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1

Creative Keyboard's DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA-

A Complete Study of Chords

/

How to Use Them

Creative Keyboard's

DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

PIANO CHORDS
A Complete Study of Chords and How to Use Them
The Deluxe Encyclopedia of Piano Chords is a complete and thorough analysis of chords as
applied to the piano keyboard. This study encompasses chord construction, usage, scales and rhythm patterns. It is hoped that this text will enable the pianist or organist to effectively use and apply the full diversity of chord possibilities in creating interesting, personal and colorful musical styles.

Dedication: To my Mother, Mabel M., and my Father, Elmer H. Kroepel; music was a happiness in our home. Bob Kroepel

0 1973 by Mel Bay Publications, Inc., Pacific, MO 63069. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. B.M.I. Made and Printed in the U.S.A.

Piano Keyboard Diagram

............................ ..........................

Intervals Half-Step and Whole-Step

Thirteenth Chord Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Seven Six Chord Six Nine Chord ............................................ 19 Enharmonic Notation

Accidentals Chart of Accidentals .................................... Major Scabs Scab Degrees .............................................. Chords Chord-Tones ................................................ Inversions .................................................... Construction of Common Chords Minor Triad Major Triad Augmented Triad Lowered Fifth Triad ...................................... Diminished Triad Maior Seventh Chord Dominant Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Chord ................................. Maior Sixth Chord Minor Sixth Chord Diminished Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord

.................................. 20

Numbering the Fingers ................................ 22 Explanotion of the Keyboard Diagrams and Annotation .................... Key of C Major. Scales and Chords

. 23 .
25

............

Key of Ob Major (Identical to C# Maior) Scales and Chords ........................ 30 Key of D Major. Scales and Chords .............. 35 Key of Eb Major. Scales and Chords .............. 40 Key of E Maior. Scales and Chords .............. 45 Key of F Major. Scales and Chords .............. 50 Key of F# Major (Identical to G b Major). Scales and Chords ...................... 55

............

Key of G Major. Scales and Chords ............ 60 Key of A Major. Scales and Chords b

Seventh Augmented Fifih Chord Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Major Seventh Flatted Third. Flatted Fifth Chord ...................................

............ 65

Key of A Major. Scales and Chords ............ 70

.........

Key of Bb Major. Scales and Chords ............ 75 Key of B Maior (Identical to Cb Maior). Scales and Chords .................... 80

Mojor Seventh Flatted Third. Augmented Fifth Chord Major Ninth Chord Ninth Chord Ninth Augmented Fihh Chord ...................... 16 Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord Minor -Ninth Chord Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord Minor Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord ................ 17 Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Chord Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Augmented Fifth Chord

...... 85 Using Chords to Play Popular Music .......... 87
Range of the Bass. Chords and Melody

..........................89 The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern ...................... 91 Alternating the Bars ..................................94 Using Different Chord Positions .................. 95
The Waltz Rhythm Pattern Alternating the Alternoting Bars

................ 18
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................ 96

Here is a keyboard diagram showing the white keys of the piano keyboard and their location on the
Grand Staff

:
Trademark

Notice that the number of leger lines needed to locate the pitches of the piano on the Grand Stafl increase towards the ends of the keyboard.

To make it easier to read music is often written with the symbol 8va instead ot the exact number of leger lines.
8 ~ means "octaver "Octave" comes from theLatin word "octava: meaning "eighth: An octave is the 1 same letter eight letters to the left o r right of the original: A B C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C D E F c A B C.-*....-..

' octave

T

T

original

T

octave

8va written above a note means to play the note with the same letter name an octave higher:

Writ ten: 8va

Played:

IF

8va a b s o means to play the note with the same letter name an octave lower:

Written: 8va a baeeo

Played:

!

8 means two octaves higher: 2 8va a b -

o means two octaves lower.

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In music an Interval is defined a s the distance (in terms of pitch) between two notes. The smallest interval on the piano keyboard is the klfetep: a half -step is defined a s the intern1 between two adjoining notes :

half step

-

half

-

half
S*P

-

step

Two half- steps equal one whole-atep:
whob-wholestep step wholestep

step P Natural cancels a sharp or a flat - .step bb DOUM.-FI~~ lowers pitch two half-ste s or one who e. Here is a chart which explains the symbols used for accidentals: I Symbol Name F u nc tion raises pitch a half-step Example 1 # b Sharp Flat lowers pitch a half-step X! Double*Sharp raises pitch two half. . or one whole.Musical symbols which alter the letter names of notes are called aceidentala.s teps.

A major acole is an eight-letter sequence of the musica1"aIpHrbet~ The first letter of the major scale is called the Qnic wt.+s . 8.Major Scales. C major wale - C I D E F C A B C I . or bymte: the last letter of the mior scale is the same as the keynote but is called the O C ~ W . 2 3 4. 5. The musical relationships between the tonea of a major ecale can be expressed by means of wholeateps(abbreviated W) and haif-atepa (abbreviated H) : C D E F C A B C Here is the C major scale shown on a keyboard diagram: Cmaiorscale-C Scale degrees - l l l. Ex.u etc. 7. A scale is a series of tones in an organized sequence. repeating endtessly the first: sevt?fi letters of the English language alphabet: A B C D E F C A B C D E F C A B C D E F C A . 6. D E F C A B C .. l l l l i 1. Keynote The tones of the major scale can be numbered: Octave The numbrs referring to the tones of a major scale are called ecale degree@. -- The musical alphabet is a continuum.

The G major scale The F sharp(F#) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played F sharp(F# ) C major scaleScale degrees- C 1 l A 0 C 1 1 1 l l l D 1 l 1 ~ 1 # C ) b l 1. 7. 2. 4.To preserve the whole-step and half-step relationships between the tones of a major scale the key signatureindicates which notes are sharped or flatted Ex. 5.F G Scale degrees- A Bb C D E F . 8. The F major ecale The B flat(Bb) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played B flat(Bb) F major scale. 6. Ex. 3.

2 E.A chord is defied as two or more notes played at the same time.C Scale degreesChord. D 2 E 3. C 5. The chord-tones of any chord can be related to the scale degrees of the major scale having the same keynote as the root of the chord. F. 4. Scale degrees1. 4. Octave I Keynote b Chord. B. D. I Root 4.tonesC. A major triad consists of the root. C minor triad x C major scaleScale degreesChord. C. In popular music a chord generally has a minimum of three notes. C E C A minor triad consists of the root. 5. b . 6. 8. 3 E . 8. third and fifth scale degrees (R 3. 3.tones1. 5. 5. A. 6. 5. 7. . 5. The pitches which make up a chord are called chord-tones:any other pitches are called non-chordtones. C. 1. The chord-tone upon which the rest of the chord is built is called the root. F 4. I 2 2 3.tones. 7. 3 . 7. NOTE: R is used to differentiate cleerly the root of the chord from the keynote of the scale when using numbers. 6.). R.). C a R. 3. 5. A 6. Chords can be related to major scales by means of scale degrees. B 7. flatted third and fifth scale degreds (R. 0. 5. b3. C major scale.R.

-C major triad.Root E-3rd C-5th Root Position I First lrvereion or Second Poeition Second Inversion or Third Posit ion Sice chord-tones can be rearranged into a s many positions a s there are chord-tones four-note chords will have four positions. C/2 C/3 -. a chord with the fifth a s the lowest note is said to be in the second inversion. C bass note. C bass note. E bass note. second position. C major triad. etc. root position.C major triad.C major triad(any position). the letter after the second nrark indicating the bass note: C12/G - C major triad. C C.or a number for other positions: for C/R -. etc. a chord with the third a s the lowest note is said to be in the first inversion.I"~" root position.C major triad. etc. A chord with the root a s the lowest note is said to be in root position.Inversions A rearrangement of chord-tones is called an invereion. When the composer wishes to specify a particular bass note he may use a slash mark and a letter indicating the desired bass note: C/E -. etc. etc. . A specific chord position and a specific bass note can be indicated by using two slash marks. third position. However. Specific chord positions can be indicated by using a slash mark ( / ) after the chord symbol and a 1etter. five-note chords will have five positions. the letter or number after the first slash mark indicating the chord position. C/C -C major triad. the term position is often used instead of inversion:the relationship between position and hvereion can be confusing and is shown below: Ex. second position.

. to simplify his playing the student may use the common or dominant seventh chord instead of the ninth. eleventh and thirteenth chords are substitutes for common o r dominant seventh chords.Since it is difficult for the average-sized hand to play more than four notes at a time only the top four notes of ninth(5-note) chords. eleventh(6-note) and thirteenth(7-note) chords will be inverted: Ninth Chords Eleventh chords Thirteenth Chords NOTE:ninth. eleventh or thirteenth.

On the following pages chords and their construction by means of scale degrees are shown Although the examples given are for C chords any root can be used. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s . 10. 15. For the examples in C thb C major scale should be kept in mind: Cmajorscsle-C r D E F G A B C D l r ~ r E F ~ C A B C ~ r ~ r r t ~ ~ Scale degrees. 9. 7. 14. 1 13.L z 3. 2 . 8. 6. 4. 11. The most common chord symbols will also be given.

tones-R. Chord symbol. C+. 5. Chord symbols.. b3... b5. C(b5) . . Chord symbols=Cmor C- Augmented Triad Chord.tones.. 5.tones.Major Triad Chord.tones-R.R.C (capital letter only) Minor Triad Chord.C-5.. Chord symbols-C+s.. 3. 45 C ( t 5) Lowered Fiftb Triad Chord..R. 3. 3.

C C E G B Dominant Seventh Chord C h o r d . C h o r d symbols-Cmaj... R. 5. C h o r d symbol = Cm7 ... 5. b7.t o n e s . 7.. C* Major Seventh Chord Chord-tones--R.. ... 5.. Chord symbols - Cdim. C h o r d symbol -C7 Minor Seventh Chonl Chord-tones- R.Diminished Triad Chord.7. b7. b3. 3. CM7.R.. b5. 3.tones-. b3..

. b7.. b5.. or Half-Diminished Chord Chord-tones... C ' . 5. Chord symbol-=C6 3.....Major Sixth Chord Chord-tones..R. b3. Chord symbol-Cdim.R. 6. b3. 5.. b5. Chord symbols -Cm7-5. b3. 7 C E b Gb Bbb Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord. 6. Minor Sixth Chord Chord-tones- R. bb7.. Chord symbol-Cm6 Diminished Seventh Chord Chord-tones-R.

. 4 Major Seventh Flatted Third.Seventh Augmented Fifth Chord.b5. b3.b3.C7-5.. Flatted Fifth Chord Chord-tones.CM7 bs Cmaj... C7(bS) Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Chord symbol = C7sus.tones.. b5 .R.. b7 Chord symbols. C7b5. b5. b3 Chord symbols. 7. 5 - Seventh Lowered Fifth Cbord Chord. or Augmented Seventh Chord Chord symbols C7+5. 3.R.7. C7aug.

9. 7. 9 Ninth Chord C h o r d .R. 7. C h o r d s y m b o l s = C9. $ 5...Major Seventh Flatted Third.C9.. t5...t o n e s R. b7. $5. Chord symbol. 5...CM7 Cmaj.. 7. 3. 3.. b7.R. Augmented Fifth Chord Chord.t o n e s .C9 Ninth Augmented F i f t h Chord Chord. +5.. . 9 Chord symbol-Cmaj.R.tones. b3. Chord symbols-. 3. $5 - Major Ninth Chord Chord.. b3.t o n e s . 5... 9...

b lib I.!).b3.. b?.rls =CO-5..tones==R. Chord symbolCrilV Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord Chord-torics. B. Mioor Ninth Chord Chord... 4... C:O.ln9.. b i . 0..R.5. b5. C Eb (.) .. Cflord symbt.tones==H.b:l. Chord symbols -LnlY-.. b3.Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord Chord. b5. 9. b7. b5.. . Chord symbols - b7.. 9..R. Cm9 $5 Minor N i n t h Lowered F i f t h Chord CliordtancXs... 5. (. Ctnsf5. b5.

5.Cll. 5. b9...tones= R.. b9..b7.9. C11-9 Eleventh Augmented F i f t h Chord Chord symbols-CI1.. 3. b9.. . Chord symbol==C11 C E G B b D F Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Chord.. +5.3.. 11. 5. b9.3... Chord symbols - C11. C7-9 Eleventh Chord Chord-tones=~. b7.Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Chord. Chord symbols = C7.tones= H..b7.. P5. 11...

9. Chord symbols = C13....C13-9 Seven S i x Chord Chord.. S i x Nine Chord Chord.6..C13.b7.6.. 13.tones -.R. b 9 . 3.R. S.b9.. 11.9. S. ll..Thirteenth Chord Chord-tones=R. 9..... C7/6.. S.. 3. Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Chord-tones. 6. Chord symbol -C6. 3. b7. .3. Chord symbols =C7... b7. Chord symbol..tones - R. ... 13.5.

Ft major scale. such as E-Fb. Notice that certain white keys can have two names.1 Half step Formula for Major Scales c# A$ B Cl Dl E8 F# - . such a s C$-Db. The fact that a key can have more than one name is called enharmonic notation. Enharmonic notation is used to preserve certain musical relationships.Ehharmonic Notation The musical alphabet is used to label the white keys only. Ex. meaning equivalent names for the same pitch.\W /\i\/"\I\\ w H w / W \ I W H 1 Because there must be a half-step between the 7 th and 8th scale degrees the white key which is a half-step down from FI is now called Et insteul of F natural. The following chart shows how the keys are named: C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C F b El Cb B# Notice that a black key can b v e two names. M Major Scale.F$ Scale degrees -. such as the whole-step and half-step relationships between the scale degrees of a major ocale. The black keys derive their names from the adjjcent white keys. .

Ebb. C Diminished Seventh Chord Chord. NOTE: in the above example. F . bS.tones would have been Cb. the double-flatted seventh is often difficult to read and the enharmonic equivalent..Enharmonic notation is quite often used in writing music in order to make it easier to read in certain situations. Gbb . if the diminished seventh chord were built on Cb instead of C. In a diminished seventh chord the diminished seventh itself is theoretically written a s the double-flatted seventh scale degree ( bb7 ) : however. is often used instead: Ex. and A : theoretical notation Enharmonic notation . Ebb. Bbbb (B triple flat ! ! ) :conceivably. the chord. bb7 C dim 7 C Eb Gb Bbb (theoretical ) or theoret'ical notation Enharmonic notation A I (Enharmonic) In this book the correct theoretical notation will be used throughout. the major sixth scale degree..tones= R. b3.. D . Cbb Bbbb could be written with their enharmonic equivalents.

\ C . .- . . Played: LOCO means return to the original octave. the thumb passing under the other fingers in ascending wbile the other f i e r s pass over the thumb .The fingers can be numbered with the thumb of each hand counted u . C A B C D E F G F E D C B A G When the notes written in the bass clef c l i i too high on the staff the treble clef can be used to eliminate the need for leger lines: G A B C D E F C F E D C B C F . descending: . ~ o n e .= - '?'' Fingers over Written: 8va means play an octave higher than written. . The scales on the following pages should be pr~ctisedwith strict adherence to the fingerings given. r w a 4 b 4 a Thumb under . 4 - 1 Finger iw for the Right hand . h little finger as five: ..

CMajor Scale. Ex. Key of C Major C NIJor Scale in One Octave: Key board Diagram Scale Tones Scale Degrees -c - - -- D E F C A B C 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 b r i n g for tlse Right Hand Fingering for the Left Hand .In the following pages major scales are presented by means of keyboard diagrams and annotation on the Grand Staff.

TO conserve space fingerings for the chords are not shown.= = = 4 Baee Clef 7 NOTE: another keyboard diagram for the fourth position of four-note chords and inversions of the top four notes of five-. six-. E . r A-trtlom: Tmbk Clef . and seven-note chords will be given where needed. A rule for fingering the chords is "use whrtetver fingering is comiortrble and convenient:' . C Yajer Trfad.In the following pages the chords most cornmonb found in popular music r r s p m ~ n b d msanr of by keyboard diagrams.

Key of C Major C Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = c D E F G A B c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C Major Scale in Two Octaves ScaleTones=C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C Scale degrees = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

C E G C/2 C+5 C-5 Cdim E d C Eb Gb C C+5/3 Cdim 13 .

Cmaj 7 C C E G B A C E G .

D Cmaj 9 g E C p: * I I E G B D .

.

Key of ~b Major (identical to C# ) Db Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones =Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2 F ~b ~b ~b 3 4 5 6 C Dib 7 8 D b Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale -Tones = Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 .

Db dim .

32 Db7 Dbmi C D ~F ~b Cb ~b F ~b D b6 ~ b m 6 Db dim 7 ~b F ~ b ~ b F AbBb Db Bb Db F Ab Bb Db7+5 Db Fb Ab F I .

.

.

Key of D Major D Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones = D E F#G A B 3 4 5 C# D 7 8 Scale Degrees -.1 2 6 D Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = D E 1 2 F1#G A B 3 4 C# D E 7 8 9 14G A B C#D 5 6 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Ddim .

Dmaj 7 c# Ddim 7 kj D cb .

Dmaj 9 3 D : 8 .

.

F G ~b ~b c D ~b b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .Key of E b Major Eb Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = Eb F G Ab Bb C D ~b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ~ ~ ~ a Scale rin Two Octaves j o Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = ~b 1 F G ~b g c D Et.

Eb+5 Eb-5 E b dim .

.

.

.

Key of E Major E Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = E FU G # A B C U D t E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 E Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale Tones = E 1 F t G # A B C# D # E F # GUA B C I D # E 2 3 4 Scale Degrees= 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Edim .

Emaj 7 9 E C# Rva .

Ems :\ .E.7s u s 4 Dh B A E F#G# B I ~4 Rva.

El. b 9 ! p: r F#G~B~ ~h Rval El. 6 pb : l .

Key of F Major F Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = F G A Bb C D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F Major Scale in Two Octaves ScaleTones= F G A B ~ D E F G A B b C C Scale Degrees = D E F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 .

F F/2 A C Fdim .

E I Fmaj 1 C A F F A C E Fdim I E C % ' b . D I F A C 8va .

.

F1 b 9 1 F C A Ebb .

Key of F# Major (identical to G F # Major Scale in One Octave b Major) Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = F4 G# A# B 1 2 3 4 C# D# E# F # 5 6 7 8 FU Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees = F # G # A d B C# D# E#F#G$AjB 1 2 3 4 Cf D'# E # F # 14 15. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .

F # dim # Jch F# -5/2 .

.

~h dn!cil .

59 n Rva l .

Key of G Major G Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = G A 1 2 B C D E F'#'G 3 4 5 6 7 8 G Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale Tones Scale Degrees = G A 1 2 B C D E 3 4 F# G A B C D E F# G = 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

G B D G/2 Gdim .

F# Cmaj 7 D B G G B D F# Gdim 7 "b D ~b G E G B D 8va. .

Gmajs Gs D ~ ' 4 AB 1 ~ t lA B D A B D F q Gm s .

.

I n h r: v . h I V * I...Loco . I I I I I I r a o I a I I I I . . I I r I I . I I A r I I I I I rn I I I I .Key of Major Ab Major S c a l e in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = kbB b 1 2 C Db E b F G ~ ! b 3 4 5 6 7 8 n I . .. I I a I I I 0 I I ~b Major Scale in Two Octaves Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees = AbBb C DbEb F G AbBb C DbEb F G Ab 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A 8va--- ...

A b dim 8Va .

Rva Rva Hva Rva .

Rva A b rns :tb 2 B% .

nb. 8va .

A Major Scale in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = A B C.U D E I F'11 G # A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A Major Scale in Two Octaves ScaleTones= Scale Degrees = A B 1 2 CUD E 3 4 5 F#GdA B c # D 6 7 8 E F#G#A 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Adim 8va .

Adim 8ua .

.Adim 7 E b .

Rva .

.

-- Loco ..Key of ~b Major B b Major S c a l e in One Octave Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = ~b C D Eb 2 3 4 F G A ~b 8 1 5 6 7 B b Major S c a l e in Two Octaves Scale Tones Scale Degrees = = ~b C D ~b F G 2 3 4 A ~b C D ~b F G A ~b 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 gva-- .-.

B b dim 800 ~b ~b Bb dim /3 Bb .

Bb +5 Bbdim Rva Rva .

~b dim 7 Eb. At .

D

F

A

C

C D

F

A

Rva

nua

K,ey of B Major ( identical t o ~b )
B Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

13 C% D% E
1 2

Fltl G'#A@B

3

4

5 6

7

8

B Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

B
1

C%D # E
2 3 4

F# G# A# B C# D%E
5 6 7

F U GS A # B

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

8va-

- -

--

- - - Loco

B+5 B--5 Bdim :Ir B :$ B .

Bdim 7 k$ 9 .

.

.

Range of the Bass. Chords and Melody H e r e i s a keyboard diagram showing the r a n g e s used f o r the b a s s . c h o r d s and melodies of popular songs: r Melody Range Trademark i .

a n d G c h o r d s which will be u s e d in t h e examples on the following pages: Bass Chord Trademark Trademark Trademark Trademark .H e r e is a c h a r t showing the b a s s a n d c h o r d s in r o o t position f o r t h e C. F. Dm.

T h e simnlest method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e lead s h e e t is to play t h e . Root position c h o r d s a r e being u s e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e easily remembered. The left hand plays the c h o r d at t h e beginning of e a c h m e a s u r e a n d s u s t a i n s the c h o r d f o r all t h r e e counts: C E G D F A (1 c o u n t :-1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 T h e keyboard diagrams shown above e a c h song in this book a r e to help t h e s t u d e n t l e a r n the c h o r d s a n d t o s e e how they a r e used.melody with t h e right hand and t o play sustained c h o r d s with the l e f t hand. W ' I I hold you. T h e time s i g n a t u r e means t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e c o u n t s in e a c h measure. . Notice t h a t one c h o r d p e r m e a s u r e h a s b e e n used. e a c h c h o r d being r e p e a t e d in succesive m e a s u r e s until the c h o r d symbol changes. melody a n d lyrics: Chords A I 1 Melody -w& cl Lyrics-when 2 )c I I I I --- I I I I I V I I I d 8 ' * e.Using Chords To Play Popular Songs Many popular s o n g s a r e w r i t t e n in l e a d s h e e t form showing only the c h o r d s . l I I.

Here is the entire song which was presented a s an example on t h e previous page. . Play this selection with sustained chords. rn mnmn rn C E G D F A F A C m i G B D When I Hold You when I hold YOU then I know You How I love to be with You * NOTE: omit the note D in the G major triad in the left hand when it conflicts with the D in the melody in the right hand.

a." Bass Chord Trademark Left hand alone : C Count: 1 Bass f Chord Chord I t Bass f Chord t Chord t Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the waltz rhythm pattern: . 2. "One" "Two" "Three" Chord Chord C c The waltz rhythm pattern i s played : Bass (Abbreviated : B > The "Bass"is the root of the chord played an octave lower than the "Chord. this means that there a r e 1. The waltz rhythm pattern is counted. 3.The Waltz Rhythm Patterh The waltz rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of three counts in each measure.

In this coordination exercise the waltz rhythm pattern is abbreviated and placed below the count to help visualize the coordination of the melody and rhythm pattern. rn C E G Count: Rhythm Pattern: D F A Onmn F A C G B D 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C I V I I d I I c) rl I I I I I I I I I 0 I I I I u 2 C 3 C 1 B um 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C 1 B 2 C 3 C .Coordination Exercise: Waltz #l. Coordination exercises a r e designed to give the student an opportunity to practice coordinating rhythm patterns with simple melodies and chords.

The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern The fox trot rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of sometimes written C (which means common time). This means that there a r e four counts per measure. "Four" Chord c ) The "Bass" is the root of the chord and is played an octave lower the "Chord:' Bass Chord Trademark Left hand alone: Count: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the fox trot rhythm pattern: B C B C B C B C . "One " Bass B 2. 'Three" Bass B 4. 'Two" Chord +. C 3. The fox trot rhythm pattern i s counted: The fox trot rhythm pattern is played : : (Abbreviated 1.

Count: 1 Rhythm Pattern: 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 B C B C B C B C 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 B C B C B C B C B C B C 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 B C B C B C B C B C B C .Coordination Exercise: Fox Trot # 1. In this exercise the fox trot rhtyhm pattern has been abbreviated and placed below the count in order to help visualize the coordination of the melody and the rhythm pattern.

"Two" + c : Bass :B Bass C B > C Bass Chord Trademark a e a * . T L e f t hand alone: B C B C B C B C Right hand plays the melody while the left hand plays the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n : V B C B v C B v C V B C . In Q m e t r e the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is counted In +metre the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is played (Abbreviated also written as. The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is often written in + m e t r e . "One" + 2.The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is also u s e d for f a s t tempos such a s polkas and marches. "And" Chord $ "And" Chord : 1.

Alternating the Bass. Repeating the same bass note creates a certain monotony called the droning e f f e c t . To avoid the droning effect alternate the bass. The following chart shows which chord-tones to use when alternating the bass: Chord Major Chord Minor Chord Augmented Chord Lowered Fifth Chord Diminished Chord Fundamental B a s s Root Root Root Root Root Alternating B a s s Fifth ( 5 ) Fifth ( 5 ) Third ( 3 ) Third ( 3 ) Flatted Third ( b 3 ) (R) (R) (R) (R) (R) Here a r e some examples of the alternating bass a for C major T r i a d : 7 7 Fundamental Alternating Chord \a s s B Bass Trademark I 11 111 11 Left hand alone: C Count: 1 Waltz 2 3 C Count:l Fox Trot 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 I I B R I I I I I I I I I I C B 5 C B R C B C B R C B 5 C B R C B C 5 5 .

Using Different Chord Positions When all of the chords in a song are played in root position the transitions between chords a r e not smoothe because of the necessary hand movement up and down the staff : rnmm C E G Srmther transitions between chords can be Rade by using different chord positions: m E G C .

T h e droning e f f e c t is created because of the repetition of the G bass notes in the transition between the C and G chords.Alternating the Alternating Bass Often in the transition between chords a droning effect occurs in the bass even though the bass is alternating : C/ 2 /C Count: 1 2. C/2/G and W 3 T /$ TO' avoid the droning effect simply alternate the alternating bass notes: C/ 2 /R Count : 1 2 C/ 2/G 3 4 C/ 3/D 1 2 G/ 3 /G 3 4 B R C B 5 C B 5 C B F C ' Reversing the order of the alternating bass notes in the G chord now avoids the droning efect: . C / 2 /G 3 4 G/3/G 1 2 G/ 3 /D 3 4 Droning Effect Notice that the alternating bass for both chords is root and fifth (R and 5 ) .

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