage of this method is that it ignores the causes of conflicts and as a result.Methods to Solve Inter-Group Conflict The various methods to solve inter-group conflicts directly are as follows: • Ignoring the conflict: This is a direct method used by (he managers to solve inter-group conflicts. • Domination by the management: This method of solving inter-group conflicts emphasizes on improving the inter-group relations. To improve the inter-group relations. group simply refuses to attack the other group. a wide profit-sharing plan of a company may encourage groups to work together. removing them is a possible solution. • Removing the key figures in the conflict: This is another direct method to solve the inter-group conflicts. It is also difficult to pinpoint accurately the individuals who are the root-cause of conflicts. a. • Problem solving: Management can also establish a task force with representatives from groups in conflict to work on problems. conflict can be minimized. the conflict situation frequently continues or gets worse over time. For example. o Appealing to super-ordinate goals. #57 . The task force develops the ideas 'and procedures for improving group interaction and thereby attempt to solve the conflicts arising between the groups. the conflicts among groups can reduce. Ignoring the conflict is characterized by the absence of behavior wherein the members of the groups avoids dealing with the dysfunctional aspects of the conflict. In this. If the profits of a company are distributed among employees at the end of the year. greater integration or collaboration among groups is needed. It includes the removal of the key figures in the conflict.
and management practitioners. Communication transforms a group of unrelated individuals into a team that knows what its goals are and how it will try to reach them. The figure 13. To improve social relations among workers by encouraging intercommunication. Interpersonal communication is fundamental to all managerial activities.1 can be used to identify the major categories of communication that arc especially relevant to the study of organizational behavior. communication is considered to be the most important and most effective ingredient of the management process. effective management is a function of effective communication. #58 . Thus. the behaviors that occur in an organization are vital to the communication process. all their acts. including members of the general public. Accordingly. This is necessary for group effort. Also there must be channel of communication for feedback. organizational behavior scholars. Communication Technology Interpersonal Technology Verbal Technology Figure 13. some of the purposes of communication are: • • • • • • • To discourage the spread of misinformation. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION In modern society. peers and others outside the organization. orders and procedures must pass through some kind of communication channel. To improve labor management relations by keeping the communications channels open and accessible. All other management functions involve communication in some form of directions and feedback. Since managers work with and through other people. it means who says what. for co-ordinated action. feelings and values. ambiguity and rumors. Broadly. effective communication is a basic prerequisite for the attainment of organizational goals.LESSON-13 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. To encourage subordinates to supply ideas and suggestions for improving the product or work environment and taking these suggestions seriously. This would satisfy the basic human need for a sense of belonging and friendship. Communication is the process of transmitting information from one person to another. Communication experts emphasize the behavioral implications of communication by pointing out that "the only means by which one person can influence another is by the behaviors he shows that is. To develop information and understanding among all workers. the term communication is frequently and freely used by everyone. In practice. rules. facts. communication is necessary. To prepare workers for a change in methods of environment by giving them necessary information in advance. sub-ordinates. Importance of Communication Interpersonal roles require managers to interact with supervisors. Thus. which can cause conflict and tension. This personal and behavioral exchange view of communication takes many forms. In other words. you should be able to understand: • • • • The meaning and importance of communication Communication process Various types of organizational communication The barriers and the methods of overcoming barriers to effective communication Communication is one of the most frequently discussed dynamics in the entire field of organizational behavior. through which channel and with what effect. to whom. the communicative exchanges between people provide the sole method by which influence or effects can be achieved". It is a way of reacting to the other person with ideas. Therefore.1: Chain of Communication in Organizational Behavior Objectives of Communication Managements depend upon communication to achieve organizational objectives. cooperation and job satisfaction. that is necessary for motivation. thoughts. To foster any attitude. policies.
physical actions and symbols such as numbers. pictures. the familiarity of the sender and receiver and other situational factors. graphs etc. Communication goes up. #59 . A manager. Communication also allows people to express their emotions. Communication of feelings can be very important to employee morale and productivity. If the intended message and the received message differ a great deal. Once a decision has been made. a manager may communicate for all the purposes described above. Decoding The person to whom the message is sent. Employees who feel that they cannot vent their anger or express their joy on the job may feel frustrated and repressed. can be reduced by communicating that information. your experience with the letter-writer and so on. most communication involves a combination of these. Source or Sender The communication cycle begins when one person called the sender wants to transmit a fact. The encoding might take the form of words. Changes in market or in customer preferences can lead to uncertainty about whether a product Or a marketing strategy needs to be updated or overhauled. Decision-makers must share their views on what the problem is and what the alternatives are. Communication is especially important for the task of decision-making. Indeed. facial expressions. COMMUNICATION PROCESS The figure 13. there is a communication gap and misunderstanding is likely to follow. Encoding The second step is to encode the message into a form appropriate to the situation. can communicate with other groups about changes in the market place. might call the research department to send the latest information on a particular market. the more important the communication of information becomes. In the simplest kind of communication. The greater the uncertainty about a task. People need to knowwhere they are heading and why. down and across the levels of the hierarchy of an organization. called the receiver interprets the meaning of the message through the process of decoding. you may need to use all your knowledge of the language. for example. On any given day. Even when you are just reading a letter. opinion or other information to someone else.Communication allows people to co-ordinate with each other by providing them with a way to share information. light. gestures. They also need directions for their specific tasks. The encoding process is influenced by the content of the message. both the sender and the receiver perform the encoding and decoding functions automatically. The first type of information that needs to be shared is what the goals of the organizations are. This process may be simple and automatic. Common channels or media in organizations include face-to-face communication using the media of sound waves. The uncertainty resulted from the lack of information. letters and reports. communication is necessary to implement the decision and to evaluate its results. idea. as a loop between the source and the receiver. but it can also be quite complex. for instance. Transmission After the message has been encoded. Market researchers.2 presents a general view of the communication process. it is transmitted through the appropriate channel or medium.
METHODS OF COMMUNICATION There are mainly three primary methods of communication in an organization. Other common forms of written communication include reports. generally someone outside the organization. weak signal due to bad weather etc. Thus. or an individual acting on behalf of a group. These methods of communication are often combined. noise takes on a meaning slightly different from its usual one. A letter is a formal means of communication with an individual. or a memo.3 given below shows various forms each method can take. and non-verbal. It can be a disruption such as disturbance in a telephone line. policy and procedure manuals inform them of organizational rules. which may affect the message. also known as face-to-face communication is the most prevalent form of organizational communication. Typically organizations produce a great deal of written communication of many kinds. As such. Reports generally summarize the progress or results of a project and often provide information to be used in decision-making. a group. operations manual describe how to perform tasks and respond to work-related problems. Considerations that affect the choice of method include the audience whether it is physically present. oral. other people talking dosely. It can also be internal to the receiver such as tiredness or hunger or minor ailments. which is called the feedback. It may be in the form of direct talk and conversation between the speakers and listeners when they are physically present at one place or through telephone or intercom system conversation. The sender has generally little control over how the receiver will deal with the message. a car driving by etc. A performance appraisal form is an example. which are written. ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication. The receiver may ignore it. They tend to deal with a single topic and are more impersonal. manuals and forms. decide not to try to decode. The figure 13. and the lost of transmission. Where one-way communication #60 . Manuals have various functions in organizations. Probably the most common form of written communication in organizations is the office memorandum. it might be something that keeps the receiver from paying close attention such as someone coughing. The communication cycle continues when the receiver responds by the same steps back to the original sender. the nature of the message.Receiver The receiver can be an individual. understand it or respond immediately. but less formal than letters. Noise In the communication process. Memos usually are addressed to a person or group inside the organization. Noise refers to any type of disturbance that reduces the clearness of the message being transmitted. they represent attempts to make communication more efficient and information more accessible. Instruction manuals tell employees how to operate machines.
• There is no immediate feedback opportunity to be sure that the receiver has understood the message. speed and volume of the spoken word. Disadvantages • There is no formal record of communication so that any misunderstood message cannot be referred back to what was actually said. These areas have to be covered in writing for efficient functioning of the organization. so that if the receiver js unsure of the message. • The spirit of authority cannot be transmitted effectively in verbal transactions. • It can save time when many persons must be contacted at the same time. pitch. causing disruption in its effectiveness. The written communications are more likely to be well considered. then oral communication may include public address system. • It allows for feedback and spontaneous thinking. some of the environmental elements such as building and office space can convey a message about the authority of the person. The message can be stored for an indefinite period of time. • It appears formal and authoritative for action. It is most effective when it is required to communicate information that requires action in the future arid also in situations where communication is that of general informational nature. trust and sincerity can be much better judged in a face-to-face conversation rather than in written words. Oral communication is particularly powerful because the receiver not only hears the content of the message.is required. formal reports.the long hierarchical chain of command. rules and regulations. then some distortions can occur during the process. Informal rumour mill or grapevine is also a popular form of oral communication. • It conveys personal warmth and friendliness and it develops a sense of belonging because of these personalized contacts. rapid feedback allows for early detection by the sender so that corrections can be immediately made. time saving and least expensive form of communication. The more people the message is to pass through. information bulletins and so on. the greater is the potential distortion. but also observes the physical gestures associated with it as well as the changes in tone. The human voice can impart the message much more forcefully and effectively than the written words and is an effective way of changing attitudes. • Spontaneous responses may not be carefully thought about. According to Tipkins and Mc-Carter. letters. simple. It is most effective for leaders to address the followers via public address system or audio-visual media. It also ensures that everyone has the same information. memos. facial expressions can be categorized as: #61 . Advantages • It serves as an evidence of events and proceedings. In addition. tone of voice and facial expressions. Disadvantages • It can be very time-consuming. it helps in avoiding delays. The message can be checked for accuracy before it is transmitted. • Lengthy and distant communication cannot be conveyed verbally in an efficient way. • It provides a permanency of record for future references. since faith. • It leads to excessive formality in personal relations. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION A written communication is put in writing and is generally in the form of instructions. Advantages Some of the advantages of oral communication are: • It is direct. • Confidential written material may leak out before time. These non-verbal expressions include facial expressions and physical movement. policy manuals. beliefs and feelings. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Some of the meaningful communication is conveyed through non-verbal ways. • The receiver may receive the message in his own perception and thus misunderstand the intent of the message. • Because the message is conveyed instantaneously. Even some of the verbal messages are strengthened or diluted by non-verbal expressions. if necessary. logical and clear. • Organizational Communications • More or less or a different meaning might be conveyed by manner of speaking. red tape and other formalities. • It is more reliable for transmitting lengthy statistical data. • If the verbal message is passed on. • It reduces the likelihood of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. specially for lengthy reports.
On the other hand. As far as environmental elements are concerned. shyness.force. Figure 13. Some of the other body language symptoms are shrugging our shoulders for indifference. fear and other characteristics that can never be adequately communicated through written word or through oral communication itself. tap our fingers on the table for impatience and we slap our forehead for forgetfulness. a small metal desk on a corner communicates the status of a low ranking officer in the organizational setting. Communication Networks A communication network is the pattern of information exchange used by the members of a group. power and prestige such as that of a chief operating officer. Other examples of body language are tilting of head. wink an eye for mischief or intimacy.5 shows Chain Communication Network.4 shows Wheel Communication Network. When the members of a group are on different levels/of the organization's hierarchy. Figure 13. Accordingly non-verbal actions have considerable impact on the quality of communication. frustration. When the members of a group communicate mostly with the group leader. a large office with luxurious carpeting and expensive furniture conveys a message of status. arrogance. a wheel network develops. a chain network is developed. Informal groups that lack a formal leader often form an all-channel network that everyone uses to communicate with everyone else. Our facial expressions can show anger. #62 . folding of arms or sitting position in a chair.• Interest-excitement • Enjoyment-joy • Surprise-startle • Distress-anguish • Fear-terror • Shame-humiliation • Contempt-disgust • Anger-rage Physical movements or body language is known as "kinesics". A handshake is probably the most common form of body language and tells a lot about a person's disposition. Members of a task force or committee often develop a circle network of communication with each person communicating directly to the other members of the task.
7 shows All Channel Communication Network. A manager. trusted employee might not interfere with the process. Non-verbal communication is also important and can be a part of interpersonal. Members' commitment to the group's work is defined by the centrality of the position of the members. For instance. 2. a group with high density and distance can expect a lot of noise distortion in its communication. the manager may encourage silent group members to speak in order to get the desired decisions. Group Performance Factors: The group performance factors like group's size.6 shows Circle Communication Network. #63 . For instance. all channel networks arises. if members always sit around a table. Managers must make use of all these characteristics and tendencies to help groups communicate and work most efficiently. Figure 13. All these provide insight into possible communication problems. they do not sufficiently describe the paths of all messages transmitted in organizations. then circle network arises. If the manager relies on a group to help make decisions. The following factors influence the formation of communication patterns within small groups: Organizational Communications • 123 1. For instance. norms and cohesiveness also affect the' formation of communication networks. 3. The ease with which members can communicate with others is measured by members' relative freedom to use different paths to communicate. Type of Task: If the task of the group is simple.Figure 13. The distance between members describes how far a message must travel to reach the receiver. The density of communication refers to the total quantity of communication among members. Environment: Environment including the group's seating arrangement and meeting place also affects communication patterns. as messages travel a long distance to get to the receivers. the manager may need to take action. composition. it is much easier to have an all-channel network in a group of eight than in a group of eighty. Individuals can send and receive messages across whole organizational levels and departments by means of vertical communication or the informal communication network. For hard tasks. who sees that a wheel network is forming around an experienced. group and organizational communication. FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Although interpersonal and group forms of communication pertain even at the broadest organizational levels. If an assertive but irresponsible employee becomes the hub of such a wheel. a chain or wheel network is used.
Inappropriate Channel #64 . The content of downward communication often includes directives. there are personal factors. There are certain external roadblocks to effective communication. In the transactional process. They may also issue a clearly worded memo or report stating the facts and thereby help minimize the damage that the informal network can do. suggestions or complaints and information the sub-ordinate thinks is of importance to the superior. the communication is not simply the flow of information. customers. but it develops a personal linkage between the superior and the subordinate. It is in the form of gossip in which a person spreads a message to as many other people as possible who may either keep the information to themselves or pass it on to others. Managers can also obtain valuable information from the grapevine and use it for decision-making. which interferes with the effectiveness of communication. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION The communication must be interpreted and understood in the same manner as it was-meant to be sent by the sender. Some of the organizational barriers and some of the interpersonal barriers to effective communication are discussed below: Noise Barriers Noise is any external factor. It may cause interference in the process of communication by distraction or by blocking a part of the message or by diluting the strength of the communication. which is mutual and reciprocal because. performance feedback and information that the superior thinks are of value to the sub-ordinate. managers may need to intervene. a last minute communication with a deadline may put too much pressure on the receiver and may result in resentment. Transactional Communication Wenburg and Wilmont suggest that instead of communication being "upward" or "downward" which is intercommunication. assignments. Managers should have some control over the informal network. new ideas and a better feel for the entire company. For example. Upward Communication Upward Communication consists of messages moving up the hierarchy from subordinates to superiors. Hence the manager must know when to communicate. The content of gossip is likely to be personal information or the information about the organization itself. In addition. Other Form's of Communication One that has become especially popular is informally labelled as "management by wandering around". A message must be sent at an appropriate time to avoid these problems. "all persons are engaged in sending and receiving messages simultaneously.Vertical Communication Vertical communication is the communication that flows both up and down the organizational hierarchy. The content of upward communication usually includes requests. false information or politically motivated information. dealers and any one else involved with the company in any way. Downward Communication Downward Communication consists of messages moving down the hierarchy from superiors to sub-ordinates. They can hold open meetings and objectively discuss the issues that are being informally discussed already. The basic idea is that some managers keep in touch with what is going on by wandering around and talking with people such as subordinates. For instance. This communication typically takes place between managers and their superiors or subordinates. Informal Communication Another term for informal communication network is the grapevine. The term is derived from noise or static effects in telephone conversation or radio wave transmission. the grapevine in an organization may be carrying harmful information. Informal networks are found in all organizations. This will give managers. When these kinds of rumors are being spread. otherwise it will not achieve the desired result and a communication breakdown will occur. Some of the sources contributing towards noise factor are: Poor Timing A message sent on poor timing acts as a barrier. it should be "transactional" communication. which affect communication. Each person is constantly sharing in the sending and receiving process and each person is affecting the other".
could lead to two interpretations. Physical Distractions Any physical distractions such as telephone interruptions or walk-in visitors can interfere with the effective face-to-face communication process. For example. that there is no dancing on Sundays and second.Poor choice of channel of communication can also be contributory to the misunderstanding of the message. Different people may perceive the same situation differently. • There may be professional jealousy resulting in closed channels. Hearing what we want to hear and ignoring information that conflicts with what we know can totally distort the intent or the content of the message. either because the sender believes that the receiver does not need all the information or that the receiver is better off not knowing all aspects of a given situation. The result could be confusion or some important information may be laid aside for the purpose of convenience. Perception Perception relates to the process through which we receive and interpret information from our environment and create a meaningful word out of it. • The secretary may forget to forward a memo. #65 . rather than unique and distinct individuals. that there is dancing on Sundays. Some of these are: Filtering Filtering refers to intentionally withholding or deliberate manipulation of information by the sender. Cultural Barriers The cultural differences can adversely affect the communication effectiveness. Improper or Inadequate Information Information must be meaningful to the employee and should be precise or to the point. chaotic or distorted if the channels are not clear or if there are bottlenecks. First. he may perceive women to be less efficient managers. A pleasant smile may make a positive first impression. a nightclub advertisement sign. Some of the perceptual situations that may distort a manager's assessment of people resulting in reduced effectiveness of the communication are: • A manager may perceive people to belong to one category or another as stereotypes. The words and paragraphs must be interpreted with the same meaning as was intended. Some factors contributing to such disruptions are: • The managers may withhold important negative information. This perception limits the manager's ability to effectively respond to and deal with individual differences and differing views of work situations. It could also be that the receiver is simply told what he wants to hear. Information Overhead Overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they are capable of processing. Hence the organization structure should be such that the chain of command and channels of communication are clearly established and ithe responsibility and authority are clearly assigned and are traceable. specially for multi-national companies and enterprises. "clean and decent dancing every night except Sunday". For example. • A manager may make total assessment of a person based on a single trait. Network Breakdown Network breakdown may be intentional or due to information overload and time pressures under which a communication has to be acted upon. Ambiguity in use of words will lead to different interpretations. Semantic Barriers These barriers occur due to differences in individual interpretations of words and symbols. but it not clean and decent. The choice of a wrong word or a comma at a wrong place in a sentence can sometimes alter the meaning of the intended message. Interpersonal Barriers There are many interpersonal barriers that disrupt the effectiveness of the communication process and generally involve such characteristics that either the sender or the receiver can cause communication problems. Organizational Structure Communication may be blocked. Too little or too much information endangers effective communication. The manager must decide whether the communication would be most effective if it is in writing or by a telephone call or a face-to-face conversation or a combination of these modes. • A manager may assume that his subordinate's perception about things and situations are similar to his own.
if the sender is not trusted. the managers must make sure that they use the word in the same manner as the receiver is expected to understand it. then the decoding and the interpretation of the message will lead to a meaning of the sender. Some guidelines for effective listening are: • Listening requires full attention to the speaker. • Do not prejudice or value the importance of the message due to your previous dealings and experiences with the sender or your perceptions about him. otherwise you will not be able to grasp the meaning of the message in its entirety. Listen for feelings in (he message content and respond positively to these feelings. Hence. then the receiver will scrutinize the message heavily and deliberately look for hidden meanings or tricks and may end up distorting the entire message. A wellwritten communication eliminates the possibility of misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Multi-meaning Words Many words in English language have different meanings when used in different situations. if the source is believed to be an expert in a particular field then the listener may pay close attention to the message. frustrated or depressed may be interpreted differently than when he is happy. • Ask questions to clarify any points that you do not understand clearly and reflect back to the speaker. positive or negative. Two-way communication. even though more time-consuming. Extreme emotions are most likely to hinder effective communication because rational judgments are replaced by emotional judgments. Some of the steps that can be taken in this respect are as follows: 1 Feedback: Feedback helps to reduce misunderstandings. the message is taken much more seriously and accepted at face value. Accordingly. Feedback is the only way to ascertain as to how the message was interpreted. assisting receivers of messages in correct decoding and interpretation and providing an efficient and effective feedback system. 2 Improve Listening Skills: Good listening habits lead to better understanding and good relationships with each other. selecting appropriate channels for communicating these messages.Sender Credibility When the sender of the communication has high credibility in the eyes of the receiver. When writing message it is necessary to be precise thus making the meaning as clear as possible so that it accomplishes 3 #66 . Overcoming Communication Barriers It is very important for the management to recognize and overcome barriers to effective communication for operational optimization and this would involve diagnosing and analyzing situations. your understanding of what has been said. • The language used tone of the voice and emotions should receive proper attention. designing proper messages. Feedback Barriers The final source of communication barrier is the feedback or lack of it. avoids distrust and leads to trust and openness. Develop Writing Skills: Clearly written messages can help avoid semantic and perception barriers. Do not let your mind wander or be preoccupied with something else. Conversely. Emotions The interpretation of a communication also depends upon the state of the receiver at the time when message is received. trust and respect for the sender. If the receiver has confidence. Similarly. which helps in building a healthy relationship contributing to communication effectiveness. The information is transferred more accurately when the receiver is given the opportunity to ask for clarifications and answer to any questions about the message. • Do not jump to conclusions before the message is over and is clearly understood. • Make sure that there are no outside interruptions and interference during the course of conversation. otherwise it will create a barrier to proper understanding of the message. and believe it specially if the message is related to the field of expertise. • Summarize and restate the message after it is over to make sure about the content and the intent of the message. a manager must not assume that a particular word means the same thing to all people who use it. The same message received when the receiver is angry.
The Ideas and Messages should be Clear. the management must be sincere and should earn the trust of the subordinates. The written communication should be polite and unambiguous. The management must always be helpful in carrying out the intended message of the communication. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION These guidelines are designed to help management improve their skills in communicating so as not only avoid any barriers to effective communication. Avoid Credibility Gaps: Communication is a continuing process and the goal of the communication is complete understanding of the message as well as the creation of trust among all members of. It should also fee based on future needs of the organization as well as individuals. Luft. expressions and emotions exhibited. Accordingly. and feedback. "I am not sure it will work". they would be highly motivated to give active support to such communication. When these concerned levels are omitted or bypassed. Consult with others who are involved in Planning the Communication If people have participated in the planning process. The communication flow and its spread must avoid bypassing levels or people. the organization. Consider the Receiver's Interest Take the receivers interests into account. • Do not be boggart down by rules of composition: While the rules of grammar and composition must be respected. distrust. but be confident and definitive. which leads to misunderstanding of the meaning or intent of the message. the established channels must be used as required. Mode of Delivery While delivering the communication. and then the receiver will be more responsive to the communication. Communication should be Comprehensive Communication should be complete so as not only to meet the present demands. but also to strengthen the basis for optimum results which depend upon the clear understanding of the desired communication. According to the studies conducted by J. Some helpful hints in written communication are suggested by Robert Degise as follows: • Keep words simple: This will reduce your thoughts to essentials and the message will be easier to understand for the receiver. Do not be brief at the cost of completeness. it creates bickering. The management must clarify any part of the communication that may be necessary and must encourage comments. but also the timing of the message and the environmental setting in which the message is delivered and received is equally important. thus contributing to communication effectiveness. It should also be brief so that only necessary and sufficients meanings are provided. The message must be clear. openness and an atmosphere of trust builds healthy relationship and closes credibility gaps. This will eliminate ambiguity so that the message will not be subject to more than one interpretation. Integrity The communication must pass through the proper channels to reach the intended receiver. The message will be lost if the words are complex and do not lend to a clear single meaning. appropriate and accurate. The people who are concerned must know exactly what they need and when they need the communication. #67 . Accordingly. The success of the communication also depends upon the tone of the voice if the communication is verbal. attentiveness to the receiver and so on. • Be specific: Vagueness destroys accuracy. Brief and Precise The ideas to be communicated must be well planned and clearly identified. Management should not only be sensitive to the needs and feelings of workers but also its promises should be supported by actions. Accordingly. The response and feedback to the communication should determine whether the action to the communication has been prompt. Sense of Timing The message should not only be timely so that the decisions and actions can be taken in tie and when necessary. they should not take priority over the ultimate purpose of the communication. but express your thoughts. • Write concisely: Use as few words as possible. avoid negative statements like. precise and to the point and free from distortions and noise. Use proper Follow-up All communications need a follow-up to ensure that these were properly understood and carried out. questions. confusion and conflict. opinions and ideas in the fewest number of words possible.4 the desired purpose. be specific and to the point.
Now cellular phones. the nature of managerial and organizational communication has changed dramatically.Recently. psychologists are beginning to discover some problems associates with these new advances in communication. E-Mail and Internet have made the communication quick and convenient. It is now even possible for managers from different cities to meet by teleconferencing method without leaving their offices. mainly because of break through of the electronic technology and advent of computers. #68 . At the same time.
• A leader should have the confidence of the individuals of the organization. "Leadership is both a process and a property. • Leadership uses non-coercive methods to direct and coordinate the activities of the individuals of an organization. As a property. According to Koontz and O'Donnell. • A leader possesses qualities to influence others. According to Grey and Starke. competently and enthusiastically for achievement of groups objectives. According to Wendell French. According to Keith Davis. the raising of man's performance to higher standard. FEATURES OF LEADERSHIP The features of leadership are as follows: • Leadership is the process of influencing behavior of individuals of an organization. "Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals". • Leadership is meant for a given situation. Individuals can be induced to contribute their optimum towards the attainment of organizational goals through effective leadership. According to Peter Drucker. • Leadership is a group activity. It provides direction. "Leadership means the lifting of man's visions to higher sights. more broadly.LESSON -14 LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. it is used for noncoercive influence lo shape up the goals of a group or organization. • A leader must be able to unite the people as a team and build up team spirit. DEFINITION Leadership is the art of influencing and inspiring subordinates to perform their duties willingly. In business and industrial organizations. • Leadership is continuous process of influencing behavior. Leadership provides direction and vision for future to an organization. given group for a pre-determined period of lime. It has an ability to attract others and potential to make them follow the instructions. • A leader must have the capacity to recognize the potentials of the individuals and transform them into realities. as a superior person to them. Importance of Leadership The following points can judge the importance of leadership: • A leader should act as a friend of the people whom he is leading. • Leadership directs the individuals to attain the tasks assigned to them by following the instructions of their leaders. leaders are people who are able to influence the behavior of others without recourse to threats or other forms of force towards the individuals. a vision for future. Leaders are the people who are accepted by the other individuals. you should be able to understand: • • • The meaning of leadership The various types and theories of leadership The importance of leadership in organizations Leadership is an integral part of management and plays a vital role in managerial operations. guidance. “Leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives”. It encourages liveliness in the group. leadership is the set multi characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to be leaders". Thus. #69 . managers play the role of leader and acquire leadership of subordinates. toward a vision of the future”. their efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals and activate the individuals of an organization to make them work. Leader influences his followers and followers also exercise influence over his leader. the building of man's personality beyond its normal limitations". As a process. to motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals and to help define group or organizational culture. "Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others in the direction of a goal or set of goals or. Leadership acquires dominance and the followers accept the directives and control of a leader. and confidence to the employees and helps in the attainment of goals in much easier way. Leadership influences behavior of the individuals. • Leadership gives the individuals.
Filippo. Members may feel insecure and develop frustration for lack of decision-making authority. The following are the differences between the leadership and the management: • Management takes rational and logical decisions while leadership takes decision on expectations of the followers. 2.e. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP Following are the main types of leadership: Autocratic or Authoritarian In this type of leadership. According to Edwin B. There is complete delegation of authority to subordinates so that they can make decisions by themselves. Participation or involvement of the employees in the decision-making process is also rewarded. A leader should act as a link between the work groups and the forces outside the organization. He feels happy in controlling all the actions of his subordinates. In this type of leadership. He makes all decisions and does not disclose anything to anyone. #70 . Exchange of ideas among subordinates and with the leader is given encouragement. under such type is manipulative in nature. Leadership on the other hand.• • • • • • A leader should be able to maintain discipline among his group and develop a sense of responsibility. leaders consult their groups and consider their opinion in the decision-making process. who feel that. Leaders encourage discussion among the group members on the problem under consideration and arrive at a decision depending on their consent. authority is centered in the leader himself. Laissez-faire or Free Rein In this type of leadership. It is. under such type uses negative influence and expects that the employees should obey his orders immediately. there is a complete centralization of authority in the leader. there are following three types of leaders in autocratic: 1. He creates a feeling in the minds of his subordinates and workers that they are participating in decision-making processes. The demerit of this type of leadership is that it takes more time to arrive at a decision. He is quite rigid on performance. He praises his employees if they follow his orders and invites them to get the solutions of the problems from him. Democratic or Participative Democratic or Participative leadership is also known as group centered or consultative leadership. He has all the powers to make decisions. negative method of motivation. Free rein leadership may be effective if members of the group are highly committed to their work. Benevolent Autocrat: Benevolent autocrat leader uses positive influences and develops effective human relations. • The management establishes relationship through a lawful authority while leadership establishes relationship through power. is a process of influencing the behavior of the people to attain their assigned tasks. known as "no leadership at all". • Managers have formal authority but the leaders have no such authority. i. 3. A leader must be able to build up a high morale among the individuals of the organization. therefore. He wants immediate obedience of his orders and instructions. But he makes all decisions by himself. It improves quality of decision as it is taken after due consideration of valued opinions of the talented group members. A leader should try to raise the morale of the individuals and should maintain ethical standards among the individuals. there is virtual absence of direct leadership. A leader should motivate his people to achieve goals. Absence of leadership may have both positive and negative effects. therefore. The negative aspect shows that the leader is not competent enough to lead his group effectively. their opinions arc honored and they are given importance. very time consuming. There is no participation from the subordinates in decision-making. Hard Boiled or Strict Autocrat: Leader. organizing. Difference between Leadership and Management Leading and managing go together but some differences exist between the two. It develops a sense of confidence among subordinates and they derive job satisfaction. He is known as paternalistic leader. Non-compliance of his orders also results jn punishment. A successful manager must possess both the managerial and leadership qualities. Leaders give more freedom to their group members. A leader thinks that he is the only competent person in the organization. Any negligence on the part of subordinates results in punishment. as a lot of time is wasted while taking the views from the employee. directing and controlling the activities of others to attain the organizational objectives. • Management is a process of planning. Leadership has an emotional appeal while management acts on rationality. Manipulative Autocrat: Leader. Non-compliance of his orders results in punishment. He uses coercive measures and adopts. It is. • All leaders are not managers and all managers are leaders..
Due to such attitude. knowledge and competences. there is no difference between the management and the administration in this type of leadership. initiative and understanding of interpersonal human relations. He should remember that leadership is situational. • It has been found that many traits exhibited by leaders are also found among followers without explaining as to why followers could not become leaders. in spite of the required traits. The employees. regulations and procedure to be followed under his leadership. For example. Since all individuals do not have these qualities. They differ in quality. above average height. • Thus. It maintains that the fatherly altitude is the right one for better relationship between the manager and the employees. Manipulative This type of leadership manipulates the employees to attain their assigned tasks. human resources vary in terms of skill. A manipulative leader is quite selfish and exploits the aspirations of the employees for his gains. The leader must understand their behavior and accordingly can make use of the various types LEADERSHIPS. In modern organizations. Expert Leadership The expert leadership emerged as a result of complex structure of modern organizations. They exhibit different behaviors as they differ in attitude and outlook also. • It does not identify the traits that are most important and that are least important for a successful leader. It also identified the need of consistency of behavior of good leaders.Bureaucratic This type of leadership emphasizes the rules and regulations of an organization. If situation changes. themselves cannot do anything in this regard. Some of the weakness of this theory is: • All the traits are not identical with regard to essential characteristics of a leader. This type of leadership is based on the ability. A successful leader is the one who assesses the situation. Everyone within the organization should work together like a family. the trait theory has been criticized for lack of conclusiveness and predictability. • It does not explain the leadership failures. determination and their attitude towards the organization. He handles the situation skillfully with his talent. Possession of these traits helps the individuals to gain possession of leadership. (b) Behavior Theory The behavioral theory assumed that effective leaders behaved differently from ineffective leaders. Paternalistic The paternalistic leadership believes in the concept that the happy employees work better and harder. It is the rules that determine their performance. but can only be acquired by training. Therefore. • It is difficult to define traits in absolute terms. assertiveness. The leader and the subordinates both follow these rules and regulations. psychological and physical traits of strong leaders. which suits that situation. knowledge and competence of the leaders. The existence of these traits determines the importance of leadership. • Trait Theory • Behavior Theory • Contingency Theory (a) Trait Theory This theory of studying leadership is taken into consideration to analyze the personal. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP A number of theories and approaches to study leadership have been developed. This theory can be more clearly understood with the help of following case studies. #71 . The behavior of a leader is determined by the rules. he has to face the hatred of the employees at times. The assumption made in this theory was that some basic traits or set of traits differentiates leaders from non-leaders. There are broadly three theories of leadership. self-confidence. • Some traits may not be inherited. the leadership traits might include intelligence. the use of leadership among its various types also changes. The employees feel relieved as they are working under a person who is expert and can handle the situation without any problem. studies the psychology of the subordinates and adopts the most useful type of leadership to lead the people at work to accomplish the organizational goals. The manager should assess the situation and adopt that type of leadership. He knows very well the needs and desires of the employees but he does very little to fulfill them. only those who have them would be considered potential leaders.
Depending on broad discussions with both the managers and sub-ordinates.other words. Fielder believes that a leader's tendency to be task-oriented or relationship oriented remains constant. For example. a task orientation by the leader. The leader also establishes formal lines of communication and determines how tasks will be performed. Most experts now agree that no single set of traits or behaviors appears to be common to all good leaders. In order to understand the full complexity of leadership. Thus. friendly and supportive. whereas leaders rated highly on consideration structure had lower-performing sub-ordinates who showed signs of higher satisfaction. but not both. led by Rensis Likert. The universal approaches to leadership can help managers examine their own leadership characteristics and match them against the traits most commonly identified with good leaders. This can be done by developing a cohesive work group and ensuring that employees are satisfied with their jobs. Michigan. The Michagan researchers thought a leader could show signs of one kind of behavior. a leader is either task-oriented or relationship-oriented while leading his group members. the contingency factor favours the situation from the leader's point of view. The LPC measure is controversial because researchers disagree about its validity. A high total score is assumed to reflect a relationship orientation and a low score. (c) Contingency Theory The main assumption of contingency theory is that the behavior of an appropriate leader varies from one situation to another.Interesting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The leader's LPC score is (hen calculated by adding up the numbers below the line checked on each scale. task-structure and position-power. which are as follows: Initiating-structure behavior: In initiating-structure behavior. They can do this by marking in a set of sixteen scales at each end. if the situation also remains same. low ratings on both or high ratings on one and low on the other. which focuses on. This factor is determined by leader-member relations. He attempts to establish a warm. a particular leader could have higher ratings on both measures.Relaxed 12345678 Boring ------------------. by a positive or negative adjective. which means that a leader could exhibit varying degrees of initiating structure and consideration at the same time i. personality or some other unknown factor. However. high performance standards to be accomplished. which are discussed as below: • #72 . the leader's primary concern is the welfare of the ordinates. Fielder identified two types of leadership: task-oriented and relationship-oriented.The Michigan Studies: Researchers at the University of.e. contingency theory is to be studied. Rather. began studying leadership in the late 1940s. The Ohio State leadership studies also identified two major kinds of leadership behaviors or styles. According to Fielder. The Ohio State researchers found that a leader’s behavior remains consistent over a period of time. three of the scales Fielder uses in the LPC are: Helpful -------------------. The motive of a contingency theory is to identify key situational factors and to specify how they interact to determine appropriate behavior of a leader The three most important and widely accepted contingency theories of leadership are as follows: • The LPC theory: The first contingency theory of leadership is Fred Fielder's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Model. A job-centered leader interacts with group members to explain task procedures and oversee their work. which focuses on performances and efficient completion of the assigned tasks. they assumed the behaviors to be independent variables. their studies at International Harvester found that leaders rated highly on initiating structure behavior have higher performing but dissatisfied sub-ordinates. a group of researchers at Ohio State also began studying leadership.Frustrating 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tense ------------------. Fielder used the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale to measure the type of leadership. The researchers used to believe that the leaders in possession of both types of behavior are most effective. They are discussed as below: Job-centered leadership behavior : The first was called job-centered leadership behavior. Employee centered leadership behavior: The second behavior was identified as employee centered leader behavior. In. the Michigan studies identified two forms of leadership behavior. the leader clearly defines the leadersubordinate roles so that everyone knows what is expected. A leader is asked to describe characteristics of the person with whom he or she is least comfortable while working. The most obvious difference between Michigan and Ohio State studies is that the Ohio State researchers did not position their two forms of leader behavior at opposite ends of a single continuum. the leader shows concern for subordinates feelings' and ideas. Consideration behavior: In consideration behavior. • The Ohio State Studies: At about the same time. This is because some of the LPC measures show whether the score is an index of behavior. But the researchers could not come up with one best combination of behavior suitable to all the situations.
easily understood. the leader may use achievement-oriented behavior to encourage continued high performance of sub-ordinates. • Task-structure: Task-structure is the degree to which the group's task is clearly defined. He may also adopt supportive behavior to encourage group cohesiveness. If there is little trust. the leader may be directive in giving guidance and instructions to them. Fielder and his associates conducted various studies highlighting if a situation favors the leadership and group effectiveness or not. Fielder's contingency theory has been criticized on the ground that LPC measure lacks validity and that the assumption about the inflexibility of the leader's behavior is unrealistic. a risk-oriented leader to lie most effective. When the situation includes good relations. when structure is high. the leader will have to play a major role in guiding and directing the group's activities. the structure is assumed to be high. As the group becomes more familiar with the task and as new problems are taken into consideration. relations will remain good. Leaders can motivate sub-ordinates by making clear what they have to do to get the reward they desire. If the leader has the power to assign work. administer rewards and punishment. Good relations are assumed to be favourable and bad relations unfavorable. with no standard procedures and precedents. Sub-ordinates do not usually need their boss to repeatedly tell them how to do a routine job. Fielder argues that any particular-type of leadership. strong position power is favourable and weak position power is unfavorable. position-power is assumed lo be strong. the leader may use participative behavior by which he can participate with employees in making decisions and take their suggestions as well. respect. • #73 . supportive. (d) The Path-Goal theory The path-goal model of leadership was introduced by Martin Evans and Robert House. If the task structure is low. directive leadership is less effective than when structure is low. which is measured by the LPC is inflexible and cannot be changed. LI relationshiporiented leader is considered to be most effective. when relations are good but task structure is low and position-power is weak. For instance. complex. the primary work group and the formal authority system. According to the path-goal theory. • A final point about LPC theory is that. It includes task structure. The figure 14. to look after their needs and ensuring that they get the rewards and benefits. According to this model managers can adjust their behavior to include any four kinds of leadership behavior mentioned above. In other words a leader cannot change his behavior to fit a particular situation. respect or confidence and. and unambiguous and when the group has standard procedures. When the task is routine.1 shows the path goal model of leadership. If the leader does not have required powers. structure is assumed to be low. High structure is more favourable for the leader and low structure is unfavorable. which are beyond the control of subordinates. these environmental factors can create uncertainty for employees. When the task is non-routine. From the leader's point of view. high structure and strong power. recommend employees for promotion or demotion. Finally. the positionpower is weak. If the leader and the group enjoy mutual trust. if they do not like one another. the leader will not have to pay much attention. However. Path-goal theory says that a leader can motivate subordinates by influencing their expectations. Environmental characteristics are factors. A leader who helps employees reduce such uncertainty can motivate them. For instance.Leader-member relations: A Leader-member relation refers to the nature of relationship between the leader and his work group. The path-goal model assumes that leaders can change their style or behavior to meet the demands of a particular situation. If the task structure is high. relations will remain bad. ambiguous. confidence and they like one another. while leading a new group of sub-ordinates. • Position-power: Position-power is the power vested in the position of a leader in an organization. This model identifies four kinds of leader behavior: directive. participative and achievement-oriented.
The appropriate leadership depends on the situation. CI Manager shares the situation with individual subordinates and asks for information and evaluation. Two of them are used when the problem affects the entire group. a new office for that individual only. G II Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation and the group makes the decision. Subordinates do not meet as a group and the manager alone makes the decision. Sub. The VYJ theory argues that decision-effectiveness is best judged by the quality of decision and by the acceptance of that decision on the part of employees. It helps a leader to determine the extent. to which employees should participate in the decision-making processes.Leaders do not always have control over environmental factors. which are AI and All. As summarized in the following table. a decision about the facilities to be given to employees in a new office affects the entire group and the other two are appropriate when the decision affects a single individual only. but the theory emphasizes that leaders can use the control they want. Decision acceptance is the extent to which employees accept and are loyal to their decisions. C= Consultative. AII Manager asks for information from subordinates but makes (he decision alone. the leader uses one of the four decisions. #74 .g. Decision-Making Styles in the VYJ model Decision Style Description AI Manager makes the decision alone. to adjust the environment and to motivate sub-ordinates. A = Autocratic. (e) The Vroom-Yetton-Jago Theory (VYJ) The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model was first introduced by Vroom and Yetton in 1973 and was revised by Vroom and Jago in 1988. To maximize decision effectiveness. This model has a much less focus than the path-goal theory. e. two consultative types of leadership. C II Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation but the manager makes the decision. there are two autocratic types of leadership. For example.ordinates may or may mil be informed about what the situation is. which are CI and CII and the other one is group GII. To address the questions. the VYJ theory suggests that leaders adopt one of five decision-making leaderships. G = Group The situation is defined by a series of questions about the characteristics or attributes of the problem under consideration.
Several characteristics of the sub-ordinate may serve to replace or change . the leader's employee-oriented behavior should start low.fact that leaders actually have different kinds of working relationship with different subordinates. Research shows that people in the ‘in-group’ are more productive and more satisfied with their work than ‘out group’ members. there are other contingency models or theories developed in recent years. the task and the organization replace leaders' behaviors. when a patient is admitted to an emergency room in a hospital. Charismatic people attract followers and this type of leader has great power over his or her followers. nurses. Characteristics of the task that may substitute the leadership include. Charismatic leaders are self-confident and can influence others. the leader needs to move gradually from high to low task orientation. #75 .Moreover. Similarly. evidence so far indicates that this model can help leaders to choose the most effective way to include the sub-ordinates in decision-making. it has received little scientific support from researchers. are especially comprehensive and useful. The model suggests that as followers become more mature. increases teaming experiences and inspires new ways of thinking. HRD. In this context. the interpersonal skills model. For example. answering the questions about the problem attributes and developing a strategy for decisionmaking participation. Organizational characteristics that may substitute for leadership include formalization group cohesion. motivating others and managing conflict. Substitutes for Leadership The existing leadership theories and models try to specify what kind of leader’s behavior is appropriate for different situations. managing stress and solving problems creatively. how leaders should behave and perform effectively. Simultaneously. The other models are as follows: • Vertical Dyad Linkage Model: This model stresses the . the research-based skills identified by Whetten and Cameron seem to be most valuable. increase at a moderate rate and then decline again. inspirational leadership. The followers of a charismatic leader identify with the leader's beliefs. For example. leadership may not be needed. creativity. Charisma is a form of interpersonal attraction. the availability of feedback and intrinsic satisfaction. Leadership Skills There is now recognition in both leadership theory and practice of the importance of skills. training. trust and liking. However. The Vertical Dyad Linkage model suggests that leaders establish special working relationships with some subordinates based on some combination of respect.the behavior of the leaders. Those in the 'ingroup' receive more of the manager's time and attention and are better performers. Transformational Leadership Another new concept of leadership goes by a number of labels: charismatic leadership. and self-management of learning. a strong need for independence by the sub-ordinate may result in ineffectiveness of leaders’ behavior. Their personal skills model. maturity includes motivation.techniques such as. These people constitute the ‘in-group’. The substitute concept identifies the situations where the characteristics of the subordinates. when policies are formal and rigid. the subordinate may not need direction. who receive less of leader's time and attention. job design and leaders can also effectively use behavioral management. such as cultural flexibility. competence and experience. the situations where the leadership is not needed. employees with much ability and experience may not need to be told what to do. gaining power and influence. For example. involving developing self-awareness. • Life Cycle Model: The life cycle model suggests-that appropriate leader behavior depends on the maturity of the followers. Each manager-subordinate relationship represents one vertical dyad. inflexibility and a rigid reward structure. Although there are many skills. They do not take into consideration. Computer software has been developed to aid leaders in defining the situation. trust and obey the leader without questioning him and thereby contribute toward the success of the organizational goals. Although the VYJ model is too new to have been thoroughly tested. Finally. symbolic leadership and transformational leadership. The VYJ model was criticized because of its complexity. involving communicating supportively. the subordinate may not need or want support. accept. Many leaders are familiar with the life cycle theory because it is both simple and logical. Other subordinates remain in the ‘out-group’s. the widely recognized organizational behavior . When the task is challenging. doctors and attendants act immediately without waiting for directive or supportive behaviors of leaders in an emergency ward. communication. when the job is routine and simple. OTHER CONTINGENCY APPROACHES In addition to these three major theories. one of each is to be used when the decision has to be made quickly because of some urgency and the others arc to be used when the decision can be made more slowly and the leaders wants to use the opportunity to develop subordinates' decision-making abilities. EMERGING PERSPECTIVES ON LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS The new perspectives that have attracted attention are the concepts of substitutes for leadership and transformational leadership. For example. This is a leadership that transmits a sense of mission.
the amount of time pressure an individual faces and the amount of expectations others have of a person at work can all lead to job stress. forgetting to do things. Though the optimum stress level is different Form different individuals. SOURCES OF JOB STRESS • Job Characteristics o Role ambiguity o Role conflict o Role overload o Ethical dilemmas • Interpersonal Relationships o Amount of contact with others #76 . Interpersonal relationships are a second source of job stress. they also anticipate them eagerly and look forward to the additional challenges. and thinking of things other than work during work hours. the motivational level to work reaches a low. Physicians. the more confidently will the individual face further stressful situations. Physical withdrawal will manifest itself in increased rates of tardiness and absenteeism. How much contact an individual has with coworkers and managers. One major source of job stress is the job itself. Some new work situations can bring us positive challenges and excitement.LESSON -15 STRESS MANAGEMENT Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. how much time he or she deals with clients or consumers. there are certain other types of work that are very threatening and anxietyarousing. then the individual gets bored. and excitement. Psychological withdrawal will result in careless mistakes being frequently made. If one operates in a very low stress environment and constantly experiences boredom. If the stress experienced is below this optimum level. you should be able to understand: • The meaning of stress • Various sources of stress • Various effects or consequences of stress • Various methods of managing stress The nature of stress has been studied by scholars in a wide range of academic disciplines. depression in the economy can create negative stress for sales personnel. the person is likely to psychologically or physically withdraw from work. SOURCES OF STRESS Stress is a reality of our everyday life. Those with high self-esteem also handle stress with ease since a high self-esteem increases the confidence and enables them to deal with stressful situations with calmness and clear thinking. that stress will be carried over to the home. and apathy sets in. psychiatrists. Employees may feel anxious about their new work assignments. People with an internal locus of control also handle stress well since they feel they are in control of the situation. For example. Stress can be either positive or negative. and have defined the term in a variety of different ways. Thus. promotions to new jobs present employees with positive stress. among others. This makes it possible for them to manage their environmental stress without experiencing its harmful effects. and how pleasant those interactions are all influences of how much stress an individual experiences at work. Stress is defined as "the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environments”. adding further tension to an already stressful work situation. rather than feeling controlled by the situation they are facing. which can spill over into the work environment. However. rewards. it is possible to raise one’s capacity to handle in different situations. There are both positive and negative stresses that come from our work and nonwork lives. the new and uncertain job situations create positive stress. Rice. Thus. internal locus of control and selfesteem seem to effectively handle a high level of stress. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she may perform to full capacity. For example. the work and non-work domains of one's life are closely interrelated. Research indicates that those who possess high tolerance of ambiguity. The positive stress is also called the eustress. each individual can sense and determine how much stress is functional for an individual to operate in a productive manner. which may ultimately lead to turnover. because they will be much more anxious about making sales commissions and sales quotas. The stresses and strains experienced in one domain are carried over to the other. The more successfully one handles a stressful situation without panicking or getting overwhelmed by it. and Hunt (1980) and Sckaran (1986). As pointed out by Near. and researchers in management have all studied its causes and its symptoms. if one experiences stress at work. Third source is problems in personal lives. An individual possessing high degree of tolerance for ambiguity allows him to experience very little anguish while operating under conditions of insufficient information or in an uncertain environment. point. In these cases. The way the job is designed.
When interpersonal relationships at work are unpleasant. supervisors. This inconsistency of expectations associated with a role is called role conflict. When one has to produce and perform with inadequate resources on a long-term basis. distant.• • o Dealing with people in other departments o Organizational climate Organizational Factors Personal Factors o Career concerns o Geographical mobility o Rate of life change Job Characteristics A major source of job stress is a person's role in the organization. Organizational Factors Following are the organizational factors that cause stress in individuals: • Work environment factors such as noise. or clients. people experience role ambiguity. Working under time pressure is especially stressful. budget. or too high for the employee to meet within the time allotted. • Organizational climate: The overall psychological climate of the organization can create stress. poor lighting. • Structural factors in the organizational setting such as staff rules and' regulations and reward systems. • Amount of contact with people in other departments: Having contacts with people outside one's own department creates a special sort of stress. Tensions arise because one might have to contend against one's own colleagues who might be close friends. A role is simply the set of expectations that other people in the organization have for an individual. and may fear of reprisal and other undesirable consequences. • Role Overload: Role overload is a situation in which employees feel they are being asked to do more than time or ability permits. more and more employees arc experiencing job stress as a result of role ambiguity. role underload leads to low self-esteem. the financial market and so on. employees develop a generalized anxiety. or hostile exchanges. Personal Factors #77 . With the recent increase in mergers and acquisitions among major organizations. subordinates. and he or she experiences stress. may cause stress. Too much prolonged contact with other people can cause stress. technology. • Insufficient resources such as time. coworkers. Ironically. this naturally imposes stresses and strains on the individuals who are responsible for getting the job done. a diffuse feeling of dread about upcoming meetings and interactions. are as follows: • Amount of contact with others: Jobs vary in terms of how much interpersonal contact is built into them. Interpersonal Relationships Another major source of stress in organization is poor interpersonal relationships with supervisors. space or manpower also induce stress in the work environment. The expectations others have of an employee arc sometimes unclear. standing around all day with nothing to do. and that they cannot meet all those expectations. in conflict. customers and suppliers expect an employee to behave in certain predictable ways. • Role Underload: Role Underload is the condition in which employees have too little work to do or too little variety -in their work. • Lack of career promotion in organizations may be sometime cause stress. For example. raw materials. Three aspects of interpersonal relationships at work. This will be especially true for those who have strong moral values of right and wrong and a deep sense of personal and corporate social responsibility. salespeople in a store with no customer. radiation and smoke are stress-inducing agents. • Role Conflict: Often employees discover that different groups of people in an organization have widely varying expectations of them. For example. People in other departments do not always have an adequate understanding of jobs outside their own areas. employees are continually tense and this causes stress. Role ambiguity is anxiety arousing among employees that leads to job stress. When day-today life in an organization is marked by unfriendly. • Environmental factors of stress include sudden and unanticipated changes in the marketplace. increased frequency of nervous symptoms and increased health problems. which can cause stress. • Ethical Dilemmas: Ethical dilemmas such as whether or not one should report the observed unethical behaviors of another person can cause extreme levels of stress in individuals. • Role Ambiguity: When there is a lot of uncertainty surrounding job definitions or job expectations. could be said to experience role underload. coworkers. which results in stress. heal. which have a negative impact on job stress.
It also leads to lost of customers because of poor worker attitudes. Needless to say that the costs of employee stress to the organization in terms of lost profits. boredom. Factors that influence how much stress people bring from their persona! lives to the work setting are as follows: • Career Concerns: One major career concern that can cause stress is lack of job security. Spouse abuse. Consequences to Organizations The adverse consequences on an organization include low performance and productivity. short attention span. or that of an airline pilot. On the other hand. #78 . will have an adverse effect on their home life. In addition. asthma. EFFECTS OR CONSEQUENCES OF JOB STRESS Negative stress has unpleasant consequences for them. • Geographical Mobility: Geographical moves create stress because they disrupt the routines of daily life. it is important for individuals to optimally manage their stress level to operate as fully functioning human beings. Since the body has only a limited capacity to respond to stress. These arrangements help to reduce the anxiety and stress for the moving family. excessive eating.. Effects on the Individual The impacts of distress on individuals are of following types: • The subjective or intrapersonal effects of stress are feelings of anxiety. A second career concern that can cause employees stress is status incongruity. Consequences for the Family Negative stress. When geographical moves arc undertaken as part of a job transfer. mental blocks and inability to make decisions. dryness of throat. i. and even divorce could result from dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The stresses experienced by employees who take on critical roles and are responsible for safety can sometimes be detrimental to the public. Some of them are: Role Analysis Technique (RAT) The Role Analysis Technique helps both the manager and the employee to analyze the requirements and expectations from the job. the ability lo function effectively in one's daily life. They have more energy and patience for dealing with problems at work. and even destructive and aggressive behaviors resulting in strikes and sabotage. and excessive sweating. increased alienation of the worker from the job. The transferred employees are likely to feel out of control at work. which is handled by individuals in dysfunctional ways. If things are going well personally. Job Relocation Job relocation assistance is offered to employees who are transferred. having jobs with less status. and withdrawal behaviors. and anger. poor image and loss of future business are enormous. the moves can be even more stressful. i. too.e. drinking. by finding alternative employment for the spouses of the transferred employees and getting admissions in schools for their children in the new place. or air traffic controller may result in serious accidents. such as drinking or withdrawal behaviors. the stresses experienced by a train driver or railway guard. nervousness. eczema. METHODS OF MANAGING STRESS Stress is a factor that everybody has to contend with on a daily basis both in the work and non-work spheres of life. Sometimes experiencing the stress may cause aggressive behaviors on the part of the individual. impulsive behaviors. • The cognitive effects include poor concentration. they might be more tense or distracted when they go to work. power and prestige than they think they deserve. high blood pressure. For instance. high rates of absenteeism and poor decision-making. • The manifest health effects could be stomach disorders. they are more likely to be upbeat and optimistic. Breaking-down the job into various components clarifies the role of the job for the entire system. and experience their new work environments as unpredictable. the mental health. • The behavioral effects arc manifest in such things as accident proneness. • The physiological effects can be seen in increased heart and pulse rate. their families and for the organizations they serve.Employees’ personal lives have a marked effect on their lives at work. depression. will also decline as excessive stress is experienced.e. fatigue. child abuse. smoking. depression. navigator. This also helps to eliminate reduction of work and thus lowering down the stress level. and other psychosomatic disorders. apathy. There are several ways in which stress can be handled so that the dysfunctional consequences of stress can be reduced. alienation from family members. if employees are having some personal problems.
These programs include biofeedback. People can learn to get better organized so that they can do their work more efficiently. time management and interpersonal skills workshops. the employees who consider their careers to be important can reduce their stress levels by becoming more realistic about their options and can start preparing themselves for it. It also makes the employees aware of what additional educational qualifications or specialized technical training. Supervisor Training Another type of stress management Program that organizations are experimenting with is supervisor training. By becoming knowledgeable about the possible avenues for advancement.Recreational Program Providing recreational facilities. #79 . ! More Information and Help Some new employees have to spend more time on a job than necessary because they are not sure what they are doing. Many companies invest large sum of money in gym and sport facilities for maintaining the health of the employees. and some strategies for dealing with that stress more effectively. arranging group meditation programs. Employee Assistance Program Another widely used strategy is the employee assistance Programs. Delegation can directly decrease workload upon the manager and helps to reduce the stress. It would also reduce anxiety and stress among the employees. handling conflicts at the work place. Individual Stress Reduction Workshops Some organizations have also sponsored individual stress reduction workshops for their employees. meditation to career counseling. to listen to employees’ problems more effectively. if any. help to reduce the stress levels of the employees. Career Counseling Career Counseling helps the employee to obtain professional advice regarding career that would help the individual to achieve personal goals. participants are given a basic understanding of the causes of stress and its consequences. In lectures and seminars. (hat they should acquire. Time Management Another way of coping with stress is to manage time more effectively. Managers are trained to give better performance appraisals. The emphasis on supervisory training Program is how to prevent job stress. and to communicate job assignments and instructions more clearly. effective work. Delegation Another way of coping with job stress is to delegate some responsibilities to others. Health Maintenance Probably the most frequently used organizational stress management program is health maintenance. These include counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse. dealing with marital and other family problems. which offer a variety of assistance to employees. Then. participants are given materials to help them identify the major sources of stress in their own lives. So it is necessary that some help should be provided before doing the work that would lead to much efficient.
coercive power if they have control over some form of punishment such as threat of dismissal. coercive.LESSON-16 POWER AND POLITICS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. suspension. POWER AND AUTHORITY Sometimes power and authority is used synonymously because of their objective of influencing the behavior of others. and knowledgeable. The organization gives managers the power to direct the activities of their subordinates. People with referent power are often #80 . Expert Power It is more of personal power than organizational power. expert and referent power. Influence can take many forms. behavior or perspectives have changed as a result of their interaction. a manager can cause psychological harm also lo an employee. This power occurs when the expert threatens to withhold his knowledge or skill. The greater the perceived values of such rewards. is personal and does not have any legitimacy. • Understand how people use power • Discuss how people use political behavior in organizations • Understand the techniques of political behavior Power is easy to feel but difficult to define. It is the ability to get things done the way one wants them to be done. Organizational rewards include pay. The structure of the organization also identifies the strength of the legitimate authority by position location. Sources of Power John R. In such organizations. he is likely to have more power. changed or withdrawn by the formal organization. Expert power is that influence which one wields as a result of one's experience. A manager’s coercive power increases with the number and severity of the sanctions over which the manager has control. French and Bertram Raven identified five bases or sources of power: legitimate. accept and be willing to follow him or her. If the sub-ordinates view their superior as competent. However. One person has influenced another if the second person's opinions. reward. To the extent. Although the use of coercive power is often successful in the short run. It can be a factor in almost any organizational decision. Legitimate power is similar to formal authority and hence it can be created. Since any person who is not easily replaceable has more power as compared to those who are easily replaceable. It is the potential ability of a person or group to influence another person or group. it tends to create resentment and hostility and therefore is usually detrimental to the organization in the long run. P. For instance. Power. the greater the power. Referent Power A person who is respected by certain others for whatever reason has referent power over those people. A person with referent power may have charisma and people who respect that person are likely to get emotionally involved with the respected person and identify with. power is a crucial factor in influencing the behavior in organizational situation. special skill or knowledge. Legitimate Power A person's position within organization provides him with legitimate power. Manager who uses praise and recognition has also a good deal of power. But stilt. naturally they will obey and respect the superior. A manager who has complete control over such rewards has a good deal of power. Both formal and informal groups and individuals may have power. it does not need an official position or the backing of an institution to have power. Power does not have any legal sanctity while authority has such sanctity. higher-level positions exercise more power than lower-level positions in a classical hierarchical organizational structure. Reward Power This type of power is the extent to which one person has control over rewards that are valued by another. Power is a factor at all levels of most organizations. Perhaps. Organizations vary in how much legitimate power they grant to individuals. you should be able to: • Know the meaning and sources of power. promotions and valued office assignments. there is difference between the two. Authority is institutional and is legitimate. Coercive Power People have. granted. everyone knows who has the most power and few people challenge the power structure. on the other hand. demotion or other method of embarrassment for the people. that a low-ranking worker has important knowledge not available to a superior.
Using Expert Power To gain power from their expertise. However a leader who relics on coercive power is very unlikely to have committed employees. Using Coercive Power For some people. Using Reward Power The manager.imitated by others with the star's actions. A respected manager who wants her employees to be punctual. Decisions are not made in rational or formal way but rather through compromise accommodation and bargaining. a vicepresident whose secretary is busy should not assume that he or she can just ask a supervisor's secretary to drop all other work and type a letter. using coercive power is a natural response when something goes wrong. If a particular sales person faces any difficulty in selling a particular product and turns to manager for his help. Using Legitimate Power The use of legitimate power is seldom challenged in an organization. For instance. still the boss could be cordial and polite when making requests and should whenever possible explain why a particular task needs to be done. A good manager will be such that the punishment fit the crime. must be sure that the employee has actually done the job and done it well. Public punishment makes everyone uneasy and humiliating and hence should be done private. Therefore. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS Power and politics are inextricably interwoven with the fabric of an organization's life. However. good managers must try to analyse the sources of their power and be careful how they use that power. ‘as the structure and process of the use of authority and power to affect definition of goals. at any given moment. considerate and creative can simply demonstrate those behaviors herself and her employees will likely imitate her actions. directions and the other major parameters of the organization. HOW PEOPLE USE POWER An individual manager may have power derived from any or all of the five bases of power and the manager may use that power in different1 ways. This pursuit of power is political behavior. warning an individual who uses copying machine to make -personal copies but firing someone who steals equipment from the organization. The work of Gary Yukl provides both a way to predict the consequences of certain uses of power and guidelines for using power.i leader's power and some of the variables that are likely to lead to three general types of employee responses or outcomes-commitment. Though the secretary does what the boss asks. before giving a reward. Using Referent Power Leaders have traditionally strengthened their referent power by hiring employees with backgrounds similar to their own. Employees must know that they get rewarded for good work. In any organization. of power. the manager must be able to identify the defect and must be able to help and educate him. Managers who wish to maintain their credibility should make threats only when they intend to carry through on them and should never threaten a punishment that they cannot bring about. Managers who are insensitive to their employees may find that their legitimate power dwindles and that they must resort to coercive power. attitudes and dress. managers must make people aware of how much they know. The secretary who understands the importance of a task will be more likely to work enthusiastically on it. But often employees resist coercive power. coercion is now generally recognized to be the most difficult form of punishment to use successfully in an organization. The boss must follow normal procedures and make sure the request is appropriate. resent it and losing respect for people using that type. Manager can use his expert power most effectively to address employee concerns. The following table list^ the five sources of . For instance. This imitation reflects the rising star's power over the imitations. compliance and resistancewhen the leader uses the power. For instance. the table shows that a leader's use of referent power will lead employees to be committed lo the leader’s project if they see that the project is important to the leader. One great organizational scholar. Such by passing of the normal chain of command can cause hard feelings among all the people involved. the sub-ordinate usually complies without resistance. enhance and use power and other resources to obtain their preferred outcomes in a situation where there is uncertainly or disagreement. Organizational politics refers to the activities carried out by people to acquire. the way the superior makes the request and follows it up are very important for ensuring the sub-ordinate’s future compliance and the growth of the superior's referent power. Tushman defined politics. a number of people are seeking to gain and use power to achieve their own ends. when a superior asks a sub-ordinate to do something. One of the most positive and subtle uses of referent power is the process of rote modeling. Most of these suggestions imply that managers must be sensitive to employees concerns. #81 . Hence.
Managing Political Behavior The very nature of political behavior makes it difficult to manage or even approach in a rational and systematic manner. However a manager who understands why people use political behavior and the techniques people usually employ has the best chance to manage political behavior successfully. People use political behavior in organizations in response to the five main factors: • Ambiguous goals • Scarce resources • Technology and the environment • Non-Programmed decisions • Organizational change FACTORS INFLUENCING POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Ambiguous Goals When the goals of a department or the entire organization are ambiguous then there is more room available for playing politics. Some people may use the ambiguity to manipulate the situation for their benefit. Scarce Resources When resources are scarce, people have the tendency to use political behavior to make sure that they get the biggest possible share of the resource. CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT Organizational effectiveness is largely a function of the organization’s ability to appropriately respond to external environment which is highly dynamic and generally unpredictable as well as adequately adopt to complex technological developments. Thus, political behavior is increased when the internal technology is complex and when external environment is highly volatile. Non-Programmed Decisions Sometimes, the companies have to make a lot of non-Programmed decisions on certain issues. These decisions are not based on clear standards and precedents, because such issues involve many factors and variables that are complex in nature. Hence decisions are taken on intuition, bunch and guesses and all these subjective feelings can be affected by political behavior. Organizational Change Whenever there are changes in the organizational structure and policies, peoples in powerful positions have the opportunity to play politics. These changes may include restructuring of a division or creating a division, personnel changes, introducing a new product line and all these changes influence political behavior when various individuals and groups try to control the given situation. It is widely accepted that managers have to be politicians in order to maintain their positions in the organizational hierarchy as well as serve the interests of their units. Pfeiffer, who has done extensive research on -the subject of power in organizations, states as follows: “If there is one concluding message, it is that it is probably effective and it is certainly normal that these managers do behave as politicians. If is even better that some of them are quiet effective at it. In situations in which technologies are uncertain, preferences are conflicting, perceptions are selective and biased and information processing capacities are constrained, the model of an effective politician may be an appropriate one for both the individual and for the organization in the long-run”. TECHNIQUES OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR The most commonly used techniques of political behavior are: • Controlling information • Controlling lines of communication • Controlling agenda • Using outside experts : • Game playing • Image building • Building coalitions One technique of political behavior is to control the dissemination of critical information to others. The more critical (he information and fewer the people who have it, the stronger is political power base of those who possess these information.
Controlling lines of communication is another political technique related to the flow of information. People who have some control over lines of communication can yield considerable political power. For example, the secretary may have considerable power in deciding who sees the boss and who does not at a given time. She may use this power in favoring those whom she likes and frustrating those against whom she may have it grudge. Controlling the agenda also gives a person power over information. The person who controls a meeting's agenda, for instance, may consistently put a particular item last on the list and then take up time so that meeting adjourns before considering the item. The opinions of outside experts and consultants often curry much weight in organizations and many consultants can be swayed by political interests. Consultants know who is paying them and even honest consultants are likely to give opinions consistent with those of their employer. Hence, hiring an outside consultant can be a clever political move. Game playing can range from fairly innocent to very manipulative. It involves people doing something insincere, but not outright illegal or unethical to gain political ends. For instance, a manager who does not want to answer a committee's tough questions may, for instance, avoid meeting by going out of the town on the day of meeting. Image building is creating positive impression reflected by the personality, appearance and style. Some of the factors that enhance a preferred image consist of being well dressed, having a pleasant smile, being attractive, honest, sociable and loyal to the organizational interests. In addition, always project an image of competence and selfassurance. Building coalitions or alliance is another technique of gaining political power. It is necessary to have the alliance with the right people. Coalition building can become simply a matter of quid pro quo: I will support you if you will support me. Managing Political Behavior Though it is virtually impossible to eliminate political behavior in organizations, it is possible to reduce it, if a manager understands the reasons for it and the techniques of political behavior. Politics when carried to the extreme can damage morale, create enemies, destroy loyalty, damper co-operative spirit and much time and energy is spent planning attacks and counter attacks which are detrimental to organizational health. Accordingly, combating politics must be undertaken by the top management and some of the steps that can be undertaken are: open communication, reduction of uncertainty and creating awareness. Open communication can reduce the political activity if all employees know how and why an organization allocates resources, the employees will be likely to put their energy into meeting the stated criteria for gelling resources rather than into political activity. If the organization is open about why it made particular decision, then employees will he less likely to think that the decisions were political and less likely to use political techniques to try to influence the next decision. Uncertainty in the form of ambiguous goals and changes that affect the organization tends to increase the use of political activity. Reducing such uncertainty can, therefore, reduce the political behavior. Open communication is one of the ways an organization can reduce uncertainty. For instance, laying down clear criteria and making it transparent to the employees who will be laid off, in case of lay off the organization can reduce political behavior. Finally, managers who develop an ability to recognize and predict political activity are in the best position to limit its effects. Managers with this awareness will expect an increase in political activity during times of organizational change and will learn how to handle it.
LESSON -17 ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Learning Objectives After reading this lesson, you should be able to: • Understand the concept of organizational design • Identify the determinants of organizational design • Know the various forms of organizational design CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Organizational design is the overall configuration of structural components that defines jobs, groupings of jobs, the hierarchy, patterns of authority, approaches to co-ordination and line-staff differentiation into a single and unified organizational system. Consider, for example, the differences in organizational design that might exist between a computer manufacturer and university. Since the computer manufacturer has to respond to frequent technological breakthroughs and changes in its competitive environment, it is likely to have a relatively flat and decentralized design whereas the university has a more stable environment and is less affected by technology. Therefore, it has a more centralized structure with numerous rules and regulations. DETERMINANTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN The key situational determinants of organizational design are technology, organizational environment, and organization size and life cycle. • Technology: Technology is the set of processes that an organization uses to transform various resources such as materials and labor into products or services. Joan Woodward was the first person to see the link between technology and organizational design. In particular. Woodward defined three basic types of technology. In unit or small-batch technology, products are manufactured according to customer specifications in small quantities. Examples are printing press and studios. In large batch or mass-production technology, products. are manufactured in assembly-line fashion by combining component pans to create finished goods. Examples are home-appliance," automobile and computer manufacturers. In continuous-process technology, products are transformed from raw materials into finished goods through a series of machine transformations that change the composition of the materials themselves. Examples are petroleum refiners, food processors and chemical manufacturers. Woodward viewed unit or small-batch technology as -the least complex while the continuous process technology as the most complex. She found that organizations within each set had similar designs but the designs varied somewhat from set to set. Bums and Stalker argued that managers should examine the rate of change in technology to determine the best organizational structure. They recommended a bureaucratic or mechanistic structure for organizations with slowly changing technology and an organic or flexible structure for organizations with rapidly changing technology. Charles Perrow concluded that me key question concerning an organization’s technology is whether it is routine or non-routine. In his view, a highly formalized centralized structure is appropriate for an organization that uses the same routine technology while a more flexible structure is necessary for an organization that often uses new technology. ' An organization that uses continuous process, non-routine or intensive technology needs to ensure that its structure can adapt to changes in the technologies. Technology can affect all aspects of an organization, not just production and the same technological change can have very different effects on different organizations.
Environment: The environment also influences the type of design an organization is likely to adopt. The environment of an organization consists of all the factors and conditions outside the organization that might affect it. which include customers, shareholders competitors, legislatures and regulatory agencies, economic factors, which include interest rates, unemployment rate, finance, objects, which include buildings, machines and events, which include as elections, war, floods etc. If the managers are good at analyzing and predicting changes in the environment, then, they can help the organization to take advantage of any change. Since the environment affects organization both directly and indirectly, therefore, the managers must keep an eye on it and be ready to modify organization's design to respond to environmental changes.
#85 . Secondly. in terms of the number of its full-time employees. The loss in one product is compensated by profit in another. An organization's life cycle and growth rates are directly linked to the strategy that the organization is pursuing. Thus. an organization can buy and sell its individual businesses with little or no disruption to the others. An organization's life cycle is related to its size. It allows an organization to staff each department with experts. A group of researchers in England found that large organizations tend to have more job specialization. After they are created. usually. the U-form design shows decision-making and employees within each department may concentrate on their own function forgetting overall organizational goals. Such organization requires perfect coordination to operate smoothly aiming the various departments. Organizations tend to follow a predictable pattern of growth. Life cycle refers to organization's maturity relative to that of other organizations. H stands for Hybrid and is also known as conglomerate. more standard operating procedures. The figure 17. To summarize. they should be prepared to adapt their design accordingly. as organizations grow in size. limits and potentials of" its environment and the life cycle stage it follows. since each department is highly dependent on another. such an organization can protect itself from cyclical fluctuations in a single industry. The H-Form Organization: In the H-form organization. However. This design has two advantages. and more decentralization than small organizations. they grow for some period of time and then eventually stabilize as a mature organization. It is also called as "functional design as it relies exclusively on the functional approach to departmentalization. It tends to make it hard for organization to monitor the performance of individual managers within each functional area. CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN Every organization has its own unique design depending on its technology. The following figure 17. First. Members of the organization who perform the same functions arc grouped together into departments.1 shows the organization cycle.• Organizational Size and Life Cycle: Organization size refers to how large : the organization is. The U-Form design has several advantages. This design usually results from the corporate strategy of unrelated diversification of the products. more rules and regulations. U stands for Unity. Following are the various forms of an organization based on their design: • The U-Form Organization: In the U-form organization. When the organizations grow. they often find that the disadvantages of the U-form tend 10 become more significant and adopt different designs as they evolve through their life cycles. it also facilitates wide spans of management and helps the Managing Director to maintain centralized authority. The design relics on product departmentalization with the various products constituting different businesses. The main disadvantage of this form of organization is that it is complex and diverse thereby creating difficulty for top managers in having knowledge about all products.2 shows the H-form organization. Size can affect organization design in many different ways. an organization design needed by a small but rapidly growing business is different from an organization design needed by an established and entrenched industry giant growing at a stable and predictable rate.
Moreover. other that manufactures lyre and still another that manufactures car polish. Most of its businesses are in the same or related industries.• The M-Form Organization: In the M-form organization M stands for Multi-divisional and it is called the divisional design. For example. it is easy for top managers to understand. It is similar to the H-form design but has one notable distinction. However. These organizations have centralized head office in their home country that controls their various office in other parts of the world. an organization with an M-form design might own one business that manufactures automobile batteries. a consumer familiar with an organization’s batteries will be inclined to buy its tyres and car polish. the M-form design is used to implement a corporate strategy of related diversification. Such companies have offices and/or factories in different countries and usually have a centralized head office where they coordinate the global management. A primary advantage of the M-form organization is that it can achieve a great deal of synergy in its operations. • The Matrix Organization: A matrix organization is created by overlaying product-based departmentalization on lo a functional structure. 'the organization cannot escape from the effect of cyclical fluctuations. Although each is distinct from the other but still related. in terms of manufacturing products that is used by automobile owners. co-ordinate and control them. Figure 17. Global Organization: An organization. because the various units are in the same or related businesses. The organization also has to devote more resources to coordination because of high levels of interdependence that result from a matrix. A matrix design is seldom used for an entire organization and is often used for a portion of it.3 shows the matrix organization. Thus. For example. It has also some drawbacks such as an organization lacks a clear chain of command thereby 'resulting into confusion about which manager lies authority over a given employee. • A matrix design allows an organization to capitalize on the advantages of both functional and product departmentalization. #86 . which has assets in more than one country other than its home country is called as global organization. if the businesses are too closely related.
its history. environment. It is to be remembered that there is no one best form of design that all organizations should adopt. Nestlé’s various organizations scattered around the world are operated by its own general managers. Nestle is a big global organization and highly decentralized.g. Each organization has to carefully assess its own strategy. Its design is similar to the M-form but because the operating units are so far apart that there is little synergy. life cycle and size. who arc empowered with a great deal of autonomy and authority to make decisions. #87 .A global organization must modify and adapt its design to allow it to function effectively. e. Nestle is almost a confederation of independent operating organizations. As a result. its technology. Us organizational design is like an umbrella. its strengths and weaknesses. It must then choose a design that fit these elements most effectively.
how it operates and what it considers important. "Organizational culture is concerned with the nature of #88 . They must create new role model and new stories to help employees understand the meaning of what is happening around them. an organization's values automatically enter every employee's personal values and actions over a period of time. These. you should be able to understand: • • Organizational culture and explain its importance. Factors affecting organizational climate CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Organizational culture is the set of values that states what an organization stands for. Most managers agree that a strong and clear culture is preferable to weak and vague culture because it helps to provide a common frame of reference for managerial decision-making and a wide variety of other organizational activities. They do not usually appear in the organizational training Program and in fact. Culture communicates whether the organization expects its managers to be aggressive or conservative in decisions-making. As organizational culture evolves. a strong culture is. "a system of informal rules that spells out how people have to behave most of the time". Importance of Culture Culture plays a very significant role in any organization by communicating information about the overall acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Once successfully made. For this managers must change employee's ideas about what is and what is not appropriate behavior. then. however. changes in the organizational culture will be as stable as the old culture was. All the above definitions stress acceptable and unacceptable behavior of its members. Such values are part of organizational culture in spite of not being formally written like rules and regulations of the organization. According to Deal and Kennedy. serve to maintain and perpetuate the culture through subsequent generations of employees. However. Some organizations have clear. the box will have little effect on organization morale. if the suggestion box remains just a symbol and organization never translates the suggestions into actions. possible to change organizational culture. discovered and developed while learning to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Some organizations try to emphasize the importance of employees’ ideas by rewarding them for their suggestions. stories. many organizations have difficulty in expressing their cultural values. Schein defines organizational culture as the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented. one organization might value solidarity and loyalty to organization more than any other value whereas another organization might stress on good relations with customers. One way to brine about such changes is to manage the symbols that are important to the organization. An organizational culture generally lakes shape over time and is often deeply influenced by the values of the organizational founders. heroes. However. strong and well-defined culture whereas: others have ambiguous. which are embedded in organization's soul that stays stable irrespective of the changes in leadership and environment. slogans and ceremonies also come into being. there are certain differences between the two. Changing Organizational Culture Change is most often needed when the organization has lost its effectiveness and is struggling to either" carry out or change its strategic goals.LESSON -18 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. According to Bowditch and Buono. any organization willing to change its culture must realize that such a change is never easy and cannot be brought about simply by ordering employees. It is. to improve the organization performance. weak and poorly defined cultures. various symbols. An organization's suggestion box is a symbol of an organization's openness to the ideas of the employees. generous or moderate in supporting social causes and ruthless or kind in competitive dealings. The manager trying to change an organizational culture faces lots of difficulties. Organizational Climate Even though organizational culture and organizational climate are sometimes used interchangeably. Because organizational culture embody the organizational values. However. Organizational culture has a profound influence on individual employees because it is generally an accepted set of values rather than a written set of rules with which employees might not argue. For instance.
Kahn has identified factors such as rules orientation. performance arid evaluation standards." Organizational climate is a relatively enduring quality of the internal environment that is experienced by its members. challenges and innovations. which serve as a major force in influencing their behavior. which include communication. inter-agency conflict. it is very difficult to generalize exactly the factors affecting the climate. Similarly. Schneider and Barlett describe six factors that have an influence over organizational climate such as managerial support. there exist certain factors that exert deep influence on the climate.beliefs and expectations about organizational life. leadership style. agent dependence and general satisfaction. #89 . and can be described in terms of the values of a particular set of characteristics. while climate is an indicator of whether those beliefs and expectations are being fulfilled. job satisfaction and attitudes of people. Lawrence James and Allan Jones have identified five factors influencing climate. motivation and leadership. Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on the motivation. physical environment and values. influences their behavior." It is a set of characteristics and factors of the organization that are perceived by the employees and. strict supervision and promotional achievement orientation. organizational structure and process. which include management philosophy. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE In every organization. the nurture of subordinates. These factors may include job descriptions. Thus.
the approach should focus on operative goals that would serve as a basis for assessment of effectiveness. Further. Campbell has suggested several variables such as. However. focus towards attainment of these goals should also aim at serving the society. However the concept of effectiveness is not simple because there are many approaches in conceptualizing this term. economic and human for which every organization competes. Such approaches can be grouped into following three approaches: • Goal Approach. Sometimes efficiency and effectiveness are used as synonyms. it cannot be applied for measuring organizational effectiveness in terms of its contributions to social system. i. Therefore. Instead. it is important to explain the difference between the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency to understand why organizations may he effective bin not efficient.e. Both the goal and functional approach do not give adequate consideration to the conceptual problem of the relations between the organization and its environment. which help in measuring organizational effectiveness. this model is not different from the goal model. The interdependence takes the form of input-output transactions and includes scarce and valued resources such as physical. accidents. The limitation of this model is that an acquisition of resources from environment is again related to the goal of an organization. Managerial effectiveness is a causal variable in organizational effectiveness. morale. Functional Approach This approach solves the problem of identification of organizational goals. effectiveness concentrates more on human side of organizational values and activities whereas efficiency concentrates on the technological side of an organization. Thus. It is commonly referred to as the degree to which predetermined goals are achieved. in goal approach. turnover. quality. It is generally measured as the ratio of inputs to outputs. efficiency is a limited concept that pertains to the internal working of an organization. It has been defined in terms of organizational goal-achieving behavior. discussion of organizational effectiveness leads to the conclusion that there is no single indicator of effectiveness.LESSON . FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Likert has classified the factors affecting organizational effectiveness into following three variables: • Causal • Intervening • End result #90 . However. or efficient but not effective.19 ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Learning Objectives After reading this lesson. productivity. efficiency. the manager's own behavior contributes to achievement of organizational goals. Therefore. effectiveness refers to maximization of profits by providing an efficient service that leads to high productivity and good employee morale. It refers to an amount of resources used to produce a particular unit of output. profit. Effectiveness is a broad concept and takes into account a collection of factors both inside and outside an organization. it is difficult to accept that ultimate goal of organization will be to serve society. As such. motivation and satisfaction. Thus. The limitation of this approach is that when organizations have autonomy to follow its independent courses of action.. the vital question in determining effectiveness is how well an organization is doing for the super-ordinate system. you should be able to understand: • • The concept of organizational effectiveness Factors contributing organizational effectiveness CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS Organizational effectiveness is defined as an extent to which an organization achieves its predetermined objectives with the given amount of resources and means without placing undue strain on its members. On the other hand. there exists a difference between the two concepts. The main limitation of this approaches the problem of identifying the real goals rather than the ideal goals. none of the single variable has proved to be entirely satisfactory. Parson states that since it has been assumed that an organization is identified in terms of its goal. • Functional Approach • System Resource Approach Goal Approach Goal attainment is the most widely used criterion of organizational effectiveness. System Resource Approach System-resource approach of organizational effectiveness emphasizes on interdependency of processes that relate the organization to its environment.
loyalties. attitudes. loss and earnings. communication and decision-making. business and leadership strategies. End Results Variables Production Cost Sales Earning Turnover Management Union Relationship #91 . to make organization effective. These causal variables include only those independent variables. Figure 19. The causal variables are the key to organizational effectiveness. while other variables will be corrected or improved automatically because of causal variables.2 shows Levels of Variables. intervening and end-result ore interrelated. motivations. End-Result Variables End-Result variables are the dependent variables that reflect achievements of an organization such as its productivity. The causal. performance goals and perceptions of all the members and their collective capacity for effective interaction. which can be altered by organization and its management. group and organizational levels in order to make the organization more effective. costs. at three different levels such as the individual. Figure 19. skills and behavior. Causal variables include organization and management's policies. Casual Variables Leadership Style Management Decision Organizational Philosophy Objectives and policies Technology Intervening Variables Commitment to Objective Motivation and Morale Communication Leadership Skills Conflict Resolution Decision –Making Figure 19. attempt should be made to improve the causal variables. Intervening Variables Intervening variables according to Likert are those variables that reflect the internal state and health of an organization.1 shows the relationship among various variables. The inter-relationship may be visualized as psychological process where stimuli or causal variables acting upon the organism or intervening variables and creating certain responses or end-result variables. Hence. decisions. For example.e.1: Inter-relationship of Variables The above model is quiet simple.Causal Variables Causal variables are those independent variables that determine the course of developments within an organization and the objectives achieved by an organization. Inter-Relationship of Variables The three variables such as causal. intervening and end-result variables comprise a complex network with many interdependent relationships. The effectiveness model can be presented in a more complex way i.
• There should be supportive internal climate. each individual tries to satisfy his goal by working in an organization and simultaneously satisfying organizational minis. 5. sub-system. Importing the Relevant Information: Organizations must be able to take the relevant information from the environment. Following are the major organizational conditions for effective coping: • There should be an effective communication system through which reliable and valid information can be passed. which can support good communication.The effective organization is built of effective individuals who work collectively in groups. The extent to which individual and organizational goals are integrated. Changing Conversion Process: The organization takes the inputs from environment for further processing. which consists of various activities that enable an organization to cope with the dynamics of environment. organizational effectiveness is not a result of integration between individual and organizational goals only but there are other causal variables affecting it. Obtaining Feedback: The last stage in the cycle is to obtain feedback on the outcome of the changes for further sensing the state of the external environment and the degree of integration of internal environment. Stabilizing Internal Changes: The fourth stage of the cycle is to stabilize an internal sub-system of an organization. the organization can export new outputs. normally known as conversion process. #92 . which provide willingness for change. which are in accordance with environment requirements. 2. Maintaining organizational effectiveness requires additional efforts. Adaptive-Coping cycle is a continuous process. This is similar to first stage. However. A successful coping suggests that all the stages have to be successfully-negotiated and failure at any of these stages may result into ineffectiveness. affects the degree of organizational effectiveness. 4. • Successful coping requires integration and commitment to organizational goals. especially when the major organizational changes take place. which constitutes the input. Most of the organizations have adaptive sub-system such as marketing research. research and development and other similar devices for effective coping with the environment. Schein has suggested that an organization can do this through the adaptive coping cycle. • There should be enough internal flexibility so that changes can be brought and absorbed by an organization. reduction in inflexibility and stimulation of self-protection.. This is because change in one may affect other and this change can be either positive or negative. There are six stages in the adaptive-coping cycle as follows: 1. 3. If there is no perfect integration of individual and organizational goals then organizational effectiveness is affected adversely. 6. Effectiveness through Adaptive-Coping Cycle The organization must develop a system through which it can adapt or cope with the environmental requirements. which is dependent on external. Sensing of Change: The first stage is the sensing of change in internal or external environment. i. He may sec his goal satisfaction in satisfying organizational goals.e. Exploring New Outputs: When the internal change is stabilised.
Therefore. Organizations need to effectively manage these characteristics in order to receive maximum contribution and commitment from their employees. #93 . Human Resource Problems These problems stem from employee perceptions about their work environment and conflict between an employee and organization needs. expectations and skills. INTERNAL FORCES Internal forces for change come from inside the organization. These forces come from external and internal sources of the organization. Organizations are entering into new partnerships with their suppliers in order to deliver higher quality products at lower prices. which is determined by individual characteristics of members such as their knowledge. needs. stress. Social and Political Pressures: These forces are created by social and political events. It is possible to bring about a total change m_ an organization by changing behaviors of individual members through participative and. Unless the people arc willing to accept the need and responsibility for organizational change. work overload and ambiguity. Nature of Change Organizations introduce changes through people. intended changes can never be translated into reality. Political events also create substantial change in an organization. Organizations encounter different forces for change. EXTERNAL FORCES External forces for change originate outside an organization. Technological Advancements: Both manufacturing and service organizations are increasingly using technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness. educative strategies. many organizations hire lobbyists and consultants to help them detect and respond to social and political changes. attitudes. Management of change involves both individual and organizational change. Organizations might respond to these problems by using the various approaches to job design by implementing realistic job previews and by reducing employees' role conflict. The economic and social environment is so dynamic that without adapting to such change even the most successful organizations cannot survive in the changed environment. Personal values affect employees’ needs. the degree of difficulty involved in the change and the time taken to bring about the change will depend on the target of change. In addition. Individual change is behavioral change. Market Changes: The emergence of a global economy is forcing Indian organizations to change the way they do business. Managerial Behavior Excessive interpersonal conflict between managers and their subordinates is a sign of implementing an immediate change. priorities and motivation. This may come from both human resource problems and managerial behavior. Therefore.LESSON . education. skill level and gender of employees. beliefs. managers need to adjust their managerial style according to the changing employee values. Although it is difficult for organizations to predict changes in political forces. Even in most stable organizations change is necessary to maintain stability. management must continuously monitor the outside environment and be sufficiently innovative and creative to implement these changes effectively. Inappropriate leader behavior such as inadequate direction and support are the cause of conflict between managers and their subordinates. individuals have to learn to adapt their attitudes and behavioral patterns to constantly changing environments. There are four key external forces for change: Demographic Characteristics: These include age. Although. you should-be able to understand: • The concept of change in the organization • Forces affecting the change • Model and dynamics of planned change • The reasons for resistance to change • The method of overcoming resistance to change Change simply refers to alteration in the existing conditions of an organization.20 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE Learning Objectives After reading this lesson.
Changing group behavior is usually a more prolonged and harder task. However. It is possible to change total organization without focusing at the level of individual's change of knowledge. Planned change is designed and implemented by an organization in an orderly and timely fashion in the anticipation of future change. This model is useful for both planned and reactive change. managers must understand the steps needed for effective change. we know that honesty is the best policy and we have favourable altitudes towards people. Reactive change results from a reaction of an organization to unexpected events. The linkage between attitude and behavior is not direct and therefore changing behavior is more difficult than changing attitudes. These types of changes alter prescribed relationships and roles assigned to members and eventually modify the individual members’ behavior and attitudes. therefore managers must approach it systematically and logically. Modification in the organization's structures. sometimes it may be easier to tackle the group as a whole rather than trying to change the behavior of members one by one. External forces that the organization has failed to anticipate or interpret always bring about reactive change. Planned change is always preferable to reactive change. Changing individual behavior is more time consuming and a difficult task. The more effective approach is to anticipate the significant forces for change working in an organization and plan ways to address them.who are honest but in certain situations. policies.which changes are initiated and executed.The attitudes towards change are largely dependent on the nature of the situation and the manner in . due to the same reasons of a group's over-riding influence on individual members. the complexity of managing change increases manifold. In contrast to planned change. Every group has its own dynamics of push and pull that attempt to neutralise the change that may have taken place in an individual. we may still act in a less honest way.1 shows seven steps that can lead to effective change. As these two kinds of changes are interdependent. More often than not. individual member's ‘changed behavior’ may revert to earlier normative behavior in order to maintain the change in the existing conditions. attitude and behavior. Bringing total behavioral change in all the groups and members of an organization involves difficult long-range effort. To accomplish this. Due to this group dynamics. it is a piece-meal response to circumstances as they develop. #94 . A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF CHANGE The comprehensive model of change shown in the figure 20. Some organizational changes are planned whereas other changes are reactive. For example. it is a slow painful process to usher a total cultural change in an organization. procedures and techniques leads to total organizational change. Managers who sit back and respond to change only when they can no longer avoid it are likely to waste a lot of time and money trying to patch together a last-minute solution. Since reactive change may have to be carried out hastily. One's attitude does not necessarily get reflected in one's behavior. APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE As organizational change is a complex process. it increases the likelihood of a poorly conceived and poorly executed Program.
An intervention is a specific change induced in an organization with the intention of solving a particular problem or accomplishing a specific objective. These managers tend to ‘initiate change because they expect it to be necessary in the near future in any case’. Planning the implementation of change involves consideration of the cost of the change. poor working conditions. It is important for the manager to specify goals that the change is supposed to accomplish. the manager must understand what has caused it in a particular situation in order to make the right changes. For marketing managers who anticipate needed . Thus. for example. Establish goals for change The manager must then set goals for the proposed change. as a result of marketing forecasts indicating new market potential. then a new reward system is required and if the cause is poor supervision then interpersonal skills and training for supervisors is required. poor supervision. Turnover. to reduce turnover. how the change will affect other areas of the organization and the degree to #95 . recognition is likely to come much earlier. the manager may discuss the situation with employees and other managers. to restore employee morale. The goals can be set to maintain or increase the market standing.The seven steps of comprehensive model of change are as follows: Recognize need for change The first step in this model is recognizing need for change. may be caused by a variety of factors such as low pay. to settle a strike and to identify good investment opportunities. To carry out this diagnosis. change. expert indications about impending socio-economic change or a perceived opportunity to capitalize on a key technological breakthrough. Diagnose relevant variables An important next step is diagnosing organizational variables that have brought about the need for change. to enter new markets. For example. Plan implementation of change The manager must then carefully plan the implementation of change. Select change intervention After the manager has developed an understanding of the problem and its causes then he must select a change intervention that will accomplish the intended goal. better alternatives in the job market or employee job dissatisfaction etc. if turnover is caused by low pay. if turnover is the recognized stimulus for change.
This is often the most difficult part of the change process. this model is based: 1. if the change involves the use of new equipment. or new ways of looking at things. The three stages are unfreezing. Expanded Process Model Lewin's model is very simple and straightforward and virtually all models of organizational change use his approach. the manager should verify that it has accomplished its intended goals. it is important to highlight the assumptions on which. MODELS AND DYNAMICS OF PLANNED CHANGE Managers are criticized for emphasizing short-term.2. The model incorporates Lewin's concept as part of the implementation phase. their resistance may stiffen. Managers also need to devise ways to reduce the barriers to change during this stage. behaviors and organizational practices. which explained how to initiate. Evaluate implementation Finally. changing and refreezing. The following models have been developed to effectively manage change: Lewin's Change Model Most theories of organizational change originated from the landmark work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. This is accomplished by first giving employees the chance to exhibit the new behaviors or attitudes. The change process involves learning something new. the manager should not make any changes that rely on the use of new equipment until it has arrived and been installed and workers know how to use it. People are the hub of all organizational changes. benchmarking organization against world-class organizations and training are useful mechanisms to facilitate change. Any change. The following are the three stages of change: Unfreezing The focus of this stage is to make organization open to change. Changing The focus of this stage is in providing employees with new information. 5. 4. experts. reward systems or job design requires individuals to change. #96 . group process. This may be due to inappropriate goals or inaccurate diagnosis of the situation or wrong selection of intervention. Implement change A systematically implemented change is more likely to proceed smoothly and to encounter fewer obstacles than is a change that is implemented too quickly and without adequate preparation. attitudes and organizational practices. new behavioral models. A change may fail to bring about the intended results. 2. Expanded process model is illustrated in the figure 20. as well discontinuing current attitudes. Resistance to change is found even when the goals of change are highly desirable. positive reinforcement is used to reinforce the desired change. 3. Additional coaching and modelling are also used at this point to reinforce the stability of the change. Quick-fix solutions do not really solve underlying problems and they have little staying power. quick fix solutions to organizational problems. In doing so individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management. it does not deal with several important issues. mentors. Moreover. Re freezing The focus of this stage is stabilizing the change during refreezing by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things. Lewin developed a three-stage model of planned change. Effective change requires reinforcing new behaviors. manage and stabilize the change process. Change will not occur unless there is motivation to change. whether in terms of structure. This model looks at planned change from the perspective of top management. The purpose is to help employees learn new concepts to implement change.which employees should participate in bringing about the change. Researchers and managers have thus tried to identify effective ways to manage the change process. Role models. For example. However. Before reviewing each stage. after the change has been implemented. if change is thrust upon them too quickly. Hastily implemented change can result in more harm than benefit. Once exhibited.
the top management defines its goals in terms of what the organization or certain processes. managers need to recognize the manifestations of resistance both in themselves and in others. For example. managers can use the list given in following table. Alternatives for change are generated and evaluated and then an acceptable one is selected. Acceptance • • • • • Indifference • Enthusiasm Cooperation Cooperation under pressure from management Acceptance Passive resignation Indifference • • • • • • • • • • • • Apathy: loss of interest in the job Doing only what is ordered Regressive behavior Non-learning Protests Working to rule Doing as little as possible Slowing down Persona! withdrawal (increased time off the job) Committing "errors" Spoilage Deliberate sabotage Passive Resistance Active Resistance #97 . or outputs will be like after the change.2 Top management according to this model perceives certain forces or trends that call for change and issues that are subjected to the organization's usual problem solving and decision-making processes.Figure 20. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Although organizations initiate changes in order to adjust to the changes in their environments but people sometimes resist them. Usually. Therefore. if they want to be more effective in supporting change.
Before recommending specific approaches to overcome resistance. 9. then it is said to have a narrow focus of change. The following methods of overcoming-resistance to change are as follows: 1. wherever possible. 12. 7. 14. 11. a British Psychologist and business consultant. Second. They present changes as a relational decision. many organizations change interventions and alter work arrangements. They harness circumstances to implement change. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Managers need not abandon planned change in the face of resistance. • People may resist change because their perceptions of underlying circumstances differ from the perceptions of those who are promoting the change. Organizational restructuring that involves reducing the number of job categories often meets this kind of resistance. the top management should inform the employees about the process of change. so they resist any change that might adversely affect those relationships. an organization must be ready for change. has listed the following characteristics of people who are good at managing changes. Most people prefer to do their work the way they did it last week rather than learn a new approach. policies and structure to maintain the existing conditions and therefore resist change even when change would benefit the organization more than stability. 10. 4. #98 . Individual Sources of Resistance According to researchers. They share maximum information about possible outcomes. First. leading to feeling of job insecurity. They involve their staff in the management of change and protect their security. Any change that may alter the power relationships within an organization may meet the form of resistance known as ‘threatened power’. 2. Third. organizational sources of resistance can be divided into following six general groups. They clearly explain change to people affected by change. 13. They can propose changes not only from their own view point but also from that of others. • • • • • • Over determination or structural inertia refers to the tendency of an organization's rules. Group inertia may weaken an individual’s attempt to bring about change. the employees perceptions or interpretations of a change should be considered. there are three key conclusions that should be kept in mind. They know clearly what they want to achieve. They show reverence for tradition and respect for experience. 8.The sources of resistance to change within organizations are classified into organizational sources of resistance and individual sources of resistance. For example. thus disrupting existing social networks. 5. 3. When an organization tries to change one of its division or part of the division without recognizing the interdependence of the division with other divisions of the organization. They make change by personally rewarding people. Social relationships are important to most people. Often a part of division cannot be changed without changing the whole division. • Perhaps the biggest cause of employee resistance to change is uncertainty. employees are likely to become anxious and nervous. Resistance may occur when a change threatens quantum of resource allocation from one part of the organization to another. Resistance may also take the form of threatened expertise if the change lends to weaken special expertise built after years of experience. Valerie Stewart (1983). They are not discouraged by setbacks. ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCES OF RESISTANCE According to Daniel Kantz and Robert L Khan. • Some people resist change to avoid feeling of loss. They can translate desires into practical action. individuals have the following reasons for resisting change: • Simple habits create a lot of resistance. They have a history of successful change. They do not pile one change on another but wait for assimilation. Change may also threaten people's feelings of familiarity and self-confidence. In the face of impending change. 6. They show that change is ‘related to business or job’. They worry about their ability to meet new job demands therefore.
It can be quick and inexpensive. It is a time consuming process. • There is a close working relationship between change agents and the people who are being changed. Employees who take part in planning and implementing change are better able to understand the reasons for the change than those who are not involved. Explicit and Implicit Coercion: This is adopted where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power.• • • • • • • Participation: Participation is generally considered the most effective technique for overcoming resistance to change. there negotiation is required. An organization should also have a planned approach to overcome such resistances. Negotiation: Where someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change and where that group has considerable power to resist. making only necessary changes. • It relates to real problems of an organization. • It is an educational strategy for bringing planned change. In force-field analysis. and mutual influence. OD has the following characteristics. Manipulation and Cooperation: This is followed when other tactics will not work or are too expensive. Facilitation of Change: Knowing ahead of lime that employees are likely to resist change then the manager should do as much as possible to help them cope with uncertainly and feeling of loss. The relationships involve mutual trust. Force-Field Analysis: In almost any situation where a change is being planned. They are humanists seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in organization. Employees who have the opportunity to express their own ideas and to understand the perspectives of others are likely to accept change gracefully. According to Bennis. it is also a time consuming process. Interventions constitute the action thrust of organization development. it can lead to further problems if people feel manipulated. Sometimes it is a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The term Organizational Development (OD) refers to a broad range of behavioral science based strategies used to diagnose the need for change in organizations and to implement changes when necessary. joint goals. • Laboratory training methods based on experienced behavior are primarily used to bring change. there are forces acting for and against the change. OD can be defined as a technique for bringing change in the entire organization. Nature of OD OD is a general strategy or approach to organizational change mat is employed to analyze and diagnose the sources of organizational problems and to develop and implement action plans for their solution. However. Managers should maintain an open channel of communication while planning and implementing change. Introducing change gradually. They become committed to the change and make it work. they make things happen and are what is happening. OD Interventions OD interventions refer to various activities which consultant and client organization perform for improving organizational functioning by enabling organization members to better manage their team and organization cultures. • Change agent applying OD technique for change is external to the forms of consultants. Education and Communication: Educating employees about the need for and the expected results of an impending change help reduce their resistance. French and Well have defined OD interventions as "sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units (target groups or individuals) engage with a task or a sequence of tasks where the task goals are related directly or indirectly to organizational improvement. However. • The change agents share social philosophy about human value. the manager list each set of forces and then try to remove or minimize some of the forces acting against the change. an organization that plans to introduce certain changes must be prepared to face resistance from its employees. means. Hence. It is speedy and can overcome resistance. Each of the above methods has its advantages and disadvantages. rather man focusing attention on individuals to bring change easily in the entire organization. announcing changes in advance and allowing time for people to adjust to new ways of doing things can help reduce resistance. There is no universal strategy for overcoming resistance to change.” Intervention Techniques • Sensitivity Training • Process Consultation • Team Development #99 .
e. In addition to these people focused interventions. from ten to twenty members • The group begins its activity with no formal agenda • The primary role of trainer is to call attention of members from time to time lo the ongoing process within the group • The procedure lends to develop introspection and self-examination. Process Consultation: Process Consultation (P-C) represents a method of intervening in an ongoing system. enhanced listening skills and increased trust and support. William Halal is right when he says "OD in future includes any method for modifying the behavior in the organization. authority and leadership and inter-group cooperation and conflicts. As such. roles and functions of group members. #100 . It utilizes a considerable number of instruments. OD shows a promising future. The Program aims at individuals. The basic content of P-C is that the consultant works with individuals and groups to help them learn about human and social processes and learn to solve problems that stem from process events. management by objectives. knowledge and processes necessary for effectiveness at the individual. the attempt should be to develop such an environment where such trust can be developed among the team members Grid Organization Development: Grid organization development. There also have been experiences of failure in OD but these are being recorded and collected to be reviewed. developed by Blake and Mounton. In general. Team Development: The underlying aim of team development is to increase trust among team members because people work better together when there is open and honest sharing about the problems and difficulties that they have with one another. communication. In sensitivity training. the actual technique employed is T-group. group problem-solving and decision-making. which requires people to become sensitive to one another's feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. job enrichment. procedures and authority structure. more concern for others. groups and the organization as a whole.g. less ethnic prejudice. understanding of a group process. OD offers some very attractive methodologies and philosophies to practicing managers and academicians. hereby. encompassing the entire spectrum of applied behavioral science". The objectives of such training are increased openness with others. enabling individuals and groups to assess their own strength and weaknesses. structural and job interventions such as job enlargement. at the initial level. P-C consists of many interventions and activities which affect the various organizational processes such as. T-group has several characteristic features: • The T-group is generally small. with emotional levels of involvement and behavior. increased tolerance for individual differences. rules. group norms. there may be other types of interventions too. since there are no rigid sets of procedures in OD work and different strategies have to be evolved for different types of organizations.• Grid Organization Development Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group. group and inter-group and total organization levels. It also focuses on skills. is a comprehensive and systematic OD Program.
Marks: 100 SECTION-A (5x8 = 40) Answer any Five questions Note: All questions carry equal murks 9. What are the causes of stress? 8. B (4x15 = 60) Answer any four questions Compare the Maslow's Theory with ERG Theory of Motivation. 11. 9. 2. 5. 10. What is the organizational design? What are its forms? 4. What are the forms of organizational communications? 14. What do you understand by organizational behavior? Bring out its nature and importance. What are the causes of stress? 16. Discuss the personality attributes in organization. What are the sources of power? 15. 2. 11. What is organizational culture? How it affects the behavior of the people? SECTION1. What is group cohesiveness? What are its determinants? 5. What are the barriers to effective communication? How to overcome those barriers? What are the techniques of managing political behavior? State the consequences of stress and method of managing the stress. What are the barriers to effective communication? How to overcome those barriers? What are the techniques of managing political behavior? State the consequences of stress and method of managing the stress. 12. Why do people resist change? As a manager how would you overcome such resistance? MODEL QUESTION PAPER ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Time: 3 Hours Max. B (4x15 = 60) Answer any four questions Compare the Maslow's Theory with ERG Theory of Motivation. 10. 6. 3. 8. Marks: 100 SECTION-A (5x8 = 40) Answer any Five questions Note: All questions carry equal murks 1. What is group cohesiveness? What are its determinants? 13.MODEL QUESTION PAPER ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Time: 3 Hours Max. Discuss the personality attributes in organization. What do you understand by organizational behavior? Bring out its nature and importance. 3. What is organizational culture? How it affects the behavior of the people? SECTION7. What are the forms of organizational communications? 6. What is the organizational design? What are its forms? 12. What are the sources of power? 7. Why do people resist change? As a manager how would you overcome such resistance? #101 . Suggest strategies to resolve inter-group conflicts. 4. Suggest strategies to resolve inter-group conflicts.
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