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Problem 1: The original price of a shirt was $20. It was decreased to $15 . What is the percent decrease of the price of this shirt. 0Solution to Problem 1: The absolute decrease is 20 - 15 = $5 The percent decrease is the absolute decrease divided by the the original price (part/whole). percent decease = 5 / 20 = 0.25 Multiply and divide 0.25 to obtain percent. percent decease = 0.25 = 0.25 * 100 / 100 = 25 / 100 = 25% Problem 2: Mary has a monthly salary of $1200. She spends $280 per month on food. What percent of her monthly salary does she spend on food? Solution to Problem 2: The part of her salary that is spent on food is $280 out of her monthly salary of $1200 percent = part / whole = 280 / 1200 = 0.23 (rounded to 2 decimal places) Multiply and divide 0.23 by 100 to convert in percent percent = 0.23 * 100 / 100 = 23 / 100 = 23% Problem 3: The price of a pair of trousers was decreased by 22% to $30. What was the original price of the trousers? Solution to Problem 3: Let x be the original price and y be the absolute decrease. If the price was decreased to $30, then x - y = 30 y is given by y = 22% of x = (22 / 100) * x = 0.22 x Substitute y by 0.22 x in the equation x - y = 30 and solve for x which the original price. x - 0.22 x = 30 x=1
1*0.80) / 100 = 0.100) / 120 = 0. Then later the price decreased again from $200 to $150.8 x = 200 x = 200 / 0. Which of the two decreases was larger in percentage term? Solution to Problem 4: First decrease in percent part / whole = (120 .30) / 30 = 10 / 30 = 0.5 by 22% and see if it gives $30.17 = 17% Second decrease in percent part / whole = (100 . Solution to Problem 6: Percent increase from 30 to 40 is given by (40 .78 x = $38.150) / 250 = 0.78x 0. Then later the price decreased again from $100 to $80. Problem 4: The price of an item changed from $120 to $100.20% x = 200 0.20 = 20% The second decrease was larger in percent term.78 x = 30 =30/0.33 = 33% (2 significant digits)
.5 Check the solution to this problem by reducing the origonal price found $38. The part were the same in both cases but the whole was smaller in the second decrease. Compare the percent of increase from 30 to 40 and that of the decrease from 40 to 30.4 = 40% Problem 6: A number increases from 30 to 40 and then decreases from 40 to 30. Problem 5: The price of an item decreased by 20% to $200. The first decrease gives x .22=0.8 = 250 The percentage decrease fro the original price 250 to 150 is given by part / whole = (250 . What is the percent of decrease from the original price to the final price of $150? Solution to Problem 5: We first need to find the original price x.
75 Total interest at the end of the two year period is $350 + $454. How much did they pay for the dinner? Solution to Problem 7: They paid for food.10% * 17 = $15.3 The total cost for the two shirts is 17 + 15. Problem 7: A family had dinner in a restaurant and paid $30 for food. he will be offered a discount of 15% on the first shirt and another 10% discount on the reduced price for the second shirt.75
.5%.3 Problem 9: Smith invested $5000 for two years. How much interest did he earn at the end of the two year period? Solution to Problem 9: Interest at the end of the first year 7% * 5000 = $350 Interest at the end of the second year 8. hence total paid = $30 + 9. The 10% discount will be on the already reduced price.30) / 40 = 0. the percent decrease is less than the percent increase.75 = $804.5% * (5000 + 350) = $454. the rate of interest was 7% and the second year it was 8. They also had to pay 9.85 Problem 8: A shop is offering discounts on shirts costing $20 each.5% * 30 + 10% * 30 = $35.15% * 20 = $17 The reduced price for the second shirt. For the first year.5% sale tax and 10% for the tip.3 = $32. sales tax and tip.25 = 25% In absolute term. hence the price of the second shirt is given by 17 . How much would one pay for two shirts at this shop? Solution to Problem 8: The reduced price for the first shirt 20 . If someone buys 2 shirts.Percent decrease from 40 to 30 is given by (40 .
56 . What will be the world population in 5 years if we assume that these rates of increase will stay constant for the next 5 years. How much did he have to repay (principal + interest) at the end of the 3 year period? Solution to Problem 11: The interest to pay is given by Interest = 600 * 10% * 3 = $180 Total to repay 600 + 180 = $780 Problem 12: Out of a world population of approximately 6.56 The interest earned at the end of 5 years is $2552. 1. North America.2 billion people live in the richer countries of Europe.6 billion. for 3 years. simple interest. the principal is given by P5 = 2000 * (1 + 5%)
= 2000 * (1 + 0. she has the principal P1 plus the interest on P1 P2 = P1 + 5% * P1 = P1(1 + 5%) Substitute P1 by 2000(1 + 5%) found above to find P2 = 2000 * (1 + 5%) 2 Continuing with this process.05) = $2552.4 billion people live in the lees developed countries and is growing at the rate of 1.$2000 = $552.5%.Problem 10: Janette invested $2000 at 5% compounded annually for 5 years. while the other 5. Japan and Oceania and is growing at the rate of 0.25% per year. (round answer to 3 significant digits) Solution to Problem 12:
.56 Problem 11: Tom borrowed $600 at 10% per year. it can easily be shown that a the end of the 5th year. How much interest did she earn at the end of the 5 year period? Solution to Problem 10: At the of the first year. she has the principal plus the interest on the principal P1 = 2000 + 5% * 2000 = 2000(1 + 5%) At the of the second year.
5% * x + 8.25%) + 0. x = $3000 and y = $7000 As a practice check that 7. PR will be PR = 1. hence 1500 = 500 + 5% * x = 500 + 0.5% of $7000 gives $820.25%) after one year PR = 1. Her income from the two investment was $820. hence S = 500 + 5% * x Find sales x so that S = 1500.25%) after 5 years Similar calculations can be used to find the population PL in less developed countries after 5 years.2) = 1.25%) 5 + 5.Let us first calculate the population PR in 5 years in the richer countries PR = (1.25%) 2after two years Continue with the above and after 5 years.05 x
.2(1 + 0.2 + 0. What should the monthly sales be so that her monthly salary reaches $1500? Solution to Problem 14: Let S be the total monthly salary and x be the monthly sales.000 = x + y Solve the system of the equations to find x and y.25% * 1.2(1 + 0.25% * 1.2(1 + 0.2(1 + 0.4(1 + 1.03 billion.5% * y The total amount invested is also known 10.2(1 + 0.25%) = 1.5% per year and the other part at 8.5% per year. Problem 14: The monthly salary S of a shop assistant is the sum of a fixed salary of $500 plus 5% of all monthly sales.5% of $3000 and 8.5% respectively Income = $820 = 7. How much did she invest at each rate? Solution to Problem 13: Let x and y be the amount invested at 7. PL = 5.5%) after 5 years The world population P after 5 years will be P = PR + PL = 1.5%) 5 = 7.2(1 + 0. Problem 13: Cassandra invested one part of her $10.000 at 7.5% and 8.4(1 + 1.
What amount of each solution should be used in order to make 300 ml of a 28% acid solution? Solution to Problem 14: Let x be the solution at 20% and y be the solution at 40%.05 = $20000 Problem 15: A chemist has a 20% and a 40% acid solutions.500) / 0. hence x + y = 300 ml We now write an equation that expresses that the total acid in the final 300 ml is equal to the sum of the amounts of acid in x and y 28% * 300 = 20% * x + 40% * y Solve the above system of equations to find x = 180 and y = 120
Problem 16: What percent of the total area of the circular disk is colored red?
Solution to Problem 16: Total area of disk Ad = pi * r 2 Angle t in radians of central angle of red sector t = (360-120)* pi / 180 = (4/3) pi
.Solve for x x = (1500 .
why are they equal? Problem 17: What percent of the total area of the rectangle is colored red?
Solution to Problem 17: Total area of rectangle Ar = L * W Area of triangle At = (1/2) base * height = (1/2) [ L * (1/2) W ] Percentage of area in red P = (1/2) [ L * (1/2) W ] / [L*W] = 1/4 = 25% Problem 1: How many liters of 20% alcohol solution should be added to 40 liters of a 50% alcohol solution to make a 30% solution? Solution to Problem 1:
.7% to 240 / 360.Area of red sector As = (1/2) t * r 2 Percentage of total area in red P = [ (1/2) t * r 2 ] / [ pi * r 2 ] = 4 / 6 = 66.7% (3 significant digits) THINK: compare 66.
But remember the alcohol is measured in percentage term. Substitute in the last equation to obtain 2% x + 7% (100 . x = 80 liters
80 liters of 20% alcohol is be added to 40 liters of a 50% alcohol solution to make a 30% solution. 2% x + 7% y = 5% 100 y The first equation gives y = 100 .x) = 5% 100 y Multiply by 100 and simplify 2 x + 700 .7 x = 5 * 100
Let x be the quantity of the 20% alcohol solution to be added to the 40 liters of a 50% alcohol. 20 x / 100 + 50 * 40 / 100= 30 x / 100 + 30 * 40 / 100
Mutliply all terms by 100 to simplify. 20 x + 50 * 40 = 30 x + 30 * 40
Solve for x. 20% x + 50% * 40 = 30% (x + 40)
Change percentages into fractions. What are the quantities of each of the two solutions (2% and 7%) he has to use? Solution to Problem 2: y Let x and y be the quatities of the 2% and 7% aclohol solutions to be used to make 100 ml.x. Hence x + 40 = y
We shall now express mathematically that the quantity of alcohol in x liters plus the quantity of alcohol in the 40 liters is equal to the quantity of alcohol in y liters. Hence x + y = 100 y We now write mathematically that the quantity of alcohol in x ml plus the quantity of alcohol in y ml is equal to the quantity of alcohol in 100 ml. Let y be the quantity of the final 30% solution. 20% x + 50% * 40 = 30% y
Substitute y by x + 40 in the last equation to obtain.
Problem 2: John wants to make a 100 ml of 5% alcohol solution mixing a quantity of a 2% alcohol solution with a 7% alcohol solution.
of the 10% solution. Let y be the weight.90 x = 45500 x = 200 grams. y 200 grams of Sterling Silver is needed to make the 91% alloy. of sterling silver and of the 90% alloy to make the 500 grams at 91%. of pure water to be added.5% pure silver. How many grams of Sterling Silver must be mixed to a 90% Silver alloy to obtain a 500g of a 91% Silver alloy? Solution to Problem 3: y Let x and y be the weights. in grams. Hence 92. The pure silver is given in percentage forms. in Kilograms. 30% 100 = 10% (x + 100)
Problem 4: How many Kilograms of Pure water is to be added to 100 Kilograms of a 30% saline solution to make it a 10% saline solution.x = 60 ml
Problem 3: Sterling Silver is 92.x in the last equation to write 92.5 x + 45000 .y
Solve for x x = 40 ml
Substitute x by 40 in the first equation to find y y = 100 . Solution to Problem 4: y Let x be the weights.5% x + 90% y = 91% 500 y Substitute y by 500 . Hence x + y =500 y The number of grams of pure silver in x plus the number of grams of pure silver in y is equal to the number of grams of pure silver in the 500 grams.x) = 91% 500 y Simplify and solve 92.5% x + 90% (500 . Hence x + 100 = y y Let us now express the fact that the amount of salt in the pure water (which 0) plus the amount of salt in the 30% solution is equal to the amount of salt in the final saline solution at 10%. in Kilograms. 0 + 30% 100 = 10% y y Substitute y by x + 100 in the last equation and solve.
. What do you think will happen if x is very large? Find x so that the final solution has a percentage of 15%. x = 200 Kilograms. then the ratio becomes close to 0.25 x ) / (x + 200)] y If x becomes very large in the above formula for the ratio. this will dominate and the final solution will be very close to a 25% solution. of the alcohol in the final solution to the total amount of the solution. Hence 0 + 30% 50 ml = x (80) y Solve for x x = 0.25 x y The total amount of alcohol in the final solution is given by 20 + 0. Find the amount of alcohol in the final solution in terms of x. we need to have [ ( 20 + 0. Solution to Problem 6: y Let us first find the amount of alcohol in the 10% solution of 200 ml.25 is its horizontal asymptote).75% Problem 6: You add x ml of a 25% alcohol solution to a 200 ml of a 10% alcohol solution to obtain another solution.1817 = 18. This means that if you increase the amount x of the 25% solution.
Problem 5: A 50 ml after-shave lotion at 30% alcohol is mixed with 30 ml of pure water. What is the percentage of alcohol in the new solution? Solution to Problem 5: y The amount of the final mixture is given by 50 ml + 30 ml = 80 ml y The amount of alcohol is equal to the amount of alcohol in pure water ( which is 0) plus the amount of alcohol in the 30% solution. To have a percentage of 15%. Let x be the percentage of alcohol in the final solution. 200 * 10% = 20 ml y The amount of alcohol in the x ml of 25% solution is given by 25% x = 0. Find the ratio.25 or 25% (The above function is a rational function and 0.25 x y The ratio of alcohol in the final solution to the total amount of the solution is given by [ ( 20 + 0.25 x ) / (x + 200)] = 15% = 0.y
Solve for x. in terms of x.
they are at the same distance from the starting point and therefore D1 = D2 which gives 40 t = 60 (t-1) y Solve the above equation for t to find t = 3 hours
Solve the above equation for x 20 + 0. At what time will car B pass car A? Solution to Problem 2: y After t hours the distances D1 traveled by car A is given by D1 = 40 t y Car B starts at 10 am and will therefore have spent one hour less than car A when it passes it. After (t . 5 am + 5 hours = 10 am Problem 2: At 9 am a car (A) began a journey from a point. solve the above equation for t to obtain t = 5 hours. in miles per hour. At 10 am another car (B) started traveling from the same point at 60 mph in the same direction as car (A). traveling in opposite directions at 40 and 50 mph respectively. at 5 am. distance D2 traveled by car B is given by D2 = 60 (t-1) y When car B passes car A.25 x = 0.15 * (x + 200) x = 300 ml
Problem 1: Two cars started from the same point.1) hours. At what time will they be 450 miles apart? Solution to Problem 1: y After t hours the distances D1 and D2. traveled by the two cars are given by D1 = 40 t and D2 = 50 t y After t hours the distance D separating the two cars is given by D = D1 + D2 = 40 t + 50 t = 90 t y Distance D will be equal to 450 miles when D = 90 t = 450 miles y To find the time t for D to be 450 miles. traveling at 40 mph.
traveling towards each other. If the rate of the first train is 72 mph and the rate of the second train is 78 mph. at 4 pm. Problem 5: Linda left home and drove for 2 hours. He stopped for lunch then drove for another 3 hours at the rate of 55 mph to reach his destination. She stopped for lunch then drove for another 3 hours at a rate that is 10 mph higher than the rate before she had lunch.
. what was the rate before lunch? Solution to Problem 5: y If x is the rate at which Linda drove before lunch the rate after lunch is equal x + 10. Problem 4: John left home and drove at the rate of 45 mph for 2 hours. the two trains pass each other. If the total distance Linda travelled is 230 miles. The total distance D traveled by Linda is given by D = 2 x + 3(x + 10) y and is equal to 230 miles. the two trains will have traveled distances D1 and D2 (in miles) given by D1 = 72 t and D2 = 78 t y After t hours total distance D traveled by the two trains is given by D = D1 + D2 = 72 t + 78 t = 150 t y When distance D is equal to 900 miles. 150 t = 900 y Solve the above equation for t t = 6 hours. Hence 2 x + 3 (x + 10) = 230 y Solve for x to obtain x = 40 miles / hour. at wthat time will they pass each other? Solution to Problem 3: y After t hours.y
Car B passes car A at 9 + 3 = 12 pm
Problem 3: Two trains. How many miles did John drive? Solution to Problem 4: y The total distance D traveled by John is given by D = 45 * 2 + 3 * 55 = 255 miles. left from two stations that are 900 miles apart.
. Pythagora's theorem can used to find distance D between the two cars as follows: D = sqrt ( x 2 + y 2 )
We now find the time at which D = 300 miles by solving sqrt ( x + y ) = 300
Square both sides and substitute x and y by 50 t and 60 t respectively to obtain the equation (50 t) 2 + (60 t) 2 = 300 2
Solve the above equations to obtain t = 3.84 hours (rounded to two decimal places) or 3 hours and 51 minutes (to the nearest minute)
The two cars will 300 miles apart at 8 + 3 h 51' = 11:51 am. from the same point. Let x and y be the distances traveled by the two cars in t hours.
The two cars are traveling in directions that are at right angle. Hence x = 50 t and y = 60 t
Since the two directions are at right angle.
. At what time will they be 300 miles apart? Solution to Problem 6: y A diagram is shown below to help you understand the problem.Problem 6: Two cars left. one traveling east at 50 mph and the other travelling south at 60 mph. at 8 am.
Problem 7: By Car. At a rate that is 15 mph higher than Gary's. At a rate that was 20 mph higher than John's. When Gary and Thomas cross each other. what is the distance beween the two cities? Solution to Problem 8: y Let D be the distance between the two cities. Hence D1 = 2 * 50 = 100 miles . If Gary and Thomas crossed each other at 11 am. The rate of the first car is 50 mph and the rate of the second car is 60 mph. We use the rate-time-distance formula to write the distance D traveled by John and Peter (same distance D) D = 3 x and D = 2(x + 20) y The first equation can be solved for x to give x=D/3 y Substitute x by D / 3 into the second equation D = 2(D/3 +20) y Solve for D to obtain D = 120 miles
Problem 8: Gary started driving at 9:00 am from city A towards city B at a rate of 50 mph. Solution to Problem 7: y Let x be John's rate in traveling between the two cities. How long will it take for the distance bewteen the two cars to be 30 miles? Solution to Problem 9: y Let D1 and D2 be the distances traveled by the two cars in t hours D1 = 50 t and D2 = 60 t y The second has a higher speed and therefore the distance d between the two cars is given by d = 60 t .50 t = 10 t
. Find the distance bewteen the two cities. John traveled from city A to city B in 3 hours. The rate of Peter will be x + 10. distance traveled by Gary D1 = 2 * (50 + 15) = 130 miles . distance traveled by Gary y Distance D between the two cities is given by D = 100 miles + 130 miles = 230 miles Problem 9: Two cars started at the same time. they have covered all the distance between the two cities. Thomas started driving at the same time as John from city B towards city A. from the same point. driving along the same road. Peter traveled the same distance in 2 hours.
then total distance D between the two trains is given by D = D1 + D2 = 180 t y For this distance to be 450 miles. the total distance D between the two trains is given by D = D1 + D2 = 180 t .
Problem 10: Two trains started at 10 pm. the second train traveled West at the rate of 100 mph. then D1 = 80 t and D2 = 100 (t . we need to have 180 t . from the same point. we need to have 180 t = 450 y Solve for t to obtain t = 2 hours 30 minutes. At what time were they 530 miles apart? Solution to Problem 11: y When the first train has traveled for t hours the second train will have traveled (t . we need to have 30 miles = 10 t
Solve the above equation for t to obtain t = 3 hours. At 8:00 am the first train traveled East at the rate of 80 mph. Hence if D1 and D2 are the distances traveled by the two trains. The first train traveled North at the rate of 80 mph and the second train traveled South at the rate of 100 mph.100 = 530
For d to be 30 miles.100 y For D to be 530 miles. D1 = 80 t and D2 = 100 t y Since the two trains are traveling in opposite directions. 10 pm + 2:30 = 12:30 am Problem 11: Two trains started from the same point.1) y Since the trains are traveling in opposite directios. At what time were they 450 miles apart? Solution to Problem 10: y Let D1 and D2 be the distances traveled by the two trains in t hours.1) hours since it strated 1 hour late. At 9:00 am.
Pump B used alone takes 8 hours to fill the same tank.5) + t * (1 / 2) = 1 y Multiply all terms by 6 6 (t * (1 / 1.5 hours for Tim to mow the lawn. Problem 2: It takes 6 hours for pump A. Hence t * (1 / 1.5) + t * (1 / 2) ) = 6 y and simplify 4t+3t=6 y Solve for t t = 6 / 7 hours = 51. We want to use three pumps: A.5 and Linda 1 / 2 y Let t be the time for John and Linda to mow the Lawn. 8 am + 3:30 = 11:30 am
Problem 1: It takes 1.5 minutes. B and another pump C to fill the tank in 2 hours.5) y The work done by Linda alone is given by t * (1 / 2) y When the two work together.y
Solve for t t = 3 hours 30 minutes. What should be the rate of pump C? How long would it take pump C. to fill the tank? Solution to Problem 2: y The rates of pumps A and B can be calculated as follows: A: 1 / 6 and B: 1 / 8
. to mow the lawn? Solution to Problem 1: y We first calculate the rate of work of Jonh and Linda John: 1 / 1. The work done by John alone is given by t * (1 / 1. used alone. Linda can mow the same lawn in 2 hours. their work will be added. work together. used alone. How long will it take John and Linda. to fill a tank of water.
If initially the tank was empty and somenone started the two pumps together but left the drainage hole open. we have 2(1/6+1/8+R)=1
Solve for R R = 1 / 4.8 . the time it takes pump C to fill the tank.8 hours . each pump working on its own. Problem 4: A swimming pool can be filled by pipe A in 3 hours and by pipe B in 6 hours.1) * (1 / 6) = 1
. pump B: 1 / 6 y Working together. how long does it take for the tank to be filled? Solution to Problem 3: y Let's first find the rates of the pumps and the drainage hole pump A: 1 / 5 .y
Let R be the rate of pump C. If pump A works for t hours then pump B works t . pump B: 1 / 8 .
Problem 3: A tank can be filled by pipe A in 5 hours and by pipe B in 8 hours.
Let t be the time it takes pump C. drainage hole: 1 / 20 y Let t be the time for the pumps to fill the tank. When the tank is full and a drainage hole is open. used alone.add water into the tank however the drainage hole drains water out of the tank. rate of pump C. Hence t * (1 / 4.6 hours. When working together for 2 hours. At 9 am pump A is started. The pumps . to fill the tank.8) = 1
Solve for t t = 4. each pump working on its own.1 / 20) = 1 y Solve for t t = 3. Hence t * (1 / 3) + (t .1 hours since it started 1 hour late. the water is drained in 20 hours. hence t ( 1 / 5 + 1 / 8 . At what time will the swimming pool be filled if pump B is started at 10 am? Solution to Problem 4: y the rates of the two pumps are pump A: 1 / 3 .
Solve for t t = 7 / 3 hours = 2.3 hours = 2 hours 20 minutes. y The swimming pool will be filled at 9 + 2:20 = 11:20