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Structural Bearings and Expansion Joints for Bridges
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Association Internationale des Ponts et Charpentes Internationale Vereinigung für Brückenbau und Hochbau
IABSE AIPC IVBH
About the Author
Günter RAMBERGER Born 1942 in Aspang, Austria, Günter Ramberger received his civil engineering degree from the Technical University, Vienna, in 1966. He worked as an assistant to Prof. Dr.-lng. Peter Stein, Institute for Steel Structures, from 1967 to 1969 and received his doctor's degree in 1970 with a thesis on orthotropic plates. In 1970 he joined Hein, Lehmann AG, Düsseldorf, Germany, where he worked in the field of steel bridges, finally, as head of this department. He was involved in design, fabrication and erection of the following steel bridges: Oberkasseler Brücke, Düsseldorf, Franklinbrücke, Düsseldorf, Süderelbebrücke, Hamburg, Hammerbrookbrucke, Hamburg, Hochbrücke, Brunsbüttel, and many others. Since 1981 he has been professor of Steel Structures at the Technical University, Vienna, and was Dean of the Faculty for Civil Engineering from 1984 to 1987. He has been a member of the Working Commission 2 of IABSE and is a member of several committees for the standardization of steel structures (CEN TC 250/SC3, ON).
Structural Engineering Documents
Structural Bearings and Expansion Joints for Bridges
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Association Internationale des Ponts et Charpentes Internationale Vereinigung für Brückenbau und Hochbau
IABSE AIPC IVBH
ch 2 . No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means.ch Web: http://www.ethz.ethz.+ 41-1-633 1241 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. without permission in writing from the publisher. or by any information storage and retrieval system. electronic or mechanical. ISBN 3-85748-105-6 Printed in Switzerland Publisher: IABSE-AIPC-IVBH ETH Hönggerberg CH-8093 Zurich.Copyright © 2002 by International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering All rights reserved. including photocopying. Switzerland Phone: Int. recording.+ 41-1-633 2647 Fax: Int.
Manfred Hirt. Finally.Dedicated to the commemoration of the late Prof. G. Dr. and Prof. Technology and Medicine. Zoetermeer. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. University of Stuttgart. I wish to thank J. for reviewing the manuscript. O. which vary between different countries. S.-Ing. techn. Dr. Dexter. Leendertz. Nethercot. Ulrike Kuhlmann. J. These requirements are usually covered by product guidelines.-Ing. Amt der OÖ Landesregierung. Lausanne. Wolff. B. Eugen Brühwiler. remarks and comments. Prof. Johannsson. They are more or less a collection of relevant papers sometimes dealing with special problems. to her predecessor of the IABSE Commission. My intent was to give a short guideline on bearings and expansion joints for bridge designers and not to mention all the requirements for the manufacturers of such products. and my secretaries Ulla Samm and Barbara Bastian for their expert typing of the manuscript. who gave the impetus for this work. Rijkswaterstaat. April 2002 Günter Ramberger 3 . Prof. Jörgen Robra for his valuable contributions to the paper. Not all the references are related to the content of this document. Preface It is my hope that this treatise will serve as a textbook for students and as information for civil engineers involved in bridge construction. Dr. University of Innsbruck. I thank also my assistant Dipl. Prof. I express many thanks to Prof. Wels. I would like to thank the IABSE for the publication of this Structural Engineering Document. for amendments. David A. Linz. for his contributions and comments. Ferdinand Tschemmernegg. University of Minnesota. Vienna. R. chairperson of Working Commission 2 of IABSE. London. Lausanne. Imperial College of Science. corrections. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. especially for the sketches and drawings. Dr. Schimetta †. Reissner & Wolff. Lulea Tekniska Universitet.
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1 2.3 2. Bearings 1.4 2.7 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.6 1.8 2.5 2.Table of Contents 1.7 2.13 Introduction The role of bearings General types of bearings and their movements The layout of bearings Calculation of bearing reactions and bearing movements Construction of bearings Materials for bearings Analysis and design of bearings Installation of bearings Inspection and maintenance Replacement of bearings Codes and standards References 7 7 7 9 16 19 29 33 37 38 39 41 42 2. Expansion Joints 2.10 Introduction The role of expansion joints Calculation of movements of expansion joints Construction of expansion joints Materials for expansion joints Analysis and design of expansion joints Installation of expansion joints Inspection and maintenance Replacement of expansion joints References 51 51 51 58 70 72 84 86 87 88 5 .11 1.2 1.8 1.9 1.1 1.12 1.9 2.10 1.3 1.2 2.
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Timber bridges were small or had natural joints. The first bearings were rocker and roller bearings made of steel. Whilst it is reasonable to assume the life of steel bearings to be the same as that of the bridge. displacements and rotations. some types in all directions. With the development of ageing-. but the temperature gradients were small due to the high mass of the stone bridges. For the bearings the problems of motion in every direction and of load transmission were solved. elongation and shortening occurred in those bridges. Usually. On the other hand.3 General types of bearings and their movements Normally. Obviously. Bearings for vertical forces normally allow rotations in one direction. . but the problem of insufficient durability still exists.1 Bearings Introduction All bridges are subjected to movements due to temperature expansion and elastic strains induced by various forces. reaction forces and the corresponding movements follow a dual principle a non zero bearing force corresponds to a zero movement and vice versa. new materials for bearings became available. especially due to traffic loads. the elongation and shortening of timber bridges due to change of moisture is often higher than that due to thermal actions.7 1 1.2 The role of bearings The role of bearings is to transfer the bearing reaction from the superstructure to the substructure. bridge bearings had to be used. the bearing forces are divided into vertical and horizontal components. fulfilling the design requirements concerning forces. If they also transmit horizontal forces. the life of a bearing with elastomer or plastic parts can be shorter. The bearings should allow the displacements and rotations as required by the structural analysis with very low resistance during the whole lifetime. Thus. where elastic analysis leads theoretically to infinite compression stresses. later on. bricks or timber. Numerous rocker and roller bearings have operated effectively for more than a century. Various types of bearings were developed with the advantage of an area load transmission in contrast to steel bearings with linear or point load transmission. ozone. usually vertical forces are combined. so that the full elongation values were subdivided into the elongation of each part. With the use of constructional steel and. thermal actions. air moisture changes and weather conditions of the region. 1.and UV-radiation-resistant elastomers and plastics. An exception is given only by friction forces which are nearly constant during the movement. the bearings should withstand all external forces. of reinforced and prestressed concrete. and by elastic restraint forces which are generally proportional to the displacement. In former times our bridges were built of stones. 1.
Link bearing X with universal joints (tension and compression) Line rocker bearing Leaf bearing (tension and compression) Roller bearing. spherical sliding bearing A Hx H y w ex ey Mx M y Mz φx φv φ. Friction and elastic restraint forces are not considered. X X X 0 0 0 0 0 0 X X X 2 X X 0 0 0 X 0 X X 0 0 0 0 X X X 3 Horizontal movement in all directions Rotation all round Free point rocker bearing. Free pot sliding bearing. Free elastomeric bearing. pot sliding bearing. Free roller bearing. Spherical bearing Constr. while allowing vertical displacements. The following table (Table 1.3-1) shows the common types of bearings. Nr Symbol Function 1 All translation fixed Rotation all round Horizontal movement in one direction Rotation all around Construction Point rocker bearing Pot bearing. Constr. Free link bearing Horizontal force bearing X 0 0 0 X X 0 0 0 X X X 4 All translation fixed Rotation about one axis Horizontal movement in one direction Rotation about one axis Horizontal movement in all direction Rotation about one axis All horizontal transl. Bearings A special type of bearing transmits only horizontal forces. Fixed elastomeric bearing. elastomeric bearing. fixed Rotation all round Horizontal movement in one direction Rotation all round X X X 0 0 0 0 0 (0) X 0 X X (X) 0 5 X X 0 0 0 X 0 X X 0 0 X X (0) 0 X 0 0 (X) X 6 0 X 0 0 0 X X X X 0 0 X 0 0 X X 7 0 X X X 0 0 0 0 0 X X X 8 Guide bearing X 0 0 X 0 X X 0 0 X 0 0 0 X X X .8 1. including the possible bearing forces and displacements. Constant line rocker sliding bearing Free rocker sliding bearing. Constr. Const. Link bearing (tension and compression). Free spherical sliding bearing. point rocker sliding bearing.
4 The layout of bearings 9 Table 1.1-3: Bearing at a single pier .4.1.1. fig. 1.1-1. 1.4. 1. and under the nodes of truss bracings. Abutments and piers also have to be properly reinforced under the bearings against tensile splitting.3-1 1.1-2) under the webs of the main girders.4.1-1: Bearings at an abutment Fig.1 General Bearings can be arranged at abutments and piers (fig.188.8.131.52. under diaphragms (fig. Fig.4.1-3).4 The layout of bearings 1. The webs and the diaphragms of concrete bridges have to be properly reinforced against tensile splitting.4.1-2: Bearings at a pier Fig. steel bridges need stiffeners in the direction of the bearing reactions to transfer the concentrated bearing loads to the superstructure and the substructure.
1. including the bearings.4. Bearings The layout of the bearings should correspond to the structural analysis of the whole structure (super. If the torsional stiffness of the superstructure is low (e. If more than one bearing is used the rotational displacement at the pier is restrained.g. bearings have no clearance. especially of the superstructure. The moving direction must not be orthogonal . Fig. More than three vertical supports of the superstructure lead to statically-indeterminate bearing conditions.and substructure together!).1-6: Simplified system On the abutments or separating piers it is normal to use at least two vertical bearings to avoid torsional rotations. If the settlement and the deflection of the substructure can be neglected the structural analysis of the superstructure. If the bearings are situated (nearly) in a plane we need at least one horizontally fixed and one horizontally moveable bearing.3 bearing reactions can be chosen freely within a reasonable bandwidth.1.1.4. etc.g. box girders) we have to take it into account for the structural analysis. the motion of the bearings occurs without restraint. If the torsional stiffness is not negligible (e.4.1-5: Correct system Fig.4.1-4: Reality Fig. On a bridge with n > 3 vertical supports. especially for skewed and curved bridges. 1. but even the simplest bridge has at least four vertical bearings. will be simplified by assuming the following: bearings are situated directly on the neutral axis of the girder (fig.1.1-6). Sometimes the model for the analysis. open cross sections) it may be neglected and the layout with four bearings becomes isostatic. At intermediate piers one or more vertical bearings may be used.10 1.4. n . can be separated from that of the substructure. This possibility can be used to prestress the superstructure and to distribute the bearing reactions as desired.1-5) at least for the design of the bearings and take into account the influence of the simplifications on the structure. In this case we must consider the correct system (fig.
1.1-8). Permanent horizontal actions can lead to a displacement by creep of the concrete and the soil and.4 The layout of bearings 11 to the polar line from the fixed to the moveable bearing. the greater the step required.1.1 -7) b) arrangement in a position parallel to the road or rail surface (fig. to crooked piers. Fig. shall be possible without restraint. In general.4. there are two possibilities for the arrangement of the bearings: a) arrangement in a horizontal position (fig. The inclination of the surface of support gives the direction of the normal force.4. the basic principle should be that an overall uniform extension. Case b) has the advantage that the slope of the expansion joint is independent of the movement of the bridge.4.1-8: Inclined arrangement of the bearings (case b) Case a) has the advantage that only vertical bearing reactions and no permanent horizontal reactions result from vertical loads. also horizontal reaction forces result from vertical loads.1. . but it has the disadvantage that bridges with inclined gradients require a step at the expansion joint due to movements in the superstructure. If more than two bearings in the horizontal direction are necessary.1-7: Horizontal arrangement of the bearings (case a) Fig. The greater the elongation or shortening. caused by temperature or shrinkage. thus.4.1. 1. Besides vertical reaction forces.
1. provided that bearings have no clearance on the abutments.2-2). This layout has the advantage that longitudinal horizontal forces (braking and traction forces) can be distributed into the two bearings at the abutment. Bearings 1. the "classical" arrangement of the bearings for a bridge with two main girders consisted of one fixed and one lengthwise moveable bearing at one abutment and one lengthwise moveable and one free bearing at the other abutment (fig.184.108.40.206. but it has the disadvantage that horizontal forces in the cross direction (wind) and temperature differences cause horizontal restraint forces.4.2-2: Horizontally statically determinate system (better than classical layout) Fig.1. Formerly.1.4. moveable in any horizontal direction. all other bearings are just vertical supports. One fixed and one moveable bearing is provided on each abutment.2-3: System with separated vertical and horizontal bearings (statically determinate system) .4.2 The layout for different types of bridges For single span girders the layout of the bearings is straightforward.4. Fig.2-1). For wide bridges the horizontally fixed bearings are located in or near the bridge axis.2-1: "Classical" layout Fig. The author prefers the statically determinate system with only one lengthwise restrained bearing at the abutment concerned because the actual clearance of a bearing is not determinable in reality (fig.12 1.
its angle to the vertical is smaller and leads to smaller bending moments in suband superstructure (fig. For all bearing constructions it is easier to transfer horizontal forces in combination with a high vertical force.4 The layout of bearings 13 For skewed or horizontally curved single span bridges we have to decide whether the horizontal force should be combined with the higher or with the lower vertical reaction force. Fig. 1.2-5).4. In this case the resultant force stays nearer to the centre.4.2-4). the horizontally constrained bearings for skewed bridges should be placed at the obtuse corners of the bridge.1. Fig.220.127.116.11.2-5: Skewed bridge Fig.4. for curved bridges at the outer side (fig.4.2-4: Inclination of the resultant force Thus.2-6: Layout for continuous girders . 1.
The movement of an expansion joint must be linked by a guide like a constraint bearing.4. If the horizontal bending stiffness is very high we can transfer the horizontal forces only at the abutments.2-6).1.14 1.4. The main movement of an expansion joint should be in the axis of the traffic way. Generally.2-8). Bearings For straight continuous girders normally two bearings are used at every abutment and pier.4.1. The same considerations are suitable also for skewed and curved bridges (fig.2-8: Layout for curved continuous girders (no constraint under overall temperature) Fig.g.4.4. If all other bearings have the same angle between the polar line and the moving direction there results a layout of the bearings with no restraints on uniform elongation or shortening (e.2-9: Geometrical situation . caused by thermal actions or shrinkage). Bearings for horizontal forces and guide bearings which transfer only horizontal forces may be used in combination with leaf or link bearings which cannot transmit horizontal forces. Constrained bearings in the cross direction are the rule at all piers.1. as shown below (fig.1.1. this direction does not coincide with the direction of the polar line from the fixed bearing to the moveable bearing at the abutment (fig.1.4.2-7).2-7: Layout for curved bridges Fig. Fig. If the torsional stiffness is high (box girder) the intermediate piers can be reduced to a round column with one bearing on the axis under the diaphragm.
1. advice etc. It is important to note that the layout of the bearings has a great influence on the struc tural system.18.104.22.168-1).4. leads to high constraint forces not only under horizontal but also under eccentric vertical loading (fig.1. It is interesting that this eccentric loading has no prying effect if the bearings are situated directly on the neutral axis of the girder. the bridge simply rotates as a rigid body without constraint. 1.4. consisting of one bearing fixed in all sliding directions and one fixed lengthwise at one abutment. These examples do not lay claim to com pleteness.2-10). The above mentioned arrangements of bearings are typical for average bridges. The following examples show some special effects which have to be consid ered for the design of bridges and bearings.4 The layout of bearings 15 The elongation is k proportional elongation The rotation is For Ф1 = Ф.2-10: Special case with a = 0 1. This effect results only from the (small) eccentricity of the bearing under the lower flange. Fig. this layout has the disadvantage that generally the main movement of the joint does not coincide with the movement of the bearing.3 Special bearing conditions. One special case of this general rule is well known: the bearings are moveable in the direction of the polar lines with α = 0 (fig. a) The already mentioned bearing layout. . However.
For the correct analysis of the bearing reactions it is always necessary to model the bearings at the very point where they are actually situated. and in combination with the substructure.extraordinary actions.3-2: Prying effect due to chequer pattern loading c) It is not generally known that a skewed bridge with horizontally fixed bearings only in one line exhibits the same effect under vertical loading.1 Actions According to Eurocode 1 (ENV 1991) the actions can be subdivided into: . as the following figure shows: Fig. Fig.1. 1.4.permanent actions. The deflection of the substructure can influence the constraint bearing reactions significantly.4. . Bearings Fig. . .3-3: Prying forces for a skewed bridge with vertical loading Similar effects can occur for curved bridges.4.16 1.5 Calculation of bearing reactions and bearing movements 1.5.variable actions.3-1: Prying effect due to a eccentric loading b) A similar situation occurs for a continuous girder with chequer pattern loading.1. 1.
minimum vertical force and the adjacent maximum horizontal force.derailment . but other loads. nosing forces centrifugal forces braking forces traction forces . considering the applicable dynamic coefficients . .5.earthquake actions . dead load and prestressing. especially the traffic load. The simplest way to obtain these combinations is to calculate the variable actions.rupture of the conductor line others 1. .1. stay cables.maximum vertical force and the adjacent horizontal force. if time-dependant displacements occur. pylon and stiffening girder) .2 Bearing reactions For permanent actions such as self-weight of the construction. at which time all moveable bearings should be in the zero adjustment (null position).loads due to traffic loads. .maximum horizontal force and the adjacent maximum vertical force.5 Calculation of bearing reactions and bearing movements 17 The bridge should take up the desired shape under all permanent loads.thermal actions uniform temperature vertical temperature gradient horizontal temperature gradient temperature differences between individual parts of the bridge (e. i.vehicle impact .e. at the average temperature (+10°C in most of the European countries) and.wind loads wind on construction wind on traffic loads . . Variable actions and extraordinary actions lead to deviation from this form. at the time t = °°. One should bear in mind that horizontal actions such as centrifugal forces or braking forces are proportional to the vertical traffic load.g.maximum horizontal force and the adjacent minimum vertical force. For the analysis of the bearings it is necessary to consider different combinations of the bearing reactions: . the bearing reactions can be calculated as one load case.settlements of abutments and piers . Variable actions to consider are: . according to the influence line.creep and shrinkage of concrete Extraordinary actions to consider are: . are not. such as wind or traffic or traction forces for railways.traffic loads.
The influence lines (influence surfaces) of the bearing reactions can be found as the displacement curves (displacement surfaces) of the system.2-2).5. fig.3 Bearing displacements As already mentioned.5. from which position the displacements due to variable actions are measured. The following examples demonstrate the difference: Fig. To obtain the maximum displacements and rotations. the temperature difference for the calculation of bearing displacements should be assumed higher than for the structural analysis of the bridge. open section. . To take into account the imperfections due to installation. again we can use influence lines. The displacements are measured from that position. If plane models are used for the analyses.2-1.1.1. due to unit displacements δ = 1 or (φ = 1. the definitive influence area will result directly (fig.2-1: Influence area for the vertical bearing reaction A. 1. Thus. special care is necessary. the zero adjustment (null position) of every bearing has to be defined.2-2: Influence area for the vertical bearing reaction A. particularly with continuous girders with open or box sec tions. The influence line of a displacement can be calculated as the displacement curve due to the corresponding unit force P = 1. If these analyses are performed on a three dimensional model. 1. for concrete and composite bridges it is usual to consider displacements under time-dependent actions such as creep and shrinkage from the time of installation of the bearing to the time de fined for the null position (normally t = °°). box section.5.18 1. Bearings To obtain the extreme bearing reaction it is necessary to consider that all bridges are three-dimensional and not merely plane systems.5.1. Fig. or some additional displacement should be consi dered.5. acting at the position and in the direction of the required force.
spherical bearing Point rocker bearing Free point rocker bearing Constr.6 Construction of bearings 19 1.6-1 gives an overview for the most common bearings.6 Construction of bearings Standard type Reinforced elastomeric bearing Combinations Elastomeric bearing with fixing device Anchored elast. bearing all translations fixed movement in one dir. . point rocker bearing Line rocker bearing Roller bearing Leaf bearing Link bearing Link bearing with universal (cardan) joints Horizontal force bearing Guide bearing Fig. pot sliding bearing Free spherical bearing Fixed spherical bearing Constr. 1. Fixed bearing Uni-directional guided Multi-directional non-guided Pot bearing Free pot sliding bearing Constr.1.
and su perstructure is sufficient. The elastomeric works as a soft part between sub.and superstructure by bolts. short time.6. Bearings 1. Fig. pins or ap propriate shapes (fig.1-1).and superstructure and allows movements in all di rections by elastic displacements or rotations.1-1: Elastomeric bearing (unanchored) Smaller. thus leading to very small vertical displacements.6. horizontal forces can be transmitted by the restraining forces. leading to vertical displacements.or superstructure can occur.6.6. while horizontal forces in one or two directions are transmitted by the steel construction (fig. Fig. To avoid this it is necessary to use elastomeric bearings with resistance to sliding.6. but they do not hinder horizontal displacements in every direction and also allow small rotations in all directions.1-4).1-2: Elastomeric bearing (anchored) . The reinforcing plates prevent the block from bulging.1.1.20 1. sliding between bearing and sub. These restraining forces are possible if the friction between bearing and sub.1.1. Every displacement and rotation leads to restraining forces and moments which have to be taken into account on the whole structure. fig. Under vertical loads the elastic block bulges. This can be achieved by applying vulcanized plates on the bottom and on the top of the bearing. vulcanized to the elastomer (fig.6. A solution to this problem was found by re inforcing the elastic block by thin horizontal steel plates. If these forces are higher or if they are permanent loads a restraining steel construction is required. In the basic mode they con sist merely of an elastomeric block (usually rectangular or round). In these case the elastomeric bearing transmits the vertical force and allows rotations. The friction forces F depend on the compressive force C and the friction coefficient μ. with F = C μ.1 Elastomeric bearings Elastomeric bearings are the simplest types of bearings. If displacements take place under a small compressive force.6.1.1-3 . which can be connected to the sub.1-2).1.
If this surface is part of a sphere.2-5).1-3: Elastomeric bearing constraint Combination: elastomeric bearing and steel construction fixed in one direction. and it causes partial uplift and excessive wear as a result.1. These bearings allow rotations in all or in one direction.2 Steel bearings Steel bearings are the oldest type of bearings.1. which theoretically leads to infinite stresses. theoretically we obtain a linear tangency. Therefore.1. If the radius of the sphere or of the cylinder decreases the Hertz stresses increase. but they do not allow displacements (fig. In combination with sliding elements these bearings are very sensitive to this phenomenon.1.6. 1. These bearings allow rotations in one direction and displacements in one direction. Linear tangencies can be found also in roller bearings consisting of a roll and a lower and an upper plate (fig.6 Construction of bearings 21 Fig. theoretically we obtain a point tangency. The infinite stresses decrease to high but finite stresses. Under minimal vertical reactions in combination with horizontal loads point rocker bearings and line rocker bearings can exhibit damage of their connections. In the first case we speak of point rocker bearings.2-1. The problem with these bearings is a point or linear concentration of the bearing force. The principle is simple: a flat plate rolls on another steel plate with a curved surface.22.214.171.124.6. Fig. the so called Hertz compression stresses over a very small contact zone. From the local stress concentration the stresses have to be distributed to the contact zones between bearing and sub. the theoretical line of tangency yields to a rectangle. the physicist Heinrich Hertz found the solution of this problem: caused by the elastic deformation the theoretical point of tangency yields to a circle.and superstructure. steel bearings normally need thicker plates for the stress distribution than other types of bearings which transfer the bearing reactions over an area. fig.6. in the second case of line rocker bearings. They have been used for more than 100 years. .1-4: Fixed elastomeric bearing Combination: elastomeric bearing and steel construction fixed in two directions.1.2-4). If this surface is part of a cylinder. because of tension. In 1881.
1.6. Fig.1.1.22 1.2-2: Point rocker bearing constraint in one direction Fig.6.6.2-1: Fixed point rocker bearing Fig.2-4: Line rocker bearing . line rocker bearings and roller bearings for loads in the range 200 and 20 000 kN.6.2-3: Free point rocker bearing Fig.1. Bearings Point rocker bearings are used for bearing reactions in the range 500 and 2500 kN.
This disc has small round pockets on the surface for the lubrication grease (normally silicon grease) to reduce friction and wearing. Between the mild steel and the hardened high alloyed steel of the surface there should be a welded or forged tough buffer zone.3 Pot bearings These bearings were invented in the 1950s. Vertical forces are transmitted to the pad. The thickness (in mm) of the hardened layer both on the roller (radius R in mm) and of the plate should be t 0. great toughness and very small friction when combined with polished stainless steel. Depending on the standard applied the allowable compression between lid and elas- . an additional construction becomes necessary (fig.1. Pot bearings are used for vertical bearing forces from 1000 kN up to 100 000 kN. horizontal forces from the lid to the pot. This can be done by building up a surface by forging or by welding.6. The standard type of pot bearing allows only rotation (fig.2-5: Roller bearing (left side without guide rail.1.14 R . When subjected to high compression forces.1. the unreinforced elastomeric disc behaves similarly to a liquid. The pot bearing consists of a steel pot.3-5).1. Rotations can occur due to the nearly constant volume of the elastomer (v = 0.1.6 Construction of bearings 23 Fig.6. They combine the two desirable properties: rotation capacity with a very small resistance and transmission of the bearing reaction over a defined area.5).6. The PTFE disc is 5 to 6 mm thick.6.6. This guiding device allows movements in only one direction (fig. To release one sliding direction.1. Of great importance is the sealing between the elastomeric pad and the lid: if this sealing has a defect the elastomeric pad escapes like a viscous liquid. right side with guide rail) The contact zones of steel bearings cannot be protected against corrosion. This sliding construction consists of three components: a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) disc.6.3-3 and fig.6. a surface of polished stainless steel connected to a sliding plate of structural steel and lubrication grease. filled with an elastomeric disc and a lid or a piston to the top (fig.3-1). To constrain the movement in one direction an additional guide is used for the lid. 1. PTFE is a plastic with high mechanical and chemical resistance.3-2).3-3).1.2. where half a thickness is enclosed by the lid. Therefore corrosion-resistant layers of high alloyed steel should be used for the contact areas.
This characteristic is important for the bearing of high velocity railway bridges. It is comparatively independent of the size of bearing and the applied load.6. Bearings tomeric pad should not exceed 4. The allowable compression for the PTFE is 3 kN/cm2 for permanent loads and 4.0 kN/cm2. Centre of rotation Elastomere disc Lid Sealing Pot .wall Pot .).3-2: Fixed pot bearing Fig. wind etc.1.5 kN/cm2 for short term loads (traffic.1. Bearings with low vertical stiffness can lead to damage of the rails. Pot bearings have the advantage of a very high vertical stiffness (nearly incompressible elastomeric part).bottom Fig.1.24 1.3-3: Pot bearing constraint in one direction .3-1: Function of a pot bearing Fig.6.6.
the part of a sphere and the upper plate made of constructional steel (fig. 1.4-1).4-2. whereas in Italian and British bearings it is somewhere in the bridge structure or in the pier or the abutment. The friction resistance of the sliding parts causes reaction moments due to rotations.4-5). The basic model is a moveable bearing (fig. British and Italian bearings have one sliding plane only and a deeper concave part to take over horizontal forces (fig.1. the part of the sphere has a chrome-plated polished surface on the underface and a PTFE plate also on the upper surface.6.1. To constrain horizontal displacements an additional construction to connect the upper plate with the pan becomes necessary (fig. . sliding surfaces are necessary.4-4). In the bearings with two sliding planes the centre of rotation is between the contact areas of the sliding surfaces. They must be taken into account to consider additional design stresses of the bearing material. and the upper plate has a polished stainless steel plate on the underface.1. The construction must be checked for uplift and exceeding the stresses in the contact area.6.6.6. To allow displacements between the parts.6 Construction of bearings Anchoring plate Sliding plate Polished stainless steel PTFE (Polytetrafiuorethylen) Lid Pot-wall Sealing Elastomere disc Pot . The pan has a PTFE plate on the upper surface.4-3). fig.126.96.36.199-5: Free pot bearing 1.6.1. The PTFE plates are chambered over half the thickness and have lubrication pockets with silicon grease. The vertical bearing reaction is transferred over the compressed areas of the PTFE.bottom 25 Fig.4 Spherical bearings The basic type of spherical bearing consists of three main parts: the pan. like the sliding plates for pot bearings.3-4: Members of a pot bearing Fig.6.6.1.
1.4-3: Spherical bearing constraint in one direction Fig.4-1: Members of a spherical bearing Fig.6.26 1.1. Polished stainless steel Sliding plate PTFE Pan PTFE Part of sphere Chrome plated polished surface Fig.1. Bearings Like pot bearings.6.4-2: Fix spherical bearing Fig.188.8.131.52-4: Free spherical bearing . spherical bearings are used for vertical forces in the range of 1000 to 100 000 kN.
The rotations cause a shift of the axis of the load from the centre of bearing. 1. For pin holes and pins the same rules apply as given for leaf bearings. Rotations around the horizontal axis are transferred by differential deflection of the disc. In contrast to a pot bearing a transverse extension of the elastomeric disc is possible. Pin plates are made of structural steel. Horizontal forces are transferred by a shear-restriction device which allows vertical deformation and rotation. They allow rotation and displacement in all directions.6. δV = with R equal to the distance between the axes of the pins. A leaf bearing consists of a foot plate. For link bearings a pendulum is linked to the foot leaf and to the upper leaf by pins.6. The vertical loads are transferred by an elastomeric disc made of polyether-urethane polymer. Pin and pin holes must have a fit less than 0. These bearings can only transmit forces in the direction of the leaf.1.6. connected by a pin.4-5: Italian and British spherical bearing (one sliding surface) 1.3 mm. which must be considered in the design.1. as in cases of greater slackness and changing forces the pin will punch the hole. Bearing capacity and func tioning is comparable with an elastomeric bearing. To transfer forces in the crosswise direction. Free bearings are con structed by additional sliding elements and (if necessary) guiding systems.5 Leaf and link bearings All the above mentioned bearings are able to transfer compression forces. separate bearings must be used.6 Disc bearings Disc bearings were introduced in the late 1960s. Pin plate and pin should be of different types of steel to avoid seizure. The basic type is a fixed bearing. leaf and link bearings are used. Link bearings allow rotation and displacement in one direction. Link bearings with universal (Cardan) joints are used only in special cases. Displacements 8 of link bearings are always combined with a small displacement δV in the perpendicular direction. Leaf bearings al low free rotation in one direction. If tensile forces as well as compressive forces must be transferred.6 Construction of bearings 27 Fig. one or two lower leafs with pin holes and two or one upper leaf with foot plate and pin holes. Therefore this distance should not be too small. pins often of tempered steel. .
6.6-1: Fixed bearing top plate bearing assembly base plate Fig.6.28 1.6-2: Uni-directional guided top plate bearing assembly base plate Fig.1.1. Bearings top plate bearing assembly base plate Fig.6.6-3: Multi-directional non-guided .1.
The characteristic mechanical property is the shear modulus G between 0.). bolts of leaf and link bearings). it can only break under tensile or shear stresses. 1.7 Materials for bearings 29 1.2-1: Vertical displacements depending on the lateral expansion . The changing of the shape depends on the possibility of displacement at the compressed areas. Rubber creeps under stress by up to 50 % of the elastic strain.7 Materials for bearings 1.1. Quenched and tempered steels are used mostly for non-welded parts under high pressure (parts with Hertz compression. Stainless steel Stainless steel according to EURONORM 88-2 or ISO 683 can also be used for bearings.7.Quenched and tempered steels according to EN 10082 Eurocode 3 may be used for the design of all bearing components made from structural steel according to EN 10025 and EN 10113 and for all connections (bolts. Thus we obtain the inequality 1 > 2 > 3 (fig. Structural steel for bearings can be: . but creeping ends within some days or weeks.2 Elastomeric parts Elastomeric parts of bearings consist normally of natural or artificial (chloropren) rubber (NR or CR. 1. Fig.7. In the case of hard-surface welding a tough intermediate (puffer) layer must be welded between the steel and the hard-surface.7. Compressing a rubber pad changes its shape.3. welds etc. For design one should use EC 3. ultraviolet radiation and ageing and is more rigid.Fine-grained structural steels according to EN 10113 .15 N/mm2 at room temperature. part 1-4. In contact areas with Hertz compression layers of corrosion-resistant hard steel can be applied by forging or by welding. Rubber does not break under compression. When undergoing stress changes the volume of rubber is nearly constant.7.2-1). The fracture strain of rubber lies between 250 % and 500 %. the displacement remains small. respectively).5 and a Young's modulus of elasticity E = 2 (1+v) G 3 G. decreasing with increasing temperature. Concerning stainless steel for sliding plates see 1. 1. and in addition it has a higher resistance against ozone.1 Steel Structural steel Structural steel is used for all parts of bearings which are not under extraordinary local stress or do not require special properties against corrosion.7 and 1. Artificial rubber has the same good properties as natural rubber. So we have a Poisson's ratio v = 0.Non-alloy structural steels according to EN 10025 . If the compressed areas are fixed to a rigid surface.7.
Bearings Fig. If both halves develop a constant displacement. the effective modulus of elasticity Ei bending is lower than Ei compr because we obtain a compression in two half waves under a constant rotation angle a.2-2: Stress distribution If the surface of the rubber is fixed to a rigid body shear stresses develop between the two surfaces under compression (fig. For rectangular parts a good approximation for Ei compr is given by The maximum stresses under compression between two rigid bodies are For bending.2-2).1.7. 1. Under compression we obtain a virtual modulus of elasticity Ei compr which depends not only on the shear modulus G but also on the thickness of the part between two plates. the virtual modulus of elasticity would be the .7.30 1.
the depth of lubricant pockets is 2 mm. 1.3 Sliding elements For sliding elements in constructional bearings it is normal to use PTFE. thus we finally obtain: following approximate formula: This is described very well by the Under the rotation a we obtain a curvature and a restraining moment Fig. As a counterpart to this rather soft material polished stainless steel plates are normally used. They are allowed for convex elements only. so that a permanent lubrication takes place over several years. The PTFE plates for bearings are normally 5 to 6 mm thick.7.7 Materials for bearings 31 the maximum σ is not in the middle of one half but nearer the outer side.7. not sintered and without fillers.restraining forces 1.1. To minimise the friction silicon grease should be used to provide lubrication. PTFE is a so called thermoplast.2-4: Displacement .2-3: Rotation . The combination of a soft and a hard part has the advantage that there is no danger of cold welding which can occur on polished metal or plastic surfaces under high pressure. Un- . For bearings it is used in the original (virgin) condition. i. Chromium-plated steel plates are not resistant to fluorine ions and are rather prone to corrosion than stainless steel plates. e. also known by the registered trade names Teflon and Hostaflon. To keep this grease between the two surfaces the PTFE has lubricant pockets on its surface.restraining moment Fig. and sometimes acetal resin plates or hardened chromium-plated steel plates.1.7.
The static friction coefficient (first movement) is higher than the dynamic coefficient.1. The friction coefficient increases with decreasing temperature and with decreasing compression. Fig.3-1: Friction coefficient depending on the compression force The design value of the ultimate compression load is maximum temperature of the bearing.32 1. This might depend on the orientation of the large polymer molecules. Over the sharp edges we obtain a small bulge.3-1 shows the design values of the friction coefficient µd between PTFE and stainless steel. It is also possible to glue PTFE to a steel surface. The wearing of the PTFE depends on a) the product of compression and velocity of the displacement b) the total amount of sliding during the life-time c) the lubrication of the surface (a loss of lubrication leads to extremely high wearing) d) the roughness and the hardness of the stainless steel surface e) the contact pressure near the edge of PTFE (ironing effect) . depending on the compression force (EN 1337-2). during movement they are orientated into the direction of motion within a very thin surface layer. To keep the PTFE in the desired shape it is necessary to keep about half the thickness in a «chamber» with sharp edges.5 mm thick. Bearings der pressure the PTFE yields. 1.7. When the motion is stopped. In this case the PTFE is about 2. Fig.7. After movement has taken place the dynamic friction coefficient remains at this value and returns to the static value after a few hours. the orientation is lost within a few hours.
austenitic steel X6CrNiMol7122 according to EURONORM 88-2. For the stainless steel plate. The two bodies consist of isotropic. For 2. 3. The radius (width) of the contact areas is small compared with the radii of the involved bodies. As already mentioned. com pression between two cylindrical bodies. surface n (IIIc).8 Analysis and design of bearings 1. compression between a cylindrical and a flat body along a generator line. The connection to the carrying plate of mild steel can be welded or glued. The stainless steel plate must cover the PTFE plate completely in all situations. homogeneous and infinitely elastic materials. should be used. The thickness of the plate should be at least of 1.5 mm thick plates the connection can be riveted or bolted. compression between a spherical and a flat body. 1.5 mm.1 Hertz compression For the design of bearings the following problems should be addressed: compression between two spherical bodies. Only normal stresses (no shear stresses) occur at the contact areas. Hertz found the following maximum compression stresses max σ and widths b on the contact areas: Spherical body on spherical body Cylindrical body on cylindrical body .8 Analysis and design of bearings 33 For slow movements caused by thermal actions we obtain long sliding movements but at a low velocity. Heinrich Hertz obtained the solu tion under the following assumptions (1881): 1. Wearing is mostly caused by the second case.8. 2. Quick movements caused by traffic loads have short sliding move ments but they occur at high velocity.1.
8.8. σv will be less than σ1 and yielding will not begin until σ1 = fy. On the other hand.1. 1.1-la: A rrangement of the radii Fig. so that the hardness of the surface is not the only criterion for the assessment of Hertz compression.8. 1. However.r 2 E v max a b bearing reaction length of the cylinder radii of the bodies in contact Fig.gives for the design line load pd of a roller bearing fu tensile strength of the material R radius of the cylinder Ed design value of the modulus of elasticity .3 for steel) maximum normal stress at the contact area half the width of the contact zone For the usual rocker or roller bearings the max σ beneath the vertical bearing reaction greatly exceeds the material yield strength (fig. EN 1337-4 . In the present three-dimensional compression regime.34 with 1.roller bearings . According to the von Mises criterion the comparison stress and yielding begins when σv reaches the material yield strength fy. Bearings Fig.1-2). the maximum strain does not occur at the surface in the middle of the compression zone.8. at the contact zone we have not only vertical but also horizontal compression stresses. 1.1-lb: A rrangement of the radii F 1 r 1 .1-2: Stress distribution Young's modulus Poisson's ratio (v = 0.
gives simple but satisfactory design rules. 1.2-2 and fig.gives for the design load F z .2-3.8.2-1: Load distribution to the pin In the case of fig.1.8 Analysis and design of bearings 35 Compared to Hertz's formula with max σ d =0.8. 1.388 we find For cylindrical rocker bearings the same formulae as for roller bearings are used. d of a point rocker bearing (sphere against plane surface) Compared to Hertz's formula with m a x σ d =0.8. 1. The design values of the shear force and the bending moment for the pin can be found using the simple model of distributing the force of each pin plate uniformly over the pin. 1.rocker bearings . Fig.418 we find EN 1337-6 . Eurocode 3.8. part 1-1.2 Pin and pin plate for leaf and link bearings A special problem of all leaf and link bearings concerns the design of the pin and the pin plate.2-1 we obtain the shear force and the bending moment according to fig. .8. 1.
5 t d f y /Y Mp fyp field strength of the pin fup tensile strength of the pin YMp = 1.25 according to EC 3-1-1 The bearing capacity of the pin plate at the hole is achieved under one of the following conditions (EC 3-1-1 gives two possibilities): .8. The bearing resistance of plate (thickness t and yield strength fy) and pin is: Fb.2-2: Shear force Fig.Rd = 1.2-3: Bending moment For normal bridge bearings we have: The design values for the resistances are The combination of shear and bending has to fulfil the inequality In this inequality.1.36 1.8. Bearings Fig. the central pin plate is controlling. 1.
cover plate mortar bedding bearing cover plate Fig. 1. b).9-1: Fixing of a bearing Generally. These cover plates are connected to the bearings during the installation but remain fixed to the structure while the bearings are replaced (fig. the connection between bearing and cover plates should be constructed in order to allow a simple release. Thus. So it should be common practice to put every bearing between a lower and an upper steel cover plate. To guarantee that the area below a bearing is fully sealed a layer of mortar or of a similar product is used.9 Installation of bearings 37 a) Depending on the pin plate thickness t: t = min (2a. In this situation the .9 Installation of bearings Concerning the installation of bearings. According to the author's experience. b) Depending on the geometry of the pin plate: 1. Bolted connections are often used but after many years often the bolts can hardly be unscrewed.1. fastening the bearings with small fillet welds that can be ground off and remade during the replacement process is simpler. the need for a later simple replacement must be taken into account. bearings should not be built directly on the construction beneath.1. These cover plates are anchored or connected both with the substructure and the superstructure. So the height of the bridge at the abutments or piers can be adapted easily and very exactly. It is useful to fix the bearing to the bridge so that there is no clearance at the upper plate and to adjust the bridge by hydraulic jacks.9-1).
This method will be difficult for the lower plates with a short side larger than half a metre. the lower plate will get exactly the desired inclination (horizontal or parallel to the gradient. These have to be cleaned to remove mortar and sand after the installation. Bearings bearings should be adjusted exactly. chambered in the centre where the bearing is set. taking into account the temperature of the superstructure b) correct positioning of the bearings themselves and of parts of the bearing relative to each other c) uncontrolled movement of the bearing d) fracture. careful handling of the bearings during installation is very important. thus completely filling even very small gaps. cracks and deformations of parts of the bearings e) cracks in the bedding or in adjacent parts of sub. The installation of the bearings should be done early in the morning when the bridge has a (nearly) constant temperature. and of the sealings. so that the air can escape on the other side.and superstructure f) condition of the anchorage g) condition of sliding or rolling surfaces h) condition of the anticorrosive protection. . The following properties of the bearings have to be checked: a) sufficient ability to allow movement. Many bearings. are protected against dust by rubber bulges. The designer has to provide a table with the pre-adjustment of every bearing depending on the measured bridge temperature. see fig. such as pot bearings and spherical bearings.by a special joint filling mortar which must be mixed in a pan type concrete mixer with a precise quantity of water. The excess of mortar will come out on all sides and must be removed. especially from all moving parts. which depends on the temperature of the bridge and the expected shrinkage and creep.38 1. .by boxing up earth-damp mortar in the gap with a wooden stick also from one side to avoid air bubbles. This can be done in different ways: . This mortar is liquid at first and should be poured in a formwork around the bearing only from one side. Thus. For the different types of bearings the following checks are of importance: . The gap between the lower plate of the bearing and the substructure is normally 3 to 5 cm thick and must be completely filled with a mortar bedding. 1. against dust. The bearings must be kept free of dirt. All mortars should be non-shrinking.by a fresh mortar bedding.9-1) and all moveable bearings will have the desired pre-adjustment. it sets and hardens very quickly so that after one day the mortar bedding can be fully loaded and the formwork removed.10 Inspection and maintenance Visual tests of all bearings should be done by qualified personnel at regular intervals. Initially this resin is a lighter fluid than mortar. If the gap is less than 1 cm a two-component epoxy resin should be used instead of mortar. For good functioning.1. water and dust. The special mortar fills the gap without air bubbles. but others are not protected at all. mortar.
11 Replacement of bearings 39 Elastomeric bearings: Displacements and rotations. In case of a replacement under traffic the jacking equipment should allow the same movements as the bearing.11-2). cracks in the elastomer. For maintenance the bearings should be cleaned. lubricated (if necessary and possible) and coated with paint. To allow rotations the jacks around one bearing should be connected to a single hydraulic circle.1. Thus. 1. Translations are possible by means of additional sliding constructions.and superstructure are required. Small defects should be repaired as far as possible. This . restricted traffic or without traffic.1. steel parts need stiffeners (fig. the construction drawings must show in which areas or at which points hydraulic jacks can be set.11 Replacement of bearings The replacement of bearings is a normal maintenance operation for bridges. Concrete parts must be reinforced against splitting tension. the elastomer comes out like a pancake!) Sliding devices . The owner of a bridge has to define in the tender if the replacement of the bearings must be carried out under full traffic. Thus.1. a bridge designer has to provide measures so that a replacement can be carried out easily. what are the maximum lifting forces and up to which level the bridge may safely be lifted. tight sealing of the elastomer in the pot (if the sealing has a defect. The result of an inspection should be recorded in a report. clean surface of the stainless steel. EN 1337-10 gives an example for such a report. depending on the importance of the bridge and the possibility of a traffic ban or a traffic diversion. adequately stiffened areas to transmit the hydraulic jack forces to the sub. reinforcement against splitting tension Fig.PTFE and stainless steel: Thickness of the PTFE. Roller and rocker bearings: Displacements and rotations. Pot bearings: Sufficient mesh of the lid in the pot. For hydraulic jacks. no gap in the contact line. That means that the security devices must have a sufficient clearance. the bridge has to be lifted by one or more hydraulic jacks. adjustment of the guiding device.11-1: Stiffened areas for hydraulic jacks To replace a bearing.
data is of particular importance if the bridge is supported in a statically indeterminate way at one abutment or pier, in which case the lifting force depends on the height of lift. High stresses can be induced in the cross girder or diaphragm by the lifting device. In such cases it may be necessary to lift the whole cross section uniformly with two or more hydraulic jacks even for exchanging only one bearing. If more than one jack is used the forces can be controlled by hydraulic connection of some or of all jacks: all connected jacks have the same pressure. Hydraulic jacks need some clearance for the installation. For lifting by a few millimetres up to two centimetres flat piston jacks can be used. The following table gives a guide for the required clearances:
500 1000 2000 5000
Required clearance Normal hydraulic jack mm
Required clearance Flat piston jack mm 150 180
Table 1.11-1: Required clearance for hydraulic jacks There are flat jacks with a height of 80 mm and a lifting force up to 5000 kN. But their stroke is only 20 mm and there is no security device. This kind of jack should be applied for special cases only. New bridges should be constructed for normal hydraulic jacks. In all situations, during the replacement of a bearing the hydraulic jack should be secured by a mechanical device such as an adjusting nut for the piston or lining plates to avoid dropping in case of pipe rupture or rupture of the piston sealing which sometimes can occur (fig.1.11-3 and fig.1.11-2).
Fig.1.11-2: Hydraulic jack with lining plates
1.12 Codes and standards
Fig. 1.11-3: Hydraulic jack with thread and nut If the replacement of a bearing takes a long time so that displacements of moveable bearings will occur, the hydraulic jacks have to be equipped with a sliding device, normally PTFE plus a sliding plate of stainless steel. Particular care is required when replacing bearings which transmit horizontal forces: if the friction between the jack and the surface of sub- and superstructure is not sufficient it is necessary to restrain the movement of the bridge by appropriate devices. If the replacement is done under traffic, in most cases, and especially for railway bridges, these devices have to transmit all horizontal forces due to a possible loss of friction.
Codes and standards
The first attempts to standardize bearings in national codes were made decades ago. In Europe several codes and national standards are available. The best known national standards in Europe on this topic are Germany: DIN 4141 Lager im Bauwesen (structural bearings), Teil 1 bis 14. United Kingdom: BS 5400 Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges. Section 9.1 Code of Practice for design of bridge bearings Section 9.2 Specification of materials, manufacturing and installation of bridge bearings New European Standards about bearings are the following EN 1337 "Structural bearings" with the parts EN 1337-1 General design rules EN 1337-2 Sliding elements EN 1337-3 Elastomeric bearings EN 1337-4 Roller bearings
EN 1337-5 EN 1337-6 EN 1337-7 EN 1337-8 EN 1337-9 EN 1337-10 EN 1337-11
Pot bearings Rocker bearings Spherical and cylindrical PTFE bearings Guided bearings and Restrained bearings Protection Inspection and maintenance Transport, storage and installation
A recommendable American Standards about bearings is the following: AASHO-LRFD: American Association of State Highway Officials (1994).
Books and special chapters about bearings for bridges: Eggert H., J. Grote, W. Kauschke: Lager im Bauwesen. Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, München, Düsseldorf 1974. Lee D.J.: Bridge Bearings and Expansion Joints. Second edition by E & FN Spon, London, Glasgow, New York, Tokyo, Melbourne, Madras 1994. Eggert H., W. Kauschke: Lager im Bauwesen. 2. Auflage, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1995. Rahlwes K., R. Maurer: Lagerung und Lager von Bauwerken in: Beton-Kalender 1995, Teil 2, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin.
Papers:  Albrecht, R.: Zur Anwendung und Berechnung von Gummilagern. Der Deutsche Baumeister 1969, Heft 4, Seite 326, und Heft 6, Seite 563.  Andrä, Beyer, Wintergerst: Versuche und Erfahrungen mit neuen Kipp- und Gleitlagern. Der Bauingenieur 5 (1962).  Andrä, W. und Leonhardt, F: Neue Entwicklungen für Lager von Bauwerken, Gummi- und Gummitopflager. Die Bautechnik 39 (1969), Heft 2, Seite 37 bis 50.  Bayer, K.: Auflager und Fahrbahnübergänge für Hoch- und Brückenbauten aus Kunststoff. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure VDI im Bildungswerk BV 1956 (Vortragsveröffentlichung).  Beyer, E. und Wintergerst, L.: Neue Brückenlager, neue Pfeilerform. Der Bauingenieur 35 (1960), Heft 6, Seite 227 bis 230.  Eggert, H.: Brückenlager. Die Bautechnik 50 (1973), S. 143/144.  Bub, H.: Das neue Institut für Bautechnik. Strasse und Autobahn, Band 20 (1969), Seite 189.  Burkhardt, E.: Gepanzerte Betonwälzgelenke, Pendel- und Rollenlager. Die Bautechnik 17 (1939), Seite 230.  Cardillo, R. und Kruse, D.: Paper (61/WA-335) ASME (1961).  Cichocki, F: Bremsableitung bei Brücken. Der Bauingenieur 36 (1961), Seite 304 bis 305.
Betonund Stahlbetonbau 55 (1960). Grote. Jahrgang 25 (1948).: Zur Bemessung von Betongelenken. K. Keen: Creep of Neoprene in Shear Under Static Conditions. Massonnet: Zuschrift zu B. D. Philippe: Le calcul des piles deformables avec appuis en caoutchouc. Einsfeld.und Rollenlager. F. Kunststoffe im Bau 11/1968. Leonhardt. und Netzel.und Stahlbetonbau 1961. Vorschläge zur Bemessung und konstruktiven Ausbildung. H. A.: Neoprenelager . Strasse Brücke Tunnel 1971. Seite 71. 101/1959. Pendel.und Gleitlagern. 1969). J. Rubber Chemistry and Technology (Feb. . Desmonsablon.: Rubber Technology. Der Bauingenieur 39 (1964). Seite 123 bis 131. durchlaufender Spannbeton-Balkenbrücken. E.: Vermeidung von Rissen und Dehnungsschaden durch gummielastische Lagerungen. Maguire. P. Seite 433 bis 439. Der Bauingenieur 44 (1969). Der Bauingenieur 44 (1969). und Assoc: Elastomeric Bridge Bearings Pads 1959. Grote. M. Bd. Hakenjos. Heft 4. F. Versuchsbericht. Seite 428. C.: Rubber Bearings for Bridges.: Erläuterungen zu den Richtlinien von unbewehrten Elastomerlagern.13 References 43                        Clark. Heft 3. Gummilager für Brücken.1. Der Stahlbau 39 (1970). und Reimann. Eggert. J. Leonhardt. Jörn. Der Bauingenieur 36 (1961). U. und Leonhardt. Die Bautechnik. und Moutrop. Heft 5.: Beitrag zur Berechnung der Lagerverschiebungen gekrümmter. Topaloff.: Bauwerksicherheit bei Verwendung von Rollen. Rubber Journal and International Plastics 1959. Nr. Franz: Gummilager für Brücken. F. May 1962.: Betongelenke. Transactions of the ASME. Heft 6. Heft 6. E. Seite 261.: Gummi im Bauwesen. L. Mönnig.: Untersuchungen über die Rollreibung bei Stahl im elastisch-plastischen Zustand.: Die baurechtliche Situation bei Lagern für Brücken und Hochbauten. DAfStb. Juli 1953. L. Beton. Seite 49. Heft 175.: Load Deformation Characteristics of Elastomer Bridge Bearing Pads.: Softening of Rubber by Deformation. Heft 67/05.: Betongelenke. Eggert. Mitteilungen Institut für Bautechnik 6/1972. Seite 121. Annales des Ponts et Chaussées. Technisch-wissenschaftliche Berichte der Staatlichen Materialprufungsanstalt an der Technischen Hochschule Stuttgart 1967. Reinhold Publishing Co. Leonhardt und Andrä: Stützungsprobleme der Hochstrassenbrücken. Hütten. Seite 137/138. H. Mullins. 1959. Dissertation TH Aachen 1970. Kunststoffe im Bau 7/1968. Gent. Seite 471 bis 478. University of Rhode Island. Seite 189.: Unbewehrte Elastomerlager. V. Morton. und Wintergerst. VDI-Zeitschrift. Der Bauingenieur 41 (1966). Paris 4/1960. H. Berlin: Verlag Ernst & Sohn 1966.: Über die Brauchbarkeit von Bleigelenken. H. Grote. R. Ten Years. J.einige grundsätzliche Erwägungen. und Reimann. Elastische Lagerung einer Pumpenstation. 12. Heesen: Gepanzerte Betonwälzgelenke.
Pare u. Scott: Engineering Design with Rubber Rejcha. Beton. K.: Elastomeric Bearing Pads and Their Application in Structures. Seite 334. Zies. H. Topaloff.: Reibungsuntersuchungen mit Polytetrafluoräthylen bei hin. AASHO-LRFD: American Association of State Highway Officials (1994). Heft 4. Beton.12. und Hakenjos. Uetz. und Grote. Kunststoffe.und Gleitverschleissversuche an Kunststoffen. Seite 353. Materialprüfungsanstalt an der TH Stuttgart. M. E. Nr.und hergehender Bewegung.: Einige Versuche an Neoprenelagern. Sasse.. 1967.: Briickenlager. Seite 36 bis 42 und Seite 270 bis 272. Weiprecht. 7. H. Strasse Brücke Tunnel 1970.: Gummilager für Brücken .-P: Einfluss der Lagerkonstruktion auf die Knicklänge von Pfeilern.: Laboratory and Field Performance of Elastomeric Bridge Bearing Pads. Heft 5. . and Trinble. Abschnitt E Brückenund Ingenieurhochbau. B. K. R. Jahrgang 1969. H. F. Heft 3. Der Bauingenieur 39 (1964). Der Bauingenieur 39 (1964). und Hakenjos. Seite 100. Wilmington (1959).1964. Journal of Prestressed Concrete Institute Oct. und Breckel.Stand der Entwicklung. Seite 161 bis 168. C: Design of Elastomer Bearings. Highway Research Board Bull 242. Vol. Der Bauingenieur 46 (1971). Düsseldorf 1952.: Längszwängungen . Dupont de Nemours Co.44                 1. Beton und Eisen 1926. H. CNR-UNI 10018-68 (Italian Standards for rubber bearings).Berechnung und Anwendung. Paper 207 of Leap Conference (1964).: Bewehrte Elastomerlager .: Auflagerung von Brücken. Uetz.: Reibungs.: Gleitreibungs. H. Der Bauingenieur 38 (1963).-R.: Design of Neoprene Bridge Bearing Pads. Seite 29. Rieckmann. Werner-Verlag. Suess. Heft 5. 5. Resinger. und Schorn. V. Schönhofer: Neugestaltungen auf dem Gebiet des Auflagerbaues und auf verwandten Gebieten.und Stahlbetonbau 65 (1970). H.und Verschleissversuche mit Teflon. Seite 67/76. H.: Gummilager für Brücken. Seite 152 bis 157. 59. V. Plastik-Konstruktion 1971. Uetz. S. H. 1964. Eisners Taschenbuch für den Bautechnischen Eisenbahndienst. K. Seite 297. Keiner: Elastomeric Bridge Bearings. B. 9.: Stabilität von Stützen mit Rollenlagern. Seite 209 bis 227. Sedyter: Über die Wirkungsweise von Bleigelenken. J. E. Bearings        Nordlin. Der Stahlbau 38 (1969). M. Heft 9.-W. Die Bautechnik 44 (1967).: Über die Lösung des Balkens mit unverschieblichen Auflagern. Topaloff. Shen. Seite 159 bis 166. Thielker. Thul. 1960. Seite 231 bis 277.eine Ursache von Brückenlagerschäden.und Stahlbetonbau 54 (1959). Seite 50 bis 64. Payne u. Stoker. Highway Research Board (1968). Sonderheft der Staatl.
72 (1977).: Pendelstützen mit Elastomerlagern. Utrecht (1962. Bauingenieur 53 (1978). Tokio 1986. Heft 4 und 6. und Wiedemann. Auszüge aus dem Journal of Teflon 1964.13 References    45                  Ministry of Transport: Provisional Rules for the Use of Rubber Bearings in Highway Bridges. Berlin. Grote. et. al.: Lager für Brücken und Hochbauten. Ohne Verfasser.: Der Schadensfall an der Mainbrücke bei Hochheim. und Kreuzinger. Mozahn. Zürich. S. H. Verlag Ernst & Sohn. H..: Spannbeton: Bewährung im Brückenbau. Merkblatt 339. . Storkebaum. Schäden und Erhaltungskosten. Düsseldorf. Auflage 1968.: 7 Grundsätze bei der Lagerung von Brücken. L. 9. Schweiz. W. 2.Stahlbetonbau. Weihermüller.: Lagerreibung beim Stabilitätsnachweis von Brückenpfeilern. Bautechnik (1984).und Hochbau. Internationale Vereinigung für Brückenbau und Hochbau. 1970. Mitteilungen Institut für Bautechnik 3/1973. Seite 200. Gerb: Schwingungsisolierungen. Memo. Der Bauingenieur 55 (1980). Analyse von Bauwerksdaten. und Zuschrift 54 (1979). H. K. Heft 2 und 4. 802. K. Teil II. Druckschrift der Du Pont de Nemours International S. 1965 und 1966. London (1962). Frage D 60. J. Brückenlager. Eggert. Eggert. R. Kordina. Seite 455. G. ORE Office de Recherches et d'Essais: Verwendung von Gummi für Brückenlager. Beratungsstelle für Stahlverwendung. König. Institut für Bautechnik. Vorbericht. H. Seite 1 bis 7. Auflager aus Teflon. Berlin. Heidelberg. 1964. 73. Elastische Lagerungen.Einfluss der Lager auf die Beanspruchung der Stützen. Kauschke. Der Bauingenieur 53 (1978). L. Switzerland.M.: Entwicklungsstand der Gleitlagertechnik für Brückenbauwerke in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Paris. Seite 222 bis 230.: Zusätzliche Richtlinien für Lager im Brücken. Wiedemann. K. 1965).: Nutzungsgerechte Lagerung von Stahl. Beton .. Ernst & Sohn. Seite 161 bis 168. Betonkalender 1995. J. Eggert. W.A. London. Schlussbericht. Mitteilungen. Seite 63/64. Ernst & Sohn.und Verbundbrücken und unterhaltungsgerechte Konstruktion von Brückenlagern.. Eigenverlag (gegen Schutzgebühr erhältlich). Andrä. Battermann/Köhler: Elastomere Federung.-H. Seite 109 bis 120. Ohne Verfasser. IVBH-Kongress Amsterdam 1972. W. 9. Deinhard.1. Maurer/Rahlwes: Lagerung und Lager von Bauwerken. und Knöppler. H. IVBH Symposium Dresden 1975. Eggert: Vorlesungen über Lager im Bauwesen. Kanning. Seite 285 bis 288. W.: Der heutige Entwicklungsstand des Topflagers und seine Weiterentwicklung zum Hublager. Springer-Verlag Berlin. Geneva. München 1982. Bauingenieur 64 (1989).: Elastomer-Lager für Pendelstützen . und 1971. New York. Bauingenieur 55 (1980). Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn 1980/1981. Auflage 1992.
Seite 19 bis 22.: Nachstellbare Brückenlager. Auflage Mai 1991.N.: Influence of Material Stiffening on Stability of Elastomeric Bearings at Large Displacements. Scheer. . Heft 6 (1987). 55(6). Hakenjos. Leonhardt. II (1978). G. E.M. Die Bautechnik I (1978). J.J. V. und Osterath. Herausgeber: Österreichische Donaukraftwerke AG. III (1978). Lehmann. Seite 461 bis 466. T. Der Bauingenieur 49 (1974). Beyer. Seite 190 bis 198.. Dokumentation 1982. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. Seite 419 bis 429.: Die Wirkungsweise von Kalottenlagern. and Ohira. N. Seite 163 bis 169. Chr. Kessler. K. und Hakenjos. Watford. 12th Congress. März 1987. K. Tunnel 11 (1975). Eigenverlag BMV. Eggert.-H. R. (1960): Stiitzprobleme der Hochstrassenbräcken.. Betonwerk + Fertigteil-Technik. Dickerhoff. K. Januar 1984. Seite 99 bis 102. Strasse. Briicke. Canada. und Kelly J. Bauingenieur 58 (1983).: Zur Beanspruchung moderner Brückenlager. V. IV (1979). Zederbaum. Vancouver. Dortmund.: Prüfeinrichtung zur Untersuchung von Lagern. Dissertation Universität Karlsruhe 1985. Erfahrungen beim Bauvorhaben Düsseldorf-Hauptbahnhof. K. D. Seite 93/94. Kordina. Fertigteilbauforum 13/83. (1984): Thermal behaviour of multispan viaduct in frame. Petersen. Hehn. Bearings                     Pfohl. Seite 453 bis 457. Seite 1 bis 5 (Betonwerk + Fertigteil-Technik). E. Sept. Projektierung und Ausführung. und Richter.: Bemessung von Brückenlagern unter Gebrauchslast. Dieter: Beiträge zur Berechnung der Elastomerlager. Heft 3. und Andrä. Tanaka. In International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering. 1998.: Dauergleitreibungsverhalten der Gleitpaarung PTFE weiss/Austenitischer Stahl für Lager im Brückenbau. H. Building Research Establishment (1979) Estimation of thermal and moisture movements and stresses. Civil Engineering and Public Works Review 61(714). Der Bauingenieur 56 (1981). 3-7 September. Bundesminister für Verkehr: Schäden an Brücken und anderen Ingenieurbauwerken.46 1. F. Natsukawa. und Schwerm. K. D. Digest 228. Sanierung der Kölnbreinsperre. und Nölting.: Unebenheiten und Schiefwinkligkeiten der Auflagerflachen fur Elastomerlager bei Stahlbetonfertigteilen. VDI-Z 118 (1976). 121-32. Beton.und Stahlbetonbau. Seite 114 bis 118. K. 67-72. Der Bauingenieur 59 (1984).: Zur Auflagerung von Stahlbetonteilen mittels unbewehrter und bewehrter Elastomerlager. Part 2. (1966): The frame action of a bridge deck supported on elastic bearings. Bundesminister für Verkehr: Bericht über Schäden an Bauwerken der Bundesverkehrswege.: Die Anwendung unbewehrter Elastomerlager. Kordina.: Reaktionskraft am Festpunkt von Brücken aus Bremslast und Bewegungswiderständen der Lager. Beton 5/1983. Seite 294 bis 297. E. Kessler. H. Verkehrsblatt-Verlag. W. 1. H.-H. Festschrift J. und Eisermann. Seite 41 bis 44. Imbimbo M.: Zur Auflagerung von Stahlbetonteilen mittels unbewehrter Elastomerlager.
J.H. Crowthorne.Creep and shrinkage studies. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. J.13 References 47  Emerson M. The Journal of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers.  Emerson M. A. 175-8: 56(11).  Lee.. Journal of the Portland Cement Association Research and Development Laboratories. TRRL Report LR 491.  Stephenson. University of East Anglia. (1985): The distribution of temperature in bridges. [1ll] Black. W. R.J. M. Abedi. A.  ICE and SECED (1985): Earthquake engineering in Britain. 58. Ernst & Sohn. (1961): Precast-prestressed concrete bridge 5. pp.  Emerson M. Vol.38. Atlas of Seismic Activity 1909-1968.E.H. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.M. (1983): Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete. (1971): Notes on bridge bearings. W.J.. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. George Publishing Company. May.  Comité Euro-International du Béton (1985).1.  Buchler. R. 56(5).2. Cement and Concrete Association. Crowthorne. Concrete and Constructional Engineering.. TRRL Report LR 561. May. Lilwall. und Willmore. M. April. W.. 142).: Lager im Bauwesen.  Emerson M. Berlin 1996. (1975): Earthquake risk in the UK. R. Seismological Bulletin No.  Neville. Crowthorne.L. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.  Kauschke. Bulletin 158E. American Concrete Institute Publication. Construction Press. RRL Report LR 382. (1961): Effects of differential temperature on tall slender columns.  Comité Euro-International du Béton (1984).5. 123-4. Manual of Cracking and Deformations.  Taylor. Crowthorne. W.  Institution of Geological Sciences: National Environmental Research Council (1976). 401-3. S. American Concrete Institute Publication SP-94. (1987) Improvements in the Long Term Durability of Bearings in Bridges.C.  Mattock A. . Dilger. 882-915. A. D. Proceedings of Conference of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Society of Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. TRRL Report LR 696. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Kauschke. pp. and Brooks. Lausanne. Design manual on structural effects of time-dependent behaviour of concrete (Bulletin No. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.  Eggert. Crowthorne. Road Research Laboratory.2.M. (1973): The calculation of the distribution of temperature in bridges.  Dollar. (1968): Bridge temperatures and movements in the British Isles. (1970): PTFE in highway bridges.T. Crowthorne.J. London and New York. and Baignet. Vol. H. SP-94. W. RRL Report LR 228. D.H. (1976): Bridge temperatures estimated from the shade temperature. 35-8. (1987): Design of Pot Bearings. 577-612. TRRL Laboratory Report 765. (1971): The Theory and Practice of Bearings and Expanison Joints for Bridges. (1977): Temperature differences in bridges: basis of design requirements.  Garrett.
A. McGraw Hill. J. W. Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications.  McEwen. 1976. Sacramento. J.. Stanton. 6. V. 1987. W. T. Bearings  Hakenjos. C.  Roeder. No. D.: Lager im Bauwesen mit Komponenten aus Kunststoff verdrängen hochbeanspruchbare stählerne Rollenlager. W. Niagara Falls. New York. 1964. Highway Research Report.  Roark. F: Elastomeric Bearings: A State of the Art. R.  Saxena. CA. No. ACI Publication SP-94. M & R 64642-2. and Taylor R. W. T. and Kong. ASME.. Stanton. A. and Stanton. 1991. F: A Laboratory Evaluation of Full-Size Elastomeric Bridge Bearing Pads. Research Report. R. E. ASCE.48 1. Boss. C. I. 12. Washington. and Materials.  Jacobsen. Journal of the Structural Division.  Gent.. and McEwen. R. 1. K. C.: Elastic Stability of Rubber Compression Springs.: Apparecchi di appoggio per ponti e strutture. J. National Research Council. Vol.  Roeder. 4. W.  Marioni. ACI Journal. June 1979.. C. 1986. ASCE. Vol. Engr. No.  Roeder. 1981. J. V.. Milano 1983  Campbell. Washington. J. J. Journal of Mech. Report ME-87-06. W. C.F. TRB. Construction. L. C. F: Failure Modes of Elastomeric Bearings and Influence of Manufacturing Methods. and Nordlin. Texas. F. D.: Elastomeric Bearings Design. F: State of the Art Elastomeric Bridge Bearing Design.: TFE Expansion Bearings for Highway Bridges. 2. Vol. ACI Publication SP-94. San Antonio. E. December 1983. D. J.  Nordlin. 13th H. No. August 1982. C. and Stanton.: Tetrafluorethylene (TFE) as a Bridge Bearing Material. F and Feller. June 1970. California DOT.  Crozier. W. 116.: Fatigue of Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings.: Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Results Concerning Distribution of Stress Under Pot Bearings. NCHRP Report 298. E. F and Roeder. W. C. Downsview. October 1987. and Trimble. A. . C: Formulas for Stress and Strain. J. G. National Research Council. San Antonio. pp 113-132. J. Journal of Structural Division.. W. TRB. A. RDR-31. W. F.: Low Temperature Performance of Elastomers. Journal of Cold Regions. ACI Publication SP-70. 109. Stanton. September 1990. Vol.  Stanton.  Roeder. June 1971. Proceedings of 2nd World Congress on Bearings and Sealants. ASCE. NCHRP Report 248. February 1990. Vol.  Roeder.  Roeder. W. Proceedings of 1 st World Congress on Bearings and Sealants. E. Proceedings of 2nd World Congress on Bearings and Sealants.: TFE Sliding Surfaces In Bridge Bearings. W. 1986. Illinois DOT.: Behaviour of Masonry Bearing Plates in Highway Bridges. Stoker. N. 4. J. and Young. Mark-Symposium on 19-10-94 in Vienna. K. R. TL-6574-1-74-26. and Spencer. F. A. 5th Ed. Martin. E. E.: Performance of Elastomeric Bearings. and Stanton. F. C. Science. Report No. Research Report CA DOT. and Taylor. 3. ITEC. F and Taylor. F. C. Ontario.
and Roeder.: Stability of Laminated Elastomeric Bearings.. FHWA Region 3 Structural Committee for Economical Fabrication. June 1990. pp 1351-1371. C.1. . 6. Taylor. J. G. W. F„ Scroggins. No. A.  Structural Bearing Specification. October 1991. 116. Subcommittee for High Load Multi-Rotational Bearings (HLMRB). Journal of Engineering Mechanics. Vol. W. ASCE.13 References 49  Stanton.
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To describe the movements of an expansion joint in detail we have to consider three translations and three rotations (fig. With the increase of road traffic and of its speed. movements in old stone and timber bridges were small and no additional devices were necessary to close the gaps between bridges and abutments due to bridge movements. The first watertight expansion joints were built using steel rails between rubber tubes to absorb the movements. In spite of continuous amendments of all constructions for expansion joints. 2. 2. Another type of watertight expansion joint is the cushion joint. The replacement of all wearing parts should be possible in a simple way. For longer bridges these cover plates were not sufficient. All these types of expansion joints were not watertight and so the water ran down to the bearings and to the abutments. A further requirement is a low noise level especially in an urban environment.1 Expansion Joints Introduction As mentioned in chapter 1. these still remain wearing parts. The replacement of an expansion joint is always combined with a traffic interruption . .51 2 2. cover plates were used for expansion joints. so that finger joints and sliding plate joints were used. The expansion joints should provide a smooth transition from the bridge to the adjacent areas. Initially.3 Calculation of movements of expansion joints Movements of expansion joints depend on the size of the bridge and the arrangement of the bearings.at least of the affected lane. The following chapters give a short survey of expansion joints for different movements used in the construction of bridges. Normally the form of construction depends on the horizontal translation orthogonal to the joint.2 The role of expansion joints The role of expansion joints is to carry loads and to provide safety to the traffic over the gap between bridge and abutment or between two bridges in a way that all bridge displacements can take place with very low resistance or with no resistance at all. moisture and deicing agents. The first expansion joints were built for steel railway bridges because their movements were not negligible. especially at the moveable bearings.3-1). especially in bridges with high traffic density and high traffic loads. Therefore expansion joints should be robust and suitable for all loads and local actions under all weather conditions.2. closing the gaps became necessary for safety reasons. consisting of a rubber cushion with vulcanised steel plates which transfer the traffic loads. in the rubber profiles and in controlling the gap widths. But it is necessary to consider all translations and rotations to ensure that the displacements will not reach the limits of the joint construction. This principle led to a lot of different multisealed expansion joints which differed in the means of supporting the steel rails.1.
2.2.3-2: Influence line for a translation Fig. and creep and shrinkage in concrete and composite bridges.52 2. the displacements can be determined from the known rotations. .184.108.40.206-1). Move ments due to loads depend on the location of the loads.3.3-3: Influence line for a rotation To obtain the displacement caused by a rotation it is also possible to calculate the rotations.2.3-1: Possible movements These movements result from temperature..3-2 and fig.2.3-3). too.. Expansion Joints Fig. Fig. This applies to composite bridges.2. creep under normal force and shrinkage lead to a uniform extension or shortening of the bridge (fig. The influence line of a deflection is the bending line due to a unit load acting in the direction of the con sidered movement. The controlling deformations can be determined with influence lines (fig.1. We may obtain the move ments (displacements and rotations) from the structural analysis of the system.1 Horizontal translation in the direction of the bridge axis ux A change of the environment temperature. A uniform change of temperature about the cross section causes only a horizontal translation of the joint.3. The thermal expansion coefficients of steel and concrete have approximately the same value (αT = 1.2 10-5 /K ). displacements due to external loads.
3.1-2: Change of the fixing point .1-2). 2.2. As the rigidity of this joint is higher than the rigidity of the piers the new fixing point is situated near the undamaged expansion joint (fig. Due to a movement in the joint a plastic deformation of the asphalt layer occurs and the construction has a certain rigidity. On arch bridges the superstructure is usually fixed at the crown of the arch.3 Calculation of movements of expansion joints Fig.3.3. Buried expansion joints are often used for short bridges (Chapter 2.2.1-1: Uniformly extension or shortening Temperature: Creep and shrinkage of concrete bridges Creep: Coefficient of creep Permanent normal force (compression > 0) Shrinkage: Shrinkage coefficient A possible problem is the change of the location of the fixing point or the unknown location of the fixing point.2. The fixing point is moved by the deformation of the arch due to the asymmetrical load. If the fixing point is situated on longer piers.4). A different rigidity of the expansion joints on the right and left abutment and a possible longitudinal deformation can lead to the cracking of the asphalt layer at one abutment. Fig. it acts as a horizontal spring bearing.
3. if the bridge is fixed on more than one pier.2.1-3: Equivalent shrinking force Fig. N s h is a compression force acting on the composite cross-section. N s h = εcs · Ac· E c εsc Shrinkage coefficient Ac Area of concrete Ec Reduced modulus of elasticity of concrete to consider creep Fig. Creep and shrinkage in composite bridges (acting in the concrete parts of crosssection only) mainly lead to deflections which result in rotations above the y-axis (fig. Expansion Joints In the case of an elastic fixing point there are additional movements at expansion joints due to acceleration and braking forces.54 2. shrinkage by a substitute tensile force N s h acting on the free shrinking con crete. positive definition: .1-4).3. Creep can be considered using a reduced section area and a reduced moment of inertia.1-5). Moreover.1-4: Deflection underload Horizontal movements of expansion joints can also be caused by vertical movements of the abutments. Statically indeterminate steel and composite bridges can be prestressed by intentional lifting and/or lowering at the bearings. the position of the fixing point can differ from the planned position.3.2. They are caused by foundation settlements or by replacement of bearings (fig. 2.3. The actual rigidity of piers can differ from the planned rigidity. 2.
220.127.116.11.2-1: Skewed bridge .3.2-2). uniform and non-uniform temperature actions. 2. The movements can result from acceleration.2 Horizontal translation in direction of the cross-section uy A horizontal translation in the crosswise direction results if the angle between the joint and the moving direction of the bearing is not 90 ° (e. Fig.g. braking forces.2.3.3. in skew bridges).2. The magnitude of the movement depends on the magnitude of the movement in the direction of the bridge axis and on this angle (fig.1-5: Displacement of bearings If a fixing point is located on a high pier the additional movements due to pier deformation must be considered in the structural analysis.3 Calculation of movements of expansion joints 55 Fig.3.2-1 and fig.
3 Vertical translation uz Vertical translations uz can be caused by the replacement of bearings (fig.2.2.3-2: Bridge with short cantilever on the abutment . Expansion Joints Fig.3.3-1: Sloping bridge with horizontal bearings Fig.56 2.2.2-2: Skewed bearing conditions 2.3.3-3) and the geometrical conditions on the abutment (fig.18.104.22.168.3-2).3. Fig.3.3.3-1 and fig.2.
3.6 Rotation around the z-axis φz The deformation φz is caused by non-uniform temperature action in the horizontal direction.4 Rotation around the bridge axis φx In the case of a replacement of one single bearing at one side a rotation (φx occurs (fig.5-1: Rotation due to deflections 2.6-1). Hydraulic jack Fig.3-3: Vertical displacement of bearings (due to bearing replacement) 2. it is possible to avoid this movement by uniform lifting over the cross-section.2. and by wind loads (fig.22.214.171.124.2.2.4-1: Lifting on one side 2.3.5 Rotation around the y-axis φy This deformation is caused by vertical loading and non-uniform temperature. Fig.3. However. 2.3.3. The controlling load positions of the traffic loads can be determined with influence lines.3 Calculation of movements of expansion joints 57 Hydraulic jack Fig. .4-1).3.
. substructure and possible linkage of expansion joints from deterioration.2. it is recommended to avoid slopes exceeding about 3 % and vertical steps between joined surfaces exceeding 8 mm (fig. Expansion Joints Fixed bearing Fig.2.bearing capacity for static and dynamic loading. Fig.2.58 2. Additionally.movement capacity .3.6-1: Non-uniform temperature action 2.watertightness to save bearings. The sealing should not be damaged by inclusions of bigger external bodies.4. .4.4 Construction of expansion joints 2. If the gap width is reduced due to a movement of the superstructure the joint must be able to expel grit and silt to the carriageway surface.low noise emission. . To fulfil the last two requirements a limitation of gap widths is essential.1 General The construction of expansion joints has to fulfil the following requirements: .traffic safety.1-1: Recommended safety requirements Expansion joints are exposed to pollution.1-1). .4.
4.2 Small movements (up to 25 mm) For movements up to 15 mm it is possible to construct a continuous asphaltic carriageway pavement with a supporting element covering the gap of the superstructure. Fig.4. An additional sealing is recommended to protect bearings and substructure from deterioration.4. The asphaltic pavement does not provide sufficient watertightness.2. all elastomeric components must be readily accessible and easily replaceable.2-2 and fig.2-1).2. The thickness of the pavement should be at least 80 mm and should be equal to the thickness of the corresponding parts of the superstructure and the abutment. e.126.96.36.199.2-2: Buried expansion joint sealed by a rubber profile . An additional reinforcement of the pavement is advisable to provide a uniform strain distribution. 2.2-3).4.4 Construction of expansion joints 59 In particular. strain distribution and watertightness without additional sealing. Fig.2-1: Buried expansion joint There are covering elements fulfilling the requirements of support.g. for movements above 10 mm an elastomeric pad is necessary to avoid pavement cracks at the edges of the supporting plate. Up to 10 mm a flat metal plate is sufficient. This kind of joint is also called a buried expansion joint (fig. 2. To fulfil this requirement the cover of the gap is usually extended into a niche. the following kind of joint construction (fig.4.
2. Because of their low lifetime (though combined with low relative costs) asphaltic plug joints are recommended for temporary purposes. and the development of rutting.4. Though movements exceeding 25 mm could be managed in laboratory tests the influence of temperature and of deformation velocity is not known adequately.2-3: Buried expansion joint with continuous sealing and additional rubber profile For movements between 15 and 25 mm the asphaltic material above the joint can be replaced by a specially modified asphaltic material. Expansion Joints Fig. Constructions of this kind are called asphaltic plug joints (fig.4.2.2-5).2.2.4. Further problems are yielding of asphaltic material under the wheels of standing vehicles. brake and acceleration forces combined with high environment temperatures.4. Incorrect placement of material results in tearing of the adjacent carriageway pavement.2-4: Asphaltic plug joint . The thickness should be at least 80 mm.2-4 and fig.60 2. while the length should not exceed 700 mm. Fig.
2-5: Asphaltic plug joint additional sealed by a rubber profile 2. Expansion joints for medium movements consist of a sealing element.3-1). Fig. The sealing element can be replaced by a cushion element that absorbs movements caused by shear deformation (fig. but they provide the best comfort for pedestrians with high heel shoes (fig. up to 80 mm) The absorption of medium movements requires an elastic expansion element or an expansion gap across the carriageway surface.188.8.131.52. Thus. For traffic safety.4.4. Traditional cover-plates are prone to rattling and corrosion and hinder the accessibility of possible seals.4.3-2) or hollow sections (fig.3-6). Movements are absorbed by the folding of these elements.4. .4. the expansion movement of a simple gap construction is limited to 60 mm.2.4.3 Medium movements (over 25 mm. edge elements.2.3-3).3-4).4. There are special seals for pavements and cyclist areas to decrease the width of the gap to avoid accidents (fig.2.2. and fixing elements.4 Construction of expansion joints 61 Fig. gaps below 5 mm or over 65 mm are not recommended.3-1: Construction methods of expansion joints for medium movements Seals of expansion gaps can be constructed as V-shaped sealing strips (fig.2.
3-3: Special sealing for sidewalks Fig.3-4: Hollow section Fig.2.3-5: Expansion joint with V-shaped sealing Fig. Expansion Joints Fig.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11-6: Expansion joint with cover plate Fig.62 2.4.3-7: Expansion joint for sidewalks .2.3-2: V-shaped sealing Fig.2.4.
Linkage elements cause equal gap widths saving the seals from overextending. 2. Thus. The maximum movement is limited by the gap width. 2. The movements are absorbed by increasing and decreasing of the widths of the two gaps on the upper side. 2.4. They must be able to sustain acceleration and braking forces.3-8).2.3-9) are made from neoprene reinforced with steel plates. they are able to transfer traffic loads.4.4. traffic loads can be transferred without significant deflections. sealing elements and rail elements are coupled.3-9: Elastomeric cushion joint Especially when using elastomeric cushions and neoprene extrusion seals.g.4.3-8: Seals made from cellular neoprene extrusion Elastomeric cushion joints (fig. the restraining actions can exceed 20 kN/m which in some cases is not negligible. Fig. intermediate elements (also called rails). In addition to the function as sealing.4.4 Large movements (over 80 mm) For large movements.4 Construction of expansion joints 63 The use of seals made from cellular neoprene extrusion has the advantage of a closed carriageway surface. supporting elements and linkage elements are needed (fig.2.2. The rubber cover of the bearing plate can wear away under traffic or can be damaged (e. Additionally to the components of a single gap construction.2. by snow ploughs) which lowers the skid resistance. Movements up to 80 mm can be accommodated (fig. Fig. .4-1).4.
Expansion Joints Fig.18.104.22.168-3) satisfy all supporting and linkage purposes.4. The folding trellis linkages (fig. In this case a special linkage mechanism is not necessary due to the high deformation resistance of the single elements which actually act as a spring linkage.4.64 2.2. . Fig. These expansion joints can be classified by the kind of supporting and linkage. It is called multiple seal expansion joint.4-1: Construction method of expansion joints for large movements The following figure shows the coupling of cushion elements.4-2: Coupled elastomeric cushion joint A typical construction is the coupling of V-shaped and hollow section sealing elements.
2. If the gaps are opened near to the maximum value the seals can be overextended.4-3: Rails supported by folding trellis linkage An additional linkage is needed if the rails are supported by parallel beams. A disadvantage of this kind of linkage is that acceleration and braking forces cause non-uniform spring deformations. One possibility is the spring linkage (fig. Another possibility of linkage of parallel supporting beams is the use of horizontal parallel linkages (fig.4.4-5).22.214.171.124. . The portion of the resisting force resulting from friction depends on the number of rails and supporting beams whereas the portion of spring force is independent at the number of springs because of the series connection.4-4).4 Construction of expansion joints 65 Fig.2. Springs are made of an elastic material.
4-5: Rails supported by beams.4-7: Linkage . Expansion Joints Fig.2.2.4-6: Rails supported by hinged arranged beams (Swivel System) Fig.126.96.36.199 2. Spacing controlled by horizontal parallel linkages Fig.2.4-4: Rails supported by beams.4. spacing controlled by springs Fig.2.
4. Fig. Finger joints with supported fingers (fig. Both the cantilever-toothed joint and the rolling leaf joint are as a rule not watertight. so that an additional drainage system is necessary. a rocker plate.4-8). .4 Construction of expansion joints 67 If the supporting beams are skew (Swivel System.4. The acceptable movement depends on the size and number of sliding plates.4-10) consists of a tongue plate.4-9) have proved to be not as good as with cantilever fingers.4.use of specially designed bearings for the shutter plates.broken hinges (falling shutter plates cause gaps in the motorway).4. and sliding plates.2.2. The higher the number of rails the more economical becomes the application of hinged supporting beams.4-8: Cantilever-toothed joint or finger joint .2. Rolling leaf joints can exhibit the following disadvantages: .2.2. special nonwatertight constructions like cantilever-toothed joints or rolling leaf joints (also called roller shutter plate expansion joint) are used.4-7). .4. The deformation capacity in the crosswise direction is severely limited and vertical deformations of the joint can prejudice traffic safety. is a very robust construction but with several disadvantages.4. .rubber seals between the plates (it makes the joint watertight to a great extent). .2. The number of supporting beams does not depend on the number of rails. Some manufactures have carried out important improvements by: . also called finger joint.stronger restraining elements with elastomeric springs. As an alternative to the application of multiple seal expansion joints.breaking of the restraining spring elements.wear of the bearing surface.4-6) they control the gap width by means of the kinematic characteristic of the mechanism (fig. To accommodate small vertical deformations without hazard the free finger ends should be rounded. . fig. The cantilever-toothed joint (fig.stronger hinges.2. The rolling leaf joint (fig.
the rails themselves. again with a ballast bed. The expansion length (i. the distance between the "thermal centre" and the opposite end of the deck) should not exceed 60 m for steel structures with a ballast bed and 90 m for concrete and composite structures. Expansion Joints Fig. Eurocode 1. Nowadays.e.5 Expansion joints for railway bridges For the expansion joints for railway bridges it is necessary to consider two elements: .4. Therefore.4.4-10: Rolling leaf joint 2. part 3 (ENV 1991-3). .2.the bridge. a continuous track without expansion joints is preferred.2.68 2. due to the comfort of the passengers.4. . gives rules for the maximum expansion lengths for continuous tracks. many modern railway bridges have no expansion devices for the track.4-9: Finger joint with supported fingers Fig. If the expansion length exceeds these values expansion devices should be used.
2. It consists of an ending rail with a slope of 1 : r.5-2).5-1. according to the slope: E.2.g. at a short distance from the bridge.. and a tapered rail which is ma chined in the same slope. with r = 70 to 100.2.4. This expansion joint has the advantage that there is no gap between the rails and that the wheel load is carried by a full profile section. Fig.4. The first type consists of a parallel joint in the rail and works according to fig.2.2.4. but the disadvantage that the rail gauge will be widened by the expansion. The expansion joints of the rails should not be located directly over the gap because of the rotation angle φy of the bridge.4. for an expansion of Δl = 200 mm and with r = 70 m the gauge is widened by Δs 6 mm.4 Construction of expansion joints 69 Two different types of railway expansion joints are in use by the railway authorities.5-1: Parallel joint in the rail The second type is normally used for high speed railways (fig. It is better to adjust the expansion joint on the embankment.5-2: Feathered joint . Fig.
g. 2. ENV 1991-3 gives the longitudinal action per track FTk = ± 8 [kN/m] (LT1-LT2). the track will move in the longitudinal direction and will become settled by itself. corrosion-resistant steel and stainless steel do not need any protection against corrosion. Expansion Joints For bridges without a ballast bed the gap between the bridge and the abutment normally stays uncovered. This construction causes problems to the automatic track ballast tamping machine. However. On the other hand the compactness of the ballast increases and decreases with the expansion in the area of the expansion joint of the rails. the supporting members such as edge elements.5 Materials for expansion joints 2. If high forces caused by temperature-induced expansion or shortening of the bridge occur in the rail.5. especially under the vibrations of the passing trains. Steel parts embedded in concrete outside of the zone of carbonation. niches for linkage elements. For bridges with a ballast bed there are two possibilities: a) to enclose the ballast within the bridge and on the embankment. Spray galvanising is expensive but also possible. The stirrups of the fixing are curved reinforcing bars. In the case of protection by galvanising. a coating consisting of a two-component epoxy priming coat with zinc dust and a twocomponent epoxy final coat with micaceous iron ore is recommended. also are made of stainless steel or corrosion-resistant steel. Members that are difficult to access. sometimes. . In this case there is no interruption of the ballast bed and no problem for the tamping machine. The forces between the track and the bridge have to be considered especially for the design of the longitudinally fixed bearing(s) of the bridge. hot-dip galvanising is the normal case. Coatings must have a sufficiently high resistance against mechanical stress.1 Steel parts Normally. A protection against corrosion by means of an elastomeric sheathing is possible if the elastomeric material satisfies the requirements of resistance and durability. Parts made of mild steel must be protected. bridging the gap only by the rails.70 2. A completely different design philosophy is to install no special expansion devices on bridges with a continuous ballast bed as described above (and. with normal bolted rails joints). where LTi are the expansion lengths from the fixed bearing. b) to build a continuous ballast bed by means of elastic rubber (neoprene) joints or by sliding cover plates. The coating should be chosen in accordance with the appropriate national standards. Stainless steel is used for moveable parts like the bolts of a folding trellis linkage and sliding plates connected with PTFE. oils. temperature actions. Steel parts embedded within the zone of carbonation need only a priming coat. and de-icing salt. e. rails and cross beams are made of mild steel protected by coating or of corrosion-resistant steel.
220 °C) Change of resistance to tearing Change of tearing strain Bond with steel Non-load transferring elements 55-65 Shore A min. It can be compressed down to 20 % of the original length. . -15 % max. sealings) are made from polychloroprene or from ethylene-propylene-caoutchouc with high resistance to tearing and to crack propagation. -20 % Failure within the elastomeric material Tab.2. -20 % max. 350 % min. The material must be ageresisting. alkaline and acidic water. Load transferring elements (e. Non-load transferring elements (e.70°C) Change of hardness Change of resistance to tearing Change of tearing strain Resistance against potassium chloride (solution: 4%. de-icing salt.2 Elastomeric parts Elastomeric parts must be resistant to environmental influences.5. 14d. +5 Shore A max. 10 N / m m Load transferring elements 60-70 Shore A min. A further advantage is the good damping characteristics. 15 N / m m 2 min. The material is able to withstand high strains. 400 % min. 10 N / m m 2 min. +7 Shore A max. -5 Shore A max. The following table gives the recommended characteristics of applied elastomers. -20 % max. -20 % max.5.23°C) Change of volume Change of hardness Resistance against hot asphaltic bitumen (30 minutes.g. -20 % max.2-1: Recommended characteristics of the elastomeric parts The springs of spring-linked multiple seal expansion joints are made of polyurethane with a high resistance to crack propagation. -20 % max. +10% max. The thickness should not be below 4 mm. -5 Shore A max. cushion elements or elastic bearings of the rails) are made from polychloroprene or from natural caoutchouc. +10% max.5 Materials for expansion joints 71 2.g.-20% max. They are classified in two categories (load transferring and non-load transferring).2. 15 N / m m max. despite the presence of de-icing salt. Characteristic Hardness Resistance to tearing Tearing strain Resistance to crack propagation Behaviour after a temperature stress (14d.
2.1-1). The most important rules are: .The length of asphaltic plug joints shall not exceed 700 mm. the binder material usually consists of bitumens modified with plasticizers and polymers. belong to the basalt group. The exact composition of the material depends on the producer. Fig.2. A buried expansion joint or an asphaltic plug joint must only fulfil the construction requirements given in chapter 2. while the fatigue was only considered empirically. The loading acts for a very short time.6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 2. The probability that the axles of two vehicles are at the expansion joint at the same time is relatively small and only one axle need be considered.4.6.1 Buried expansion joints and asphaltic plug joints Expansion joints have to satisfy the requirements of ultimate limit state and fatigue strength design. 19]. This must have a sufficient flexibility to absorb the movements of the gap. As a rule.6.The asphaltic layer over the supporting construction must have the same thickness as over the superstructure and over the abutment. . The aggregates. usually.The thickness of the asphaltic layer should be at least 80 mm.6. 2. damage is usually caused by fatigue.2 Single seal and multiple seal expansion joints In most cases the ultimate limit state of a single seal and of a multiple seal expansion joint is analysed correctly. However. The spread of the load can be considered by an angle of 45 ° (fig. Thin cover plates should be verified by a calculation.1-1: Load spread under a wheel 2. standards contain a design load of the following type to analyse single members of a bridge. Expansion Joints Asphaltic plug joints are made of a special modified asphaltic material.72 2. . Therefore a correct analysis is essential [18. . However.6. combined with a sufficient load bearing capacity.
2-3: Arrangement of the wheel loads Fig.6.carriageway surface R Static load φ Dynamic factor Fig.2. k .2-1: Design wheel load One rail of an expansion joint carries only the portion F v .2-2: Factor aa Fig.6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 73 LR Contact length wheel .2. the gap width s and the contact length LR (fig. Fig.188.8.131.52-4: Load per rail .184.108.40.206-4).6.2. depending on the rail width b. s t a t of the load.
Horizontal forces due to rolling friction act at each overrunning and exert an influence on the fatigue of the material.stat aa Effective contact length Gap width Number of gaps within the contact length Rail width Portion of wheel load 2. Rails and support beams can be calculated with the E-P or P-P method because actually no yielding occurs due to the high applicable design loads. for ULS verifications a horizontally and vertically fixed continuous girder is a suitable model of the rails. is consi dered only for the ultimate limit state analysis. The ultimate limit state is analysed using the semiprobabilistic safety concept as follows: .k.6. The acceleration and braking force are determined from the vertical loading. Horizontal wheel loads result from rolling friction.2-2) If a 9 0 ° the two wheels of the axle do not cause the maximum loading on the rail at the same time.74 LN Si n b Fv.2. Expansion Joints Factor of the influence of the angle between expansion joint and driving direction (fig. Ultimate limit state The ultimate limit state is analysed with the single wheel loads of an axle and consid ering the dynamic factors given in the relevant standards. and from the slope of the bridge. This fact can be considered by reducing the influence of both wheel loads by the factor a α . Edge profiles and their fixing are designed for a horizontal force due to the full wheel load. thus. acceleration and braking forces. Accelerating and braking of a lorry at the expansion joint cause maximum loads but this is a comparatively rare case and. Intermediate profile: Edge profile: Coefficient of static friction of the standard Vertical and horizontal dynamic factor Contrary to the fatigue analysis.
the stress range is of interest. The horizontal forces due to rolling friction.2. slope of bridge and acceleration or de celeration must be considered.2-5: Possible cracks due to fatigue For the fatigue design.2. Three types of fatigue fractures have been observed (fig.220.127.116.11. they are smaller than the horizontal force due to acceleration and braking.6.2-6: Determination of the factors . However. The factor ξ consists of three parts: Factor due to slope Factor due to rolling friction Factor due to locomotive acceleration/deceleration Fig.2-5): 1) Failure of the welded joint between rail and support beam 2) Failure of the support beam 3) Failure of the rail Fig. At first it is determined by using the loads given in the standards.6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 75 Fatigue design Failure due to fatigue is the main reason for the observed damage.
k. For the ultimate limit state analysis the response in the fundamental mode of the system is of interest.stat = ξ. . Expansion Joints The vertical load acting on an intermediate or edge profile is F v . s t a t Edge profile: Fh. only the first and second amplitude of F v.k.6. s t a t .6.stat = ξ.2-7: Dynamic loading of a rail The contact time t1 of the wheel depends on the contact length LR.F v . The horizontal loads are determined as follows: Intermediate profile: F h. the velocity v and the width of the profile b.2. It is considered by the dynamic value given in the applicable standards. Normally. R v . k . s t a t Fig. k . The circular frequency is: The impact causes a damped sinusoidal vibration (fig.2. k .k. The impact load is sine-shaped half period).2-8).76 2.dyn exceed the constant amplitude fatigue limit. Fatigue of material is caused by the stress range.
2. It depends on the stiffness of the springs if it has to be taken into account or if the springs can be assumed to be rigid.6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 77 Fig.2. vertical horizontal Fig. 2.2-10).2-8: Dynamic loading and response of system Fig.6. In the horizontal direction the consideration of the elastic fixing is essential (fig.18.104.22.168-10: Vertical and horizontal static system .2-9: Dynamic model The static bending moments in the vertical direction can be determined on the supported continuous beam.6.6.
Further possibilities to determine the lowest natural frequency are an analysis by FEM or approximate methods. Expansion Joints It is important to use the dynamic stiffness of the springs because it differs from the static value. The spring stiffness ch. . A sinusoidal loading causes the following bending deflection curve: The following formula leads to the stiffness of the spring: The application of the formulae of the frequency and the rotational frequency leads to the natural frequency of the vertical system: With known ch. The following figures show some calculated results. The fundamental vibration mode shape of the vertical direction can be described by the static bending line of a continuous girder.dyn in the model is varied until the lowest natural frequency according to the experiments is observed. The logarithmic decrement D of the damping coefficient of a spring-linked expansion joint amounts to approximately 10%. The frequency fh and the damping coefficient can be determined from the recorded time-deformation curve.dyn and equal span widths the frequency fh of the horizontal direction can be determined in the same way. But the system is an elastically-supported continuous girder. Both the spring stiffness and the damping coefficient are determined by overrun-tests.78 2. The following method leads to satisfactory solutions.
6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 79 Fig.2-11: Lowest natural frequencies of an elastically supported continuous gird er m Mass of rail [kg/m] Ih Moment of inertia [m4] fh Lowest natural frequency [Hz] The dynamic values φ1 and φ2 of the first and second modes of the system are added to the value φ. L Single span [m] Ch. With an assumed logarithmic damping coefficient of 10%. Either the first or second figure can be used.6. the fol lowing diagrams give directly the impact factors φ (fig.dyn Dynamic stiffness of spring [N/m] .6.2.2-12).2.2. They are suitable for the vertical and horizontal direction.
leading to a higher stress range.6. . With the values φv and φh the dynamic difference moments can be calculated.80 2. The value of the factor depends on the ratio between design load and loading due to the real traffic situation.2-13).2. Nat ural system frequencies near the resonance must be avoided at least for the vertical bending. Expansion Joints Fig. there may be load components occurring only in one of a thousand cases).2. The stress range is determined as follows: The design load of an axle is higher than the actual load.6. Instead of the nominal stress also the design load could be reduced. Infrequent high loads exert an advantageous influence on the fatigue behaviour (overloading effect). The values φ of the resonance frequency are comparatively high. The recommended distance from the resonance frequency is also indicated in the diagram. With a known design velocity a maximum span of the rails can be de termined. An other disadvantage is an increasing number of stress cycles exceeding the cut-off lim it.g. The nominal stresses should be reduced by the factor fred to get the actual design loads. which means that more than. Longer spans cause higher values φ.2-12: Dynamic factors The horizontal axis of the diagram (b) contains the natural frequency of the system.two modes of the system must be considered. This version shows the frequency of resonance as the maximum of the graph of the de sign velocity. The maximum load for fatigue design must be determined considering the real fre quency of the actual traffic loads (e. The determination of the actual traffic situation requires extensive data for the real loads and their frequency (fig.
dyn provides the factor that al lows the fatigue analysis with design loads given in the standards to be used. The fatigue design has to fulfil the following equation: Partial safety factor of the fatigue loading (YFf = 1.0) Partial safety factor of fatigue strength (YMf = 1.6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 81 Fig.6.2-13: Example of a typical loading sequence The stress ranges up to the chosen limit are used to determine a constant amplitude stress range that causes the same damage (fig.2.2-15: stress range Constant amplitude This value when compared with the stress range Δσ k.2-14: Fatigue strength curve Fig.15) Constant amplitude stress range for 100 million cycles .6.2.2-15).75 for the conditions of traffic in Germany.2.2.  recommends the factor fred = 0.6. For in stance.6.2. Fig. A maximum stress deter mined in this way is exceeded in only one of a thousand cases. to be applied to the loads of German Standard DIN 1072.max.
The fatigue strength σL can be taken from the standard used if it contains a suitable detail category. Fatigue strength for 100 million cycles The construction members of the expansion joint are three-dimensional and compact.6. Fig. In the verti cal direction the analysed element transfers a portion of the wheel load.2.4).6.time in years The number of cycles exceeding the cut-off limit The average of daily lorry traffic in one direction The average number of axles of each lorry The distribution of the DTLV on several lanes p = 1.85 in case of two lanes p = 0.0 in case of one lane p = 0. depending on the zone of influence.. Design life .80 in case of three or more lanes 2. otherwise tests become necessary.2-16: Recommended arrangement of the tests The lifetime of a construction can be calculated as a statistical value. Intermediate profile: Edge profile: . Horizontal loads are determined from the vertical loads using the factor ξ. It is only appli cable for the evaluation of that type of construction.6. The following testing arrangements were recently used with success (fig.3 Elastomeric cushion joint The loads for the ultimate limit state analysis and the reduced loads for the fatigue analysis are determined in the same way as for the seal expansions joints.2-16).2. The required number of tests is nor mally indicated by the standards. Expansion Joints Can be ascertained by the analyses of the real sequence us ing the Palmgren-Miner summation (α100 0.82 2.
Fig.3-1). LR and BR are the dimen sions of the load area according to the applicable standard.6.3-1: Calculation of the intermediate profile The elastomeric parts of elastomeric cushion joints have to withstand stresses and stress ranges due to traffic loads. It can be consi dered by a smaller disk and a force than P. The inclination of P depends on the factor ξ.2. A possible intermediate profile can be treated as a single span beam (fig. only a reduced load acts on the joint construction.3-2: Recommended arrangement of the test The specimen is of the same character as the planned construction and has a length of at least 1200 mm.2.6 Analysis and design of expansion joints 83 The horizontal loading of edge profiles and their fixings are analysed considering the complete wheel load.6. If the width of sample is smaller than LR. Their strength can be ascertained by tests.6. Fig.2.2. The fol lowing testing arrangement is recommended. It considers the sliding friction or the roller friction. The applied force P has the following value for the ultimate limit test: . Edge profiles and fixings can be analysed in the same way as for multiple seal joints. The loads are applied through an elastomeric disk of 50 mm thick ness which is situated in the middle of the cushion element. the slope of the bridge and the locomotive's acceleration and is different for the ultimate limit and fatigue tests.
The expansion joint is adjusted by means of an auxiliary construction.6. For a spring linkage prestressing is necessary (fig. Maximum stresses are caused when the joint expansion is maximum. The testing arrangement and the applied loads are the same as for cushion joints (fig.2.7 Installation of expansion joints The design of an expansion joint is performed by determination of the extreme values of the expected movements and the position of installation. 2. The installation data depends on the planned construction sequence. The fatigue behaviour must be determined by tests anyway because of the three dimensional character of the connection cantilever / edge element.6. Pred = fred · P The construction is applicable if experiments prove that the full load P can be supported as a static load. the reduced load Pred for 2 millions of cycles.7-1). Fingers of cantilever-toothed joints are often not within this range. Otherwise tests become essential. Fig. .4 Cantilever-toothed joint and rolling leaf joint The Bernoulli-Euler theory of bending gives correct results provided that the height to length ratio of a beam is at least 1/5.4-1).k.k. 2.stat Fv. Expansion Joints P = Fv.6.4-1: Recommended arrangement of the test The behaviour of a rolling leaf joint should be checked in the same way.84 2. In most cases neither the application of the Bernoulli-Euler theory of bending is possible nor do the standards contain suitable detail categories for the fatigue design.2. If this requirement is satisfied the ultimate load can be calculated easily.stat Wheel load of the standard For the fatigue test the loads are reduced by the factor fred. It is recommended to instal the expansion joint in the early morning when the temperature is distributed almost uniformly over the whole bridge. The loads must be placed in the most disadvantageous position. 2.
the protection against corrosion is com pleted. Fig. the dimension and. by this. These movements begin with the erecting of the construction and stop within some weeks / months / years.2.7 Installation of expansion joints 85 Immediately before the installation the actual temperature of the bridge is measured.7-1: Possible auxiliary construction for the installation In the case of a steel bridge the date of installing the expansion joints has no influence on the expected range of movement. t = 5 years ( 1800 days) to t = 20 years is set equal to t = ºº. In the case of a concrete bridge or a composite bridge. The joint construction has to accommodate the movements which occur af ter the installation. After that the expansion joint is flushed and fixed temporarily. In the case of a steel bridge it is provisionally bolted or tack-welded. The movement due to prestessing forces occurs during the prestressing work. Creep is caused by compressive stresses. While pouring the concrete the joint construction should be protected by a cover. the costs of a joint con struction can be reduced by a late installation. single unidirectional movements (shortening due to creep and shrinkage) oc cur. The auxiliary construction must be removed im mediately. especially due to prestressing. The variation of creep and shrinkage is shown in the following figures by means of the coefficient of creep φ(ºº.2. After carrying out the final fixing. If it is not within the considered tolerance the adjustment must be corrected. Therefore. In concrete bridges the expansion joints are provisionally fixed by welding together reinforcement and anchoring. . In various standards.t0) and the shrinkage value εSCºº. The concrete pour should be at least of the same strength as the adjacent material of the superstructure.
2. Expansion Joints
Fig.2.7-3: Variation of creep
Fig.2.7-4: Variation of shrinkage
The maximum increments of shrinkage and creep occur immediately after completion or after prestressing. For example after 100 days (about 3 months), about 50 % of the expected creep deformations and 25 % of the shrinkage deformation have taken place.
Inspection and maintenance
Expansion joints should be checked regularly by means of visual inspection. The frequency depends on the sensitivity of the construction. Before the inspection the joint is cleaned, and cover-plates may need to be removed. The check should involve the following items: - Damage of the anticorrosive protection. This should be repaired before advanced rust formations appear. The new coating must be compatible with the existing one. - Visible cracks due to fatigue in the steel members. - Damages to the seals. The soiled water of the carriageway can lead to the deterioration and corrosion of the bearings, the substructure and possible the linkages. - Workability of the linkage. If it does not fulfil its function, damage of the seals may result. - Obstruction or damage of the drainage system. The adjacent carriageway pavement should also be checked. A jutting joint construction due to wheelers enhances the impact loading. If it is not possible to repair the entire pavement, asphalt ramps should be erected to protect the joints. Service-free expansion joints are often demanded by the manufacturers. Nevertheless, it is recommended to clean the gaps from grit and silt to protect seals and linkage. The drainage should also be cleaned regularly.
2.9 Replacement of expansion joints
Replacement of expansion joints
The lifetime of an expansion joint should be the same as the lifetime of the carriageway pavement. A complete replacement becomes necessary if the steel parts exhibit advanced fatigue damage. On steel bridges only the bolted or welded connections are removed. A replacement on concrete bridges is more expensive. More frequent is the replacement of single members, especially of the elastomer components. Seals should be replaceable from the carriageway site. Manufacturers offer different systems for easy replacement (fig.2.9-1).
Fig. 2.9-1: Possible fixings to the seal The gap width must be opened to at least 25 mm. In the case of an elastic linkage, smaller widths are possible because the rails can be displaced. On the other hand the seals must not be stretched fully. Expansion joints for large movements should be accessible from the underside to change members of the linkage like elastomeric springs. In the case of a road with several lanes it is desirable to change the seals of the expansion joint in sections. It is possible to join the seals by vulcanization on site. If a replacement of the rails becomes necessary they can also be joined on site. However, the joints should be situated in zones with minimal stress range and must be welded very carefully because of the high fatigue loads.
2. Expansion Joints
Books about expansion joints for bridges: Lee D.J.: Bridge Bearings and Expansion Joints. Second edition by E & FN Spon, London, Glasgow, New York, Tokyo, Melbourne, Madras 1994.
Papers:  Price, A.R. (1982): The service performance of fifty buried type expansion joints. TRRL Report SR 740, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.  Price, A.R. (1983): The performance of nosing type bridge deck expansion joints. TRRL Report LR 1071, Transport and Road Research Laboratory Crowthorne.  Price, A.R. (1984): The performance in service of bridge expansion joints. TRRL Report LR 1104, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.  Department of Transport (1989): Expansion joints for use in highway bridge decks. Departmental Standard BD 33/88.  Department of Transport (1989): Expansion joints for use in highway bridge decks. Departmental Advice Note BA 26/88.  Koster W. (1969): Expansion Joints in Bridges and Concrete Roads. Maclaren and Sons.  Busch, G.A. (1986): A review of design practice and performance of finger joints. Paper presented to the 2nd World Congress on Joint Sealing and Bearing Systems for Concrete Structures, San Antonio, Texas, September.  Watson, S.C. (1972): A review of past performance and some new considerations in the bridge expansion joint scene. Paper presented to regional meetings of the AASHO Committee on Bridges and Structures, Spring.  Koster W. (1986): The principle of elasticity for expansion joints. Paper presented to 2nd World Congress on Joint Sealing and Bearing Systems for Concrete Structures, San Antonio, Texas, September.  Lee, DJ. (1971): The Theory and Practice of Bearings and Expansion Joints for Bridges, Cement and Concrete Association.  Demers, C.E. and Fisher, J.W., Fatigue Cracking of Steel Bridge Structures, Volume 1: A Survey of Localized Cracking in Steel Bridges - 1981 to 1988, FHWA Publication No. FHWA-RD-89-166, McLean, VA, 1990  Standard Specifications For Highway Bridges. 15th edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1992  Tschemmernegg, F., The Design of Modular Expansion Joints, Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Joint Sealing and Bearing Systems for Concrete Structures, Toronto, 1991.  Dexter, R.J., Kaczinski, M.R., and Fisher, J.W; Fatigue Testing of Modular Expansion Joints for Bridges, Proceeding of the 1995 IABSE Symposium, Volume 73/2, San Francisco, CA, 1995.  TL/TP-FÜ 92, Technische Liefer- und Prüfvorschriften für wasserundurchlässige Fahrbahnübergänge von Strassen- und Wegbrücken. Bonn: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Ausg. 1992
1984. Brückenausrüstung .o. A. Railway Expansion Joints. (a.B. IABSE.  Barnard.: Dynamische Bemessung von wasserdichten FahrbahnübergängenModulsysteme (Dynamic Design of Waterproof Modular Expansion Joints). Arbeitsausschuss «Brückenausrüstung». 1998.  Herleitung eines Lastmodells für den Betriebsfestigkeitsnachweis von Straßenbrücken. Kongress-Bericht Copenhagen. Cuninghame.. Januar 1995.Loads.W.  Nielsen.  Crocetti.Übergangskonstruktion. Austria (Dec. 15. 1996. Bauingenieur 67 (1992). Transport research laboratory. Chalmers University of Technology. Stahlbau (1995). R.: Verkehrslastbeanspruchung von Übergangskonstruktionen in Strassenbrücken. Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture. and Dexter.  Braun. Division of Steel and Timber Structures. Field and Laboratory Experience with Expansion Joints. IABSE.2. F. Chr.RVS 15. Kongress-Bericht Copenhagen.45. J. 1993).: The Storebaelt West Bridge. .: Bearings. 15. Forschung Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik Heft 430.  Tschemmemegg. C: The Design of Modular Joints for Movements up to 2000 mm. 202-210. J. 229-237. Roberto: Modular Bridge Expansion Joints . 15. Ausg. H. University of Innsbruck..P. P. IABSE.: Practical guide to the use of bridge expansion joints. Dynamic Behaviour and Fatigue Performance. UK 1997. Kongress-Bericht Copenhagen.  Fisher.R.  Braun. 1996. Ph.D. IABSE. P. Department of Structural Engineering. expansion joints and hydraulic equipment for bridges. 1996. Kaczinski. M. C. [21 ] Ramberger. 15. Thesis for the degree of Licentiate of Engineering. Kongress-Bericht Copenhagen.und Strassenwesen. Wien: Forschungsgesellschaft für das Verkehrs..): Ermüdungsnachweis von Fahrbahnübergängen nach ENV-1993-1.R.J. Application guide 29.10 References 89  Richtlinie . Arbeitsgruppe «Brückenbau». 1996. dissertation.  Pattis. G.
1982. The attempt of the authors is to provide the design engineer with a compact guide to the essential parameters for the design and analysis of concrete box-girder bridges. diaphragms. piers and bridge finishes. Each SED volume examines a basic structural engineering problem. students and teachers of structural engineering. for substructures. Design. Emphasis is placed on practical guidelines for the actual design of concrete box-girder bridges.105 pages. Dimensioning and Detailing. Haruo TAKIZAWA ISBN 3-85748-029-7. assures the lasting value of SED volumes for practitioners. Each part has its own list of references. The book emphasises formulations of a basically empirical nature to analyse the complexities inherent in the inelastic and hysteretic response of reinforced concrete structures. which to date includes: SED 1: Concrete Box-Girder Bridges Jörg SCHLAICH. bearings. 90 . and construction methods as they influence design. out of print The concrete box-girder. covers design principles. all written by acknowledged experts in their fields. IABSE maintains a backlist of this series. flange and web dimensioning. Structural Analysis. and each proceeds from general principles to specific problems. 1982. out of print The performance of reinforced concrete building structures subjected to earthquake-induced motions is the subject of this SED volume. 108 pages. So far. The monograph follows the sequence of the bridge design process itself: Part 1. with particular attention given to eccentric vehicle loads. Part 2. 1982 English: ISBN-3-85748-031-9. Part 3. This fundamental approach. a widely used bridge superstructure system. is comprehensively examined in this informative volume. together with high scientific standards. examines general analysis procedures and a wide range of structural parameters. Hartmut SCHEEF German: ISBN-3-85748-032-7. 64 pages.Advertisement Structural Engineering Documents Structural Engineering Documents (SED) is IABSE's distinguished series of book-length monographs. superstructures and complete systems. construction joints. six volumes have been published in the SED series. abutments. SED 2: Dynamic Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Hajime UMEMURA. discusses prestressing.
halls for pop concerts. Man-induced vibrations are considered. SED 4: Ship Collision with Bridges The Interaction between Vessel Traffic and Bridge Structures Ole Damgaard LARSEN ISBN 3-85748-079-3. design and assessment of bridges crossing navigation channels. 193 pages. impacting). 1987. 1993 This SED volume is aimed at engineers responsible for the planning. the monograph first surveys the broad topic of structural dynamics. traffic. people and the environment. 91 . The final section discusses the fundamentals of vibration theory to assure that the reader has an adequate understanding of the problems presented. 1987 German: ISBN 3-85748-051-3. sports halls. The monograph also offers advice on the upgrading and retrofitting of existing bridges and navigation channels. earthquakes. For both types of vibrations possible countermeasures are proposed. Collision prevention measures such as regulations and navigation channel management systems are also addressed. looking at dynamic loading arising from walking. Various load categories are defined. oscillating. the volume focuses on vessel impact forces on bridges and proposes appropriate design criteria. It emphasises collision prevention and identifies measures for the protection of structural parts of bridges in the event of ship collision. machine operation. Walter AMMANN English: ISBN 3-85748-052-X. and eight industrial structures with machine-induced vibration problems. It is a comprehensive source of information on the risks of ship collisions with bridges and presents methods to evaluate the safety of bridges. followed by an account of "source-dependent" effects from human activity. diving platforms. The second part of the book presents 22 case studies of a wide range of structures: footbridges. water. and considering collision risk and risk acceptance. while machine-induced vibrations are examined according to type (rotating. After reviewing some basics of navigation and vessel traffic. Evenly divided between theory and case studies. out of print This SED volume shows where dynamic problems can occur in structures and presents appropriate countermeasures. 176 pages. 131 pages. running and other forms of movement.Advertisement SED 3: Vibrations in Structures Induced by Man and Machines Hugo BACHMANN. wind. and explosions.
understandable way. and the need for effective strategies against human error.ch Web: http://www. The first chapter introduces the reader to the main concepts and reviews strategies for identifying and mitigating hazards. ETH Hönggerberg.iabse. but also in regard to serviceability and other requirements of technical systems that are all subject to some probability of failure. CH-8093 Zurich.ch 92 . rather than extended theoretical discussion. or get information on other IABSE publications. directly from: IABSE. It is hoped that this approach serves to advance the application of safety and reliability analysis in engineering practice. Another chapter focuses on problems related to establishing target reliabilities.ethz. 138 pages. The present volume takes a broad approach to the safety of structures and related topics. Its application is not only with respect to the safety of structures. assessing existing structures. The second chapter is devoted to processing diverse data into information that can be used in reliability analysis.ethz. Engineers and scientists work together to develop methods for solving engineering problems. You may order SED monographs. The third chapter deals with the modelling of structures.Advertisement SED 5: Introduction to Safety and Reliability of Structures Jörg SCHNEIDER ISBN 3-85748-106-4. 1997 Structural engineers devote all their effort to meeting society's expectations efficiently. reliability theory emerged and has become part of the science and practice of engineering today. and the fourth presents recognised methods of reliability theory. This book is aimed at both students and practising engineers. Switzerland Phone: +41-1-633 2647 Fax: +41-1-633 1241 E-mail: secretariat@iabse. making use of simple examples. It presents the concepts and procedures of reliability analysis in a straightforward. Starting from this premise. The appendix supports the application of the methods proposed and refers readers to a number of related computer programs. Given that nothing is absolutely safe. the discussion of safety can only be in terms of (acceptably small) failure probabilities.
Structural Engineering Documents Objective: To provide in-depth information to practicing structural engineers in the form of reports of high scientific and technical standards on a wide range of structural engineering topics. including the SED series. teachers. structural monitoring. For further information: IABSE ETH Hönggerberg CH-8093 Zurich. it has more than 4200 members in over 100 countries. safety assessment. maintenance and repair. Today. Topics: Structural analysis and design. Readership: Practicing structural engineers.iabse.ch . operators and builders. IABSE organizes conferences and publishes the quarterly journal Structural Engineering International.ch http://www.ethz. as well as conference reports and other monographs. dynamic analysis. researchers and students at university level. Switzerland Phone: +41-1-633 2647 Fax: +41-1-633 1241 E-mail: secretariat@iabse. as well as representatives of owners.ethz. IABSE also presents annual awards for achievements in structural engineering. and computer applications. project management. construction materials and methods. lABSE's mission is to promote the exchange of knowledge and to advance the practice of structural engineering worldwide. Publisher: The International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) was founded as a non-profit scientific association in 1929.
allowing traffic loads to be carried and allowing all expected displacements with low resistance. Expansion joints fill the gaps. inspection. that the bridge designer can choose the most suitable bearing. construction and installation of bearings and expansion joints for bridges including calculation of bearing reactions and movements. allowing all movements in directions defined by the designer. working in the field of bridge design. The present volume provides a comprehensive survey of arrangement. analysis and design. The two functions transfer the loads and allow movements only in the required directions for a long service time with little maintenance .Structural Bearings and Expansion Joints for Bridges Bridge superstructures have to be designed to permit thermal and live load strains to occur without unintended restraints. A simple exchange of all wearing parts and of the entire expansion joint should be possible. By the movement of a bridge. Different bearings for different purposes and requirements have been developed so. . maintenance and repair. analysis. inspection and maintenance. This book is aimed at both students and practising engineers. A long list of references deals with the subjects but also with aspects in the vicinity of bearings and expansion joints. construction. avoid noise emission as far as possible and withstand all mechanical actions and chemical attacks (de-icing) for a long time. Bridge bearings have to transfer forces from the superstructure to the substructure. Expansion joints should provide a smooth transition. gaps are necessary between superstructure and substructure.are not so easy to fulfil.
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