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Ashley 1 Elise Ashley Mr.

Rice Patterns of Civilizations F 7 February 2012 Flying For Their Country, Flying For Their Race: How the Tuskegee Airmen Reformed the Military An Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources: Bessie Coleman Women Aviators 11. Sky Dancing. JPG File. <> This primary source photo is of Bessie Coleman in her aviator helmet and goggles. Bessie Coleman was the second African-American to become a licensed pilot. She died in a plane accident when she was preparing for an aviation show. Davis, Jr., Benjamin O. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1991. Print. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. was the commander of the 99th Pursuit Squadron and eventually the 332nd Fighter Group. This was a very important primary source from a Tuskegee Airman himself. It also gave me a new perspective to look at, since Davis was a black man in the Army Air Force. Ledbetter, Charles T. West Virginia State University s Aviation Program and Its Contribution to the Tuskegee Airmen. JPG File. This picture showed members of the Civilian Pilot Training program that was issued in 1939. The primary source was taken in that time, and shows students who were able to participate in the program and become licensed pilots. The Use of Negro Manpower in War. Archival Ware. AHEC s Digital Document System. Web. 1 February 2012. <>.

Ashley 2 This was a vital document in my project. It is a digitized version of the Use of Negro Manpower in War report from the Army War College. It shows explicit racism against black people, and is a great primary source, from the military itself.

Secondary Sources: American Visionaries: Tuskegee Airmen. National Park Service, 10 April 2000. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <>. The Civilian Pilot Training Act (CPT Act) was created and sponsored by the U.S. government in 1939. It allowed particular schools to offer basic pilot training to white and African-American people alike incase such skills were suddenly needed by the United States. This website was sponsored by the National Park Service. Francis, Charles E. The Tuskegee Airmen. Boston: Bruce Humphries Inc., 1968. Print. This book supplied a lot of important dates about the locations and missions of the Tuskegee Airmen as a secondary source. It also informed me about an article written in 1943 falsely claiming that the 99th Pursuit Squadron was not performing well when they were stationed in North Africa. Lastly, it supplied a chart I used that listed the combat record of the Tuskegee Airmen in WWII. Harris, Jacqueline L. The Tuskegee Airmen: Black Heroes of World War II. Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1996. Print. A study in 1925 at the Army Central Staff College looked at several records of African-Americans serving in the U.S. Military, and concluded that black were not capable of fighting in wars, and should just be used to do simple tasks. The study was later used to decide that African-Americans should be segregated in the military. This secondary source was helpful because it led me to look at segregation in the military years before the Tuskegee Airmen arose, and it also had strong information about post-war events.

Ashley 3 In Honor of the Tuskegee Airmen: The CAAF Red Tail Project. P-51 Models. 24 June 2010. JPG file. This picture does have historical value, but is not a primary source. It is of a restored P-51 plane that was flown by the 332nd Fighter Group, but it was taken in recent terms, after the war. This picture was used in the Thesis page of my website. MacGregor, Jr., Morris J. Defense Studies Series: Integration of the Armed Forces 1940-1965. Center of Military History: United States Army, 1985. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <>. This online book gave a very detailed description of the status of integration of each branch of the military before, during, and after World War II. It served as a great resource for checking the liability of other sources. It also included primary source quotes from several commanders of the Tuskegee Airmen. Moye, J. Todd. Freedom Flyers: The Tuskegee Airmen of World War II. Oxford: University Press, 2010. Print. This secondary source was very insightful, and gave several quotes that served as primary sources. The Freedom Flyers was one of many nicknames given to the Tuskegee Airmen, and as for the book itself, it gave descriptions not only of segregation in the army, but about segregation African-Americans faced in every-day life. School of Music Preserves History: The Tuskegee Airmen Fight Song. Southern Miss Now. 14 April 2011. WAV file. This website was sponsored by The University of Southern Mississippi. I used the file of the Tuskegee Airmen Fight Song from this site. The song was the official Tuskegee Airmen Fight Song. Stokes, Stan. Thunder of the 332nd . Painting. eHangar. Web. 6 February 2012.

Ashley 4 This painting of a P-47 Thunderbolt fighter jet was made by Stan Stokes. I used this painting on my Tuskegee Airmen s Performance Page , which talks about the planes and how the Tuskegee Airmen painted the tails on those planes red. Tuskegee Airmen Prints. eHangar, n.d. Web. 4 February 2012. This website was not used for content, but for its many pictures of P-47 Thunderbolt and P-51 Mustang fighter planes. These were secondary sources, since most of the images on the site were paintings, not photographs of the time. Tuskegee Airmen to be Honored in Colorado. Aero News Network. 11 Nov. 2011. JPG file. I used this photo of a red-tailed P-51 fighter plane on the banner of my website. The Tuskegee Airmen painted the tails of all seventy-two of their P-51s red, making them stand out in the sky, and giving them the nickname the Red Tails.