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Understanding Six Sigma Manual

6σ

History of Six Sigma

Understanding Six Sigma

The U.S Defense system developed a system known as SQC to manage the complex weapon system & to handle the distributed defense contractors. SQC:- is a set of tools that originated in the Military Standards and the basis of SQC process was 3 sigma limits which yields a rate of 2700 defects per million. After World war 2 US companies returned to their Original strategy while the defeated countries were rebuilding their Industries. General Mc Arthur who was the Governor general of JAPAN at that time Imported some of the U.S. Pioneers of SQC to help train their counterparts in JAPAN. By 1970~ 1980 Japanese producers were renowned for their Quality & durability. U.S Companies slowly realized that to attain the desired Quality level two things are necessary One should be able to measure the quality level I.e it should be Quantifiable & Measurable. Motorola pioneered the Use of Six Sigma , Bill Smith VP &Senior QA Manager of Motorola is regarded as the Father of Six Sigma.

History of Six Sigma

Understanding Six Sigma

**Quality Management & Six Sigma
**

“ Six Sigma Management” --Lead by American Companies

Six Sigma

Total Optimization of R&D, Production , Sales and Service is necessary

• Small group of sections • Toward total Solution

Total Quality Management

Improve Product Quality

Total Quality Control

Quality ` Control

“ Production line focussed Improvement “ --- Lead by Japanese Companies

Texas Instruments. Sony started Six Sigma . …. Nokia. Michael Harry • The Malcom Baldridge Award of 1988 of Motorola • After Motorola. LG Electronics. Polaroid. Allied Signal . Lockheed Martin. GE.History of Six Sigma Understanding Six Sigma Most of service called products were from reworked products at the factories • Bill Smith Report Hidden Factory and Rolled throughput Yield concept are Induced • Actual Practice Strategy by Dr. ABB.

Definitions Population Total Study Group Understanding Six Sigma Sample Small Group taken from Population Data The facts derived from the sample The Group of Sample 100 people who possesses a Fan Age and Number of decision makers purchasing a Fan .

e the facts derived from the sample. It is also called Universe.Definitions Data Point : The single entity in the sample. Statistics : An application theory & method to reach appropriate & wise decisions in unknown circumstances. Understanding Six Sigma Data : The trend of data points in a sample I. that characterizes the sample. Statistic : A numerical value such as standard deviation or mean . Conclusion Sample : A Sample is a portion of the whole collection of Items (population) Population : The population consists of the set of all measurements in which the investigation is interested. Population Sample The Characteristic of populaton : parameter The Characteristic of Sample : Statistic . Information : The data presented in a form which conveys some result.

g Length of a Playground. E. Thickness of the paint coating.The data which can be measured only in whole number and has no units associated with it is called Discreet data.g number of Heart Beats in one minute. It is the Count of the Number of Attributes E. C) Discreet Data : .Understanding Six Sigma Types of Data A. E. It can be in fractions.g Quality of Food ( OK/NG).The data which can has only two options Yes/No. ect. Number of Type A defects.) Continuos Data : . . True/False is called Attribute data. B) Attribute Data :.The Data which can be measured and has unit associated with it is called continuous data.

C) The Normal distribution curve is symmetrical USL about the mean.e the curve gets close to X-Axis but it never touches it Standard Normal curve is one having Mean=0. x LSL .) The Normal curve is a bell shaped curve and it has single peak (Mode ) at the center. D) The curve is asymptotic I. B) The mean & median of the distribution are equal and are located at the peak. and standard deviation =1. A.Understanding Six Sigma Characteristics of Normal Curve Normal Distribution Curve is known as Density Curve meaning the area under the curve is equal to one.

2 .Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Central Tendency of Data A. E.3) = 3. 5 .4th Term ) = 3 + 0. 4 . 8 Median Term = 4. 7 . Mean = 1+ 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15/5 = 3 Mean of Sample. 1 . X = ΣX = n i x1 +x2 +x3 +x4+……. It is equal to the sum of all Observations divided by the number of Observations in the set.xn I=1 n b. 1 . 4 . 2 . 5 .5 ( 5th . 5 . No. 7.g 3.) Median : The Median term of the given data is given by n + 1 th term. 4 .. E.5 ( 4.g Consider the data set given below 1 . 1 .5th Term = 4th Term + 0. 2 . Arrange data in Increasing Order = 1 . where n is the number of Median = 2 Observations in the given data(arranged in increasing order).) Mean : The mean of a set of Observations is their average. 8 . 3 . 3 . of Terms = 8.5 .

4. 7. 10 .g 3. 15. 10 Sol. Mode = 3 E. 8 . 5. 15 No. Arrange the data in Increasing Order 2. 12 . 6 . 4. 8.of Observations = (7 + 1 ) / 2 = 4th Term = 8 . 4 .g Calculate the Median of the Following data : 2. 3.Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Central Tendency of Data C) Mode : The value Occurring maximum number of times E. 6. 6. 4 . 12. 3.

) Range : The Difference between Maximum & Minimum value. 4 Mean = 3 Standard Deviation ( σ ) = (10/4 )1/2 = 1. 5 Variation ( σ 2 ) = 2. 1. c ) Variance ( σ 2 ) : It is defined as the square of the standard deviation to account for the total variation observed in the data. b) Standard Deviation ( σ ) : It gives tells us about the variation in data . LSL =8 Range = USL .Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Spread/Dispersion of Data a. E. 5.8 = 4 Consider the data set 3.LSL = 12 . USL = 12 . 2.g : The Process Specification = 10 ± 2 Sol.25 Data 1 2 3 4 5 Mean = 3 Variation Variation 2 -2 4 -1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 0 10 .

10 . 13. 14 . 23.25th Term = 4.5.75th Term = 17.1.50) = -1 .2nd Term ) = 10 + 0. 17.13 ) = 13.5( 7. Q3= 3* 2.25th Term = 6.5 (14 .Q2 and Q3 are 1st 2nd & 3rd Quartiles resp. Arrange data in Increasing order = 9 .25( 1) = 10. 13 Sol . Calculate the First .25th Term = 2nd Term + 0.75 .5th Term = 13 + 0. 18 . Also calculate the IQR & Upper & Lower Limits.5 IQR Eg. contains 50 % of the Total data points Upper Limit UL = Q3 + 1. 11 . 9.25 = 7.50 ) = 29 .10. Interquartile Range ( IQR ) = Q3 Q1. UL = 17. 10. Q2 = 2 * n + 1 th 4 .50 . 23 Q1 = [ ( 8 +1) / 4 ] th = 2. UL = 10. 11. 17 .1.25 . Q3 = 3 * n + 1 th 4 where Q1.75 IQR = Q3 -Q1 = 17. 18 .25 ( 3rd Term .5 IQR Lower Limit LL = Q1 . second & Third Quartile for the data given below.25 Q2= 2* 2.75 + 1. Q1 = n + 1 4 th .5 (7. 14.Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Spread/Dispersion of Data d) Quartile : It divides the total range into 4 equal parts (quarters ) and tells that in which Quartile a particular data point is lying.

and we use ‘ σ ’in measuring process capability. 2) Business Strategy : We gain a competitive edges in Quality. Cost. Customer Satisfaction. 3) Philosophy : We should work smarter.Six Sigma : Introduction Understanding Six Sigma What is Six Sigma …. not harder .??????? 1) Statistical Measurement : We measure defect rates in all the Processes through an expanding statistical concept.

Improve Processes Lower Hanging Fruit Seven Basic Tools 3 σ Wall.807 308.4 233 6. Improve Designs Bulk of Fruit Process Characterization and Optimization 4 σ Wall.Six Sigma : Introduction Z Level Harvest Understanding Six Sigma Z 6 5 4 3 2 PPM 3.537 Defect Opportunity Sweet Fruit Design for Manufacturablity 5 σ Wall. Work with suppliers Ground Fruit Logic and Intuition Process Capability .210 66.

73 % 99. whereas the Area outside the Curve represents the Rejection . 1σ 2σ 3σ 4σ 5σ 6σ 68.45 % 99.3 % 95.9936 % 99.Six Sigma : Introduction Understanding Six Sigma The Percentage Acceptable Area under the Curve Increases as the Z Value ( the Number of Standard Deviations σ ) Increases .99 99 99 8 % USL x LSL The Area Under the Curve represents the Acceptance or Yield.99 99 4 % 99.

Six Sigma : D-M-A-I-C Theme Selection Understanding Six Sigma Objective Theme Selection (Define) Measurement Y Capability OK ? N Analysis • Define problem • Define range • Measuring capability of CTQ • Clearfy measuring method • Clearfy factors Redesign Measurement Analysis Redesign ? N Improvement Improvement Y • Find vital few • Optimize process N Capability OK ? Y Control Control • Control vital few • Set up control system .

807 defects per million • Produces 3.3σ Vs 6σ Company Understanding Six Sigma The 3 Sigma Company • Spends 15-25% of sales dollars on cost of failure The 6 Sigma Company • Spends 5% of sales dollars on cost of failure • Produces 66.4 defects per million opportunities opportunities • Relies on capable prcesses that • Relies on inspection to find defects don’t produce defects • Belives high quality is expensive • Benchmarks themselves against their competition • Believes 99% is good enough • Defines CTQs internally • Knows that the high quality producer is the low cost produer • Benchmarks themselves against the best in the world • Believes 99% is Unacceptable • Defines CTQs from customers .

Manufacturing. Design.Define-Application of Six Sigma Understanding Six Sigma Six Sigma is a tool that can be applied to all business systems. Sales & Service Guarantee for design completion • Selecting CTQ to meet customer requirement • Deciding reasonable Tolerance • Guarantee CTQ’s through capability analysis R&D Six Sigma Mfg Quality Assurance in Manufacturing Stages • Improve serious Problems • Real Time Monitoring • CTQ control system SVC Maximizing Sales & Service • Improve cycle time & accuracy • Cost Improvement .

Define Understanding Six Sigma Define Phase • Pareto Analysis • Process Mapping • Logic Tree • 3/5 Why Analysis • RTY • QFD • FMEA • Brainstorming .

During final inspection. bends. Pareto chart can draw one chart for all your data (the default). The categories are often "defects. or dents. First you count the number of times each defect occurred." A cumulative percentage line helps you judge the added contribution of each category." By ordering the bars from largest to smallest. chips.20% of items purchased by the company accounts for 80% of the value 1st Item in the figure below indicates the highest no of faults Pareto Charts are a type of bar chart in which the horizontal axis represents categories of interest. rather than a continuous scale. Example :The company you work for manufactures metal bookcases. Pareto Principle is also known as 80/20 . You want to make a Pareto chart to see which defect is causing most of your problems. or separate charts for groups within your data. Pareto charts can help to focus improvement efforts on areas where the largest gains can be made. .Define Understanding Six Sigma Pareto Analysis : The Origin of the Tool lies with the Italian Economist Vilfredo Pareto. a Pareto chart can help you determine which of the defects comprise the "vital few" and which are the "trivial many. a certain number of bookcases are rejected due to scratches. then you enter the name of the defect each time it occurs into a worksheet column called Damage.

Graph window output .Define Damage Scratch Scratch Bend Chip Dent Scratch Chip Scratch Counts 274 59 19 43 4 8 6 10 Understanding Six Sigma • Choose Stat > Quality Tools > Pareto Chart. • Choose Chart defects data in and enter Damage. Click OK.

Define Process Mapping Understanding Six Sigma • Process mapping is used to document process to examine part and information flow. rolled throughput yield. • Code activities using symbols for easy analysis.Quality improvements . • Add key process metrics . • Walk through the process to validate map.Cycle time improvements .Flow improvements . (General area or specific process you intend to improve) • Brainstorm and order process steps with your team. The Process Mapping Method • Define the Process boundary. scrap. overtime $.yield. capacity. %OTD • Analyze map for key business issues -could be in the areas of : .Process loss or waste . %schedule. costs. • It is a key tool in identifying opportunities for improvement.

Define Process Mapping Car Shop arrival Understanding Six Sigma [ex] Vehicle Purchasing Meeting Salesman Trial Driving? Yes No Small Talk Look around first car Look around second car Look around third car Shop around for another shop No Whether you Yes buy or not? Decide Contract Value Decide to buy Review the sales manager Operation Receive key and Tag Trial Driving Decision Delay measurement Storage Decide the Price Whether you No purchase another or not? Yes Review the sales manager Visit another car shop No Decide to buy Decide the price Yes Reasonable price? Make out final contract w Get a loan Credit check Stand by for a loan Drive the new car Transmission .

0% I/Case extrusion/mold Case forming Cycle 97.7% D/Plate plate/paint 99.4% ▲ Case ▲ Door × 89.7% × 83.0% .4% 99.8%× ▲ Cycle ▲ assembly ▲ LQC& appearance 96.7% LQC & appearance 96.0% D/Liner extrusion/mold 99.5% Output Rolled Though put Yield = 73.Define Process Mapping Understanding Six Sigma [ex] Refrigerator .4% Door assembly 97.R1 Line Rolled Throughput Yield Door Ass’y 89.CTQ.8% Front . L painting Case Ass’y 73.5% = 52.7% assembly 83.7% ×97.2% O/Case.7% Door forming 93.6% 81.3% 99. B/Plate 91.

Mutually Exclusive Collectively Exhaustive Mutually Exclusive : When a Problem is broken into further sub parts there should not be anything common among the factors. • Breakdown the problem on the base of MECE .MECE . Collectively Exhaustive : Also there should be nothing left to represent the Main factor Why Electromagnetic Losses Inductance Lamination Why Rotor Endrings Mechanical Area A Area B OD Core length RPM Stator Assembly 6σ is a kind of type which can improve the problem (RPM) by practicing improvement activity for the lower level displayed in the long run .Define Logic Tree (Structure Tree) Understanding Six Sigma • Used to break down problem into manageable groups to identify root cause or area of focus.

Define Understanding Six Sigma 5 Why Analysis : Five Why analysis is done to determine the root cause of the Problem .. It is Observed that by the time you arrive at the 5th Why the solution of the Problem is with you. . It is a kind of brainstorming to reach the root cause of the Problem. you can locate the root cause at the 3rd or 4th Why also. It is not essential to ask why 5 times.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma Rolled Throughput Yeild

**RTY : Rolled throughput Yeild : It is the Probability that the product will pass
**

through all the stages without any rejection / rework. RTY is calculated by calculating the YFT’s of Individual stages.

**RTY = YFT1 * YFT2 * ……… YFTn
**

connected in series.

,

where YFT’s are the First time yields of the Individual Stages/Process

**YNA = Normalized Yield = ( RTY of the line )1/no. of stages in Line
**

YNA gives the average yield of line . This is used to calculate when we have to compare the performance of two lines on the basis of RTY.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

RTY is the probability of going through all the processes with zero-defect the first time . Also, it provides an indication of opportunities to reduce the waste. Goal

-Process 1: (Acceptancerate:99.0%) -Process 2 (92.0%) -Process 3 (97.0%) Final Inspn. (97.0%)

Input

To increase productivity through Quality Improvement Overall process’s defect, m/c trouble, No work,L/B,Model

Target

Change Loss,Non-value added work

Tool

6 Sigma TDR, 6 Sigma, NWT, One man one project

Activity

Un-controlled Loss

Total Process Defect-rate

- Process defect rate - Self & sequential inspection

Final Product

**RTY = 0.99×0.92×0.97×0.97= 85.7 %
**

* RTY : Rolled Throughput Yield

To improve all the hidden defects of all the processes

**Define Yield First Time
**

1000

Understanding Six Sigma

Painted Components

**Are the parts Good ?
**

No

820

Yes

100

Rework & Reprocess ( Rust, Chemical Wash)

Yes

**Can the parts be repaired ?
**

50

30

Yes

Rework & Pass-on ( Paint Touch up)

No Scrap (Dent)

•YNA allows for calculation of Z value of processes. of units that pass the first time U = No. •YRT provides an indication of opportunities to reduce waste. of units tested YRT = YFT1 x YFT2 x YFT3 YRT = Rolled Throughput yield YFT1. •YNA us average yield of processes.Define First Time Yield Rolled Throughput Yield Understanding Six Sigma Normalised Yield YFT = S/U YFT = First Time Yield S = No.YFT2. •YNA allows for comparison between processes.… = First Time Yield of each process YNA = (YRT)**1/Opp YNA = Normalized Yield Opp = Number of opportunities YFT gives the probability of going through one process with zero defects. . •YRT gives the probability of going through all the processes with zero defects in the first time.

• Rank cues by importance and translate them into technical specifications required to meet customer cues. general requirements and current quality issues. converting those requirements into Tech changes in the Process through Quality Matrix.Define QFD : Understanding Six Sigma Quality Function Deployment ( What Customer Wants ) It is defined in two steps : a) Converting customer’s Voice into Engineers Voice b) Converting Engineers voice into Technical CTQ’s & CTP’s QFD is tool which is used to generate data in the form of taking feedback from the customer through quality matrix. . Rank technical specifications by impact on customer cues and translate them into potential part characteristics(CTQ’S). • Rank part characteristics by impact on meeting technical specifications(CTQ’S) QFD translates the Voice of the Consumer into the Voice of the Engineer. reliability requirements. • Identify key consumer cues by reviewing market.

Define Understanding Six Sigma QFD : Sub Process 1 : To Convert Consumer’s Voice into Engineer’s Voice Engineer's Voice Capacity of Motor System for Gas Charging HE Coils Fins per Inch 1 1 3 1 9 66 Type of Comp Blower /Scroll Priroty Ranking Less Price Low Noise Customer's Requirement Air Flow Less Power More Cooling Rating 9 3 1 9 9 212 3 9 1 9 3 170 1 9 9 1 3 126 1 1 3 3 9 82 10 6 5 8 3 .

Define Understanding Six Sigma QFD : Sub Process 2 : To Convert Engineer’s Voice into Potential CTP’s & CTQ’s Potential CTP's & CTQ's Comp Specifications EER Specifications Gas Charging Qty Variation less than 5mg HE Design Spec to be maintained 1 1 3 3 9 1600 KW Rating Priroty Ranking Engineer's Voice Type of Comp Capacity of Motor Blower /Scroll Design System for Gas Charging HE Coils Fins per Inch 9 1 1 1 1 3096 1 9 1 1 1 2016 3 3 9 1 1 2428 3 1 1 9 3 1848 212 170 126 82 66 .

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

FMEA : Failure Mode Effect Analysis ( What Customer Doesn’t want ) It gives you possible reasons in which a given Process / Design of part of a Product can Fail. To every Failure Mode we associate RPN Number RPN : Risk Priority Number = Severity * Occurrence * detection Rating Scale Severity

(1 ~ 10) (1 ~ 10) (1 ~ 10)

1 : If the Problem is Less Severe 10 : If the Problem is Life Threatening. 1 : If the Problem has chances of less occurrence 10 : If the Problem has more chances of occurrence 1 : If the Problem is easily detectable. 10 : If it is difficult to locate/detect the Problem

Occurrence

Detection

FMEA is used to proactively identify and rank risks in a product design and assign appropriate actions to be taken to prevent the failure mode.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

FMEA Process • Brainstorm potential failures of the product design. • Assign severity and probability (likelihood of occurrence) ratings to each potential failure mode. • Determine existing control measures being taken to eliminate significant failure modes. • Develop actions to be taken to eliminate or reduce risk on all remaining significant failure modes.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

Brainstorming : It is Discussion among the Process Experts.The basic rule of brainstorming is no ideas are criticized. Brainstorming is of three Types : a) Freewheel b) Round Robin c) Card Method In Freewheeling type of brainstorming, everybody participates in the simultaneous discussion In Round Robin type of brainstorming each Individual in the group is given a chance to give his opinion In Card type method the Individuals write their Ideas on the Card

To Establish the validity of the measuring system & operator b. .Measure Understanding Six Sigma Measure Phase • Gage R & R • Types of Sampling • Process Capability • Four Block Diagram The Aim of the measure stage is to : a. It tells the present Level of the Process.

Measure Understanding Six Sigma Six Sigma is based on the measured data. Therefore. Overall Variation Part to Part Variation Measurement System Variation Variation due to gage Repeatability Variation due to Operator Reproducibility Operator Operator by Part . There will be unfavorable consequences from analysis using statistical tool if we have a problem with measuring system. What’s more. then experiment will end up in failure. we do better secure correct measurement system before the project. the process gets worse.

Measurement error variation σ2R&R = σ2Repeatibility + σ2Reproducibility Measurement error variation Variation due to Gage Variation due to Operator .Introduction Understanding Six Sigma σ2Total = σ2Part-Part + σ2R&R Total variation Variation due to differences among the parts.Gage R & R .

Gage R & R . Repeatability is the variation due to equipment variation. Difference = 0.5 . ◆ Repeatability = EV(Equipment Variation) It is the variation observed in the system when one Operator measures the same part twice using the same gage. Example : Consider two Operators who successively measures the Thickness of paint coating on same Ref L/R part using the same gauge.0 . Reproducibility is the variation due to change in operator.V2 +A. Operator 1 = 14.2 .8 .V2 . Reading 2 = 12. variation due to Gage (Repeatability) ◆ Reproducibility = AV(Appraiser Variation) It is the variation observed in the system when two different operators measures the same part using the same gage.5 . Difference = 0. Reading 1 = 12.6 . Example : Consider one Operator who successively measures the Thickness of paint coating on Ref L/R part using the same gauge.Introduction Understanding Six Sigma What is Gage R&R Gage R & R is Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility. Operator 2 = 14. variation due to Operator (Reproducibility ) Total Gage R&R = E.

Long Study Method Repeatability ? ☞ Variation observed with one measurement device when used several times by one operator while measuring the identical characteristic on the same parts. Operator A Operator B Operator C Reproducibility . Understanding Six Sigma Repeatability : “Getting consistent results” Measure/Re-measure variation Reproducibility ? Variation obtained from different operators using the same device when measuring the identical characteristic on the same parts.Gage R &R .

• Maintenance of measurement system ( Calibration ) • For measurement training for existing and New Staff. • Selection of the most appropriate gage for the task. .Purpose Understanding Six Sigma Gage R&R • Gage R & R is used to ensure that the measured data used for statistical tests is valid. • When we want to exclude the Gage error from results. • When we want to compare the performance of each Gage.Gage R & R .

so that we can get to know what we have to improve Operator or Gage . minimum 10 parts with each part measured at least twice. ◆ Long study method • Requires minimum 2 Operators.Measure ~ Gage R & R ◆ Short study method Understanding Six Sigma Two types of Gage R&R Study • Requires minimum 2 operators and minimum 5 parts with each part measured at least once. • This method cant separate the total variation Observed through Gage R &R into repeatability & reproducibility • Permits speedy acceptance for adapting Gauge. • This method can divide the total variation observed in the system through Gage R & R into repeatability & reproducibility.

0 = 34.1 0 0.19) (0.73 % Gauge Error is calculated by multiplying the average range by a constant d ( to be taken from the Table ) .4 • Average Range ( R-bar ) = Σ R / n = 0. (tolerance = 1.1 0.1 4.64 % 5.7 Range Sum 0.15 indicates the Confidence Level of 99 % .0 indicates a Confidence Level of 99. 6.1 5.2 5 4.8 4.5.4 / 5 = 0.0 ± 0.7 5.08 ) = 0.3464 x 100) /1.0 /d) ( R-bar) = (5.3464 •Gauge R & R as % of Tolerance = (0.1 0.15 /1.7 5.1 0.9 4.Gage R & R ~ Short Study Short Study Method Understanding Six Sigma Example : The height of a component has specifications given by 5.08 • Gauge Error = ( 6.8 4.0 ) Solution : The Measurements taken by the two Operators for the Five Parts are listed below Part Operator 1 Operator 2 Ranges (1-2) 1 2 3 4 5 4.

41 1.72 2.36 2.35 2.08 1.19 1.81 2.16 1.38 2.72 2.17 1.24 1.37 2.34 .48 2.75 2.15 1.35 2.21 1.10 1.34 2.73 2.23 1.28 1.Gage R & R ~ Short Study Understanding Six Sigma d* values for distribution of the average range Number of parts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 1.11 1.74 2.40 2.09 1.08 5 2.18 1.08 1.17 1.35 2.12 1.72 2.16 Number of operators 3 4 1.09 1.91 2.77 2.73 2.

the sampling must be proceeded by a plan. so the total range of variation and specification are covered. • Resolution is the smallest unit of measure the gage is able to read. Gage must have resolution 0.002 and Gage R&R ≤20% to be recommended. • Most values should lie near the LSL/USL . ★ Intentional Sampling : • The samples must not be randomly selected. because the chances of discrepancy are more near these limits .Gage R & R ~ Guidelines Understanding Six Sigma Pre Requisites for Gage R & R ★ Blind Test : • The Operator should not be aware that Gage R&R is going On.020. • The Previous Readings should not be conveyed while taking Next Reading. •Ex) In case of part feature tolerance equals +/-0. ★ Gage selection(Resolution) •The Gage must have a resolution of less than or equal to 10% of the one sided specification or process variation.

consideration should be made for the risks associated with high Gauge R &R Number of Distinct Categories P Value of the Operator * Part >4 > 0.) ≤ 20% : Acceptable : Conditional : Unacceptable % Study Variation & % Study Tolerance 20% to 29% ≥ 30% An improvement plan to lower the gauge R&R variation should be implemented. If there is no improvement .Gage R &R ~ Long Study Method Understanding Six Sigma An acceptable value for a Gage R&R Study (Continuos Data .25 .

Gage R &R . Operator & Measurement data Select: ANOVA .Long Study Method Long study method (using Minitab) Understanding Six Sigma Input : Parts.

???????? X .Long Study Method Understanding Six Sigma Why ANOVA method is more accurate than X(bar) R Method….R Method ANOVA Part to Part Variation Repeatability Reproducibility Part to Part Variation Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Operator by Part ANOVA Method further breaks the Variation due to Operator(Reproducibility) into Operator & Operator by Part ..Gage R &R .

6 0.25 indicates that an operator is having a problem measuring some the parts.552 Understanding Six Sigma If significant.1 0.06667 0.250 0.810 2.6 0.4 1.1 MS 9. Hence Gage R&R is not acceptable.161 .1 1.05000 F 204.168 0.Long Study Method Long study method (using Minitab) Gage R&R Study .0 83.10000 0.04828 F 187.4 83.000 2.071 P 0.04444 0.Gage R &R .06667 0.000 0. Two-Way ANOVA Table Without Interaction Source Parts Operator Repeatability Total DF 9 1 29 39 SS 81. P-value < 0.000 0.ANOVA Method Two-Way ANOVA Table With Interaction Source Parts Operator Parts * Operator Repeatability Total DF 9 1 9 20 39 SS 81.10000 0.1 MS 9.889 P 0.

30513 0.21972 0.96 7.05085 0.Long Study Method Long study method (using Minitab) Understanding Six Sigma % Study Variation < 20 % and % Study Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Part-To-Part Total Variation VarComp 0.11024 %Study Var (%SV) 14.89 100.11 0.63 7.83 32.31831 0.00919 9.00 %Tolerance (SV/Toler) 33.00259 2.30513 9.05086 0.30546 (of VarComp) 2.35 3.76 For Gage R&R to be acceptable.05085 1.Gage R &R .25460 2.85 14.51837 Study Var (6 * SD) 1.04828 0. number of distinct categories > 4 Number of Distinct Categories = 9 . Gage R&R is acceptable Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Part-To-Part Total Variation StdDev (SD) 0.09 0.22553 0.21 2.23 227.47 3.00259 0.63 225.79 100.00 Tolerance> 20%.11 97.35 98.50153 1.35316 1.

0 * * 100 Gage R & R( Nested ) : Used for Destructive Testing Gage R & R (Nested ) is used when each part is measured once only as when measuring. The torque release of a bolt during QC sampling.Gage R &R . we cannot measure again . Ex.Long Study Method Understanding Six Sigma % Study Variation = σ Gage R&R σ total variation σ Gage R&R σ total variation * 100 % Study Tolerance = 6.

.Gage R &R . Observed average Time 1 Stability is the total variation in the measurements obtained with a measurement system on the same master or reference value when measuring the same characteristic over an extended time period. Stability Time 2 Bias : It is a measure of the distance between the average value the measurements and the "True" or "Actual" value of the sample or part.Long Study Method Accuracy ? True (Reference) value Understanding Six Sigma Accuracy The degree of agreement of the measured value to the true magnitude (unbiased values). (Accuracy is typically expressed as 1-%Bias) Stability ? * Setting a true value is a one that is measured by the most accurate measuring device.

Actual values (No Bias) Reference value Reference values Larger Bias Small Bias . (Gage is less accurate at the low end of specification or operating range than at the high end).Gage R &R .Long Study Method Linearity ? Actual values Understanding Six Sigma LSL USL Linearity is the difference in the bias values throughout the expected operating range of the gage.

st 4 5 (Process Technology ) 2 B D 6 Good A : Poor control.4 Block Diagram Block Diagram Poor Understanding Six Sigma 2. poor technology B : Must control the process better.0 1.5 2. poor technology D : World Class .0 0. technology is fine C : Process control is good.5 1.5 Good Poor Zshift (Process Control) A C 1 3 Z.Measure .

Gage R & R .Discreet Data Understanding Six Sigma Pre-Requisites Gage R & R (discreet data) • The Minimum Number of Samples should be at least 20 • Minimum Number of Operators should be at least 2 • Each Operator must take at least two readings of each Part. Acceptability of Gage R & R (discreet data) • % Gage R & R should be less than 5 % .

. • If the gage cannot be improved.Gage R & R . it is unacceptable and an alternate measurement system should be found. of Disagreements/Total Opportunities X100 = 3 / 20 x 100% = 15% • If the results of checkers are different. • % Gage R&R = No.Discreet Data Understanding Six Sigma Gage R & R (discreet data) Visual Inspection Gage Study 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 •The gage is acceptable if both the Appraisers (four per part) agree. the gage • must be improved and re-evaluated. Appraiser "A" 1 2 G G G G NG G NG NG G G G G NG NG NG NG G G G G G G G G G NG G G G G G G G G G G NG G NG G Appraiser "B" 1 2 G G G G G G NG NG G G G G NG NG G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G NG G NG G 18 Samples .

.Importance Understanding Six Sigma From the Gauge R & R Study we can determine the Following : • Gage resolution is adequate.Gage R & R . • The Measurement System is stable over time. • The measurement system error is small enough and acceptable enough relevant to the process variation or Specification Gage R & R Indicates that whether the Measurement System is good enough for the collection of Data.

Specifications or requirements are the numerical values within which the system is expected to operate. aims.Capability Analysis Understanding Six Sigma Capability analysis is a set of calculations used to assess whether a system is statistically able to meet a set of specifications or requirements.Measure . the minimum and maximum acceptable values. . Specifications are numerical requirements. that is. or standards. goals.

Capability Index (Cpk) accounts for the process centering.Measure Understanding Six Sigma Cp = Specification Width Process Capability Cp = USL-.LSL 6σwithin = Cp (k-1) CPL = X . expressed as the best short Term performance.LSL Cp = Product Specification Cpk Manufacturing Variability k = USL . Considers sample data variation & location simultaneously.LSL 2 T-µ CPU = USL .X 3σwithin 3σwithin Process Capability ( Cp) is the Tolerance width in Relation to the process capability. . Takes no account of the process centering.

Statisticians use the normal distribution as an approximation to the sampling distribution. SEM * SEM = σp (n)1/2 Standard deviation of Population Sample Size n=8 n=30 Sample Size .Central Limit Theorem Understanding Six Sigma Central limit theorem states that as the sample size increases.Measure . SEM : Standard Error of Mean Standard error of mean gives the difference between the standard deviation of Population & Standard deviation of sample. whenever the sample size is at least 30. the sampling distribution of the mean will approach normality.

Sample Size • Less than 8 • Between 8 ~ 30 • 30 & above Difference b/t Standard deviation of Population and Sample high variation Moderate Variation Minimum Variation As the sample size increases. so the curve line representing the difference becomes parallel to X-axis. it is evident that for sample size 30 the difference between the standard deviations of sample and population is very less. Even though this difference reduces further by increasing sample size. At sample size 30 the difference is minimum and it remains constant & beyond 30 it remains constant. Hence while sampling. ..Measure .Central Limit Theorem Understanding Six Sigma From the graph shown on the previous slide. above 8 samples the difference between standard deviation of Population & sample reduces drastically. but this reduction is negligible. sample size of 30 is considered as the idle sample size.

Example : During the draw of lottery tickets each & every lottery ticket number has an equal chance of winning the Prize. 2. the sub group taken for sampling has data points of same type. if we take the Sample group in which all Supervisors/Operators/Managers are there. supervisor and manager are taken so the difference in the taste would be maximum within the sub group and minimum among the subgroup. .Sampling Understanding Six Sigma Types of Sampling 1. then the difference in the variation of taste within the sub group would be minimum but among the Sub groups would be maximum.) Stratified Sampling : In this type of Sampling . Example : For determining the Quality of Food in the Canteen. 3) Clustered Sampling : In this type of Sampling. Example : In the above example if take the sample in such a way that in the subgroup operator.each & every type of data point present in the population would be covered in the Sample.) Random Sampling : In this type of Sampling each data point of the Population has an equal chance/ Probability of being selected.Measure .

Measure Understanding Six Sigma BLACK NOISE (Signal) PROCESS RESPONSE RATIONAL SUBGROUPS WHITE NOISE (Common Cause variation) TIME .

. • Represents that best the process can be with the present technology(Inherent process capability).Measure White Noise Understanding Six Sigma • White noise represents the variation present in every process. Black Noise • Black Noise represents the outside influences on a process that cause average to shift and drift. Also known as common cause variation • It is not controllable variation within the existing technology. • It represents how the process is actually performing over time(Sustained process capability). Also known as Special Cause or assignable cause variation. • It is potentially controllable variation with the existing process technology.

Measure Understanding Six Sigma From a statistics perspective. There are only two problems. Problem with Spread Desired Current situation Desired Problem with Centering Current situation LSL T USL LSL T USL Shift Accurate but not Precise Precise but not Accurate .

LSL + 3σ Process Width Zst = 3 Cp Zlt = 3Cpk Design Width . the lower the Total Defects Per Unit Design margin is measured by the Process Capability Index (Cp) Cp = Maxium Allowable Range of Characteristic Normal variation of Process X -3σ +3σ Cp = USL .Measure Process Capability Ratios Understanding Six Sigma The greater the design margin.

Z lt (σlt ) .Measure Is it Control or Technology? Long Term Data Understanding Six Sigma Short Term Data . process Z st : Z lt . because the long term value is reduced by the shift of the process 6σ means Zlt=4.0 and Cp=2.5 and Cpk=1. Defined by technology and process .The best process . Process Performance can be) Zlt is always less tahn Zst. Z st (σst ) .0 . Data taken over a short enough period of time that there are no long enough that external factors external influences on the can influence the process.5 6σ means Zst=6. Data taken over a period of time . Process Capability (Entitlement . Cp Technology: Control Cpk . Defined by technology control .

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Analyze Phase • Cause & Effect Diagram • Hypothesis Testing • Mean Testing • Variance Testing • Regression Analysis The Aim of the Analyze Phase is to : a. Pick out the Vital few Potential Factors out of Trivial Many. . c. b. To List down all the Possible factors through Brainstorming. Statistical verification of Potential Factors by means of various type of Tests. Ascertaining whether we have considered all factors & nothing is Left Out. d.

The Middle Bones indicates the direction of path from cause to effect ..Man.(Money can be considered wherever relevant) . Cause & Effect Diagram is also known as Fishbone Diagram / 4M Diagram. The Symptom or result is put under the Dark Box on the Right. The Lighter Boxes may consist of Five Ms .Measurement & Method.Analyze .Cause & Effect Diagram Understanding Six Sigma Cause & Effect Diagram Cause Cause Cause Cause Effect Cause Cause Cause The Purpose of this tool is to Find out the start of the collection of Data and analysis. It list down all the Probable causes responsible for the main effect . Lighter Boxes at the end of the Large Bones are main groups in which ideas are classified.Machine.

Cause & Effect Diagram Understanding Six Sigma Man New casual Handling problem M/C not clean Machine Cylinder Failure Die Setting OUT CASE DENT Dented sheet Chips on sheet Sheet thickness Piece check Method Piece unloading Material .Analyze .

Hypothesis Testing is defined as the comparison of two Populations (equality of mean/ variance ) by taking samples from those Populations. It is assumed in the beginning that the two Populations are equal (Null Hypothesis .. an assumption. σ1 ≠ σ2 ) . σ1 = σ2 ) or not equal (Alternate Hypothesis : µ1≠ µ2 . Continuous Data 1) F-test : Compares Variances • Levene’s Test • Bartlett’s Test 2) t-test : Compares means • 1 sample t-test • Paired t-test • 2 sample t-test Discrete Data 3) Chi Square Test : Compares counts • Goodness of Fit • Contingency Table . The test is selected depending on the type of data or the comparison required. There are many types of hypothesis test. The equality is confirmed by actually conducting tests on the sample.Analyze . There is always a risk associated with the Hypothesis .Hypothesis Hypothesis Testing Understanding Six Sigma Hypothesis means something taken to be true for the Purpose of argument or Investigation . in case the sample taken for comparison from Population does not correctly represent the Population.µ1 µ2 .

Ha is the one Ha Ho Decision Correct In this case as the samples does not correctly represent the Population Sample Type 2 Error β In this case as the samples does not correctly represent the Population so sample mean ≠ Population mean. Incorrect Decision Ha Type 1 Error α . Population Ho In this case the samples correctly represent the Population so sample mean = Population mean. Incorrect Decision In this case as the samples correctly represent the Population so sample mean = Population mean.Hypothesis Hypothesis Testing Understanding Six Sigma Ho(Null Hypothesis) is assumed to be true . Correct Decision so sample mean ≠ Population mean.This is like the defendant being assumed to be innocent. that must be proved. Ha(Alternative Hypothesis) is alternatives the Null Hypothesis.Analyze .

Generally It’s value lies around 5 %. This also happens when a weird sample is selected for comparison. It is also known as β − Error or Consumer’s Risk. It is also known as α − Error or Producer’s Risk. .Hypothesis Important Terms Understanding Six Sigma 1. 2.) Type 1 Error : This error gives us the probability of rejecting the Right Material . 4) 1-β = Power of the test The rejecting probability when null Hypothesis you want to test is not right.Analyze . 3 . It is not possible to simultaneously commit a Type 1 and Type 2 decision error.) 1-α = Confidence of the Test The probability that can be determined as a right thing when the Null Hypothesis is correct. It’s value generally lies around 10 %. ) Type 2 Error : This error gives us the probability of accepting the wrong material. This happens when a weird sample gets selected for the comparison of mean/variance.

Analyze .Tests used for Comparison Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Mean Testing Continuous Data 1 Sample Z Test 1 Sample t Test 2 Sample t Test ANOVA Testing Variance Testing Test for Equal Variance Discrete Data 1 Proportion Test 2 Proportion Test Chi-Square Test 2 Variance Test .

7 4. 5 In Test mean.6 .7 4. You know that the distribution of measurements has historically been close to normal with s = 0. This procedure is based upon the normal distribution.9 5.4 4. enter 0.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 1 Sample Z Test :computes a confidence interval or performs a hypothesis test of the mean when the population standard deviation.2.. you use the Z-procedure. Values 4. This test compares the mean of the sample with some test Population with known standard deviation. 2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample Z. 6 Click Options.6 5 5. Click OK in each dialog box. 4 In Standard deviation. enter Values. Solution : 1 Open the worksheet enter the values. enter 90.1 4. In Confidence level. 7 Click Graphs.2. Click OK. σ is known. 3 In Samples in Columns. Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets.1 4. Check Individual value plot. enter 5. and you wish to test if the population mean is 5 and obtain a 90% confidence interval for the mean. Because you know s.

Analyze

One-Sample Z: Test of Values

**Understanding Six Sigma
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Test Mean doesn’t lie within the confidence Interval SE Mean 90% CI Z -3.17 p value < 0.05, Hence Ha, alternate Hypothesis P 0.002

mu = 5 vs not = 5

The assumed standard deviation = 0.2 Variable Values N Mean StDev

9 4.78889 0.24721

0.06667 (4.67923, 4.89855)

Analyze

**Understanding Six Sigma
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Interpreting the results

The test statistic, Z, for testing if the population mean equals 5 is -3.17. The p-value, or the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true, is 0.002. This is called the attained significance level, p-value, or attained α of the test. Because the p-value of 0.002 is smaller than commonly chosen α-levels, there is significant evidence that m is not equal to 5, so you can reject H0 in favor of m not being 5. A hypothesis test at α = 0.1 could also be performed by viewing the individual value plot. The hypothesized value falls outside the 90% confidence interval for the population mean (4.67923, 4.89855), and so you can reject the null hypothesis.

1 Sample t test : computes a confidence interval or performs a hypothesis test of the mean when Population standard , σ is unknown. This procedure is based upon the tdistribution, which is derived from a normal distribution with unknown σ.

Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets. You know that the distribution of widget measurements has historically been close to normal, but suppose that you do not know σ. To test if the population mean is 5 and to obtain a 90% confidence interval for the mean, you use a t-procedure.

Analyze

Solution : 1 Open the worksheet enter the data. 2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t. 3 In Samples in columns, enter Values. 4 In Test mean, enter 5.

**Understanding Six Sigma
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Values 4.9 5.1 4.6 5 5.1 4.7 4.4 4.7 4.6

5 Click Options. In Confidence level enter 90. Click OK in each dialog box One-Sample T: Values Test of mu = 5 vs not = 5 Variable N Mean Values StDev SE Mean 90% CI T P 0.034

9 4.78889 0.24721 0.08240

(4.63566, 4.94212) -2.56

Result Interpretation : The p-value < 0.05 , also “ 0 “ does not lie within the Confidence Interval so Null Hypothesis is rejected and Alternate Hypothesis is accepted. It confirms that the sample mean is not equal to Population Mean ).

In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper) containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population. Energy consumption in houses was measured after one of the two devices was installed. and for small samples it works best if data were drawn from distributions that are normal or close to normal. You can have increasing confidence in the results as the sample sizes increase. . Suppose that you performed a variance test and found no evidence for variances being unequal . The energy consumption data (BTU.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 2 Sample t test : computes a confidence interval and performs a hypothesis test of the difference between two population means when σ 's are unknown and samples are drawn independently from each other. The two devices were an electric vent damper (Damper=1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper=2). This procedure is based upon the t-distribution. Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems.Now you want to compare the effectiveness of these two devices by determining whether or not there is any evidence that the difference between the devices is different from zero.

61 Damper 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .97 8.93 13.84 16.09 11.91 10.85 6.16 8. 3 Choose Samples in one column. 5 In Subscripts.87 9.26 10.7 12.62 11.6 5.06 14.12 13.96 6.28 13. 4 In Samples.64 6.43 7.72 10.94 10.43 10. Understanding Six Sigma BTU.58 8 5.24 8.29 8.78 9.98 15.9 10.28 7.62 7. 6 Check Assume equal variances.21 8.3 16.28 9.58 9. 2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 2-Sample T. enter the data.62 5.37 7.07 6.2 12.04 12.In 7.43 9.24 11.6 9.31 9.94 10.23 2.In'.35 9. enter 'BTU.67 12.82 12.52 18.83 9.71 6. enter Damper.81 9.29 9.96 10.8 4 8.Analyze Solution : 1 Open the worksheet .54 11.36 6. Click OK.27 11.

91 3.701 DF = 88 Both use Pooled StDev = 2.77 0.979631) T-Test of difference = 0 (vs not =): T-Value = -0.450131.39 Understanding Six Sigma 50 10.38 P-Value = 0. Damper Two-sample T for BTU.8818 .mu (2) Estimate for difference: -0.235250 95% CI for difference: (-1.Analyze Minitab Output : Two-Sample T-Test and CI: BTU.02 2.In Damper N 1 2 40 Mean StDev SE Mean 9.In.14 Difference = mu (1) . 0.48 0.

0.Analyze Result Interpretation : Understanding Six Sigma Minitab displays a table of the sample sizes. is used to calculate the test statistic and the confidence intervals. there is no evidence for a difference in energy use when using an electric vent damper versus a thermally activated vent damper. and standard errors for the two samples. thus suggesting that there is no difference.98) which includes zero. with pvalue of 0. we chose to use the pooled standard deviation by choosing Assume equal variances. The test statistic is -0. Since we previously found no evidence for variances being unequal. 2. Next is the hypothesis test result. For this example. .701. A second table gives a confidence interval for the difference in population means.8818. a 95% confidence interval is (-1. and 88 degrees of freedom.45. The pooled standard deviation.38. standard deviations. Since the p-value is greater than commonly chosen a-levels. sample means.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma ANOVA : is a tool with which we can compare several means. However. versus them not all being equal. You place a sample of each of the carpet products in four homes and you measure durability after 60 days. It is a tool used to search for the significant X factors that have an influence on the response variable Y. Generally. you use the one-way ANOVA procedure (data in stacked form) with multiple comparisons. you would choose one multiple comparison method as appropriate for your data. In effect. . Example : You design an experiment to assess the durability of four experimental carpet products. two methods are selected here to demonstrate Minitab's capabilities. Because you wish to test the equality of means and to assess the differences in means. analysis of variance extends the two-sample t-test for testing the equality of two population means to a more general null hypothesis of comparing the equality of more than two means.

42 10. 5 Click OK in each dialog box.95 12.52 12.92 13.62 11.28 14.51 10. 18. enter Carpet. Understanding Six Sigma 4 Click Comparisons.19 7.06 7.1 22.46 21.4 18.66 10. family error rate.94 14. Check Hsu's MCB.5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 . family error rate Durability Carpet and enter 10. 3 In Response. Check Tukey's. enter Durability.Analyze Solution : 1 Open the worksheet enter the data 2 Choose Stat > ANOVA > One-Way.03 14. In Factor.

0 25.435 (-------*-------) ---------+---------+---------+---------+ 10.9 S = 3.047 Error 12 163.05% Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on Pooled StDev Level N Mean StDev ---------+---------+---------+---------+ 1 4 14.0 20.506 (-------*-------) 4 4 18.115 5.24% R-Sq(adj) = 34.691 R-Sq = 47.4 48.5 13.8 3.MTW One-way ANOVA: Durability versus Carpet Source DF SS MS F P Carpet 3 146.0 15.157 (-------*-------) 2 4 9.0 Understanding Six Sigma .735 3.6 Total 15 309.483 3.808 1.Analyze Results for: EXH_AOV.58 0.566 (-------*--------) 3 4 12.

498 -4.426 -1.748 3.058 ------+---------+---------+---------+--(------*-------) ------+---------+---------+---------+---10 0 10 20 .383 (-------*------) ------+---------+---------+---------+---10 0 10 20 Carp = 2 subtracted from: Carpet Lower Center Upper ------+---------+---------+---------+--3 -4.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Tukey 95% Simultaneous Confidence Intervals All Pairwise Comparisons among Levels of Carpet Individual confidence level = 98.380 16.131 (------*-------) ------+---------+---------+---------+---10 0 10 20 Carp = 3 subtracted from: Carpet 4 Lower -2.632 11.308 Upper 13.076 (------*-------) 4 -4.003 (------*-------) 3 -9.443 Center 5.823 (-------*-------) 4 0.678 3.675 6.073 10.118 3.629 8.83% Carpet = 1 subtracted from: Carpet Lower Center Upper ------+---------+---------+---------+--2 -12.

carpets 2 and 3 might be eliminated as a choice for the best.131) excludes zero. Carpet 3 mean subtracted from the carpet 4 mean: Carpets 3 and 4 are not statistically different because the confidence interval includes 0. Carpet 2 mean subtracted from the carpet 3 and 4 means: The means for carpets 2 and 4 are statistically different because the confidence interval for this combination of means (0.380. 4.003. By not conditioning upon the F-test. If Hsu's MCB method is a good choice for these data.748.498). 8. none of the means are statistically different because all of the confidence intervals include 0. 12. differences in treatment means appear to have occurred at family error rates of 0.748.003) gives the confidence interval for the carpet 1 mean subtracted from the carpet 2 mean.498. and 4 means: The first interval in the first set of the Tukey's output (-12. . the mean durability for carpets 2 and 4 appears to be different. For this set of comparisons.629. For example. You can easily find confidence intervals for entries not included in the output by reversing both the order and the sign of the interval values.10. the confidence interval for the mean of carpet 1 minus the mean of carpet 2 is (-3. 16. 3.Analyze Tukey's comparisons Understanding Six Sigma Tukey's test provides 3 sets of multiple comparison confidence intervals: Carpet 1 mean subtracted from the carpet 2. When you use Tukey's method. -4. 3.

For example. For a two-tailed test of a proportion: H0: p = p0 versus H1: p ≠ p0 where p is the population proportion and p0 is the hypothesized value.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 1 Proportion Test : Performs a test of one binomial proportion. . You could take a random sample of spark plugs and determine whether or not the actual proportion defective is consistent with the claim. an automotive parts manufacturer claims that his spark plugs are less than 2% defective. Use 1 Proportion to compute a confidence interval and perform a hypothesis test of the proportion.

In addition. In Number of events. . you collected data on 950 randomly selected party members and find that 560 party members support the candidate. a 95% confidence bound was constructed to determine the lower bound for the proportion of supporters. 2 Choose Summarized data. enter 950. enter 560.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : A county district attorney would like to run for the office of state district attorney. A test of proportion was performed to determine whether or not the proportion of supporters was greater than the required proportion of 0. 5 From Alternative. In Test proportion. 1 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1 Proportion. Click OK in each dialog box. As her campaign manager. You need to test H0: p = . enter 0. 4 Click Options.65. choose greater than.65.65. She has decided that she will give up her county office and run for state office if more than 65% of her party constituents support her. 3 In Number of trials.65 versus H1: p > .

562515 1. .589474 0.65 95% Lower Exact Sample X N Sample p Bound P-Value 1 560 950 0. that is.65).65 vs p > 0.000 Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma The p-value of 1.65.0 suggests that the data are consistent with the null hypothesis (H0: p = 0. the proportion of party members that support the candidate is not greater than the required proportion of 0. As her campaign manager.Analyze Session window output Test and CI for One Proportion Test of p = 0. you would advise her not to run for the office of state district attorney.

p2 ≠ p0 where p1 and p2 are the proportions of success in populations 1 and 2.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 2 Proportion Test : Performs a test of two binomial proportions. Use the 2 Proportions command to compute a confidence interval and perform a hypothesis test of the difference between two proportions. suppose you wanted to know whether the proportion of consumers who return a survey could be increased by providing an incentive such as a product sample. For example. respectively. You might include the product sample with half of your mailings and see if you have more responses from the group that received the sample than from those who did not.p2 = p0 versus H1: p1 . and p0 is the hypothesized difference between the two proportions. For a two-tailed test of two proportions: H0: p1 . .

Records indicate that six Brand X machines and eight Brand Y machines needed service. Click OK. 4 In Second sample. Because your corporation already uses both of these brands. Under Events. Under Events. you were able to obtain information on the service history of 50 randomly selected machines of each brand. enter 44. After comparing many brands in terms of price. enter 42. enter 50. copy quality. under Trials. you need to authorize the purchase of twenty new photocopy machines. you have narrowed the choice to two: Brand X and Brand Y. warranty. 3 In First sample. and features. under Trials.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : As your corporation's purchasing manager. You decide that the determining factor will be the reliability of the brands as defined by the proportion requiring service within one year of purchase. 2 Choose Summarized data. 1 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 2 Proportions. enter 50. . Use this information to guide your choice of brand for purchase.

564 .840000 p Difference = p (1) .175790) Test for difference = 0 (vs not = 0): Z = 0.p (2) Estimate for difference: 0.58 P-Value = 0. 0.04 95% CI for difference: (-0.Analyze Session window output Understanding Six Sigma Test and CI for Two Proportions Sample 1 2 X 44 42 N 50 50 Sample 0.0957903.880000 0.

That is.Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma Since the p-value of 0.176) you can conclude that the data are consistent with the null hypothesis. .096 to 0. the data are consistent with the null hypothesis (H0: p1 . the proportion of photocopy machines that needed service in the first year did not differ depending on brand. You can make the same decision using the 95% confidence interval.p2 = 0). you need to find a different criterion to guide your decision on which brand to purchase. Because zero falls in the confidence interval of (-0.564 is larger than commonly chosen a levels. you may want to collect more data in order to obtain a better estimate of the difference.p2. As the purchasing manager. If you think that the confidence interval is too wide and does not provide precise information as to the value of p1 .

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Chi Square Test : It is a measure of the Observed & expected frequencies. Test for Independence is for testing Null hypothesis that two criteria of Classification . Chi Square test is a statistical test which consists of three different type of Analysis. Test for Homogeneity answers the proposition that several populations are homogenous with respect to some characteristic. 1) Goodness of Fit 2) Test for Homogeneity 3) Test for Independence The test for Goodness of fit determines if the sample under analysis was drawn from a population that follows some specified distribution .

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : You are interested in the relationship between gender and political party affiliation. 3 In Columns containing the table. .MTW. 2 Choose Stat > Tables > Chi-Square Test (Table in Worksheet). Click OK. You query 100 people about their political affiliation and record the number of males (row 1) and females (row 2) for each political party. Republican and Other. The worksheet data appears as follows: Column 1 Democrat 28 22 Column 2 Republican 18 27 Column 3 Other 4 1 1 Open the worksheet EXH_TABL. enter Democrat.

Other Expected counts are printed below observed counts Chi-Square contributions are printed below expected counts Democrat 1 28 25.360 2 22 25.900 1 2.00 0. DF = 2.900 27 22.360 Total 50 Republican 18 22.900 5 Understanding Six Sigma Total 50 50 100 Chi-Sq = 4.115 2 cells with expected counts less than 5.Analyze Session window output Chi-Square Test: Democrat.50 0.900 45 Other 4 2.50 0. . Republican.50 0. P-Value = 0.50 0.320.00 0.

360 Total 50 Republican 18 22. Column Totals .Analyze Session window output Chi-Square Test: Democrat.115 2 cells with expected counts less than 5.900 27 22.900 5 Understanding Six Sigma Total 50 Observed Values Expected Values Chi Square Values 50 Row Totals 100 Grand Total Chi-Sq = 4. Other Expected counts are printed below observed counts Chi-Square contributions are printed below expected counts Democrat 1 28 25. Republican.360 2 22 25.00 0.50 0.900 1 2.50 0.50 0.900 45 Other 4 2.50 0.320. P-Value = 0.00 0. DF = 2.

omitting the Other category.Expected Value )2 Expected Value c) Degrees of Freedom(DF) = (No.1) * ( No.115) between gender and political party affiliation. of Columns . To be more confident of the results. of rows . even if you had a significant p-value for these data. Of the 6 cells.1) . repeat the test. Formulae’s : a) Expected Value = Row Total * Column Total Grand Total b) Chi Square Value = ( Observed Value . Therefore. 2 have expected counts less than five (33%).Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma No evidence exists for association (p = 0. you should interpret the results with caution.

assume that the two samples are from populations with equal variance. or homogeneity.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 2 Variance Test : Use to perform hypothesis tests for equality. The variance test procedure will test the validity of this assumption. including the two sample t-test procedures. Many statistical procedures. . of variance among two populations using an F-test and Levene's test.

1 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 2 Variances. Energy consumption in houses was measured after one of the two devices was installed. You are interested in comparing the variances of the two populations so that you can construct a two-sample t-test and confidence interval to compare the two dampers. 2 Choose Samples in one column. The energy consumption data (BTU. Click OK. select the column which contain the values 4 In Subscripts. The two devices were an electric vent damper (Damper = 1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper = 2).In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper) containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population. 3 In Samples. . enter Damper.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems.

0 2.I n F-Test Test Statistic P-Value Test Statistic P-Value 1.996 1 Dam per Levene's Test 2 2.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variances for BTU.5 95% Bonferroni Confidence I ntervals for StDevs 4.558 0.0 1 Dam per 2 5 10 BTU.19 0.5 3.0 3.I n 15 20 .00 0.

p-value = 0.996 . p-value = 0.02726 3.19.40655 2.25447 StDev 3.In versus Damper Understanding Six Sigma 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals for standard deviations Damper 1 2 N 40 50 Lower 2.76702 Upper 4.558 Levene's Test (any continuous distribution) Test statistic = 0.01987 2.Analyze Test for Equal Variances: BTU.56416 F-Test (normal distribution) Test statistic = 1.00.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Result Interpretation The variance test generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the population standard deviation at both factor levels. Thus. That is. it is reasonable to assume equal variances when using a two-sample t-procedure. The graph also displays the side-by-side boxplots of the raw data for the two samples. so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal. the p-values of 0.558 and 0.996 are greater than reasonable choices of a. . the results of the F-test and Levene's test are given in both the Session window and the graph. these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the two populations have unequal variances. Note that the 95% confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of the chi-square distribution.For the energy consumption example. Finally.

1Open the worksheet .Analyze two populations Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variance is used when comparing the variance of two or more than Example : You study conditions conducive to potato rot by injecting potatoes with bacteria that cause rotting and subjecting them to different temperature and oxygen regimes. Before performing analysis of variance. enter Temp Oxygen. . 4 In Factors. you check the equal variance assumption using the test for equal variances. enter Rot. 3 In Response. 2 Choose Stat > ANOVA > Test for Equal Variances. Click OK.

37 0.744 0.858 Levene's Test 2 16 6 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 95% Bonferroni Confidence Intervals for StDevs .71 0.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variances for Rot Temp Oxygen Bartlett's Test 2 10 6 10 Test Statistic P-Value Test Statistic P-Value 2.

890 46.71.54013 1.00000 6.28146 2.29150 3.427 101.799 54.55677 StDev 5. Oxygen .50012 3.481 55.37.744 Levene's Test (any continuous distribution) Test statistic = 0. Oxygen 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals for standard deviations Temp 10 10 10 16 16 16 Oxygen 2 6 10 2 6 10 N 3 3 3 3 3 3 Lower 2.60555 3.32666 Upper 81.349 128.26029 1.55744 3.858 Test for Equal Variances: Rot versus Temp. p-value = 0.80104 1.862 Bartlett's Test (normal distribution) Test statistic = 2.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variances: Rot versus Temp. p-value = 0.51188 8.

these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the populations have unequal variances. Note that the 95% confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of the chi-square distribution. For the potato rot example.744 and 0.Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma The test for equal variances generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the response standard deviation at each level. so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal. the p-values of 0. Bartlett's and Levene's test results are displayed in both the Session window and in the graph.858 are greater than reasonable choices of a. That is. .

You are trying to prove that such a relationship exists by analyzing the data below. .Regression One Variable Regression with Minitab Example: Understanding Six Sigma You are trying to optimize the performance of an paint cure oven. One theory says that blower fan velocity affects evaporation of solvent in the paint.Analyze .

Analyze . Is the Annual sales reducing or increasing according to change floor space 350 300 250 200 50 100 150 Floor Space .Regression Understanding Six Sigma The Concept of Regression A mathematical equation of describing a relationship between the ”Y” and “X’s” →Creating a Model of process Y = b0 + b1x + error where b0 = constant b1 = slope Annual Sales There appears to be a linear relationship between floor space and annual sales… That is.

.Regression Understanding Six Sigma Regression analysis is used to investigate and model the relationship between a response variable and one or more predictors. Use least squares procedures when your response variable is continuous.· Use logistic regression when your response variable is categorical.Analyze .Both least squares and logistic regression methods estimate parameters in the model so that the fit of the model is optimized. Least squares regression minimizes the sum of squared errors to obtain parameter estimates. Use partial least squares regression when your predictors are highly correlated or outnumber your observations.

0 3.5 2. Score1 Score2 4. You can use regression to see if Score 1 explains a significant amount of variance in Score 2 to determine if Score 1 is an acceptable substitute for Score 2.5 .8 7.5 8.Analyze .5 3.1 9. This approach is less costly but also is less precise.1 2.1 2.2 8.7 6.0 2. but the procedure to obtain the measure is expensive. There is an indirect approach.1 2.0 2.2 1.7 1.Regression Understanding Six Sigma Example : You are a manufacturer who wants to obtain a quality measure on a product. which uses a different product score (Score 1) in place of the actual quality measure (Score 2).5 2.0 4.

3 In Predictors.21767 0.1177 0.000 S = 0. enter Score2. enter Score1.7% R-Sq(adj) = 95. 4 Click OK.1% The R2 value shows that Score 1 explains 95.7% of the variance in Score 2.12 + 0. Understanding Six Sigma Regression Analysis: Score2 versus Score1 The regression equation is Score2 = 1.01740 12.000 Score1 0.1093 10.51 0.Analyze .Regression 1 Choose Stat > Regression > Regression. .127419 R-Sq = 95. 2 In Response. indicating that the model fits the data extremely well.218 Score1 Predictor Coef SE Coef T P Constant 1.23 0.

To List down all the Possible factors through Brainstorming.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Analyze Phase • 4M Diagram • Hypothesis Testing • Mean Testing • Variance Testing • Regression Analysis The Aim of the Analyze Phase is to : a. Statistical verification of Potential Factors by means of various type of Tests. . Ascertaining whether we have considered all factors & nothing is Left Out. b. Pick out the Vital few Potential Factors out of Trivial Many. d. c.

After brainstorming the Significant Factors are selected for further comparison ( Hypothesis Testing ) The Symptom or result is put under the Dark Box on the Right. Method. Lighter Boxes at the end of the Large Bones are main groups in which ideas are classified..Analyze . Machine & Material ) Diagram is used to list down all the Probable factors (causes ) responsible for the Major Problem ( Effect ). .Man. Machine & Material.Cause & Effect Diagram 4 M Diagram MAN MACHINE Cause Cause Understanding Six Sigma Cause Cause Effect Cause Cause Cause METHOD MATERIAL 4 M ( Man.Method. The Middle Bones indicates the direction of path from cause to effect. The Lighter Boxes consist of Four Ms .

744 and 0. That is. so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal.858 are greater than reasonable choices of a. Bartlett's and Levene's test results are displayed in both the Session window and in the graph. the p-values of 0. For the potato rot example. these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the populations have unequal variances. . Note that the 95% confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of the chi-square distribution.Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma The test for equal variances generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the response standard deviation at each level.

Analyze .Regression Understanding Six Sigma The Concept of Regression A mathematical equation of describing a relationship between the ”Y” and “X’s” →Creating a Model of process Y = b0 + b1x + error where b0 = constant b1 = slope Annual Sales There appears to be a linear relationship between floor space and annual sales… That is. Is the Annual sales reducing or increasing according to change floor space 350 300 250 200 50 100 150 Floor Space .

Use logistic regression when your response variable is categorical. . Both least squares and logistic regression methods estimate parameters in the model so that the fit of the model is optimized. Least squares regression minimizes the sum of squared errors to obtain parameter estimates.Analyze .Regression Understanding Six Sigma Regression analysis is used to investigate and model the relationship between a response variable and one or more predictors.. Use least squares procedures when your response variable is continuous. Use partial least squares regression when your predictors are highly correlated or outnumber your observations.

Regression Understanding Six Sigma Example : Do regression and residual analysis for yield as shown in the table.C are factors & yield is response.No. C (Factors ) and Yield ( response ) in minitab Excel sheet. S. Please note that A.Analyze .Interpret the output results. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A 2 2 8 6 5 8 5 3 2 1 9 5 3 2 1 4 2 1 2 5 B 3 1 3 4 5 3 1 2 2 8 7 6 5 6 7 2 4 6 5 6 C 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Yield 85 71 3129 1384 875 3159 823 254 150 298 4631 978 367 296 303 556 266 294 313 1058 Solution : 1.B.) Enter the columns A. B. .

.Regression Understanding Six Sigma 2) Go to stat> Regression > Regression.Analyze .

C as Predictors by double clicking on all. Understanding Six Sigma .B.Analyze .Regression 3) Select Yield as Response and A.

.003 0.72 -1.21 -0.537 R-Sq = 86.70 135.6 47.34 P 0.54 C Predictor Constant A B C Coef -1277.28 4.00 Yield 4631 Fit 3707 SE Fit 308 Residual 924 St Resid 2.544 SE Coef 360.5% Analysis of Variance Source DF SS MS F P Regression 3 25308562 8436187 35.44R R denotes an observation with a large standardized residual.61 2.Regression 4) Click OK.1277 + 458 A + 136 B .Analyze .64 61.9% R-Sq(adj) = 84.042 0. B.3 457.1.000 0. Regression Analysis: Yield versus A.49 0.54 9.000 Residual Error 16 3803071 237692 Total 19 29111633 Source A B C DF 1 1 1 Seq SS 23966672 1314871 27018 Unusual Observations Obs 11 A 9. C The regression equation is Yield = .579 T -3.740 Understanding Six Sigma R2 & R2 (adj) > 64 % indicating a strong corelation between the Factors & the Response (Yield) S = 487.

i) YIELD = RESIDUAL + FITS Response . As shown in the diagram the least square method minimizes the sum of the squared distances between the points and the fitted Line. The formula for the residual of an observation is: ei = (yi .` Understanding Six Sigma Predictors Fitted Value : The predicted y or . Residuals :The difference (ei) between the observed values and predicted or fitted values (data minus fits). the mean response value for the given predictor values using the estimated regression equation.Regression Minitab fits the regression Line using the Least square method. This part of the observation is not explained by the fitted model.Analyze .

and b1. bo is the intercept. and b111 are the coefficients .Analyze . X is the predictor. b11.Regression Understanding Six Sigma Three Regressions Models Linear Y = bo + b1X Quadratic Y = bo + b11X2 Cubic Y = bo + b1X + b11X2 Y is the response.

It Transfers sustainability of the improvement to the appropriate members of the Advocacy Team • Provides communication of new procedures and systems to process owners • Ensures that the new process conditions are documented and monitored .Control Understanding Six Sigma Control Phase • Statistical Process Control • Control Chart AIM of Control Phase Control Charts are used to track process statistics over Time and to detect the presence of Special Causes. • Provides structured closure of projects and re-allocation of resources • Provides systematic changes to ensure the process continues in a new path of optimization.

Six Sigma Quality focuses on moving control up stream in a process to leverage the input characteristics for the Y response.Control Statistical Process Control (SPC)? (SPC) Understanding Six Sigma Statistical Statistical methods are used to monitor and analyze process variation from sample data Process Any repetitive (manual or automatic) task or steps Control Provides an early warning signal that a process has changed. Statistical Process Control Enables us to control our process using statistical methods to signal when process adjustments are needed. The warning allows you to make decisions about the process while there is still time to correct the problem before it can be seen in the final output. control of the Y should be assured. If we can measure and control the vital few X’s. .

Adjustable .Special .Noise . If we can measure and control the vital few X’s. Six Sigma Quality focuses on moving control upstream to the leverage input characteristic for Y. . control of Y should be assured.Control The Logic of SPC Desired Output Understanding Six Sigma Process Capability ● Upper Control Limit X Controller Input Lower Control Limit ● Samples Process A B C D E L M N O P Controllable factors Uncontrollable factors .Inherent causes Output SPC has traditionally been used to monitor and control the output of processes.Common causes .Assignable causes .

The required number standard deviations is chosen so that there will be a small probability of exceeding them when the process is in control . the process may be out of control. range. or when its time plot reveals certain patterns. the process is deemed out of control. the variable being measured . or proportion. When the statistic is outside the bounds. such as a sample mean.Control Understanding Six Sigma Control Charts A Control chart is a graphical display of measurements ( usaually aggregated in the form of means or other statistics) of an Industrial Process through time. Addition and subtraction of the required number of standard deviations ( three ) give us the Upper Control Limit ( UCL ) and the Lower Control Limit ( LCL) of the control chart. the Mean should stay somewhere around the middle line ( the grand mean for the process ) and not wander off by more than the fixed standard deviations of the process .the mean of every four Observations. When the bounds are breached . for example . By carefully scrutinizing the chart. The limits give the desired range of values for the statistic. standard deviation . The idea is that when a process is in control . a quality engineer can identify any potential problem with the Production process . A control chart is a time plot of a statistic. with a centerline and upper and lower control limits.should remain stable through the time. .

Control Procedure of Control Chart Selection Characteristic definition of control chart Variable Data Type? No No Understanding Six Sigma No No Defect ratio Faults of parts Yes No Subgroup sampling? Yes Average calculation Yes No Median Control chart Yes n =constant Yes Yes Yes u Control chart X Control chart n＞ 8 Yes Easy to calculate Subgroup Xbar-R Control chart No c Control chart No Yes Xbar-R Control chart n =constant Yes p Control chart Xbar-R Control chart pn control chart This procedure is on the condition that data can be collected after Gage R&R. .

5 A v e ra g e & S t d D e v ia t i o n Xbar & σ n ≥ 10 M e d ia n & R a n g e X & R n<10. t y p ic a ll y 3 . • Refer to the diagram for a summary list of the specific control chart types N u m b e r o f D e f / U n it u C h a rt n v a r ia b le In order to select the appropriate control chart for monitoring your process. There are specific control charts for both continuous data and discrete data. good/bad counts. or inventory levels.5 I n d iv id u a l & M o v in g R a n g e Xm R n=1 A ttr ib u te s C h a r ts f o r m o n it o r i n g d is c r e t e X 's F r a c tio n D e f e c tiv e p C h a rt t y p i c a l ly n ≥ 5 0 tra c k s d p u /d p o N u m b e r D e fe c tiv e n p C h a rt n ≥ 5 0 ( c o n s ta n t) tra c k s # d e f N u m b e r o f D e fe c ts c C h a rt c>5 Understanding Six Sigma • There are basically two types of control charts: –Variables charts .these charts are used for monitoring discrete X variables.Control .these charts are used for monitoring X variables that are continuous. first determine if your key process variables (X’s) are continuous or discrete. such as. t y p ic a ll y 3 . a diameter or consumer satisfaction rating. .Types of Control Charts T y p e s o f C o n tr o l C h a r ts V a r ia b le s C h a r ts f o r m o n i t o r in g c o n t in u o u s X 's A v e ra g e & R a n g e Xbar & R n < 10. –Attribute charts . such as.

Control Understanding Six Sigma Variable control chart : Customer Satisfaction Index Example : A consumer services organization wants to monitor consumer satisfaction for their company.096 and R = 0. Each week. a survey from each of the company’s ten regional service centers is evaluated and the scores are tabulated.4504 . n = 10 Process average. The following is an example of how an Xbar/R control chart could be used to monitor consumer satisfaction. In this example. X = 4. higher is better: The vital information for creating an Xbar/R control chart : Total subgroups = 25 Subgroup size.

Mean : 4.6 Manip > Stack > Stack Columns .Standard deviation : 0.0 .Store the stacked data in : c26 .6 ( Only c7 Mean : 2.Store in column(s) : c1-c25 . Standard deviation : 1.Control Understanding Six Sigma File Open : S4 > Xbar .R Calc > Random Data > Normal Distributions .Stack the following columns : c1-c25 .8.Generate : 10 .

1005 . Actual Control Limiit Calculations for the Data UCL = 4.957 UCLR = 1.4504 = 0.8003 UCLR = 0.308 x 0.777 x 0.096 .4504 = 4.0.4504 = 0. permanent limits require at least 25 subgroups of data points that are In-control for both the average and range charts.223 x 0.4504 = 3.096 + 0.235 UCL = 4.Control Control Limit Formulas: Understanding Six Sigma UCLX = X + A2 × R LCLX = X − A2 × R UCLR = D 4 × R LCLR = D 3 × R While it is acceptable to compute temporary control limits after 5 to 10 subgroups.308 x 0.

032 0.660 1.185 0.864 1.483 0.9515 0.239 0.8862 0.266 2.704 2.9400 0.7979 0.777 B3 0 0 0 0 0.816 1.287 1.089 1.9594 0.427 1.Control .575 2.337 0.954 1.880 1.115 2.716 d2 1.Control chart Understanding Six Sigma Constant used for Control chart n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A2 2.975 D3 0 0 0 0 0 0.308 A3 3.534 2.076 0.760 2.568 2.326 2.847 2.184 0.693 2.128 1.267 2.659 1.924 1.761 1.267 2.970 3.03 0.419 0.078 c4 0.118 0.882 1.284 B4 3.282 2.023 0.9727 .059 2.373 0.9650 0.577 0.9213 0.223 D4 3.729 0.815 1.182 1.9693 0.628 1.970 1.004 1.136 0.099 1.

5 4 6 X= 3.9 3 8 3.0 S L = 0.0 S L = 3. • The variation among the regional centers for week 7 is larger than expected.3 2 9 2. • This change in “consumer satisfaction” score was driven by some assignable cause (either system-related or region initiated).5 0 9 R = 1. An “Out-of-control” indication can come from either chart. identify and fix the assignable source of the variation. • The appropriate action would be to investigate.5 3.5 1 -3.0 S L = 3.Control Understanding Six Sigma Example of a variable control chart : Customer Satisfaction Index Customer Satisfaction Index Sample Mean 4. .9 7 5 -3.957. independently.0 S L= 4.5 S u b g ro u p 0 4 Sample Range 3 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 3.4 4 0 6 • The weekly evaluation averages 7 and 16 fell below 3.

39333.246 p × 1− p n ( ) and LCL = p − 3 p × 1− p n ( ) .60667)/100)? = 0.39333+3(.Control ~ Attribute data Understanding Six Sigma Example : A local dental group wanted to know why a lot of their patients fail to keep their appointments. Year Month % Failed Year Month % Failed Month %Failed 1996 Jul 40 Jan 20 Jul 16 Aug 36 Feb 26 Aug 10 Sep 36 1997 Mar 25 Sep 12 Apr 19 Oct 12 May 20 Jun 18 Oct 42 Nov 42 Dec 40 p Chart Formulas: np n np p= n p= UCL = p + 3 p = 236/600 = 0.39333*.3(. The dental clinic began logging monthly percentages of “no shows” for each month. % “no shows” plus % “shows” equal 100%. the average total fraction defective is called p.539 LCL = . total possible for 6 months UCL = . Of the total appointments for each month.60667)/100)? = 0. Since a “no show” is a defective appointment. A problem solving team was assembled and decided to use a p Chart to track the percentages of “no shows”.39333.39333*. where np = 40+36+36+42+42+40 = 236 the fraction is based on 600.

Stability also means all subgroup averages and ranges are between their respective control limits and display no evidence of assignablesource (special -cause) variation. or when a point is beyond the control limits.Control Definition of Stability • • Understanding Six Sigma A process output is considered stable when it consists of only common-cause variation. then this is a strong signal that assignable-source (special-cause) variation is present in your process.three sigma stable process variation region. . A stable process will rarely produce an output that lies outside of the +/. • If nonrandom patterns of data appear on the control chart.

Process stability is defined in terms of these three sigma limits. it is a pretty rare event.Control Determination control limit of control chart • Understanding Six Sigma The Empirical Rules emphasized that when a subgroup average falls outside of the 3σ limits. α/2 • H o : µι = µ Ha: µι ≠ µ α/2 The hypothesis test provides the criteria for determining if a difference exists between the subgroup mean and the process average The control limits are variation limits. Another way of visualizing how control charts work: Think about a sequential or time-ordered hypothesis test for each new subgroup. not acceptance limits! Specification limits do Not appear on SPC charts! .

.Control Example : The following samples were taken: S1 22 28 15 17 16 S2 26 22 21 22 27 S3 20 21 20 24 19 S4 18 16 20 19 20 Understanding Six Sigma S5 19 22 21 24 22 Calculate the LCL & UCL for the X-R chart using Minitab. Solution : Step 1 ) Copy the data in Minitab Worksheet. Comment on the results. Find out whether process is in control or not.

Understanding Six Sigma .Control 2 ) Stack the data into one column and subscript into other. Go to data>stack> columns 3) Select columns from S1-S5. Stack columns values into c7 and their subscript in c6.

R Understanding Six Sigma 5) Select the Option all observations in one column and select c7 in which all the data is stacked.Control 4) As the sample size is less than 10 so Xbar-R would be used Go to stat > control charts >variable charts for sub groups > X bar . Go to Xbar-Options .

Control 6 ) Go to Estimate and choose Rbar 7 ) Go to S Limits and enter 1 2 3 in the dialog box Understanding Six Sigma 8 ) Go to Tests and select all the eight standard tests for special causes. .

The occurrence of the pattern suggests a special cause for the variation.Control Understanding Six Sigma Test for Special Causes • 1 point more than 3 standard deviations from center line • 9 points in a row on same side of center line • 6 points in a row. . all increasing or all decreasing •14 points in a row. alternating up and down •2 out of 3 points > 2 standard deviations from center line (same side) • 4 out of 5 points > 1 standard deviation from center line (same side) • 15 points in a row within 1 standard deviation of center line (either side) • 8 points in a row > 1 standard deviation from center line (either side) The Tests for special causes detects a special pattern in the data plotted on the Chart.

3σ Limits.6 -3SL=0 -12SL=0 10 ) All the Points are lying within +/.02 Sam ple R ange 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 Sample 4 5 +3SL=13.Control 9 ) Click OK.07 Sample M ean 30 +3SL=24.03 Understanding Six Sigma 20 10 -12SL=5.65 _ _ X=20. so the process is within the control limits. .96 _ R=6.61 1 2 3 Sample 4 5 40 +12SL=36. Xbar-R Chart of C7 40 +12SL=36.84 -3SL=17.

2) Choose Stat > Control Charts >Attributes Charts > P.Control Understanding Six Sigma Example :Suppose you work in a plant that manufactures picture tubes for televisions. If a lot has too many rejects. Click OK. 4) In Subgroup sizes. you reject it. A P chart can define Rejects Sampled when you need to inspect the whole lot. you do a 100% inspection on that lot. enter Rejects. If a tube has scratches on the inside. 3) In Variables. enter Sampled. you pull some of the tubes and do a visual inspection. For each lot. Solution: 1) Open the worksheet and enter data. 20 18 14 16 13 29 21 14 6 6 7 7 9 5 8 9 9 10 9 10 98 104 97 99 97 102 104 101 55 48 50 53 56 49 56 53 52 51 52 47 .

10 0.0047 6 8 10 12 Sam ple 14 16 18 20 Tests performed with unequal sample sizes .15 0.3324 1 Proportion Sample 6 is outside the upper control limit.Control Minitab Output : 0. 0.20 0.05 0.00 2 4 _ P=0.35 Understanding Six Sigma P Chart of Rejects UCL=0. Consider inspecting the lot.25 0.30 0.1685 LCL=0.

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