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**DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 1
**

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1. General

A Bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way

beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline.

The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.

Bridges range in length from a few metre to several kilometre. They are among the

largest structures built by man. The demands on design and on materials are very high. A

bridge must be strong enough to support its own weight as well as the weight of the people

and vehicles that use it. The structure also must resist various natural occurrences, including

earthquakes, strong winds, and changes in temperature. Most bridges have a concrete, steel,

or wood framework and an asphalt or concrete road way on which people and vehicles travel.

The T-beam Bridge is by far the Most commonly adopted type in the span range of 10 to 25

M. The structure is so named because the main longitudinal girders are designed as T-beams

integral with part of the deck slab, which is cast monolithically with the girders. Simply

supported T-beam span of over 30 M are rare as the dead load then becomes too heavy.

1.1 Main Components of a Bridge

The Superstructure consists of the following components:

i. Deck slab

ii. Cantilever slab portion

iii. Footpaths, if provided, kerb and handrails or crash barriers.

iv. Longitudinal girders, considered in design to be of T-section

v. Cross beams or diaphragms, intermediate and end ones.

vi. Wearing coat

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 2

The Substructure consists of the following structures:

i) Abutments at the extreme ends of the bridge.

ii) Piers at intermediate supports in case of multiple span bridges.

iii) Bearings and pedestals for the decking.

iv) Foundations for both abutments and piers may be of the type open, well, pile, etc.

Apart from the above, river training works and the approaches to a bridge also form a part

of a bridge works.

1.2 Types of Bridges

i) Girder Bridge

ii) Truss Bridge

iii) Arch Bridge

iv) Cantilever Bridge

v) Suspension Bridge

vi) Cable-stayed Bridge

vii) Movable Bridge

viii) Slab Bridge

1.2.1Girder Bridges

There are two main types of girder bridges. In one type, called a box girder bridge, each

girder looks like a long box that lies between the piers or abutments. The top surface of the

bridge is the roadway. Box girder bridges are built of steel or concrete. In the other type of

girder bridge, the end view of each girder looks like an I or a T. Two or more girders support

the roadway. This type of bridge is called a plate girder bridge when made of steel, a

reinforced or prestressed concrete girder bridge when made of concrete, and a wood girder

bridge when made of wood.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 3

1.3 Parameters governing choice of Superstructure:

The basic function of a bridge superstructure is to permit uninterrupted smooth passage

of traffic over it and to transmit the loads and to transmit the load and forces to the

substructure safely through the bearings. Although it is difficult to stipulate the aesthetic

requirements, it should, however, be ensured that the type of superstructure adopted is

simple, pleasing to the eye, and blends with the environment. No hard and fast rules can be

laid regarding the economy in cost. The designer should, however, be able to evolve the most

economical type of superstructure based on his judgment and experience given the particular

conditions prevailing at the particular site at the particular time.

The following factors are to be considered while selecting the type of a bridge superstructure.

i. The nature of river or streams

ii. Nature of foundation / founding strata available

iii. The amount and type of traffic

iv. Whether used for navigation purposes

v. Climatic conditions

vi. Hydraulic data

vii. Type of available construction material

viii. Labour available

ix. The available facilities for erections

x. Maintenance provisional

xi. The availability of funds

xii. Time available for construction

xiii. Strategic consideration

xiv. Economic consideration

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 4

xv. Aesthetic consideration

1.4 General guidelines for analysis and Design of a Bridge Structure

Procedure for preparation of General Arrangement Drawing of a Bridge:

I. First of all the required formation level is found out. On knowing this the permissible

structural depth is established. This is done after taking into account the following

two things : ( i ) Minimum vertical clearance required taking into account the

difference between the affluxed high flood level and the soffit of the deck. ( ii )

Thickness of wearing coat required below the formation level.

II. Considering the depth of foundations, the height of deck above the bed level and low

water level, average depth of water during construction season, the type of bridge,

span lengths, type of foundations, cross section of the deck, method of construction

and loading sequence.

III. Trial cross sections of the deck, sizes of various elements of the substructure and

superstructure are decided upon and drawn to arrive at the preliminary general

arrangement of the bridge. Various trials lead to a structural form with optimum

placements of its load masses. Relative proportions and sizes of certain members as

well as their shapes are decided upon and drawn to a certain scale on this drawing.

The type of bearing to be used along with their locations depending the support

system is also established. The main basis of the general arrangement drawing of a

bridge structure is a quick preliminary analysis and design of the member sections.

This is essential for forming the basis of the detailed to be carried later on depending

upon the requirements of the project.

1.5 General Procedure for Design of Superstructure of a Bridge:

i) Analyse and design the transverse-deck-slab and its cantilever portions, unless the

superstructure is purely longitudinally reinforced solid slab with no cantilevering

portions. This is necessitated so as to decide the top flange thickness of the deck

section which is essential to work out the deck section properties for the subsequent

longitudinal design.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 5

ii) Compute the dead load and live load bending moments at each critical section.

iii) In order to determine the maximum and minimum live load effects that a particular

longitudinal can receive, carry out the transverse load distribution for live load placed

in various lanes.

iv) This may be done by Courbon's method, Little and Morice's method, Hendry and

Jaeger methods.

v) Alternatively, use may be made to the Plane-Grid method which involves using one

of the many standard computer programs (.e.g. STAAD program). The Plan Grid

method is basically a finite element method. Though time consuming in writing the

input data, it is nevertheless very useful for the purpose of analysis. For wide and

multi-cell boxes and transverse live load distribution may be studied by the finite

element method but it is time consuming.

vi) Design against bending of critical sections, in reinforced or in prestressed concrete as

the case may be.

vii) Work out dead load and live load shear forces at each critical section in the

longitudinals of the deck and design the sections and reinforcements for effects of

torsion and shear, if required.

1.6 Transverse Distribution of Loads

Analysis based on the elastic theory is recommended to find the distribution in the transverse

direction of the bending Moment in the direction movement in the direction of the span. For

the analysis, the structure May be idealized in one of the following ways:

i. a system of interconnected beams forming a rigid

ii. an orthotropic plate

iii. an assemblage of thin plate elements or thin plate elements and beams

For the computation of the bending Moment due to live load, the distribution of the live

loads between longitudinals has to be determined. When there are only two longitudinal

girders, the reactions on the longitudinals can be found by assuming supports of the deck slab

as unyielding. With three or more longitudinal girders, the load distribution is estimated

using any one of the above rational methods.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 6

By using any one of the above Methods, the Maximum reactions factors for

intermediate and end longitudinal girders are obtained. The bending Moments and shears are

then computed for these critical values of reaction factors. The above three Methods make

simplifying assumptions relating to the structure and loading. These assumptions introduce

errors but Make these Methods amenable to calculators and graphs. In relative comparison to

this the grillage Method of analysis, pioneered by Lightfoot and Sawko requires lesser

simplifying assumptions.

1.7 About the Project

The Project is an ongoing work across Palar river near Thangalakuppa on road joining

Kangandlahalli-Ramasagara Road and K-V Road in Bangarpet Taluk. The Superstructure for

19.34M effective span is proposed with Reinforced Concrete Deck slab and cast-in-situ three

Reinforced girders which are supported over four cross girders with a total height of the

girders 1.950M at the centre of the span and 1.890M at the end with two end cross girders

supported on the piers. The spacing of R.C. longitudinal girders is 2.5M c/c. The spacing of

the cross girders is 3.742M c/c. The panel size is 2.1M x 3.442M. The deck consists of two

cantilever slabs of 1.750M length from the centre of the end girder. There are two Crash

Barriers at the end of the deck slab. The design of the superstructure is done by the Working

stress method and involves the following procedure:

1. Deck Slab Design

2. Design of Longitudinal Girders and Cross Girders.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 7

CHAPTER 2

LOADS

The various loads to which the bridge is subjected to are

i) Dead loads

ii) Live loads

iii) Wind loads

iv) Seismic loads

i) Dead Loads: Unit weight for Dead Loads has been considered by adopting unit

weights as per IRC 6:2000 (Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road

Bridges, Section II-Loads and Stress)

ii) Super Imposed Dead load: Wearing coat and Crash Barrier loads are taken as

2KN/M

2

and 7.75KN/M.

iii) Vehicular Live Load: As per IRC:6 deck the superstructure is analysed for the

following vehicles and whichever produces the severest effect has been considered in

the design. Following combinations are adopted.

1) One Lane of Class AA loading or

2) Two Lanes of Class A loading

iv) Durability and Maintenance Requirements:

Concrete Grades and Reinforcement

1. Concrete: For RC Deck Slab(M-30)

2. Reinforcement: HYSD bars(Fe-415) conforming to IS:1786

3. Clear Cover: Minimum clear cover of 40MM to reinforcement has been adopted

4. Drainage Provision: Deck slab is provided with 2.5% camber and drainage

spouts with 5m c/c are adopted.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 8

CHAPTER 3

Design of Superstructure

3. Preliminary Design Details

Clear Roadway = 7.5M Concrete Grade = M30

Three T-beams at 2.5M intervals Steel Fe 415

Five Cross beams at 3.742 M intervals

3.1 Deck Slab

The Slab is supported on four sides by beams

Thickness of Slab, H = 225MM

Thickness of Wearing Coat, D = 75MM

Span in the transverse direction = 2.5M

Effective span in the Transverse direction = 2.5 - 0.4 = 2.1M

Span in the Longitudinal direction = 3.742M

Effective span in the longitudinal direction = 3.742 - 0.3 = 3.442M

i) Maximum Bending Moment due to Dead Load

a) Weight of Deck Slab = 0.225 X 24 = 5.4 KN/M

2

b) Weight of Wearing Course = 0.075 X 22 = 1.65 KN/M

2

c) Total Weight = 7.05 KN/M

2

(say 7.1 KN/M

2

)

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 9

3.2. Analysis of Inner Panels

a) Slab Dead Load Bending Moment

Since the slab is supported on all four sides and is continuous, Pigeaud¶s Curves will be used

to get influence coefficients to compute Moments,

Ratio K, = Short span/Long span

= 2.1/3.44

Therefore, K = 0.61

M

1

= 8.2 X 10

-2

and M

2

= 3.12 x 10

-2

Total Dead Weight = 7.1 x 2.1 x 3.44 = 51.3KN

Dead Load Bending Moment along Short span

M

B

= W (M

1

+ 0.15 X

M

2

) Fig:3 Position of wheel load for max BM

= 51.3 (0.082 + 0.15 X 0.0312)

M

B

= 4.45 KN-M

Dead Load Bending Moment along Long span

M

L

= W (M

2

+ 0.15 X

M

1

)

= 51.3 (0.0312 + 0.15 X 0.082)

M

L

= 2.23 KN-M

b) Dead Load Shear Force

Dead Load Shear Force = WL/2

= (7.1 x 2.1) / 2 = 7.45KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 10

3.3 LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS AA TRACKED VEHICLE

3.3.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Size of the panel = 2.5 M x 3.742 M

One Track of the Tracked Vehicle is placed symmetrically on the panel as shown in

the figure after the dispersion through the wearing coat of 75MM thickness the

dispersed dimensions are:

u = b + 2t and v = l + 2t

where, u = short span width of the track contact area

b = width of track wheel contact area

l = length of track wheel contact area

t = thickness of wearing coat

Therefore, u = (0.85 + 2 x 0.075) = 1M

v = (3.6 + 2 x 0.075) = 3.75 M

୳

=

ଵ

ଶǤହ

= 0.4 and

=

ଷǤହ

ଷǤସଶ

= 1

K =

ଶǤହ

ଷǤସଶ

= 0.67

Referring to Pigeaud¶s Curves for K = 0.67 and interpolating

M

1

= 0.082 and M

2

= 0.030

Therefore, Live Load Bending Moment along Short span

M

B

= W (M

1

+ 0.15 x

M

2

)

= 350(0.082 + 0.15 x 0.030)

= 30.30 KN-M

Taking Continuity Factor of 0.8 and Impact Factor as 1.25

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 11

M

B

= 1.25 X 0.8 X 30.30

M

B

= 30.30KN-M

Live Load Bending Moment along Long span

M

L

= W (M

2

+ 0.15 X

M

1

)

= 350 (0.030 + 0.15 X 0.082)

= 14.81 KN-M

Taking Continuity Factor of 0.8 and Impact Factor as 1.25

M

L

= 1.25 X 0.8 X 14.81

M

L

= 14.81 KN-M

Design Moments due to Dead Load and IRC Class AA Tracked vehicle (Live Load)

Dead Load, M

B

= 4.45 KN-M

M

L

= 2.23 KN-M

Live Load, M

B

= 30.30KN-M

3.3.2 Live Load Shear Force due to IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Shear Force is calculated by effective width method, considering the panel to be fixed on all

the four edges. Hence effective size of panel will be 2.1M x 3.44M. For maximum Shear

Force the load will be so placed that its spread up to slab bottom reaches up to the face of the

rib i.e. the load is kept at

ଵǤସହ

ଶǤ

= 0.705M .

Dispersion in the direction of span

V = x + 2 (D+H)

= 0.85 + 2 (0.075 + 0.225)

= 1.45M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 12

Effective width of slab = K x A x [1-

] + b

w

=

ଷǤସସଶ

ଶǤଵ

= 1.64

From Table 9 of IRC 21-2000, K for Continuous slab is obtained as K=2.536

Effective width of slab = 2.536 x 0.705 x [1 ± (0.705/2.1)] + [3.6 + (2 x 0.075)]

= 4.94M

Load per meter width = 350/4.94

= 70.85KN

Shear Force = 70.85 x (2.1 ± 0.705) / 2.1

= 47 KN

Shear Force with Impact = 1.25 x 47 = 58.75KN

4. LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS AA WHEELED VEHICLE

4.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

Case 1)

ݔ ൌ

ͲǤͳͷ

ʹ

Ǣ ݕ ൌ

ͲǤͻ

ʹ

ݔ ൌ ͲǤͲͷܯǢ ݕ ൌ ͲǤͶͷܯ

ݑͳ ൌ ͲǤͶͷܯǢ ݒͳ ൌ ͲǤ͵ܯ

Step 1: Find M

1

and M

2

uൌ ʹሺݑͳ ݔሻ ൌ ʹሺͲǤͶͷ ͲǤͲͷሻ =

1.05M

vൌ ʹሺvͳ yሻ ൌ ʹሺͲǤ͵ ͲǤͶͷሻ= 1.5M

u

B

ൌ

ͳǤͲͷ

ʹǤͳ

ൌ ͲǤͷ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 13

Fig 4: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

v

L

ൌ

ͳǤͷ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

B

L

ൌ

ʹǤͳ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͳ

From Pigeaud¶s Curves by interpolation

k=0.61,

୳

ൌ ͲǤͷ,

୴

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

k=0.6, M

1

= 12x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.5x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 12x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.6x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 11.8x10

-2

, M

2

= 6.5x10

-2

M

1

= 0.12x10

-2

M

2

= 0.056x10

-2

Nultiply these by ሺuͳxሻሺvͳyሻ ൌ ሺͲǤͶͷͲǤͲͷሻ ሺͲǤ͵ͲǤͶͷሻൌͲǤͶ

Nͳൌ ͲǤͳʹxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nʹൌ ͲǤͲͷxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Step ʹǣ Finu Nͳ anu Nʹ

ൌ ʹݔ ൌ ʹሺͲǤͲͷሻ

0ൌ ͲǤͳͷN

vൌ ʹݕሺͲǤͶͷሻൌ ͲǤͻN

u

B

ൌ

ͲǤͳͷ

ʹǤͳ

ൌ ͲǤͲʹ

v

L

ൌ

ͲǤͻ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤʹ

B

L

ൌ

ʹǤͳ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͳ

Fiom Pigeauuǯs Cuives by inteipolation

kൌͲǤͳǡ

୳

ൌ ͲǤͷǡ

୴

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

kൌͲǤǡ Nͳൌ ʹͳxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ͻxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

kൌͲǤͳǡ Nͳൌ ʹͳxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ͻǤʹxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

kൌͲǤͲǡ Nͳൌ ʹʹxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ͳͳxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nͳൌ ʹͳxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nʹൌ ͻǤʹxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nultiply these by xyൌͲǤͲͷxͲǤͶͷൌͲǤͲ͵Ͷ

Nͳൌ ͲǤͳͶxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nʹൌ ͲǤ͵ʹxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 14

Step ͵ǣ Finu Nͳ anu Nʹ

0 ൌ ʹሺݑͳ ݔሻ ൌ ʹሺͲǤͶͷ ͲǤͲͷሻ

0ൌ ͳǤͲͷN

vൌ ʹݕ ൌ ͲǤͻN

u

B

ൌ

ͳǤͲͷ

ʹǤͳ

ൌ ͲǤͷ

v

L

ൌ

ͲǤͻ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤʹ

B

L

ൌ

ʹǤͳ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͳ

Fiom Pigeauuǯs Cuives by inteipolation

kൌͲǤͳǡ

୳

ൌ ͲǤͷǡ

୴

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

kൌͲǤǡ Nͳൌ ͳ͵xͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ͺǤxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

kൌͲǤͳǡ Nͳൌ ͳ͵xͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ͺǤͷxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

kൌͲǤͲǡ Nͳൌ ͳʹǤxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ͺǤxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nͳൌ ͳ͵xͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nʹൌ ͺǤxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Nultiply these by yሺuͳxሻൌͲǤͶͷሺͲǤͶͷͲǤͲͷሻൌͲǤʹͶ

Nͳൌ ͳ͵xͳͲ

Ǧʹ

ǡ Nʹൌ ʹǤͲxͳͲ

Ǧʹ

Step Ͷǣ Finu Nͳ anu Nʹ

0ൌ ʹሺݔሻ ൌ ʹሺͲǤͲͷሻ ൌ ͲǤͳͷN

vൌ ʹሺݒͳ ݕሻ ൌ ʹሺͲǤ͵ ͲǤͶͷሻൌ ͳǤͷN

u

B

ൌ

ͲǤͳͷ

ʹǤͳ

ൌ ͲǤͲʹ

v

L

ൌ

ͳǤͷ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

B

L

ൌ

ʹǤͳ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͳ

Fiom Pigeauuǯs Cuives by inteipolation

kൌͲǤͳǡ

୳

ൌ ͲǤͷǡ

୴

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

k=0.6, M

1

= 16.5x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.5x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 16.7x10

-2

, M

2

= 6.0x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 18x10

-2

, M

2

= 6.0x10

-2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 15

M

1

= 16.7x10

-2

M

2

= 6.0x10

-2

Multiply these by x(u1+y) = 0.075(0.3+0.45) =0.057

M

1

= 0.96x10

-2

M

2

= 0.035x10

-2

Design M

1

= 0.048+0.00714-0.0312-0.0096

M

1

= 0.01434 KN-M

Design M

2

= 0.0224+0.0032-0.0207-0.0035

M

1

ൌ ͲǤͲͲͳͶ KNǦN

NB uue to single loau ൌ

ௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺNͳͲǤͳͷ Nʹሻ

ൌʹʹKNǦN

M

L

due to single load ൌ

ௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺNͳͲǤͳͷ Nʹሻ

ൌͷǤʹKNǦN

Applying the effect of continuity and Impact

Final M

B

=22x0.8x1.25=22KN-M and M

L

= 5.26 x 1.25 x 0.8 =5.26KN-M

Case 2)

i) Effect of wheel no 2 of both the axles: When

wheel no 2 of both axles are centrally placed with

respect to y axis. The effect of these loads can be

found as a difference of two centrally placed loads on

area (1.5x0.45) and (0.9x0.45)

Step 1: Find M

1

and M

2

୳

ൌ

Ǥସହ

ଶǤଵ

ൌ ͲǤʹʹ

v

L

ൌ

ͳǤͷ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

B

L

ൌ

ʹǤͳ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͳ

Fig 4.1: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 16

From Pigeaud¶s Curves by interpolation

k=0.61,

୳

ൌ ͲǤͷ,

୴

ൌ ͲǤͶͶ

k=0.6, M

1

= 12.8x10

-2

, M

2

= 4.4x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 12.9x10

-2

, M

2

= 4.6x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 13.8x10

-2

, M

2

= 5.9x10

-2

M

1

= 13x10

-2

M

2

= 4.6x10

-2

M

B

due to single load =

ௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=43KN-M

M

L

due to single load =

ௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=20.5KN-M

For larger load,

୳

ൌ

Ǥସହ

ଶǤଵ

ൌ ͲǤʹʹ

v

L

ൌ

ͳǤͷ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤʹ

B

L

ൌ

ʹǤͳ

͵ǤͶͶʹ

ൌ ͲǤͳ

k=0.61,

୳

ൌ ͲǤʹʹ,

୴

ൌ ͲǤʹ

k=0.6, M

1

= 16.0x10

-2

, M

2

= 7.0x10

-2

k=0.61, M

1

= 16.2x10

-2

, M

2

= 7.4x10

-2

k=0.707, M

1

= 18.0x10

-2

, M

2

= 10.5x10

-2

M

1

= 16.2x10

-2

M

2

= 7.4x10

-2

M

B

due to single load =

ௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=32.5KN-M

M

L

due to single load =

ௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=18.5KN-M

Net Moment M

B1

= 43-32.5=10.5KN-M

M

L1

= 20.5-18.5 = 2KN-M

i) Effect of wheel no.1 of both axles : wheel no1 are not centrally placed on any of the axes

hence their effect will be analysed by treating each load as eccentrically placed.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 17

u1= 0.45M, v1=0.3M, x = 0.375M, y = 0.45M

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.375) = 1.65

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5

By Interpolation of values for k, u/B and v/L, we get

M

1

= 9.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.6x10

-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 0.62

M

1

= 0.056KN-M and M

2

= 0.03KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.375) = 0.75

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k=0.61, u/B=0.36 and v/L=0.26, we get

M

1

= 14.3x10

-2

and M

2

= 9x10

-2

Multiply by xy = 0.17

M

1

= 0.024KN-M and M

2

= 0.02KN-M

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.375) = 1.65

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k = 0.61, u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.26, we get

M

1

= 14.3x10

-2

and M

2

= 9x10

-2

Multiply by xy = 0.17

M

1

= 0.024KN-M and M

2

= 0.02KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.375) = 0.75

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5

By Interpolation of values for k = 0.61, u/B = 0.36 and v/L = 0.44, we get

M

1

= 12.5x10

-2

and M

2

= 5.5x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.28

M

1

= 0.036KN-M and M

2

= 0.015KN-M

Design M

B

= 0.056+0.024-0.037-0.036

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 18

= 0.008KN-M

M

L

= 0.03+0.02-0.026-0.015

= 0.01KN-M

M

B2

due to single load =

ଶௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=5.28KN-M

M

L2

due to single load =

ଶௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=6.23KN-M

ii) Effect of wheel no 3 of both axles

u1=0.45, v1= 0.3, x=0.775, y=0.45

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.45M

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+0.45) = 1.5

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.44, we get

M

1

= 7.5x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.0x10

-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 0.92

M

1

= 0.07KN-M and M

2

= 0.0377KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.55

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.74 and v/L = 0.26, we get

M

1

= 9.9x10

-2

and M

2

= 7.1x10

-2

Multiply by (xy) = 0.348

M

1

= 0.035KN-M and M

2

= 0.025KN-M

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.45

v = 2(y) = 2(0.45) = 0.9

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.26, we get

M

1

= 6.63x10

-2

and M

2

= 5.3x10

-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 0.55

M

1

= 0.0364KN-M and M

2

= 0.63KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.55

v = 2(u1+y) = 2(0.45+0.45) = 1.8

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.74 and v/L = 0.53, we get

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 19

M

1

= 9.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.5x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.58

M

1

= 0.053KN-M and M

2

= 0.0261KN-M

Design M

B

= 0.07+0.035-0.0364-0.053

= 0.0156KN-M

M

L

= 0.0377+0.025-0.03-0.0.261

= 0.0066KN-M

M

B3

due to single load =

ଶௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=15.36KN-M

M

L3

due to single load =

ଶௐ

௨ଵൈ௩ଵ

ሺM

1

+0.15 M

2

)

=8.3KN-M

Final bending Moment for case ii

M

B

= M

B1

+ M

B2

+ M

B3

M

L

= M

L1

+ M

L2

+ M

L3

M

B

= 31.14KN-M M

L

= 16.53KN-M

Case 3: Loads placed as per figure:

i) Effect of wheel 2 of axle 1:

u= 0.45, v = 0.3, u/B= 0.45/2.1, v/L=0.3/3.442 =

0.087

for k = 0.61, by interpolation M

1

= 0.2 and M

2

=

0.15

M

B1

= 14KN-M and M

L1

=11.6KN-M

ii) Effect of wheel 1 of axle 1:

For larger load, u/B=0.8, v/L=0.09, k = 0.61

M

B

= 16.33KN-M

M

L

= 16KN-M

For smaller load, u/B=0.36, v/L=0.09, k = 0.61

Fig 4.3: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 20

M

B

= 11.8KN-M

M

L

= 10.81KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B2

= ½(16.33-11.8) = 2.27KN-M and M

L2

= ½(16-10.81) = 2.6KN-M

iii) Effect of wheel load 3 of axle 1:

For larger load,

u/B= 2.45/2.1= 1.2; v/L= 0.3/3.442 = 0.09

For k = 0.61, by interpolation M

1

= 0.085 and M

2

= 0.081

M

B

= M

L

= 33.14KN-M

For smaller load,

u/B= 1.55/2.1= 0.74, v/L=0.3/3.442 = 0.09

For k = 0.61 by interpolation M

1

= 0.108 and M

2

= 0.101

M

B

= 26.35KN-M and M

L

= 25.00KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B3

= ½(33.14-26.35) = 3.4KN-M and M

L3

= ½(33.14-25.00) = 4.07 KN-M

iv) Effect of wheel 2 of axle 2:

For larger load, u/B=0.45/2.1= 0.22; v/L= 2.71/3.442 = 0.8;

For k=0.61 by interpolation M

1

= 0.13 and M

2

= 0.0331

M

B

= 76.2KN-M and M

L

= 30.00KN-M

For smaller load, u/B = 0.45/2.1=0.22; v/L = 2.09/3.442 = 0.61

For k=0.61 by interpolation M

1

= 0.13 and M

2

= 0.045

M

B

= 60.00KN-M and M

L

= 28.00KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B4

= ½(76.2-60) = 3.4KN-M and M

L4

= ½(30-28.00) = 1.0 KN-M

v) Effect of wheel load 1 of axle 2:

u1= 0.45; v1= 0.30; x = 0.37; y = 1.045

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 1.64

v = 2(u1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 21

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.8, we get

M

1

= 7.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 2.67x10

-2

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 1.11

M

1

= 0.077KN-M and M

2

= 0.03KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 0.74

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.35 and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 12.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 4.5x10

-2

Multiply by xy = 0.39

M

1

= 0.0468KN-M and M

2

= 0.02KN-M

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u = 2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 1.64

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61 u/B = 0.8 and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 8.0x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.9x10

-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 0.86

M

1

= 0.069KN-M and M

2

= 0.034KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 0.74

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.35 and v/L = 0.8, we get

M

1

= 10.4x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.3x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 0.5

M

1

= 0.052KN-M and M

2

= 0.0165KN-M

Design M

1

= 0.077+0.0468-0.069-0.052 = 0.0028

M

2

= 0.03+0.02-0.034-0.0165 = 0

M

B5

= 0.78KN-M and M

L5

= 0.17 KN-M

vi) Effect of wheel load 3 of axle 2:

u1= 0.45; v1=0.3; x=0.77; y=1.045

Step1: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.44

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 1 and v/L = 0.8, we get

M

1

= 5.8x10

-2

and M

2

= 2.3x10

-2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 22

Multiply by (u1+x)(v1+y) = 1.641

M

1

= 1.0KN-M and M

2

= 0.038KN-M

Step2: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.54

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.74; and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 8.5x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.0x10

-2

Multiply by (xy) = 0.81

M

1

= 0.07KN-M and M

2

= 0.0243KN-

Step3: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(u1+x) = 2(0.45+0.775) = 2.44

v = 2(y) = 2(1.045) = 2.09

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 1; and v/L = 0.61, we get

M

1

= 6.8x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.8x10

-2

Multiply by y(u1+x) = 1.28

M

1

= 0.09KN-M and M

2

= 0.05KN-M

Step4: Find M

1

and M

2

for u=2(x) = 2(0.775) = 1.54

v = 2(v1+y) = 2(0.3+1.045) = 2.69

By Interpolation of values for k =,0.61; u/B = 0.74; and v/L = 0.78, we get

M

1

= 7.4x10

-2

and M

2

= 3.9x10

-2

Multiply by x(v1+y) = 1.036

M

1

= 0.0767KN-M and M

2

= 0.041KN-M

M

B6

= 1.48KN-M and M

L6

= 0.22KN-M

Final Moments for Case iii

M

B

= M

B1+

MB

B2

+ M

B3

+ M

B4

+ M

B5

+ M

B6

= 14 + 2.27 + 3.4 + 8.1 + 078 + 1.48

= 30.03 KN-M

M

L

= M

L1+

M

L2

+ M

L3

+ M

L4

+ M

L5

+ M

L6

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 23

= 11.6 + 2.6 + 4.07 + 1 + 0.17 + 0.22

= 19.66KN-M

Final Bending Moments, after applying continuity and Impact factor

M

B

= 1.25 x 0.8 x 30 = 30.03KN-M

M

L

= 1.25 x 0.8 x 19.66 = 19.66 KN-M

4.2 Live Load Shear Force due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

Fig 4.4: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

Shear Force is computed by effective width Method. The effective size of the panel is taken

as 2.1Mx3.742M. The load is arranged as shown in figure.

Fig 4.4a: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

Reactions at A and B can be calculated by using the below equations

ൌ

W

ʹ

ሺȽ

ଷ

െ ʹ ൈ Ƚ

ଶ

ʹሻ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 24

ൌ

ʹͲǤͺͶ

ʹ

ሺͲǤʹͶ

ଷ

െ ʹ ൈ ͲǤʹͶ

ଶ

ʹሻ

ൌ ʹͲǤʹͶKN

ൌ

W

ʹ

ሺʹ ൈ Ƚ

ଶ

െ Ƚ

ଷ

ሻ

ൌ

ʹͲǤͺͶ

ʹ

ሺʹ ൈ ͲǤʹͶ

ଶ

ͲǤʹͶ

ଷ

ሻ

ൌ ͳǤͲͷKN

Fig 4.4b: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

ൌ W ቆʹ ൈ Ⱦ

ଷ

െ ͵ ൈ Ⱦ

ଶ

Ƚ

ଶ

Ⱦ

ʹ

െ

Ƚ

ଶ

Ͷ

ͳቇ

ൌ ʹǤͷ ቆʹ ൈͲǤ͵ͳ

ଷ

െ ͵ ൈͲǤ͵ͳ

ଶ

ͲǤͶ

ଶ

ൈ ͲǤ͵ͳ

ʹ

െ

ͲǤͶ

ଶ

Ͷ

ͳቇ

ൌ ͶǤͳKN

ൌ W െ

ൌ ʹǤͷ െ ͶǤͳ ൌ ͳͷǤͶ KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 25

Fig 4.4c: Position of wheel load for Class AA wheeled vehicle

ൌ

W

ʹ

ሺȽ

ଷ

െʹ ൈ Ƚ

ଶ

ʹሻ

ൌ

ʹǤͷ

ʹ

ሺͲǤͶ͵

ଷ

െʹ ൈ ͲǤͶ͵

ଶ

ʹሻ

ൌ ͷ͵ǤͶ͵KN

ൌ

W

ʹ

ሺʹ ൈ Ƚ

ଶ

െ Ƚ

ଷ

ሻ

ൌ

ʹǤͷ

ʹ

ሺʹ ൈ ͲǤͶ͵

ଶ

െͲǤͶ͵

ଷ

ሻ

ൌ ͻǤͳKN

The values of effective width, reactions and shear force are tabulated below

Load (KN) X(M) e(M) ܀

ۯ

(KN) ܀

۰

(KN) ۴

ۯ

(KN) ۴

۰

(KN)

W1=30.52 0.25 0.86 20.29 1.05 23.53 1.22

W2=62.5 0.65 1.319 47.1 15.4 35.71 11.68

W3=62.5 0.45 1.2 53.43 9.1 44.53 7.59

Total 103.77 20.48

e

1

= k x X

1

x{1-(0.25/2.1)} + W W=0.15+(2 x 0.075) = 0.3M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 26

=2.536 x 0.25x {1-(0.25/2.1)} + 0.3 l/L = 3.442/2.1= 1.64

=0.86M hence k=2.536

e

2

= 2.536 x 0.65x{1-(0.65/2.1)} + 0.3

= 1.438M. However since c/c distance between wheels in the longitudinal direction is >

than 1.2M so take the average i.e. 1.2+1.438/2 =1.319M for each wheel.

e

3

= 2.536 x 0.45x {1-0.45/2.1)}+0.3

= 1.2M

Taking into account Impact factor, Design Shear = 1.25 x 103.77

= 130KN

Final Shear Forces due to

Dead Load = 7.45KN

Live Load = 130KN

Total = 137.45KN, say 138KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 27

5. LOADS DUE TO IRC CLASS A VEHICLE

5.1 Live Load Bending Moment due to IRC Class A Loading:

u = 0.65M; v = 0.4M

i) Effect of wheel load 1 of axle 1:

u = 0.65M; v = 0.4M; u/B=0.65/2.1= 0.31;

v/L=0.4/3.442 = 0.12

By interpolation, For k = 0.61; M

1

= 0.175KN-M;

M

2

=0.15KN-M

M

B1

= 11.26KN-M and M

L1

= 10.05KN-M

Fig 5: Position of wheel load for Class Avehicle

ii) Effect of load 1 of axle2:

For the bigger load, u=0.65 and v=2.8; u/B=0.31; v/L=0.82

By interpolation, For k = 0.61; M

1

= 0.105KN-M; M

2

= 0.032KN-M

M

B

= 44KN-M and M

L

= 19.45KN-M

For smaller load, u= 0.65 and v=2; u/B 0.31; v/L = 0.58

By interpolation, For k = 0.61; u/B = 0.31; v/L = 0.58

M

B

= 37.55KN-M and M

L

= 18.73KN-M

Net Moments,

M

B

= ½( 44 - 37.55) = 3.225KN-M and M

L

= ½(19.53-18.73) = 0.4KN-M

5.2 Shear Force for Class A Loading

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 28

Fig 5: Position of wheel load for Shear force for Class A vehicle

Dispersion in the direction of span = 0.5 + 2 x (0.3) = 1.1M

X= 0.55; k=2.536; W=0.25+(2 x 0.075) = 0.4M

e = 2.536 x 0.55 x {1- (0.55/2.1)}

= 1.43M > 1.2M, Hence e = (1.2+1.43)/2 = 1.315M

ൌ

W

ʹ

ሺȽ

ଷ

െ ʹ ൈȽ

ଶ

ʹሻ

ൌ

ହ

ଶ

ሺͲǤͷʹͶ

ଷ

െ ʹ ൈͲǤͷʹͶ

ଶ

ʹሻ = 45.54KN

ൌ

W

ʹ

ሺʹ ൈ Ƚ

ଶ

െ Ƚ

ଷ

ሻ

ൌ

ଶ

ሺʹ ൈ ͲǤͷʹͶ

ଶ

െͲǤͷʹͶ

ଷ

ሻ = 11.5KN

Sheai Foice taking intoImpact factoi ൌ ͳǤͷ x

ସହǤସହ

ଵǤଷଵହ

= 51.84KN

5.3 Final Moments:

Live load Moments due all Class of loads

1. Class AA Tracked, M

B

= 30.30KN-M and M

L

=14.81KN-M

2. Class AA Wheeled Vehicle

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 29

a. Case i Moments, M

B

= 22.00KN-M and M

L

= 5.26KN-M

b. Case ii Moments, M

B

= 31.14KN-M and M

L

= 16.53KN-M

c. Case iii Moments, M

B

= 22.00KN-M and M

L

= 19.66KN-M

3. Class A Loading, M

B

= 3.225KN-M and M

L

= 0.4KN-M

Hence take M

B

= 31.14KN-M and M

L

= 19.66KN-M for design. Since the moment due to

IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle is severe adopt it for design. Hence

M

B

, Dead Load = 4.45KN-M

Live Load = 31.14KN-M

Total = 36.00KN-M

5.4 Final Shear Force

Dead Load = 7.45KN

Live Load = 130KN

Total = 138KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 30

CHAPTER 4

DESIGN OF DECK SLAB

Grade of concrete = M30

Grade of Steel = Fe415

ߪ

ൌ ͳͲ N mm

ଶ

Τ

ߪ

௦௧

ൌ ʹͲͲ N mm

ଶ

Τ , Modular ratio, M = 10

4.1 Constants:

݊ ൌ

ͳ

ͳ

ߪ

௦௧

݉Ǥ ߪ

ൌ

ͳ

ͳ

ʹͲͲ

ͳͲ ൈ ͳͲ

ൌ ͲǤ͵Ͷ

݆ ൌ ቀͳ െ

݊

͵

ቁ ൌ ൬ͳ െ

ͲǤ͵Ͷ

͵

൰ ൌ ͲǤͺͻ

ܳ ൌ ͲǤͷ ൈ ߪ

ൈ ݊ ൈ݆ ൌ ͲǤͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵Ͷ ൈ ͲǤͺͻ ൌ ͳǤͷͳ͵

4.2 Check for depth (M

B

):

u

୮୰୭୴୧ୢୣୢ

ൌ ඨ

ܯ

ܳ ൈ ܾ

ൌ

ඨ

͵ ൈ ͳͲ

ͳǤͷͳ͵ ൈ ͳͲͲͲ

ൌ ͳͷͶǤʹͷ݉݉

u

୮୰୭୴୧ୢୣୢ

ൌ ʹʹͷNN

u

୮୰୭୴୧ୢୣୢ

u

୰ୣ୯୳୧୰ୣୢ

Provide 225MM overall depth using 40MM

u

୰ୣ୯୳୧୰ୣୢ

ൌ ʹʹͷ െ ͶͲ െ ͺ ൌ ͳNN

Aiea of steel iequiieu ൌ

N

ɐ

ୱ୲

ju

ൌ

͵ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͺͻ ൈ ʹʹͷ

ൌ ͺͻͲNN

ଶ

along N

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 31

ܣiea of steel iequiieu ൌ

N

ɐ

ୱ୲

ju

ൌ

ʹʹ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͺͻ ൈ ʹʹͷ

ൌ ͷͷͲNN

ଶ

along N

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ͳͲͲͲ ൈ ʹͲͳ

ͺͻͲ

ܵ

௩

ൌ ʹʹͷ݉݉ܿ ܿ Τ

Hence provide 16MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ͳͲͲͲ ൈ ͳͳ͵

ͷͷͲ

ܵ

௩

ൌ ʹͲͷ݉݉ ܿ ܿ Τ

Hence provide 12MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 32

CHAPTER 5

LONGITUDINAL GIRDER AND CROSS GIRDER DESIGN

5.1 Reaction Factor Bending Moment in Longitudinal Girders by

Courbons¶s Method

5.1.1 Class AA Tracked Vehicle

Fig 5: Position of Class AA Tracked Vehicle for obtaining reaction factors

Minimum Clearance Distance: 1.2 + 0.85/2 = 1.625M

e ൌ ͳǤͳ݉ǡ P ൌ

w

ʹ

σݔ

ଶ

ൌ ሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

ሺͲሻ

ଶ

ሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

ൌ ʹሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

ൌ ͳʹǤͷ݉

Foi outei giiueiǡ x ൌ ʹǤmǡ foi innei giiuei x ൌ Ͳ

Theiefoieǡ

ܴ

ൌ

σܲ

݊

ͳ

݊݁ݔ

σݔ

ଶ

൨

ܴ

ൌ

Ͷܲ

͵

ͳ

͵ ൈ ͳǤͳ ൈ ʹǤͷ

ʹሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

൨

ܴ

ൌ ͲǤͷͷ͵W anu ܴ

ൌ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵W

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 33

5.1.2 Class A Loading

Fig 5.1: Position of Class A Vehicle for obtaining reaction factors

Minimum Clearance Distance: 0.15 + 0.25 = 0.4M

݁ ൌ ͲǤͺ݉ǡ ܲ ൌ

ݓ

ʹ

σݔ

ଶ

ൌ ሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

ሺͲሻ

ଶ

ሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

ൌ ʹሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

ൌ ͳʹǤͷ݉

Foi outei giiueiǡ x ൌ ʹǤmǡ foi innei giiuei x ൌ Ͳ

Theiefoieǡ

ܴ

ൌ

σ

ቂͳ

௫

σ௫

మ

ቃ

ܴ

ൌ

Ͷܲ

͵

ͳ

͵ ൈ ͲǤͺ ൈ ʹǤͷ

ʹሺʹǤͷሻ

ଶ

൨

ൌ

Ͷܲ

͵

ሾͳ ͲǤͶͺሿ

ൌ

Ͷܲ

͵

ሾͳǤͶͺሿ

ൌ ͳǤͻ͵Ͷܲ

ൌ ͲǤͻͺݓ

ܴ

ൌ

Ͷܲ

͵

ሾͳ Ͳሿ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 34

ܴ

ൌ

Ͷܲ

͵

ൌ

Ͷ

͵

ൈ

ݓ

ʹ

ൌ ͲǤݓ

Theiefoie ܴ

ൌ ͲǤݓ

Impact factoi ൌ

ସǤହ

ା

ൌ

ସǤହ

ାଵ଼Ǥଵ

ൌ ͲǤͳͺʹ

5.2 Maximum Live load bending Moment for Class A Loading

For reaction factors we considered the moment or shifting of loads in transverse

direction. For finding the maximum B.M., however we have to consider the movement

of the loads along the span. For maximum B.M. at a given section: The maximum B.M.

at any section of a simply supported beam due to a given system of point loads crossing

the beam occurs when the average loading on the portion left is equal to the average

loading to the right of it, when section divides the load in the same ratio as it divides the

span. To get the maximum B.M. at a given section, one of the wheel loads should be

placed at the section. We shall try these rules for both Class A loading as well as Class

AA Tracked loading.

5.2.1 Class A Loading:

5.2.2 Maximum Live Load Bending moment at the mid span i.e. L/2: The below

figure shows the Influence Line Diagram.

Fig 5.2a: ILD for BM at L/2

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 35

Benuing Nomentǡ BNǡ incluuing Impact Factoi anu eaction factoi foi

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳʹͻͳǤͳͳ ൈ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤͻͺ ൌ ͳͷͲKN െN

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳʹͻͳǤͳͳ ൈ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤ ൌ ͳͲʹ͵KN െN

5.1.2 Maximum Live load bending Moment at 3L/8: The below figure shows the Influence

Line diagram

Fig ͷǤʹbǣ ILB foi BN at ͵LȀͺ

Loau NoǤ Loau value 0iuinate Noment

Wͳ ʹkN

͵Ǥͺͺͷ

ͻǤ͵ͷͷ

ൈ ͶǤͺ ൌ ͳǤͻ͵݉

ͷʹǤͳͳKNǦN

Wʹ ʹkN

ͶǤͻͷͷ

ͻǤ͵ͷͷ

ൈ ͶǤͺ ൌ ʹǤͶͺ݉

KNǦN

W͵ ͳͳͶkN

ͺǤͳͷͷ

ͻǤ͵ͷͷ

ൈ ͶǤͺ ൌ ͶǤͳ݉

ͶͺKNǦN

WͶ ͳͳͶkN Ͷ݉ ͶͷKNǦN

Wͷ ͺkN

ͷǤͲͷͷ

ͻǤ͵ͷͷ

ൈ ͶǤͺ ൌ ʹǤͷ͵݉

ͳ͵KNǦN

W ͺkN

ʹǤͲͷͷ

ͻǤ͵ͷͷ

ൈ ͶǤͺ ൌ ͳǤͳ݉

ͷKNǦN

Total ͳʹͻͳǤͳͳKNǦN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 36

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤͻͺ ൈ ͳ͵ͳͶ ൌ ͳͷ͵ʹǤͷKN െ N

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤ ൈ ͳ͵ͳͶ ൌ ͳͲͶͳKN െN

5.1.3 Maximum Live load bending Moment at L/8: The below figure shows the Influence

Line diagram

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W1 27kN

ʹǤͳʹͷ

ǤͲͳʹͷ

ൈ ͶǤ͵ͻ ൌ ͳǤm

46KN-M

W2 27KN

͵Ǥͺͳʹͷ

ǤͲͳʹͷ

ൈ ͶǤ͵ͻ ൌ ʹǤ͵ͻ݉

64.53KN-M

W3 114KN

ͶǤ͵ͻ݉

501KN-M

W4 114KN

ͳͲǤͷ

ͳͳǤ

ൈ ͶǤ͵ͻ ൌ ͶǤͲ݉

456KN-M

W5 68KN

Ǥͳͻ͵ͷ

ͳͳǤ

ൈ ͶǤ͵ͻ ൌ ʹǤ͵͵݉

159KN-M

W6 68KN

͵Ǥʹ

ͳͳǤ

ൈ ͶǤ͵ͻ ൌ ͳǤʹ݉

82KN-M

W7 68KN

ͲǤͳͻ͵ͷ

ͳͳǤ

ൈ ͶǤ͵ͻ ൌ ͲǤͲ͵݉

5KN-M

=1314KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 37

Fig 5.2c: ILD for BM at L/8

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤͻͺ ൈ ͳͷ ൌ ͺ͵ͶǤͲͲKNെ N

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤ ൈ ͳͷ ൌ ͷǤʹͶKNെ N

5.2 Absolute Maximum Bending Moment

Absolute B.M. occurs at under that heavier wheel load which is nearer to the C.G. of the load

system that can possibly be accommodated on the span of 18.71M. The placement should be

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W3 114KN

ʹǤͲͷ݉

234.00KN-M

W4 114KN

ͳͷǤͳ

ͳǤ͵

ൈ ʹǤͲͷ ൌ ͳǤͻ݉

217.00KN-M

W5 68KN

ͳͲǤͺ

ͳǤ͵

ൈ ͵ǤͲͷ ൌ ʹǤͲʹͷ݉

138.00KN-M

W6 68KN

Ǥͺ

ͳǤ͵

ൈ ʹǤͲͷ ൌ ͲǤͻͻ݉

67.32 KN-M

W7 68KN

ͶǤͺ

ͳǤ͵

ൈ ʹǤͲͷ ൌ ͲǤͳ ݉

42.00KN-M

W8 68KN

ͳǤͺ

ͳǤ͵

ൈ ʹǤͲͷ ൌ ͲǤʹͶ݉

16.40KN-M

TOTAL 715.00KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 38

such that the centre of span is mid-way between the wheel load and the C.G. of the load

system. This position is shown below.

X = 6.42M , C.G of Load = 6.42-(1.1+3.2+1.2) = 0.92M from fourth load

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W1 27kN

͵Ǥ͵ͻͷ

ͺǤͺͻͷ

ൈ ͶǤ ൌ ͳǤͺʹN

48.20KN-M

W2 27KN

ͶǤͶͻͷ

ͺǤͺͻͷ

ൈ ͶǤ ൌ ʹǤ͵ͻN

64.00KN-M

W3 114KN

Ǥͻͷ

ͺǤͺͻͷ

ൈ ͶǤ ൌ ͶǤͲͶN

461KN-M

W4 114KN

ͶǤN

533KN-M

W5 68KN

ͶǤͷͻͷ

ͻǤͺͳͷ

ൈ ͶǤ ൌ ʹǤʹN

150KN-M

W6 68KN

ͳǤͷͻͷ

ͻǤͺͳͷ

ൈ ͶǤ ൌ ͲǤN

52KN-M

Total

=1308.2KN-

M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 39

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͳǤͺʹ ൈ ͳ͵ͲͺǤʹ ൌ ͺ͵ͶǤͲͲKN-M

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͺʹ ൈ ͲǤ ൈ ͳ͵ͲͺǤʹ ൌ ͳͲ͵ KN-M

5.3 CLASS AA-TRACKED VEHICLE

5.3.1 Bending Moment at centre of the span

Fig 5.3a: ILD for BM at L/2

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͷ͵͵ ൈ ʹͻͷͶ ൌ ͳͺͲͲǤͲͲKN-M

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈʹͻͷͶ ൌ ͳͲͺ͵ KN-M

5.3.2 Bending Moment at 3L/8 of the span

Fig 5.2b: ILD for BM at 3L/8

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

͵Ǥ ͶǤ

ʹ

ൌ ͶǤʹʹN

2954KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 40

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͷ͵͵ ൈ ʹͺ ൌ ͳͻǤͲͲKN-M

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈʹͺ ൌ ͳͲʹʹ KN-M

5.3.3 Bending Moment at L/4 of the span

Fig 5.2c: ILD for BM at L/4

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͷ͵͵ ൈ ʹͺ ൌ ͳͶǤͲͲKN-M

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈʹͺ ൌ ͳͲͷͳ KN-M

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

ͶǤͶ ͵Ǥͷ

ʹ

ൌ ͵ǤͻͺN

2786KN-M

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

͵Ǥͷͳ ͶǤͺ

ʹ

ൌ ͶǤͲͻͶN

2866KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 41

5.3.4 Bending Moment at L/8 of the span

Fig 5.2d: ILD for BM at L/8

Bending Moment, BM, including Impact Factor and Reaction factor for

0utei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͷ͵͵ ൈ ͳʹͻͺ ൌ ͻͳǤͲͲKN-M

Innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈͳʹͻͺ ൌ Ͷ KN-M

5.3 Live Load Shear Force

Shear Force will be Maximum due to Class AA Tracked vehicle. For Maximum shear

force at the ends of the girder, the load will be placed between the support and the first

intermediate girder and shear force will be found by the reaction factors derived below. For

intermediate section, same reaction factors will be used as derived for bending Moment.

5.3.1 Shear at the end of girder

Since the length of the track is 3.6M Maximum shear will occur when the C.G. of load is

1.8M away from support A of the girder. The load will be confined between the end and the

first stiffener. Along width of the bridge, the track will be so placed that it maintains a

maximum clearance of 1.2M. Hence distance of C.G. of load from kerb = 1.2+0.425 =

1.625M

Load No. Load Value Ordinate Moment

W 700KN

ʹǤͲͷ ͳǤͷ

ʹ

ൌ ͳǤͺͷ͵N

1298KN-M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 42

Fig 5.3: Class AA tracked Wheel load position for Live loaf shear force

Pͳ ൌ

ͳǤͷ

ʹǤͳ

P ൌ ͲǤͺP

Pʹ ൌ

ͲǤͶʹͷ

ʹǤͳ

ͳǤʹͷ

ʹǤͳ

ൌ ͳǤͲ͵P

P͵ ൌ

ͲǤ͵ͷ

ʹǤͳ

P ൌ ͲǤͳͺP

Reactions at end of each Longitudinal Girder due to transfer of these loads at 1.8M from left support

R

A' =

0.374P R

D' =

0.347P

R

B' =

0.535P R

E' =

0.495P.

R

C' =

0.093P R

F' =

0.087P.

The load R

D¶,

R

E¶

, R

F¶

should be transferred to the cross girders as per Courbon¶s Theory

σW ൌ ͲǤ͵ͶP ͲǤͶͻͷP ͲǤͲͺP

σW ൌ ͲǤͻʹͻP

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 43

W

2

= ʹʹǤ ൈʹǤ

ܴ

ൌ

σܲ

݊

ͳ

݊݁ݔ

σݔ

ଶ

൨

ܴ

ൌ

ͲǤͻʹͻP

͵

ͳ

͵ ൈ ͲǤͷͺ ൈ ʹǤͷ

ʹሺʹǤͳሻ

ଶ

൨

ܥ ൌ ͲǤͶͶܲ

ܴ

ா

ൌ

σܲ

݊

ͳ

݊݁ݔ

σݔ

ଶ

൨

ܴ

ா

ൌ

ͲǤͻʹͻP

͵

ሾͳ Ͳሿ

ܴ

ா

ൌ ͲǤ͵ͳP

These reactions ܴ

and ܴ

ா

act as point loads on outer girder and inner girders at their 1/5

th

points of total span.

ܴ

ൈͳͺǤͳ ൌ ܴ

ൈ ͳͶǤͻͺ ܴ

ൈ ͳͺǤͳ ൌ ܴ

ൈ ͳͶǤͻͺ

ܴ

ൌ ͲǤͺܴ

ܴ

ൌ ͲǤͺܴ

ா

ܴ

ൌ ͲǤͺ ൈͲǤͶͶ ܴ

ܴ

ൌ ͲǤͺ ൈ ͲǤ͵ͳܲ

ܴ

ൌ ͲǤ͵ͳʹܲ ܴ

ൌ ͲǤ͵ͳʹܲ

Bence sheai at Aൌ R

A' +

ൌ ͲǤ͵ͳʹܲ ͲǤ͵ͳʹܲ

Bൌ R

B' +

ൌ ͲǤͷ͵ͷܲ ͲǤʹͶͺܲ ǡ But P ൌ ͵ͷͲKN

Bence Sheai Foice at outei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͶͷʹ ൈ ͵ͷͲ ൌ ʹͺͶKN

Bence Sheai Foice at innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͺ͵ ൈ ͵ͷͲ ൌ ͵ͲʹKN

5.4 Shear Force Intermediate Points: Shear at other points will be found on the basis

of the same reaction coefficients as found for B.M. Thus for Class AA Tracked loading,

reaction coefficient for outer girder = 0.5536W and for inner girder = 0.3333W

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 44

5.4.1 Shear Force at Mid span:

Fig 5.4a: ILD for SF at L/2

Sheai Foice at Niu span ൌ

ͳ

ʹ

ͳ

ʹ

ͳ

ʹ

ൈ

ͷǤͷͷ

ͻǤ͵ͷͷ

൨ ൈ ͲͲ

ൌ

ͳ

ʹ

ͳ

ʹ

ͲǤ͵ͳ൨ ൈ ͲͲ

ൌ ʹͺͶܭܰ

Sheai Foice at outei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈͲǤͷͷ͵ ൈ ʹͺͶ ൌ ͳ͵KN

Sheai Foice at innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈ ʹͺͶ ൌ ͳͲͷKN

5.4.2 Shear Force at 3/8th span:

Fig 5.4b: ILD for SF at 3/8

Sheai Foice at ͵Ȁͺth span ൌ

ͳ

ʹ

ͷ

ͺ

ͷ

ͺ

ൈ

ͺǤͲͻ

ͳͳǤͻ

൨ ൈ ͲͲ

ൌ

ͳ

ʹ

ͳ

ʹ

ͲǤͶͶ൨ ൈ ͲͲ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 45

ൌ ͵ͳܭܰ

Sheai Foice at outei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈͲǤͷͷ͵ ൈ ͵ͳ ൌ ʹʹKN

Sheai Foice at innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈ ͵ͳ ൌ ͳ͵KN

5.4.3 Shear Force at 1/4th span:

Fig 5.4c: ILD for SF at 1/4

th

span

Sheai Foice at ͳȀͶth span ൌ

ͳ

ʹ

͵

Ͷ

͵

Ͷ

ൈ

ͳͲǤͶ͵ʹ

ͳͶǤͲ͵ʹ

൨ ൈ ͲͲ

ൌ

ͳ

ʹ

ͳ

ʹ

ʹǤʹ͵൨ ൈ ͲͲ

ൌ Ͷͷͺܭܰ

Sheai Foice at outei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈͲǤͷͷ͵ ൈ Ͷͷͺ ൌ ʹͻKN

Sheai Foice at innei giiuei ൌ ͳǤͳͲ ൈ ͲǤ͵͵͵͵ ൈ Ͷͷͺ ൌ ͳͺKN

5.4 Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force in Girder:

5.5.1 Live Load from Cantilever

iሻ Class AA Loauingǣ The minimum uistance of Class AA loauing fiom the keib is

to be ͳǤʹNǤ Since the available cleai length of cantilevei is only ͲǤͷNǡ class

AA loauing will not come on the cantilevei poitionǤ

iiሻ Class A Loauingǣ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 46

Fig 5.4: Position of Class A loading for max BM

Bistance of CǤu of wheel fiom the euge of Cantilevei suppoit

ൌ ͳǤͲͷ Ȃ ሺͲǤͳͷͲǤʹሻ

ൌ ͲǤͷN

Bispeiseu wiuth of loau ൌ ͲǤͷ ሺʹ ൈ ͲǤʹͷሻ ൌ ͳǤͲͷN

Loau on Cantilevei ൌ ͷ ൈ

ͲǤͺͷ

ͳǤͲͷ

൨

Effective Wiuth of Cantileveiǡ e ൌ ͳǤʹ ൈ ݔ W

Wheieǡ xൌ uistance of CǤuǤ of uispeiseu loau in cantilevei poitionൌͲǤͺͷȀʹ

Wൌ wiuth of concentiation aiea of loau peipenuiculai to span

ൌ B ʹൈ thicKNess of Weaiing Coat

ൌ ͲǤʹͷሺʹൈ ͲǤͲͷሻ

ൌ ͲǤͶN

ݔ ൌ

ͲǤͺͷ

ͳǤͲͷ

൨ ൌ ͲǤͶ͵ͷ

݁ ൌ ሺͳǤʹ ൈ ͲǤͶ͵ͷሻ ͲǤͶ

ൌ ͲǤͻʹͷܯ

Impact Factoi ൌ ͳǤͷ

Bence Benuing Noment uue to Live loau ൌ ൬ͳǤͷ ൈ

ͶǤͷ

ͲǤͻʹͷ

൰

ͲǤͺͷ

ʹ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 47

Beau Loau anu Beau loau benuing Noment

Component BLȀN iunሺKNሻ CǤu fiom euge

of cantileveiሺNሻ

NomentሺKNǦNሻ

Crash Barrier ሺͲǤͷ ൈ ͳ ൈ ͳ ൈʹͶሻ ൌ ͳʹKN ͳǤͷ ͳͺǤͲͲ

Wearing Coat ሺͲǤͲͷ ൈ ͳǤͲͷ ൈ ʹʹሻ ൌ ͳǤͶKN ͲǤͷʹͷ ͲǤͻʹͶ

Slab ሺͳǤͷͷ ൈ ͲǤʹ ൈʹͶሻ ൌ ǤͶͶKN ͲǤͷ ͷǤͺͲ

Total ʹͳǤͳͺKN ʹͷǤͲͲKNǦN

Design Bending Moment = 25 + 33.7 = 58.7KN-M

Design Shear Force = 21.18 + 77 = 98.18KN

Check for depth (M

B

):

u

୮୰୭୴୧ୢୣୢ

ൌ ඨ

ܯ

ܳ ൈ ܾ

ൌ

ඨ

ͷͺǤ ൈ ͳͲ

ͳǤͷͳ͵ ൈ ͳͲͲͲ

ൌ ͳͷͶǤʹͷ݉݉

u

୮୰୭୴୧ୢୣୢ

ൌ ͳͻNN

u

୮୰୭୴୧ୢୣୢ

u

୰ୣ୯୳୧୰ୣୢ

Provide 200MM overall depth using 40MM

u

୰ୣ୯୳୧୰ୣୢ

ൌ ʹͲͲ െͶͲ െͺ ൌ ͳͷʹNN

Aiea of steel iequiieu ൌ

N

ɐ

ୱ୲

ju

ൌ

ͷͺǤ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͺͻ ൈ ʹʹͷ

ൌ ͳͶNN

ଶ

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ͳͲͲͲ ൈ ʹͲͳ

ͳͶ

ܵ

௩

ൌ ͳ͵NN

Hence provide 16MM diameter bars at 100MM c/c

5.5 Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force in Girders

Fig 5.5: Position of loads for Max BM and SF in Girders

ͳǤ Beau loau fiom each Cantilevei slab ൌ ʹͳǤͳͺܭܰ

ʹǤ Beau loau fiom Slab anu weaiing coat ൌ ሺͲǤͲͷ ൈ ʹʹሻ ሺͲǤʹʹͷ ൈʹͶሻ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 48

ൌ ǤͲͷKNȀNN

ଶ

͵Ǥ Total Beau loau fiom ueck ൌ ሺʹ ൈ ʹǤͳͺሻ ሺʹ ൈ ʹǤͷ ͲǤͶሻ ൈǤͲͷ

ൌ ͶʹǤͶ͵ KNȀNN

ଶ

ͶǤ Assuming this loau to be equally shaieu by ͵ giiueis ൌ

ସଶǤସଷ

ଷ

ൌ ͳͶǤͳͷKNȀNN

ଶ

ͷǤ Let the uepth of iib ൌ ͳǤʹͷN

Ǥ Weight of iib ൌ ͳൈ ͲǤͶ ൈͳǤʹͷ ൈʹͶ ൌ ͳǤͷKN

Ǥ Total 0BL on giiueis ൌͳǤͷ ͳͶǤͳͷ ൌ ͵ͲǤͳ KNȀN

ͺǤ Let uepth of cioss giiueis ൌ ͳǤͷN

ͻǤ Weight of iib of cioss giiueis ൌ ͳ ൈͲǤ͵ ൈ ͳǤͷ ൈ ʹͶ ൌ ͳͲǤͺKNȀN

ͳͲǤ Length iib of cioss giiueis ൌ ʹൈʹǤͳ ൌ ʹǤͶN

ͳͳǤ Assuming weight of cioss giiuei to be equally shaieu by all the thiee longituuinal

giiueis point loau on each giiuei ൌ ͳȀ͵ሺ ͶǤʹ ൈ ͳͲǤͺሻ ൌ ͳͷǤͳʹKN

eactionǡ ܴ

ൌ ܴ

ൌ

ଵ

ଶ

ሺͶ ൈ ͳͷǤͳʹ ͳͺǤͳ ൈ ͵ͲǤͳሻ

ൌ ͵ͳǤͷ͵KN

Benuing Noment

Bending Moment at Mid Span

ൌ ሺ͵ͳǤͷ͵ൈͻǤ͵ͷͷሻ െ ͳͷǤͳʹ ൈ ሺ

ଷǤସଶ

ଶ

ሻ ȂሾͳͷǤͳʹሺ͵ǤͶʹͳǤͺͳሻሿ

Ǧ ሺ͵ͲǤͳൈ ͻǤ͵ͷͷ ൈ ͻǤ͵ͷͷሻȀʹ

ൌ ͳͷͳ͵KNǦN

Bending Moment at Quarter Span

ൌ ሾ͵ͳǤͷ͵ൈ ሺ͵ǤͶ ͳǤͺͳሻሿ െ ሾͳͷǤͳʹ ൈ ሺ͵ͲǤͳ ൈ ͷǤͳ͵ ൈ ͷǤͳ͵ሻȀʹሿ

ൌ ͳʹͳKNǦN

Shear Force

Sheai Foice at suppoitǡ ܴ

ൌ ͵ͳǤͷ͵KN

Sheai Foice at quaitei span ൌ ͵ͳǤͷ͵ െͳͷǤͳʹ െ ሺ͵ͲǤͳ ൈͷǤͳ͵ሻ

ൌͳ͵ͳKN

Sheai Foice at ͵Ȁͺ

th

span ൌ ͵ͳǤͷ͵ െ ͳͷǤͳʹ െሺ͵ͲǤͳ ൈ ǤͲʹሻ

ൌͺKN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 49

Sheai Foice at Niu span ൌ ͵ͳǤͷ͵ െ ͳͷǤͳʹ െͳͷǤͳʹ െ ሺ͵ͲǤͳ ൈͻǤ͵ͷͷሻ

ൌͲKN

5.6 Design of Outer Girder

1. Total Bending Moment at centre of span = ͳͷͳ͵ ͳͺͲͲ ൌ ͵͵ͳ͵ KN െN

2. Total Bending Moment at quarter span = ͳʹͳ ͳͶ ൌ ͵ͲͳKN െN

3. Total Shear at support = ͵ͳǤͷ͵ ʹͺ ൌ ͲͷKN

4. Total Shear at ¼ span = ͳ͵ͳ ʹͻ ൌ ͶͳͲKN

5. Total Shear at 3/8 span = ͺ ʹʹ ൌ ͵ͳ͵KN

6. Total Shear at Mid span = ͳ͵ Ͳ ൌ ͳ͵KN

For beams, M30 concrete will be used and the Outer girder will be designed as T-beam

having a depth of rib = 1.725M

Total depth = 1.725 + 0.225 = 1.95M

Let us assume an effective depth = 1.725-0.120 = 1.605M

A

ୱ୲

ൌ

ܯ

ߪ

௦௧

ൈ ݆ ൈ ݀

ൌ

͵͵ͳ͵ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͻ ൈ ͳͲͷ

ൌ ͳͳͶNN

ଶ

Provide 12 bars of 32MM diameter, having total A

ୱ୲

ൌ ͻͷͳNN

ଶ

and

Provide 4bars of 25MM diameter, having total A

ୱ୲

ൌ ͳͻͶNN

ଶ

Arrange these bars in 4 layers with spacing between bars equal to largest diameter bar used

i.e.32MM

Clear cover = 40MM

Height of C.G of bars from bottom of bars = (40+12+32X2)

= 148MM

d= 1725-148=1577MM <1605MM, hence ok

5.7 Check for stresses

1. Depth of Neutral Axis: Flange width will be the least of the following

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 50

a. 12d

s

+ b

r

= 12 x 225 + 400 = 3100MM

b. c/c spacing = 2500MM

c. Span/3 = 18.71/3 = 6236.66MM

Hence Flange width = B=2500MM

2. Let depth of Neutral axis be N lying in web

Bൈ d

s

ൈ ቀ݊ െ

ௗ௦

ଶ

ቁ ൌ ݉ ൈ ܣ

௦௧

ሺ݀ െ݊ሻ

ʹͷͲͲ ൈ ʹʹͷሺ݊ െͳͳʹǤͷሻ ൌ ͳͲ ൈ ͳͳǡͶሺͳͷ െ݊ሻ

n = 361MM

Ciitical Neutial axis uepthǡ n ൌ

݀

ͳ

ߪ

௦௧

݉Ǥ ߪ

ൌ

ͳͷ

ͳ

ʹͲͲ

ͳͲ ൈ ͳͲ

ൌ ͷʹNN

Actual Neutral axis falls above the critical neutral axis therefore, the stress in the steel

reaches the Maximum value first hence ɐ

ୱ୲

ൌ ʹͲͲܰȀNN

ଶ

Corresponding stress in the concrete at the outer fibre is given by

c ൌ

ɐ

ୱ୲

N

ൈ

n

ሺu െnሻ

ൌ

ʹͲͲ

ͳͲ

ൈ

͵ͳ

ሺͳͷ െ͵ͳሻ

ൌ ͷǤͻͶNȀNN

ଶ

Similarly,

c

ଵ

ൌ

n െܦ

n

ൈ c

c

ଵ

ൌ

͵ͳ െʹʹͷ

͵ͳ

ൈ ͷǤͻͶ

= 0.38 NȀNN

ଶ

ݕ ൌ

ܿ ʹܿ

ଵ

ܿ ܿ

ଵ

൬

ܦ

͵

൰

ݕ ൌ

ͷǤͻͶ ʹ ൈͲǤ͵ͺ

ͷǤͻͶ ͲǤ͵ͺ

൬

ʹʹͷ

͵

൰ ൌ ͻǤͷͳNN

Levei aiNǡ a ൌ u െy ൌ ͳͷ െͻǤͷͳ ൌ ͳͶͻǤͶͻNN

ܯ

ൌ ߪ

௦௧

ൈ ܣ

௦௧

ൈ ܽ

ܯ

ൌ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͳͶ ൈ ͳͶͻͲͶͻ

ܯ

ൌ ͵Ͷ͵ͶǤ͵ͶKN െN ൏ ͵͵ͳ͵ܭܰ െܯ

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 51

Area of steel required

Aiea of steel iequiieu ൌ

͵Ͳͳ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͳͶ ൈͳͶͻǤͶͻ

ൌ ͳͲǡͶͶ͵݉݉

ଶ

No. of 32MM diameter bars = 10443/305 = 12.9 ͳ͵bais

Check for local bond stress as per IRC code

Assume effective depth = 1950 - 60 = 1890MM

iequiieu ൌ

Ͳͷ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ͲǤͻ ൈ ͳͺͻͲ

NoǤ of ͵ʹNN bais ൌ

͵ͷͷǤ

͵ǤͳͶʹ ൈ ͵ʹ

Hence atleast 4 bars are to be taken straight

Check for shear

1. NoNinal Sheai stiess at suppoit ൌ

ହൈଵ

య

ସൈଵ଼ଽ

ൌ ͲǤͺKNȀNN

ଶ

, hence shear

reinforcement is necessary.

2. Nominal Sheai stiess at suppoit ൌ

ଵଷൈଵ

య

ସൈଵ

ൌ ͲǤʹͷܭNȀNN

ଶ

, hence shear

reinforcement is not necessary.

3. Nominal Sheai stiess at suppoit ൌ

ଷଵଷൈଵ

య

ସൈଵ

ൌ ͲǤͶܭNȀNN

ଶ

, hence provide shear

reinforcement.

Approximate distance from support at which shear stress is ͲǤͷNȀNN

ଶ

= ½(9.455+7)=8.23M

Let us bend up 2 bars at a time at a spacing of 0.707a i.e. = 0.707x0.9x1605=1021.26MM

Bend 2 bars at a time, spacing = 1020MM

If 5 bars are bent up, effective distance = 5 x 1.020 = 5.1M from support

Shear taken up by 4bent bars of 32MM = 4 x 805 x 200 x Sin(45)

= 455KN

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 52

Net remaining shear at support for which shear reinforcement has to be provided

= 605-450=150KN

Spacingǡ S

୴

ൌ

ʹ ൈ ͺǤͷ ൈ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͺͻͲ

ͳͷͲ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ൌ ͵ͻʹǤͶNN

Hence provide 10MM diameter at 180MM c/c at support i.e. up to 4.08M. After 4.08M only

2 bars will be effective.

At quarter span, iemaining sheai ൌ ͶͳͲ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

െ

ସହହൈଵ

య

ଶ

ൌ ͳͺʹǤͷ݇ܰ

Spacing of two legged stirrups, 10MM diameter ൌ

ଶൈ଼Ǥହൈଶൈଵ

ଵ଼ଶǤହൈଵ

య

ൌ ʹͻʹǤͶͻ݉݉

Hence provide 2L-10MM diameter bars at 200MM c/c from 4.08M to 5.1M

Beyond 5.1M no bent up bars are available. Therefore, shear at 3/8 span

i.e.,

ଷ

଼

ൈ ͳͺǤͳ ൌ ǤͲʹ ൌ ͵ͳ͵݇ܰ

Therefore spacing of 10MM diameter bars 2L ൌ

ଶൈ଼Ǥହൈଶൈଵ

ଷଵଷൈଵ

య

ൌ ͳͲǤͷͶ݉݉

Therefore provide 2L 10MM diameter bars at 150MM c/c

From 7.02M to 8.02M Provide 2L 10MM diameter at 180MM c/c

For remaining distance provide 22L 10MM diameter at 300MM c/c

Summary:

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from support upto 4.08M

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 200MM c/c from 4.08M to 5.1M

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 53

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from 5.1M to 7.02M

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c from 7.02M to 8.02M

Provide 10MM 2L diameter at 180MM c/c for remaining length.

5.8 Design of Inner Girder

Adopt,

ͶͲͲ ൈ ͳͷͲͲ ൈ ʹͳͲͲ݉݉

݅Ǥ ݁Ǥ ܤ ൌ ʹͷͲͲ݉݉ǡ ܾ ൌ ͶͲͲ݉݉ǡ ܦ ൌ ͳͷͲͲ݉݉ǡ

ܯ ൌ ʹͷͻ ൈͳͲ

ܣ

௦௧

ൌ

ʹͷͻ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͻ ൈͳͲͷ

ൌ ͺͻͺ݉݉

ଶ

Use 12 bars of 32MM diameter ܣ

௦௧

ൌ ͻͷͳ݉݉

ଶ

ܣ

௦௧

ܽݐ ݍݑܽݎݐ݁ݎ ݏܽ݊ ൌ

ʹ͵ʹʹ ൈͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈͲǤͻ ൈ ͳͲͷ

ൌ ͺͲ͵ͻ݉݉

ଶ

Check for bond stress as per IRC

Shear at support ൌ ʹͲ݇ܰǤ Let effective depth be 1665MM

Sheai ൌ

ʹͲ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ͳ ൈ ͲǤͻ ൈ ͳͷ

ൌ ͶͳͶ

NoǤ of ͵ʹNN uiametei bais iequiieu ൌ

ͶͳͶ

ߨ ൈ ͵ʹ

ൌ ͶǤͳ

However take 6 bars straight up to support.

Check for Shear

ɒ

୴

at suppoit ൌ

ଶൈଵ

య

ଷൈଵହ

ൌ ͳǤʹͶN NN

ଶ

Τ (Shear reinforcement needed)

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 54

ɒ

୴

at centie ൌ

ଵହൈଵ

య

ଷൈଵହ

ൌ ͲǤʹͳN NN

ଶ

Τ (No shear reinforcement)

ɒ

୴

at

ଷ

଼

span ൌ

ଶଶଷൈଵ

య

ଷൈଵହ

ൌ ͲǤͶN NN

ଶ

Τ (However provide shear reinforcement)

Bend bars at 1021.26MM i.e. 1.02M = a

4 bars are effective at every section, hence ൌ Ͷ ൈ ͺͲͷ ൈ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͲ

ൌ ͶͷͷKN

Shear taken by 4 bars of ͵ʹ݉݉ ൌ ͶͷͷKN

Net remaining shear at support for which shear requirement is necessary ൌ ʹͲ െͶͷͷ ൌ

ͳͷ݇ܰ

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ʹ ൈ ͺǤͷ ൈ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͷ

ͳͷ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ൌ ͵ͳǤͺͷ݉݉

Hence provide 10MM-2L bars at 180MM c/c from support up to Ͷ ൈ ͳǤͲʹ ൌ ͶǤͲͺ݉ from

support after 4.08M

At quarter span, ൌ ͵ͲͲ െ

ସହହ

ଶ

ൌ ʹǤͷ݇ܰ

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ʹ ൈ ͺǤͷ ൈ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͲͷ

ʹǤͷ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ൌ ͻͷǤͳ͵݉݉

Therefore, provide 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c from 4.08 to 5.1M.

Therefore, shear at 3/8 span=223KN.

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ʹ ൈ ͺǤͷ ൈ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͲͷ

ʹʹ͵ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ൌ ʹʹͷǤͻͻ݉݉

Therefore, provide 2L-10MM diameter at 200 c/c up to 7.02.

From 7.02 to 8.02, 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c

For remaining 2L-10MM diameter at 300 c/c

Support to 4.8Mĺ10MM-2L diameter at 180MM c/c

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 55

4.8M to 5.1Mĺ10MM-2L diameter at 300MM c/c

5.1M to 7.02Mĺ10MM-2L diameter at 200MM c/c

7.02 to 8.02 and remainingĺ10MM-2L diameter at 300MM c/c

5.9Design of cross-girder

Fig 5.9a: Load distribution on each girder Fig 5.9b: DL on Cross girder

i) Dead load

Cross girder are placed at 3.742M c/c

Dimensionൌ ͵ ൈ ͳʹͷ

Weight of ribൌ ͲǤ͵ ൈ ͳǤʹͷ݉ൈ ʹͶ ൌ ͻǤͳͺ݇ܰȀ݉

Dead weight from slab and wearing coatൌ ǤͲͷ݇ܰȀ݉

ଶ

Dead load on each cross girderൌ ʹ ൈ ቂʹǤͷ ൈ ͳǤʹͷ ൈ

ଵ

ଶ

ቃ

ൌ ͵Ǥͳʹͷ ൈ ǤͲͷ

ൌ ʹʹǤͳ݇ܰ

Assuming this to be uniformly distributed, dead load per meter run of girder

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 56

ൌ

ʹʹǤͳ

ʹǤͷ

ൌ ͺǤͺͶ݇ܰȀ݉

Therefore, Total weight = 9.18+8.84 = 18.02 KNȀN

Assuming cross girders to be rigid, reaction on each longitudinal girder =

ଵ଼Ǥଶൈହ

ଷ

ൌ ͵ͳKN

i) Live Load: Maximum bending Moment and shear force due to Class AA-

Tracked Loading

Fig 5.9c: LL on the span

ൌ

ͲͲ ൈ ʹǤͺͶʹ

Ͷ

ൌ ͶͻͺKN

Assuming cross girders to be rigid, reaction on each longitudinal girder =

ସଽ଼

ଷ

ൌ ͳKN

Maximum bending Moment under the wheel load

Fig 5.9d: Max LL Cross girder

N ൌ

Ͷͻͺ

͵

ൈ ͳǤͶͷ ൌ ʹͶͷKNെ N

Taking Impact factor = 1.1x245 =270KN-M

Dead Load bending Moment from 4.75M of support

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 57

ൌ ͵ͳ ൈ ͳǤͶͷ െ

ͳͺǤͲʹ ൈ ሺͳǤͶͷ ൈͳǤͶͷሻ

ʹ

ൌ ͶͷǤ͵ െ ͳͻǤͳ

= 26.12KN-M

Total Bending Moment = LL BM +DL BM

ൌ ʹͲ ʹǤͳʹ ൌ ʹͻKN െ N

Live Loau Sheai ൌ

Ͷͻͺ

͵

ൈ ͳǤͳ ൌ ͳͺ͵KN

Section Design:

Total depth = 1500MM, Effective Depth = 1440MM

A

ୱ୲

ൌ

ʹͻ ൈ ͳͲ

ʹͲͲ ൈ ͲǤͻ ൈ ͳͶͶͲ

ൌ ͳͳͶNN

ଶ

Hence provide 3nos of 25MM Diameter bars, Pioviue A

ୱ୲

ൌ ͳͶ͵NN

ଶ

Sheai Besignǣ

Nominal Sheai ߬

௩

ൌ

௩

ௗ

ൌ

ଶଵସൈଵ

య

ଷൈଵସସ

ൌ ͲǤͶͻNȀNN

ଶ

൏

߬

௫

ok

But ߬

= 0.34

మ

ǡ

hence provide shear reinforcement.

ܵ

௩

ൌ

ʹ ൈ ͺǤͷ ൈ ʹͲͲ ൈ ͳͶͶͲ

ʹͳͶ ൈ ͳͲ

ଷ

ൌ ʹͳͳǤʹͺNN

Pioviue ʹL െͳͲNN uiametei bais at ʹͲͲNN CȀC both at inteimeuiate anu enus

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 58

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

The analysis and design of Deck slab and T-Beam of a Bridge has been carried out manually

as per IRC guidelines and the following results have been noted.

1. Live Load due to Class AA Wheeled Vehicle produces the severest effect.

2. Shear Force due to Class AA Wheeled Vehicle is very high.

3. Bending Moment in the Inner girder is lesser than the Outer girder hence lesser

reinforcement in inner girder when compared to outer girder.

4. The design of the deck slab and T- beam has been manually done keeping in view the

above results.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DECK SLAB AND T-BEAM OF BRIDGE

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGG; UVCE Page 59

REFERENCES

1) Indian Road congress, IRC: 6-2000, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for

Road Bridges Section: II, Loads and Stresses, 4

th

revision.

2) Indian Road congress, IRC: 21-2000, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for

Road Bridges Section: III, cement concrete (plain and reinforced), 3

rd

revision.

3) Dr. D. Johnson Victor, Essentials of Bridge Engineering, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.

4) Dr. N. Krishna Raju, Design of Bridges ,Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd

5) Mr. T.R. Jagadeesh and M.A. Jayaram, Design of Bridge Structures, Prentice Hall of

India Pvt. Ltd.

6) RCC Designs(Reinforced Concrete Structures) by Dr. B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain,

Arun Kumar Jain, Tenth Edition, Laxmi Publications.

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