SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN PERMAS JAYA

PREPARED BY ::AZAM SENSEI

CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2
LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT

LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT IN HUMANS & ANIMALS

SUPPORT IN PLANTS

TYPES OF SKELETON

Muscles, ligaments & tendon

LOCOMOTION

AQUATIC PLANTS

TERRESTRIAL PLANTS

Hydrostatic skeleton Birds Exoskeleton

Fish Grasshopper Appendicular skeleton

Endoskeleton

Axial skeleton

Earthworms

LEARNING OUTCOMES 

To explain the necessity for support and locomotion in humans and animals, To describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion, To explain how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and animals, To name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of the human body   

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals WHY DO HUMANS & ANIMALS NEED SUPPORT?
1. To find the food 2. To find partner for mating 3. To protect/escape from their predator 4. To shelter from bad environment

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals 

Without support, animals & humans would not be able to maintain their body shape their body collapse under the weight of their own tissues. Support are provided by some form of skeleton. skeleton. 
Hydrostatic  Exoskeleton  endoskeleton 

skeleton

HYDROSTATIC SKELETON 

A fluid-filled internal body cavity in fluidwhich the fluid is held under pressure maintaining the body shape & providing support for internal organ The cavity is surrounded by muscles arranged in layers. The body shape of the animal changes as these muscles contract & relax.    

The animals are soft & flexible, the hydrostatic fluid flexible, does protect body parts by acting as a shock absorber. Examples : earthworm, jellyfish, leech & caterpillar.

EXOSKELETON 

A rigid outer covering usually made up of protein, chitins &/@ calcium salt. Insects ² the cuticle (covered with wax to prevent water loss from the body), cover the body·s surface. The exoskeleton is jointed / hinged = certain points of the skeleton are flexible & can bend enabling the movement.   

Exoskeleton restrict the growth of animals the exoskeleton must be shed from time to time in order for the animal to grow. (ecdysis) (ecdysis) Also found in the shells of molluscs & the bony plates of tortoises. Examples : insects, crabs, lobsters, tortoise  

ENDOSKELETON 

Found in the bodies of all vertebrates including fish, amphibians & birds. Consist of hard skeleton of bones & cartilage found inside the body ² made up of calcium & phosphate. Works with the muscular system to perform movement & locomotion. It support the body & protects the organs.  

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals 

The functions of skeleton : 
Provide

shape & support  Enables movement (locomotion)  Protects internal organs  Stores calcium & phosphate ions  Produces blood cells  A firm base for the attachment of muscles

The Necessity for Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals
Problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion, 
gravitational

force, friction & resistance when moving

around 

Aspect need to be considered when describing the locomotion of an animal ::Stability ² when it moves, it is temporarily unstable, but its stability will be restored when it stops.  Support ² must have enough support from its body·s skeleton  Propulsion ² must be propelled in order to move 

HOW TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEMS? 

RESISTANCE & FRICTION ² by streamlining their bodies. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE ² most animals have their own supporting structures (fins ² fishes, wings ² birds & strong limbs ² tetrapods & humans) provide the propulsive force to overcome the problem  

The skeletal system together with its muscles are designed specially to overcome the problems associated with support & locomotion of humans & animals. To initiate locomotion, the force required is generated by contraction of muscles, whereas the movement is transmitted by the skeleton. 

THE HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM 

The adult human skeleton consist of 206 bones. bones. Divided into two main parts : the axial skeleton & the appendicular skeleton. skeleton. The axial skeleton : made up of the bones that form the vertical axis of the body. It supports & protects the organs of the head, neck & trunk. (skull, vertebral column, rib cage)    

The appendicular skeleton : made up of the bones that are attached to the axial skeleton. Include bones of the limbs, the pectoral girdle & the pelvic girdle. 

FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON 

PROTECTION ² the skull protects the brain, the vertebral column protects the spinal cord & the rib cage protects internal organs such as the heart. SUPPORT ² act as a framework to support the soft body parts, to maintain the upright position & to keep the body stable. 

FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON 

MOVEMENT ² bones interact with the skeletal muscle. BLOOD CELL FORMATION ² most of the blood cells are formed in the bone marrow of the long bones. MINERAL STORAGE ² bones act as a reservoir for calcium & phosphorus.  

SKELETAL SYSTEM
HUMAN SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON APPENDICULAR SKELETON SKULL
VERTEBRAL COLUMN RIB CAGE PECTORAL GIRDLE PELVIC GIRDLE

CERVICAL

THORACIC LUMBAR SACRUM
COCCYX

FORELIMB BONES

HINDLIMB BONES

THE SKULL 

Made up of 8 cranial bones & 14 facial bones including the upper jaw & the lower jaw. The facial bones also provide support & protect the entrances to the respiratory system. 

SKULL

PARTS 8 Cranial bones Eye sockets Nasal bones Ear holes Maxilla (upper jaw) Mandible (lower jaw) 
Are

FUNCTIONS fused to form immovable joints called sutures. sutures.  Protect the brain & the sensory organs. 
   

to protect the eye ball. to support nose tissues to protect inner part of ears to support upper teeth to support lower teeth, to enable eating & talking.

VERTEBRAL COLUMN 

Known as the spine/ backbone. Extends from the base of the skull to the pelvic girdle. Made up of 33 vertebrae separated from each other by discs of cartilage (intervertebral discs) which absorb shocks & serve as flex point. This S-shaped column supports & balances the body Sin a vertical plane & protects the spinal cord, supports the skull & provides a base for the attachment of muscles to the back.   

VERTEBRAL COLUMN 

The vertebrae differ in structure & function in different regions of the vertebral column. A vertebra typically consists of a main body (the centrum), a neural arch & transverse processes. 

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

VERTEBRAL COLUMN
STRUCTURE FUNCTION Provides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles. Provides surface for attachment of ligaments & muscles. Protects the spinal cord.

NEURAL SPINE TRANSVERSE PROCESS NEURAL ARCH/ VERTEBRAL FORAMEN CENTRUM NEURAL CANAL ARTICULATING SURFACE

Provides support & absorbs shocks. Provides the passage of nerves from the spinal cord. Provides surface which articulates with the next vertebra.

TYPES OF VERTEBRAE
TYPE OF VERTEBRAE Cervical Vertebra POSITION Below the skull NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 7 

MAIN CHARACTER 1st one ± atlas vertebra 2nd ± axis vertebrae Large neural canal/vertebral foramen Short neural spine Flat centrum Short transverse processes Has a pair of vertebrarterial canals   

  

CERVICAL VERTEBRA

THORACIC VERTEBRA
TYPE OF POSITION VERTEBRAE Thoracic Vertebra Thorax NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 12 

MAIN CHARACTER Neural canal/ vertebral foramen is smaller than cervical vertebra¶s Long neural spine/ spinous processes (for attachment of back muscle) Thick & big centrum Short transverse processes   

THORACIC VERTEBRA (12)

LUMBAR VERTEBRA
TYPE OF VERTEBRAE Lumbar Vertebra POSITION NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 5 

MAIN CHARACTER small neural canal/ vertebral foramen short neural spine thick & big centrum long transverse processes for muscle attachment

Waist   

LUMBAR VERTEBRA

SACRUM & COCCYX
TYPE OF VERTEBRAE Sacrum POSITION Pelvic region NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE 5 fused 

MAIN CHARACTER Vertebrae fused to each other Has four pairs of openings shape  

Triangular

Coccyx

Caudal region

4 fused

Bones fused to each other forming a triangular shape which tapers at one end 

SACRUM & COCCYX

THE STERNUM & RIBS 

The rib cage consists of 12 pairs of ribs with the thoracic vertebrae at the back portion of the body & join to the sternum in the front portion. Movement of the rib cage are brought about by intercostal muscles between the ribs. 

THE STERNUM & RIBS 

The sternum & ribs enclose & protect the internal organs (the lungs & heart) & play an important role in breathing.

PECTORAL GIRDLE 

Consist of scapula & clavicle. Links the upper limbs bones to the axial skeleton. The scapula : bound by muscles to the back of the thorax. It is a flat, triangular bone which provides a surface for the attachment of muscles.   

The clavicle : a rodrodshaped bone placed horizontally above the scapula. It links the scapula to the sternum. It sternum. limits the movements of the scapula. 

PELVIC GIRDLE 

Consists of 6 fused bones ± support the weight of the body from the vertebral column. Also protect the internal organs ± urinary bladder & reproductive organs. Made up of two halves, each consists of 3 bones (ilium, pubis & ischium)  

PELVIC GIRDLE 

The pelvic girdle is attached to the sacrum of the vertebral column. The asetabulum / socket for femur articulates with each side of the pelvic girdle at the hip joint. 

FORELIMB BONES 

Consists of humerus, ulna. radius & ulna. The Humerus :
The long bones of the upper arm  Rounded head end fits into an open socket of the scapula forming a ball-andball-and-socket joint (allow movement in all planes)   

The posterior end of the humerus forms a hinge joint with the ulna with the ulnaulnaradius bones, allowing movement in one plane only. The radius & ulna :   

The bones on the forearm in which the ulna is longer than the radius. radius. It has a notch at its upper end which articulates the humerus at the elbow. 

The carpals :  

The bones that form the wrist. Consists of 8 small bones 

The metacarpals : 

The rod-shaped ones rodthat form the palm. 

The phalanges : 

The bones that form the fingers.

HINDLIMB BONES 

Consists of femur, tibia & fibula. fibula. The femur : 
    

The longest, strongest & heaviest bone in the body. Support the tight. Play an important role in maintaining the body¶s upright position & in locomotion as it is attached to massive muscles. The head of femur fits into the pelvic girdle to form a joint. Other end, articulates with the tibia & fibula at the knee. 

The tibia & fibula :  

  

The bones of the lower leg. Support the shank. Tibia larger than fibula & is the weight-bearing weightbone of the leg. Fibula is a long & thin bone ± not bear any load more important for attachment of muscles than for support. Articulate with the tarsals of the ankle. 

The tarsals : 

The 7 bones that form the ankle. 

The metatarsals : 

The 5 rod-shaped bones rodthat form the foot. 

The phalanges : 

The bones that form the toes. 

The patella/kneecap : 


A small rounded, movable bone. Protect the knee joint.

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