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This, book is largely a resu ~t of our professional a nd informal
Interactlon with 'the Latin musical cornmunitles of New York, Puerto Ri,CO and Havana ~ Cuba, We wou l.d like eo thank a few individuals for their contrlbutions: Frank Malabe whose
I

Jose

Marrero, Irio 0 Farrill, Danilo Perez, Portinho M,a,:rc Quinones,
1 '

"Changuirc

1W

Qu intana, john Riley ~ Abraham Rodrtguez.

encourgement and influence provided the inspiration to write dlws book, and Ralph Irizarry, for 'being such a great SOUfCie of Information. Alex Acuna, Bobby Allende, Jo,nnny Almendra,
Arturo Baseneva, Louis Bauzo, Steve Berrios Ruben Blades, Eddie Bobe, Milton Cardona,
1

Bobby Rodriguez, Ruben Rodriguez, JOI!e Santiago, Rogier Squitero .. Dave Valentin ..Papo 'Vasquez" and, Mike- Vinas,. tha ,0·-uhad and M erle ~O··:.I B-.l",~I~1 S"P"~IF-~~~I~I nk c to ,0·' ur wives S':, O'Connell, Oscar Hernandez, Mike Stern and Richard Kaye for helping us with the music, Rob 'Wa~li5 and, Paul Siege] for raking
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Cuevas, Paquito 0 Rivera, Ralphie De jesus, Andy Gonzalez Jerry' Gonzalez" R.obbille Gonzalez,

Ignacio Berroa, Luis Conte, Sal Sammy Figueroa,

Horacio "el

on this project; Jirn Petercsak for his input and. advice, jack Wt~]~.w]Pnd Bob Sherwin for the 'hours spent with us working a on the transcriptlons and Dan, Thress for his enthustasm, ideas, and har-d, work,

N'egr.iol~'~ Hernandez, Giovanni '~~M'a,n· mguuo" Hidalgo,

Ben "Tito

j'

- ::·.. to dedi We would.'lik:.e dedicate .'L!'_ p'rolect to our parents . this ·ti;:Ii""'d·.~· ~.lan,c:-,·,:c-·,da:;l·- Go-,c·,:I~"Qs· ,Wi. Ma·:'y: and La ne Ameen and ''''t.arr: c
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Pu nJ~,~ifjii tbe Cia te: Afro-Cuban. 1-~8

Grooues fiJ.:~r" Bass: and

.D1'il1'nS

attempts 'to prov ~de drummers and bass players with an understanding of application of Afro-Cuban rhythms to conremporary jazz, funk and rock. \lie decided 'that the- project should be a. joint bass and drum book because the key to understanding and

me'

· ~i' . .., "!!'. musrca 'I' exampte, In. the b k,',you may want ' [0 write m Spe(~1WJ'C le .'00 lap . cues corresponding to' the counter on your cassette player in (he major sections of 'the. book (or before' [each exercise) to' help you reference the tape quickly,
1

The book begins 'by breaking down, (he two elements .mIOS( crucial to rhe understanding Latin music: claue and tumbao. executing these types of feels comes from each playe r's aware. 'J I "d\ . d f' C Ch lap~er one W~. provioe a hi rustoncal b<acgroun':, 0" Af' ro ... uoan ,k ]b ness of what the other is doing, In seeing how both parts work together, it is possible to. develop a feel for the particular rhyth ... music, in particular leading u,P tO the n1US'lC commonly known as t d ", salsa Tb . Uteemp hasis wil J b on Ithe i d'].>' iasis wu II:e ...e tracnuonar a,n:_ essentla, J ro 1 es mlc relationship that occurs 'tn this type of music, thus enabling
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of 'the mstruments, including the percussion section. The, remainThe ~ ngible -elemern within this music often lies in its der of the book will explain five basic Afro-Cuban rhythms: nta '..swing, .;.o.f' the ability to play in between triplets and Sth-notes. songo- guaJru~a11,co~ 6(8) cba-cba and' mozambique In addaion to This swing aspect of the music is apparent in aU of ruts forms and showing these grooves in their purer forms '\\ will integrate applications, 'but is certainly most pronounced in the fo,~killormc them into our own style .. are ., .. ~ iotunes whi -h '. corp 0:ral',:' e - d of .u,I"Q,·.v rue ,- ~,n_;:.,.. -t e : context, 'I~ ws the same disCinctruorfl that occurs in jazz time with A l~ the erie 'v' th b ok are SIX: band [. ibiliti di d ~n iJ!.. lb· ride cymbal beat and the' part Q,{ the pulse .he walking 'bass many o f t he musieal P'OSS1':t ines '_lSCU5se,- '. eacn C:h . 11:'1 h ie musicai iapter, J.:!ac.: sits upon. As with jazz, there really ls no substitute for llstensng tune has a two stave chart consisnng of the bass and drum parts. and. the reader should refer to '[he discography ,a,[ the end of [he' In addition vee have' provided play-along versions of each song 'book, to learn more about traditional and, modern Afro-Cuban OllO'US either bass or drums, An mformal discussion of each song and salsa feels, appears at the end of the book, Tto help interpret the rhythms ~n ~hms,book~ Wi' have ~nclude.d It ms not the intention [of '[h~sboolk 'to provid:. the .re~der 'wrnth n a cassette' ta,pe IOf' [h.e mU~5..~ca~ exam,ples~ B,efore each exan1pl,e a. dle co.mpl.~le;[e or ,defin~,tmve ba.ckground, ~ traditi[o(Jral lLal:]fl music. Ii! bri of introductwoiD is. ,81ve'n.1 w:ncID.uding an exan1ple .number:. T.he-se Rarh,er;, we are using ~he m'us.mc as a dep,;arrure :po'mnt ~Iowards Q,ud!;o cues. ,an:: found, :i:nsmde',the dark ,grey bOlxes abOVE' each ,deveto,pi,n.g: some .new feels wilthout losing; sight of the past.
'YOU

to "~,funkify" your

own grooves,

lit

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I

:·.Fot an j,n-depth stuldy of tradi·[i'onam. Afro~Cu,baJ1 rhythms~, incmu,din,g a ,g,~o,ssarSt,. (covering ma,ny lof the terms used herle) b'ib,U,ogra= phy,~ and, ·d~sclogra'phY'~1refer '£,0 4fro~Cuba.,R,by,thlms for Drumse' 'by I 'Irank: Ma~ab>e an,d '8o!b, We'iner, ~dso,avanadbm.e from
Manhattan Music/Dcr Vm!deo,.

4
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• 1 •..''::_ .G.p O:~'O.at" b. !i'"d . :L I I \ 6.. e" )( .. 14u Of 3i/tl ../ \ '~ t A .' 'KEY-::-~' ..':'j:. ~ )<.. 2:2'1'1' x 16~~ drum bass :2 611..)iC ~." .I •.If1:"Ji . .~ ...161~HH thin. '20" As~Chinese . ir.. 811 xlO'il tom 4T 'IOu x 12:111 tom.x.. j..11'-1::.. eras It H.pen T':=:'Yhumb O'=O'pen. "....12:n H. I. muffledtone F:·Plng. F'= F'in. _ . 'r f' ~'... I • ":' "-.-~.. .• w....':1 v \E'" . r ~ . h l.3.."."E"'Ir":.. .t' .': . '. U-!ASS·-······.H rh in splash J I I D.16 x 16'1' tom D / . 11 .Ie.:f. 'X' l_ F S '1 0 !r_:_rr...1.•• : ... 11'1 x 13~~ torn 3.~..~. .' ".: ·... • ~ . lEn. . . ~.' J .. Cymbal bell -. Silldeof other timbale 1""....• 1.' AND..~j~h hand left X:-. .'. :_ '. '.. .~ _ _I . '-:-:0'- .Il. -'.. Floor li.....t . ambo bell M L. : a. Low pitch (open tone) I ...I=~. · L. ' ". 'I . n nbo bef .. »: _.":. -/' .ger-:s.ers S~S~a._. ' -I I 'UP-I 1" I .~ j. : ...IJQ.. ~ " . . IF ~ J L~ .... .20~' . I • . h ..11 AA thin crasn C.. ' . ["_" • ....J f. Finger on head. • . u pn S '.. : . Crash cymb aI' 'H f'!. C· '¥MB' .'. a..DRUMS .1'5. . . ! . .CYM:-. Bass .i.". I . ~. x ')Q . 80-··N· F'T' FlO -. II .: 'B-:::AL· S:~"E'·":T' ."~ .. Crasher' G / .X 14~~ brass snare . __ -- R""""I"I'" __ 'K .gers .if') 1 I hi-hal.• '. .'g'l-.AA Sound Control Ride' E" :~3" .~ I. ..2:.. b._" 1 T1=Thumb PiOZPluck H~'Hamme!red".h (.c..pen ·r'one w. c...14111 AA regular hi-hats B._ ... ~./'... Right hand hi-hat (x-hat) d.. ". • " . c. / K ... .' 'tto·· tone: .i. r •••••• d block .. 'AlS" . 11 B -..~. Hi-har w Ifoot Of Ride .rv. D·'RUM". -'.'" .!1)t... Mid] - ..Ma~nb() bell I.. Cha-cha bell /' l \ A i J •• '0 W-c:0". j I '. ': DX··UM·-·· '.·.e... c .. _" 1 1- " . C· .ft· CO:t"Vllil. OO'-:"'N' . I Hiph l.-..~'CaJ.~.- J!4 .t1uted ghost notes. '::.. '. "..'i .. 5 II • _ ... ... li'h . . b 0.'.. "EtUS··. - d.. 'I1'. ')fl l"""" b... ...- g".. ? . I I ssnare -."." ~ P ~..' c.AA hi-hats P.

.what side of the clave at rune fe.aU other rhythms must relate. to as crucao. however. electric. I J. '..e.. I' [6······: '. timbales. botija (bass notes blown through a borde). ~~!I ~ &umba clave: . :alS GrL_l1 j!. a large African thumb piano.in Rico '-.e ~'. bass and plano lead vocals and chorus. or '3. ' _ .. ip'II~~ '. 2:3 - .'''. beuer on and.t JJ t . 5 Generally speaking..1.·. 2.te'~s. ls . A nimbao is a repeated Iigure (either on conga or bass) which creates the groove. Puerto . For the Cubans..:::2 ¢ . t·. ~1~W er wh . this 'wUl affect everything rhe band plays. great Latin band leaders [ such as: Israel "Cachao" Lopez Arsenio Rodriguez.J.." The clave is..~t'~ W"...~ '. ··LA.' . O·'~-:·NE. h song an.! c [0' . note how in some .This._ 'I~. Ma. '.gared.·· ·:YT/Ai.~' followina iIl''l¢'.'. the bass Vilas a European instrument which could be used.. the conga tnmbao. The music has since been played on upright bass..3. ' . :11:.. an ~nte'rchaJ]lgeaJ.I.chJ:lo..iII. So~nclave 2::...3 role which had previous.' . or typically in many salsa bands..either addi n8: or dropping a ba r. J. gu.this marrlage led to a variety' 'Of musical styles and dances. Just o the most crucial element of rock and funk playing is.iliU'J.... son..···--·" . your' fingers or clap on ~~'2nnd a '4~'U In Latin music you clap claoe. 'The heart [of the ensemble is to be found in the bass tumbao. these musicians combined African rhythmic structures with European harmonies" a~~[houghAfrican melodic a nd ha:rmoni..io The ~. Ttto Puente' 'and TUn Rodriguez along 'w~th many others. _' .. or cros sed. and flnal. ~ [ll.Iy been served by the marimbula.. II .irude'given this note' by the bassist 'w1'wll ffect the swing of the entire' band.uaUy us-e the lower. In Cuba and..3 ·to 3~:2).1·B:::I:. an electric upright called a "baby bass.relationship ().1' 'wberever possible.f the music to the cla ve can occasionany change from 3[... n._..~'.ts within rhe clave. .. '._-' -TUM.1 oar... to imirate '[he sound. i. bass and piano. Afro-Cuban music Js an centered around [he elate..~y solo phrasing. ... mambo. bongos.3 Son clave 3. developed an integration between African and European musical forms which had previously belen for the most part segr...'I:Virc--R. " "i... ...: .i'l. including the percussion section. .!''id'·:ii'~'''''i""io.~'j WO~n lid" be t' hev <_':[".~tse'ifIs never s~mplyreversed.c forms also pla red a role in the black muswc of the New World~ as._. for exanlp~e. . ..nd percussive" I iILls.A O···::-··· _'" .. ~i. I are writt en as ._in'u . ¢~ . In salsa the rhythm section consists of congas. thicke-r strlngs [[E"A"... J II If in jazz or pop 11l.2to 2:3 (or 2:.'Ailm:'J... will generally occur by . in the' backbeat.!I. To make the notes fat e :a.::2 .r: I.·· I.D.bomba plena. cha-cha. ..._j.of 'the audio examples tbe notes on me' fourth beat are played 'm . which wnc~de"ntaUY1' Spanish for "key.g~ilthe.( AND·~. .IInr~.$40's and 50 S~... to matcn up Mtlh. During the 1930~'.. 'The QJtt.. J!J '!rr".·'·. J ·C I ..~ blues music. e ':_e seen in an actual laiUn bass chart.:" l I J.. of a drum playing .~Jlira. many others which 'today make up what :is commonly known as salsa.. lyrics :31odmelody usually determine how the music fi... 'By listening 'to the' music of' the idiom. ..... " ./. you wiU come to understand how [0 hear. _'.....'·~-··'VE··::·--:. Poorly phrased rhythms are referred.'.dJ. :_ C.-= -- . ooae !Ii. "r\LJ'.d externded over rue 'm. so that the two-bar cla ve . such as son.. horn Hoes and accents.iI"Jll.' . . . iil . ~) j I ~ JJ .'. I .' I' .~'. rmsis d _...USruC' you snap.-. .iU-.bJe two-bar rhythm [0 which . ' J ') ' ce . rumba and.. In the' course' of a.·: '.mi ex '... "'r ~3'··: J -.

~.2.~::"""""""'I~. ....J . 1'1"'" I 1_ II . the foot and hand fall in u nison)......III~_--ilr!I·_-t---..O_ -:~ i·.......A. --=l~~----+--"~""""'_'-~~I~...".. First.--~==if..... .... there Is rhe basic conga tumbao (or masacotei played on one... If..· · _·. _I...·..!I!I!II!- :1 T ~~IIi:' ::::::t'. ~~":::::::::. the 3... ~~-=~~~~I~~-+·~-_·---+~~~~~~I~-I~lr~·~-+----~I_~ V' iIIIIIIII.:::::::~~::::::1 :.~1 >&. h t ~. ''\l. =.'•.. :' ~ --+--==ilI'~~=~==iIilf=JiI.. 1 ..I S .i~. J!!!!... : t---==-=~.. _ _~."_~~ .-:i:..I I..~..._:~· "" '....' il II -- .... B~7 ...".... ~~.B.. __ IIIf' ~....80 Independence I exerc ise '= j -'-6'" jl'. C7 • !IIJII!I .-fIII'i... -~~-~-. .."-J. F~~···~~:~ ..7~. i~ I~ "Il I·-. '.~~ --. Ii I II 111 x lI!=1~ '~ I I '" RR IL R N. X ! _..~'~-. . ~ _. -T._ . ~...11.~~~~~+---+---t-·.lL L ~~ R '.___.. This is a.. ' a ~ -- . '.··...... ""1111 .' p - FSF . 'the groove. 7 .. ve is to practice tapping It with your foot whtle playing :at rumbao.'~_'--I-~-+-: ... I 8x I _.. =*"'I .. on aC-CUJra'CYl' not speed..~7-..e'gn a~.· C].'::::::::... tumbao 5\: ncopaeed with the 2-side of the clave..·::. ~ ._.o I - . 1_'the metronome (quarter-note :....... 76~~then add the clave with your One w.". I Ii B~.. :. ....I I I~l 1111' ~. • I'" !..-'i 8x .-----+_~i~~~·~~:=."_ -A . ~~~·::~~':: ~~'n JlJ 1:......I~~· -+--t--.. =-""".i ·1 1 ..i. V .... __ ..· itJ= ...:::1::::::::..o' ]I' '.~ ·x· I "I X 'X lit.'_an·~'~oot~r~g.note:: on tl. .....~._ h nanc C' bassist v\~~'hTito 'Puente) and is an excellent independence clave. 11 . ... :.. merhod used by toot and gradually blend in rhe tumbao. )C J!C...1'..~--rfl~r~~·~· ~~ ....'·~. .•.s 'tumb.3 . .. exercise wh ich really helps lock in.~.!Il.. .. '.Ir':'·--. v... ..*.. . The ern phasis here is... ... (note the-low drum on.)j[h d '....side of the clave) 2'!i3.__. I .. - ..._..... ' .II~1I11 1~:::::::li:' ::::~. •.-.A.~ ~...P' F S 10 0 F 0 0 I 1 1 . in seq uential f: . Begin with a medium tempo on B'ss... 'The nick is to ger the' many Larin musicians (most notably Bobby Rodrtguez I._--!l---~' ..P I P 0: ... ~ ".__· .ay ~O internalize r. •.." II 'III' .I I .... ' _h... 1...( ".. nns.. Tap 'wwth foot Now it is time to consider dl€' basic rhythms the percussion section lays down in 3. h 3"d th or der: root . t ~-=l-I:..~.c_F·-"""I:.·":~I=..1 II' '...h......: • " .. .. _I '1Io~ I.:. rwo or more dn ..+. typical salsa tune.I. . :I:·:::::!:::::~::.....4x [I I _.~ ~.....~../ Ik.... ~----~'F=~~.. )! L L R 1 'L L R R . e s-sice 0f the ng n h d' e ....

..3. 3·· 2:· ".the song reaches the montuno.lit. his.3 In clave. signal the i.: . the bongocero plays ~be large bongo.'. however." and the' roll actually sounds a lot .n.. led 8 . .' x. _·\1111~. Here is the bash: marti no: riffs conversmg with [he singer.._ ')1:. sides of 'the' i~mbale--'whk:h is [caned playing paiJ~ Of' cascara. . . . i of the timbales is ~. ." .J • " )f :x x.. [he timbalero's .nstru ."".'... .> > > LH '-iI---I--~'---~-----=~ . ill 0 0 .· 2'. abanico ! .e'" II I I . mambo beU and plays this bell-ride: o Iii . 2~2 -~!.n. R L R ":_. Interestingly enough. " . the martillo.g a.the cascara pattern wuh left: hand accents on the drums.'T:f'FOT I IF r :x" f' T .' 1. The timbalero starts the rune' (the verse) :play. with alternating the' repique. iil. course of a typical salsa tune: .~a:r with the baslc PrJ. .F f 0 T I ~L. )C' _. -. player s--<lr bongoc[tJ. w. the following page is a skeleton transcriptlon of parts these . bongocero will now pl~. cowbell pattern on. " x Jii )( 11' ' '. ending with another rimshot on "1" of the next bar.' 1- When the tune reaches the mambo section.Uy goes '~nlOthe mam 00 section.€: :a fan being .f.-~___"..-. once again playing . many varlanons and the fundamental percussion.} a.' 1 f _ __ • J . ..i R .When.ditionaJly used '[0.~ Q 0 '. which ~s known as :80'. which is .~. -. to be [amn. After dle core.~ ~.part R L. il - l(. Another importaru function .)1 ..o beD.~ng on [he.~.' I R All of these percussion examples have' so fat' been. and. fi~ck of the wrist.The bongo. section parts played during the' m ents ~ ~k nuance'S always 'uein.' . 'The abanico is tUJl..' '. I . for 3 !2 clave. 'Timbale cascara pattern _ •• _ . It should 1 R 'I .O announce' the beginning of the montuno or other sections with an aba nico. player.J > '>" i:'" • . )C 1 'III' I . wrmU'e-n 2::.troduction. The.I ['0. rimshot followed by a double-stroke roll of varying length (depending on [be tempo) means fan.-'" .n. L R. the timbales..~e'fthand. or chorus (coro) . for example. 1. i ~ II . 1 I 'I W. IO'.'A'Ii:-' ... ..10' martmo pattern ·FF. .__ ~.RLRILRt Bongo mofttun. bell and usually plays 'thIs pattern. the measures an! simply reversed.. R ...3:._-- (wio stick) For the coro. ".y' n his ben the rhythm the timbale player-or timbalero-wes playing on the side of his o ..ddedby each. ". the timbalero moves TUIlbal e mOU!LUno'.There are also. the timbalero often moves to the cymbal.ItS and to' see how they can be applied to the also be understood '(hal these' are very basic versions of th e dmmset.. be. 2""2" > 1 . a '>'~:.th. . of a. ~'dl.--: l . often followed by a horn or percussion solo. o brass shout chorus.. . pla Y'.. li whisked open V!r~~m.3.gene'ra. e :.... It is important.L...': ~'".ro"5=gr-oove is.. which Is like drum during the verse. . the tu ne . R R -.I .

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\rl!rse-A common alternative eo the left hand on the drum is to ~H in th

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Verse-e-The martlllo pattern is rhe frame of reference for the .rmffing that 'the bongocero plays durtng [he verse always returning [0 and playing. off of it [] [1 ' . ontu no=Often the bongocero will wart for one' or more cores to go by before' picking IIp [he bell, coinciding wruilth the flrs. or M even second tnspiracion crhe lead vocal improvisation. ·lV~ambo---There are sometimes other cowbell patterns that can be: played, in this section. All of these rhythms can be condensed .00.[.0 the drumset ln a variety of wa YS1 despite [hie fact that :[he drumset isn 't a. pan of the' typical salsa. settlng. It is most important to consider the role of the bass drum within the context of 'the bass turnbaos when playing Iatin grooves ..The drummer should rarely platy on •I~~' ecause' the essence of Latin s~rln.g· omes from '~4~' eing tied over to ~~1~f b c b o [he next measure, Quarter-notes p~.ayed on the' beat a rei reserved for the' cowbell, paila or cymba] patterns, the bottom msrruments (bass, bass drum, congas etc.) generally don't p~ay on ~l. ' The most common b.'ISS drum pattern Is.
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.. w and quarter -notes.-' .~'~--~~~----~~--~~-~..._ . pattern: 2 I~~ll ·::1'·2······ So .__. '. beginning 'with the cascara pattern (right hand) being.. JC )IX.. I .Iefthand c-an also pick up the conga pattern.~'--~~~8x • --'JLL.J:. ...~.> The cascara pattern should be practiced on 'both ssdes of rhe clave using both rumba and. Practice w~'th the hi-hat playing ha~f-note.• .':""fV···e.~ . "- . > 'I I . e- . '.. '-.• ~~ . 'g&" . played against the rumba clave (~eft hand) . o o ·rA o o .". Practice . r-- > ..p • .s. II . ~~--~~~--~~----~~--~~~~--~----~~~--~~'. Left band conga pattern Here is the cowbell ride pattern against the rumba! clave played wuh cross-stick: ii o '."'I II} .x The' '~... I i 1 ..'x _.'0 . [ . though this. ••• >I""'" • )( > '_'... ~ - 12 . > ..I I .Here are some' comblnations of percussion section grooves played on drumset.aU of the above rhythms wrudl~he hi-hat playing quarters and half-notes...)iI'j.X .. • __ ~ "\"!'il'.a]'o:ng: ith bass drum patterns 1 and 2..1 .)( I )!I.I ·1 I > >- >- '~ . sounds a bit dated tome.. I .. ~ > . .diam::§::.~ cascara. son clave Here for example is the son clave aga inst t hie 3.2 _ i!1!I __ i'PK?i_.iii i .

. )t~. ..J\~S{as [he bass drum is rarely going to groove well p:laying downbeats. i I ...~..f=----+-=. __ ~~~..a. ~ ...."'x.-._.......~ __ :iI.ti~'·.~~~--~~ III _ __ ~ __ ~~ __ ~'..t~.il~~~~ 'li!.. ..III _.IL R lie ..... music...L... -=+=~~~ __~~=-~~~ __ ~~.. t .~"""'_-~')CI!o~.!!....•.~' ....~~ll II .011' __ ~--~~' ~~~~~~~bl ~~~~ __ ~~~ ~ II ~~~'~~~..~_~~_~~_=~~_. Ii .. - .. - '-+~~ I """""=.R t 1.. ...~--==-~-. R.~~____". I have' ftound '[hat a..... I.>..! I . L...---J--. . .')I-:)c. -..E... -+'~..----....I"..~ ~....!I!-"~=--~_. swng]e backheat on the :2=s~de 'the clave can work pretty well: of '..._~"""""'_~I _l<IaJ' .' :.._. j". _ J_ I..~ArW·'I~':~ __ ~~ ." i ~.. ____". .' .:! __ ~~~+I~1=~~ __ ~~.~=rr---... _ .--..or. _ 'JL... II x )1--_. I I \ 11 } I 13·" . I L . . .~u.l R 1 .ain of this..iii .. Xl 11....' ~.')(~JI~!r-.gJ '. 2· ...."_~~-------.:::'2f· '_ _"~_~~ __ ~~ __ ~~ ~~·~~~~~~ Ii! I ~~ __ ~~ __ ~~ __ ~I __ ~~~ __ ~_=----'I __ ~~~ '.." ~_.....1 ~~_="'. . t' ~. ~~ __ ~~~~~I ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~I~~~ __ -=~ __ ~~~~MI II Ii .f--ii~5i&\' =----.I~..._.'.. ]I! ~"-I!IIL. 0. L ....... RL t I !IIIIIiiIF".'..L)Ij~.. L L 'Jel)f 1) R [..>~. \I _.........".1!I!II . -- I ~I ~ :>c : liIJ .#~~~"~~ __ ~~~~. __ .. .1R.'~~..' 'f.iiI.....~ . backbears on "2''''' and '" i" often "go agalnst the g:r.

L ~ ~ I 1 1 i ~ I .:..' . . /. 14 .. I .. I 1 I i i.

. - 4x i'"'" ..··· . 1 '.g '[he.. 4 ·X. ¥ .. rhythm fi:n~lUy' pu~. I 11 ·i • x.1 .. provjdling: an. ~! 0. • 'W .' ': ..• .I:~ye·ffibad been known to add a bass drum or eve n a sna r-e . and bongos. endless . .Ii I I •..")(..' "R:' -' I ~V:l0'·-. ...rn1 developed i:n the 1970's by the great Cuban percussionist Jose.1 I A~I] or these songo rh}/thms should be practiced wuh the ht-hat phly[ng half-notes and quarter-notes. drumset mto the standard percussion triumvirate of congas timbales.. ' ..5 ...X')(' IX" ~...s. ."< 1.laying.2) 1.. 'WhUe some (~n1ba~.C.. 1)f. -.t:' ''4!'!: t::: '~ I' • AI ').. . I iii' .~nd open sij le of p..·NC-:·~'i'GO' .. .._ ...0 ~ 4x·. I 4 :1_ II I' '.:. "Changuito" Quintana and bassist Ju:an Formell of [he' g:ro'Up' 1005 Van Van" Songo represented a major breakthrough ~:n ~ujn music by wn:rroducin._- • -::::.x... i I .' Songo is a rhyt hmic fo. _C' ._.footing \\ ith the other instrurnerns. :ill ]I • .7ongo represents a much more free . J> '.- . l X 'r-I.' I.IC. ~ 4 1 • . For the bass. left hand cowbel ! etc".t::..a 'II!!!!!! 1 ljU I."~· S:'-"O"'-'. .' 1r-... Example 1 shows [he b~lSWC songo rhythm on the drumset: into 'tbe~:rset-ups. II ••• I II 111!1 . The :~efthand between tile snare toms.il.number. (same as Example . _ '.ftp. the 500g.'HAPTE. 1.'.~and that of other Carfbbean-based styles.. l:l(wn1anely'~ soogo reflects U1C influence of rock and funk from the U. .of variations: 'I' ("-1]1 also be orchestrated 'I . open hi-hat chokes. I. .. .. [he drumset on equal . '~ ..... on Cuban mluswc.. -': ..lans.

I [hen decided 'to move most of [he left hand to the hi-hat while hitting the snare on a kind of songo backbeat.. ... x. . • .. .I first O~€ are completely compatjble wkh all of these rhvthrns." (same as 2.::1. ..~ J!C ]I X x :x :I _..... 3.J 1 -0 L > I..). ... . 4x • J " ~'r~'-'I~lftl~~~~--~~~-4~~~~~lI~~-=~--~~lIl~~~---Mr-·.playing' son go behind diffrer:ent groups.. 10 create the sou nd of the songo guiro pattern: s ''''Ii :2 liif _I..: ..l: ''\JL. ~ )i > II >'" ' ' o .) started . ~ r_' .R.~I-=~~~~~~ __~~~~.l.~ j.1 I '!III = I I . )I X • :.~l .J' 2'·. . I always found thart unless F stuck to the left hand cross-suck l1rpe groove.wted 'to select p~lfli5of a tune percus- slon bn akdowns. R I > 'lc • '14: • )ou )i)4 . : ~r ]I • _I I -= I I I .J ()II'" JJ .J ... I _ Ii ~_~ ~~i -... otes on a single beU: but can add sc rue not s or move around to a n h lgher bell. the above variations often sounded 'roo busy or clunered (they worked 'better when Um.Similarly. '... _"!IIII" '..."~'~.. eX) __ ~~~~~. ._ :~' I :' I' .. . l IR t L I .. > .~.~. ~.1\ ~ -. IDthen added [( weeps" "lith the lJeft foot on the hi -hat.. 2·3 '[-'. :ill x J :JIt::i X. i (same as Examp...1 f:..)C JPI ... 'This created a much funkier and more versatile groove': R.~' __ ~ ~~~~~ . the' right h: .le16) (Naturally.L .fiche] Camilio. • I : L- ... )I' '.J~hef.nodler riglu hand pattern. > I -ix !"'!""I "il.'' • x --tC ~_.nd need not stay locked into the quarter .~ ~I)( .~am.~ ::>r (}(I .1 .L I.. is played between the right hand ht-hat and the . p'an: 6.. :)(.. which I heard joel Rosenblatt use 'with ". t R . the bass drum varistlons given in chapter \1t. ....-1'- ]I! ~ )C -..nd. _II[ --.p.iii. :II :Itll("J ~I - • :)( ~.)c o XI" )(1. be U.. I I: II "i\. !I. or soloing).". I !I.le 8) . > . I.4x R ~ 11 ...1 I •• .-- 4x..i.. ~.J >" .'~~~~ iI I . !I"""" ~ t'"' .f .

- > "".. ~::~ ..--~"__ . ~......-...i > I ~ ...'...~ 4x --L R L L ..~....·2 clave. :.... - Ii' 1_ ~- I iII :11- Ii ~. _~ ~.. _I t. . as always....·I ~""'__. 6('1 ..=--_.....if is possible to simp.. ....I . > '~ ~ I .C [WO drum masacote. > ... I R L RRLLR L RtRLR. -\!!!II! ".~~~--.. . . the dru rnset- '.... •.ly ride on the hi . (i ~~ .... ..._..... -1\ )t'. . -\ :II ]lr-- ...._~~ -iI-.7iI!-=~~------~--=f.=------""'-~... I ....Another instrument which the son go wnn~Jenced are the congas._....--=.... ...... 'Here is a stripped-down version of this conga pattern played between [he (On1" on. ._ I' 1 -I :.....• \ 2 .... This example is shown with two snare drum vanations.....iiiI!.._" ]I R ..- !i ..'I :>t ... AI.- >'" .._ [I ~- :It::I! ......I' .. .-'...[ .._..... - ~) ...__:. '~ & f1 .. JI~... ~... [he songo backbeat Note that different toms may be substituted on 'the fourth beat of [he 2nd bar. ! ! 17 I . .. _ ~~~ 4.t...~ .....> :> ~ .y...~...R L 4x >- > R 1[' • R..:-~-~~~+.\8]S1..: ' . r- I . ' .1 1 -. :~'I~_!I=~_~:...~2 li.-~--_""""""-_""""".. :::t..... I -- \ .... ....> ')( I 4x ~I II )C.-iI=' . I~ """"" I •...)( 1""".".fi-~+_.~ )f ')(~ ... The pattern changed dJamatically from '[he' .. ... L LRL (same as Example 10) Meanw. I ~ r.... ..' .. " > I _.. ' _ri ~ I [ I > I :! I . _6< ~ ....• .. II' j (i:) ~ .~-= .. 61 ...............0' . I ........ >- .. incorporating and creating this funk groove'...__ '~ ..... .. _.... ~I~-~·~~..-~ I ~I~~~~~~~~/~~~.. ~. '>--' ......·=----t-- iI-..-I..z: . Q) :II ~ -- I 1lt:I! lIt:IJ ri . " R o ).:iiit\ _...~ ... --=-==----".L 11 )C._.III!!!!~' >.)ii.. ... . ~Ir-- .. __ .3c~~v....... to a much more expanded ~.... .!II :...r. ....' . II lI:3l . riD-II __ .(1 1 L .:..... - ~J .~!~~~~~~:_~-~~~~".1~r~fJj -----.. :II - ....• ]- I • I 1 ..nd melodic rhythm.I -=- ...lI=-+~~I::iI ~ __ fi~...]It:lt= !...... 3. .. I Ji~_lil .. 11 I ~ o ...~.... .. I {~...I. >.. l~ ~ ~~c :JI I '- . 2 ·.I:.6C~ -' II .__.. of these examples have been given in 2':.hat.J '-... > .-. ~-=L............ > I ~ - iIiiI._..x I' [...~~~~~~~~~~~ . I :Ii.. li~ ...hile-~doing alway with the cowbell ahogether. I t R Whjl!e an... by begining 'w:~mh secthe ond measure. -___'__""-~~--=----"-"='i • I -.... .. -.l """_~~--='Ill ...I' E........• 1 -]I - ...~---=__=_iI' .::IIlL I ~...... ~-_-~~_~~~~~iF~-~~~~'=:~~~===~====~~lr----=-~~~~~~:'~~ r-.. ~.......... 1- _* .....~~~~--.e'~they can also be played in. ""'""' ~ ."'"""=="'- ...... '.. L R > >...!I-. .

.". '. ---="-=.. --· A .. ~.~_=~=fl~.' ..=~~""'1--tIIl-I-=='"!... :.1-.. 1_ .~ D7 .. ~:... ¥". Here are a few [exampies some posslbilities for songo bass... 1ii\'F".1___· ....I IS'''.. ~~Ir:~=. "'""!._.. P. _ J..-+:·'--lI!I_. "_'-1f-:I:II-_~IFI---.....c:m invites the bassist to occasionally 3:.~=. "'"'". • I ".:J 2nd x _..' X ••• ""'" .-.i . or lmplied... f J .. ! ~ •.'..•••. ~" =-_-tJ.E~-.....'-.._~ ."..:... .../ '.·~I.. __ ~ .... .....-':1~.. _. .. • t ~:i' 0·' " II P II II .~~ t. I 2.I.~.... I.. _-~~~E""'.. ~r=~~---i =-4=··""::'·:__---~I~r·:--- G··...~·r ~Il+~...w. .#1 It.~----~~~t_+_--~~~=:~.:i.. .--_' ... ' .......-..-.='_" I .."'" ~..-_.L ... ... ' ' . r......_. ""I' t~:{~ ...2.'_. • ....:t.\ ~ J I 2ndx.'·""'=""""""''''''''''''---=~=----''''~-----ilII~J"=I_~="""............'_'.I ! __ '.. --~I!Illl..:::I"~:.FI I I0 .' .. " .. . 'I~ ~....'.·' ~""~' ..III~.:t·~·~I. or ._- r 01 " ' II _- ''_'' - -. II This patt.-~.. . C'A ...'IIP'·_~:_--:~-+-."JI ".4 Fine . whi ~e the tum baa for the bass remains intact.·~_'~I..:j:'""'i. be added.... --"i'.ll L ...·:.~... ."_~-~-=-='~~=-~-~=""......In 5 ongo. _ _. J' 1iJIII1~"". :Rumha clave .fl]] in the' space provided by the last t\VO bars._. IL '1' S{ '..r. _".~""'---'..~Ii~ ....."~"""=--..1 '.·. ..'A' .I.....--- I) ..._. _ [.."----'''''''''·~ . --~~......~:.....iiIIIII!: .~..... -...'''''::'I~ . . other inflecnons can..·-==...' .. C... A.. .

.~~ I~U~ --'.veexamples of how can 'be' used to create funky modern lines . . '_' ...r~ . T II 'T...' "':'" me 'to "d" 1 """. '1 " I ....i-- ... but most of the' other ..... T T P "'.-......_~ . 07 The bass lines of ..: some patterns 00 the drumset and con~not......iIt':" uiJl.. "'!OO:" ... . ... ...J ...i...' ..... music are d rx sc ft-" ::'run'l 'onm • I i I..O eene ......j U ... hear how 'the' patterns were pitched and to build pennutated lines accordingly+. "tv~...." 19"1..'~...I '_.. .' _ f-...... '.'8SS1lSt it . -' . 1 'T . th~ em"~~.". I T' _ .....Andy' 'Gonzalez. :...:tl-~u' -"::iIlI..... Libre~ Fort Apache Band) 3J~{edef~'rdu..·..."..IiI.: . 11.. -lWl~""_""___"'''' _ 1~ ..' __ .. 4 . ..'.l ""....· fomk'~o.: 1iI.. ..-.aI_...•• ...:rf"'h..I" '- T ....\ .. ~-._... ---.Tlus neX1t tnmbao has a calypso influence.. L~' 'ow Il.... -I=-=l--.. __y: ' ....' •• .l '. ~. I... ...' .JI '" ._ ...tU:U!....7 ..' ..jj. 1 rh 1 d :ere are some examples 0 f h . t \..~.. --- - . l' ! 1 '= # 2...eastnac ill.P T 4x --- 2 ....0 .._..._..' 0..'....~ . J!U...-- 2:3 r ..U..l... I j I.PUIie.1. SJlt dlown ana ream ... ..... ' " .....".....-~_ ..."""" _.' i .._: ...rbyduns covered m mis book :3!S well" SO 1 at i had oasic J)':eaa-f' how th are p'1ay~~kl~: h Ct. This is a ..an'd b Uu:i:1d' '.. ....2 4 2' _. 1'....iII"'~_ ..'&I..".' smce all .CiO" 'i"'ef1IlSl':. ~~~~~~~9'fiIIIII":'~~~~~1I!"W'~~_'l""Il""'!I "'''-'''''''''" .' 'L .." " "'-."--. I' P _..Ji." . 4 .[ I II .... lI.[OU.... (Eddie Palmieri...~ .. "ft].. ~.j ~.O'Wme sap teenmque can 'be used .. ~ .. -=wI .....~__" l' _' ~ "T -- l~ .J.' 1"'" '_ .- •• _-' -]I_. 1 I'.F._....1 ~ .. ~... __ 1..::~ lped ..... __ :it very 'L. " ' . a ~ h '~Im' ... ~.-d II entw as a bassi 'I'.m" "'iI" ...ff'O ...~ dl me lodl~ ingures m ilitin.I.:o.... Ii . ...-" ."-.I.-' -- ~ ." . _..·n"!I..Uey ._L..'C:lait . . 3:2 A1 4x D .. ". n p ~".: 1u~~~~""'·iZ2.. ml' ..I .. ft":'" 'to. ~' sh 1 .. b .[!!!!"" ---=.. .. C-:' 'I --1!.!" I..... only songo.sty~€developed by 'latin session great Sal '-'....I·. - 2 ~'-" II P T :p '1 P '1 .~ . ........ _. I i C" u:. :[hythm section. P' ..ric elements ~" AX. I' '..~'~~.

I :24 ·4x . - 2".. ... r t r I .. . r I .'.4 I I I I . ~ .. .. II i r r I '] . '. '. 'I .::1 J 4 1 2:n_. r r i ~.---_ . .1 T . .' I G7-.. ~lil~ . . i 1 ~ ...3' .1.. _ 7' .ung pattern . ..X' 1 7x Ist '1 G'1 Tp ! P 'T P . ! ..d x 3 4. 1 . I I I I I I I In the following examples [he 'EU mba 0 notes are circled.J' -. ahernadng . .. '2 4 .-' r I 1 .?. 1 :1 . .iiI' 4 24.. I 1 ~ 4 2 . ""'.' "1 Stmle : J . I . ' ~I 0" 7x p P T 1" 0. ii ! I.2"'~3'·') ..~ .. ! : . . .I i r r I .. T T . "il" I I .. ~ ~ ~ ~....' : il .f ... ! i r 11. G'" p' 'T T' p' F7 TP p :a~t·ema. 1 .- . - .. p I I F7 0'1' 7'x 2 2 ~.II'. I . i ! iI 2'3' ./ pattern Ist x . i . r I I I .

I r .~_- :TH' ..s COlT' trw et pl .lnbu.'" '~<_'C". RL LRL L R l R .. ~ .. R . .-. 1 I' 1- ._ . . The traditional rumba grou P' inc] udes three congas clave.-:. also taking his cues from :the dancer.... S . s pS R' • l 1 "R' ..' . tricter triplet feel.:'2/2l. .. chorus. The clave' wiU ~e rumba clave: J -.''':2' -. - . The' highest pitched conga. 1 _}. . :~'. vocals and sometimes bass and even :1 gu rutar}. followed by the drums..-'O' -' 11"eS Guaguanco ~S properly defined run Afro-Cuban music as one. ' . .1 _i _ ...3 '_.3 P F . . >- > R. J I -u_. A'~ the forefront are the dancers. and out of [he' iLn.. .P'~ied quarter-not and 16th~noce) feels of the' other drums.~". I ¢ . . -=--AN"'· "J :"··I"'::':. . . '. 1 ~-.C"HAPTE-'-':'l' "~"'R.nw r.' '!I ..:U' ..Atypical song begins with. guaguanco.7rli..cbrv..1 . . }j.. ' ' JJ I.of Ehe rhree rumba ' forms~y'a.O· .L r c . I paluo (stick pattern).I.. . ".. J..R. with at '. "x)I1 .2 s S Po..J~ 2~2~' . and out Here are the b-asic patterns of the percussion ensemble. ·~·"·REI'::-·'E!-:·"· GU1.".. -=-_l.I I L Tres go-lpes or middle drum 3::. w'hHe the rumba columbia is played at fast tempos. ._ X JiF '. . triplet and 8th-not. chorus. ~ 2.F F 1 implied r-="' 3' -----. quinto solo.._ .. the.L L 'Ii! SaUdoif' or low conga 3.n:'G' .c Finally" the quinto solos over the whole ensemble. R 'L R- I . . verse. .. (the' quinto) is constantly riffmng (the reptque). L I.!i'. . often weaving in. . .. p. ...' L RL R LR It R.. s p S .. elther performmg Indivdually or ascouples. and rumba columbia Yarnbu is played at slower tempos and baslcally involves the same parts as the guaguanco...L L .. _' I' 1. I" I .e and p~~~to.It '! .I. It ..-'..' .

. .. r~' ]I 11 ~ ~ 1 I" f'J l _t'::ii '~ I • _. . (not [0 reinforce the 3-s~de of the clave. (f!. ~ .~ .L R" L L R r...' L -~ I J I lei J' =.~" '~ :II ]I • ..= ''If:!':.._1 _J - •• ' _~ ".r!I\. _. .. l_ .I) •• I I ~ • • •• .-.' .. ~ :II :11= r"" I .~ '~ I AI: '..-. • I I ' _I • . ~ i ti J 1 .•. btu the left hand can atso f~ff around and play licks while [he basic guag uanco 'Voices (ire alreadv being covered: ". • _..._ '. """'!!!II!II '. R .... - •• ~l -- I I ... . iIIIIiII."".. included on the' tape) >.- -_. l L L I""" . I ~'" "-'-1 ..' I '..' .". I ~ JI I] I 1 *l ._Ell .l ..' "-" ..._ - I ' t::ii ~ -tf. I' :II • ill I]" )l • • -..1 .. . _ .' ~ il . u. •• • .... -. . L SOfi·M:~ quinto: 'The snare drum is basically playing [he slaps of (he tres golpes part...L R L .".. L !I R -'-'U_ J .' I I 1IF=1 ... . I ilIiI.". ~ liP ".::.'The floor tom can be added tumbaos. which '~V(....~ ~ .ttl.~ . I I I 'ill' ]I t • .' .. :It:::=. Ii •• 1= 1 I 1 I 1 •• 1 I I ]1:::3.•.. .. . • ...J:a.. 22 1 :. J L I . I • a~· j'j --~ .... . • •• 1 ""'""'" 1 ~. I :~....... IIiIiooo. . . L' "l!l. L ...' I I I '~ 1 :i! ·1 . ~ . ._ I ..l ~ t 't. :."..!I .1· 11 ~ ' .."".LH ca • -. I. • x ]II )( '..f I 11 L R R 'I.._.' ..:. ]I I 1 --•.. 1 ~ I t::Iii '~ fIi' I .. 1 1M' W.'.l ]I . - • £' ~ IU :.._.: - 61-'1 • J )( .. ' __ '... . I 1 1 - ' -. ..• simile :! 1.:: ! 11 -~ :L I l R . iIiiII..' . -I I :wI.r~' Jt:: 1 I 'j i! . • 11 • t ''1 • 1It:::if ...... r. _ '. _ 'il- .. ]I I 1 I] "" . • '...----... ~~llru~] ee greatly enhanced by the bass pl'~l)er's guaguanco s _..!' ......• • • 1 Jit .. • .

l . 'I.. )C. -'"1 • _:.'II . " _:wI ""7'Ii"" ~_[' I II I ' I I 11-- - :1' I: : I _X I . L.= .I' .. 8x .~ ..X' . ' -'" 23_'· _·1· 1 ..-TL· . I I.~ . o .i"".I _ I . C"W""51 Go " pretty 'wleUbehind quieter sections of a tune. I _..F _1 i ~. ---. I _~t '~-~_ ..._ I ·liLI' . sknBe I .....I·· Z..JI '1 _l< I )C ~ j_ -'" '~ f.II :' . I II ~.·J-I n .I'''--'-0. xt e·. _J.. with the rtghr hand on 'the snare much funkier sound can be realized._ 11" .ill.)(I~ II IL ~. '--i )If' . ~Iu .t.. - . ' :ill llC:It ]I II \... ~:-' :~I- _ . :R R . piano and bass solos.. R t R L t.J~. ~ .X'..m.....L 1 3<Z l~ ...-. '~~' ...'X . ~-I 7'\. . > I >I o ~ ')( i I""" 1_ .)C I I' . or during percussion. ['..~r-. ... - . 1 ill. ~.~I ~ I . I~ ~. 1'1 . ~ ~.f- ~I'"' I I.._ >.1 1 )( )C <~ X III x j. 'R it .l~Snex . .. )( -I ~-~..[ .Je I ."" -··-·P-:. ~r-..'i~ . ~.~ .Ilit ...3 'the sound sources by rnoving the left hand over '[0 th!:' hi-hat. '11.:'\1/ 0 . . j_i I f Once again by re-orchestrating drum.

. I- I~ ~l ill' R. II _ .. I ')( ')c '~ 1 IJ~ ... )( ! I 'Qi:l 11 I t( '. . 11l 1 ~ .. .~ i '~ I )( 'lie: )( )C '~ )( ~ IJ ]lb I ]I 11 J)lJ. 1m .~ ). L.)( \' I )( I .(.t I " Ir- :> t R nt L I: ! I ~.' " )C' .. I :II l~.. I') :)(1 . I ')( I . )tj. t 0 ~ ')I . I ::> I o > .__)(.R -.e l . RL .>. . II I-.~i~l ~'l ..x' Ii 1r JIJ t ~. i: )d. . ''X ')I. . . ~ )t > . ')« : ')c' I :ilt::I . :>C ~ ~' :)( '')(l_')( [ ~ . 0 t .I' I 'l (. ')( 1 )( )d 101 I J~~?JII ~ .3:." I RR I ).lC 'J )( ~ )( [~ ._.... 1 t ]I' .. 0 . lL _)( r )C' . . LR . " I' I 1!Itt J ~ J)II~ I:::II • I .~ )C I .. o Ir"""! I I .x! I o L R. ]I I .. '. L i 'R : L 'R >. J. ~X .' I I )( )I! 11 :ill I [ i .. . I. iI I AI • 'I . ')( J'JI~ '~ - . )J.. .~ L 0 I L "-..'k.Ii I '> ". '. )( . .. 1.-..~. RL e- .. - J:I.. 1.)C 1 .J!!l }. l R L R R L > . >-- L RLR~RL R l.2 ~ ~ L I . '~ .I..l ~ \ > .. -. >- > I o F . 'i)()( :)!. 24:' 1• :~ I I .. ~I I :)(. I . !! I. I l.._ 'DJ! 1lI~~1 " ...----..le o RLRR ).I o ~'.

)(. """'" I o .. .)/" o o o o R L o 2-'5'.".. . )! J ~ 11 ilt:I T ~l I 111~ -. :R L )II P'""! I )( ~I ~ ')C I ~ I I ~. JI :I~ . ')j ~ I .. ~i ~- • • .~ " . '~ I ~. ..R.!.. > J< o I I o )! Rl >0 lC ~ .. ~ )C )c. > X ' JK: o I R L >'>' Rl .. _)f 11It 11p:g.U 7 (JI iT T I I 1J '" . . il :ilt::iI :I :ill f . .( -lfIJ ')rl I I .> 0 I .I ')( ')C. >' . . I . '~ )I ~ III )I.'&J' I 7 I::i ~.I~.~ l~ L-.1 l( X > I 1 """--.~ I - .~ lc 1 f ~~l )C )l ')c '""" I { IMl :II la"l . 'lc! I . I 'le :. .0.. .. I :ICI I 111 :. )j I . 0 o 0.>I"'" .~ :')l ''Ji I ~ ~ ~ )C' I I ..~ J :J ~(I ~l ]I ]I .~ ]I )c' ~ I lC It..c' I . I X x > o ')e i!""'" R1 .~~! ')(. I '~I -'.~ ~ . t.)C1 R. liIiiliiiii :it::3 ::iii: :It:I :>e' I l I ~l' . I ')j! !"""". -)( )( I ~ .'" . I (II .v~ 1. ')I )!' .LR 'I R >- LLRI. >0 ~ ~ OW ... ' '.:._"I .)( I~ I ~ ').. ~ . .._.

.~.. . - ... . . Lik. the quinOO fOUO'W5: the lead 'vocalist or the movements of the dancers in traditional rumbai .::2 lave c in the foUowln. the' tres golpes . B~'7' - . T . _-._... '..._' ~ . it'. J ..... '''_' HT .J.Y as..:~. a.'·"h·. unison with."- _ !JI"!'" II :. ' .. r J~ __ : I -! "". .. similarirv to the I.T : :.3/.4·x - -~.ill....~ 1 - . I ." ~.~ 4x i -- T Ii 'T :p ...:u.._. .-~tres go. ''I. is most evident in the guaguanco .I --- .. me bass can also get Into the' ~·~BOI Diddley/New Orleans" groove by outlining the: 3·. ...1 ' '. 1 .[..3 --i!"1II! "..The role of the bass functl on in g. --.. 2':. ~.I ..!!!I'" [I .. h~ just congas and vocals. .. .n..1 ~ A"".'p .. 0-. . . pes .·IO in 3...2 . T ._-". .-' .... '''''''_'' HT . ...~ .__' H T H.. as a. ' ' . .....same WI.. .. .Ie' guaguanco... 2.._..3:2 . ._dd"'~' ~ lll0.- .-.A :2)11. -.b':US H_· IS oaQUllonwy usee oom In LU. T H '.._.le ---..". 4 4 1. .isa master at .F Tl .. .U r b d a 1..drum part.. 4'X . - ]1:-- I ''_ I __." " ". in much the.-. ' I 2:'. uh ~~l-~ d 'h W. . ..g mannen · . . __ I'- [ J.Rodrig.. ..- aln ~f. oiiIIIiIIIIIII' '_. I ~' 2-6-'" . '. AI'b-.! - ~ "" -.e:the drums. sty le of pta.. . I 1 .- . (E string) T 1. New Orleans second Iine sty l. 1 1 -..'t~' a W.• ! _~ 1 " '_" TP ] T ..... - I --.lj.. along wlth the guitarist Arsenio ..=-" t - -'._ ':1 ~-- ""1I - - -*' .-- -. 1 .y.. P'roe' '· 'iJJ'_ ~~'~' -Ji [. 1h" .zuez.. . In the first example. I p' T H T' ._..-~ .. _ . T H T. T' P 1..iiiIii ~'~ III" 1 ..'This is a. 11 ..' .1. -_ p T' ....mg W1. Here are some ILnes~hat eomblne elements of guaguanco. --.1 II! of -i!lt ..P T PI TP "T P T p.. I [1_ __ ..cJiand...illllllllli '2-·3-' ~ !II.'.. ying developed 'by Cachao. to p 1..".P '. J 11 : '''_'' J 1 I ~II I i ..-- .so' recor d eo Wit.note 'the melodle .~.'.tiffing: around on the bass within '[he context of the clave.. .- Caehao ..-~".' t. and as a call-and-respcnse to.- 1... .I l~ . oano. funk. .

..-: 11 THTH'TH i' .Y Q1n.... simile .__' ~' ". I. r- d :.za " An.· I ~ez '.I._.J : .G"'-:'""....' T' 11 T H ..r .P T H T' 11 '.. ': '2"[7:: " . ..

. / 3 -I 3 ')( :1 I .:...I ! I I ' [ 2-"'8·'.. -_ "':.I. - .". .'.::c' -'~D'IO:'. straighr-ahead jazz lime over ~he same pulse..':''E.. .. '.' :I I . I . "'' .-1' ".. :)C )( ~....'.~: ' .. I " )(. ~I JI ".' '.._.·. dilierent approaches tony WilH::U111 Ron Carter used in playing W~a'Yne Shorter's 'Fcorprints" . _.)(.." ..' . AF:':' ... .·· ":liB: :... shuffle or an are srumUar to the many.f __ .._.. FI~~' CHAPT. _le.'... ·C.. __ .i""'.~ :l{ I l(....~ _ " '.. ...i II. I -...3 1 .R:.. I' . _ . -J It: . 1 _J ..AN'·· -. [' •• '~ " I' ~.·.._. The. Cuban 6/8 rhythm is probably rhe most versatile of Afro-Cuban grooves inasm uch as rut can lend irself ro the widest varieties of time feels=-one can play funk._."....:: .. 3 :')( . 1 ' I '....3 '}(l )( II I I."R". .~ 1- I ')( I 1*/ . . .tfUes Davis. .. rock.dII :: . ~. Afro .. .._...'UR". The posstbilhles The basic 6/8 Afro-Cuban rhythn1 is:~ l'f ! - .: ...3 .1 . .' .=-' II" '" .' . O"".J ~.. 16'~I/:~8-'··: . 'i »J =.)( _l ".3 1 _I.

. I I I I _'): '~. '..._'j •. )( ).. ~ I I 1a IJ~ I ..' I • :II._.~'. I .. . -]I. > .- f• . • •• ...1'. _.1o_--z . . ~.'I • . :iI'.• .: I . (.. .. 1 - .) ]I :II' :ii.~' 10. I""""" 1-: -. > T III . - .J . I >- >.1. _I~_. I 1(1 . ~ (I) . u - . f' I ~ . . i._ . _ I :II J.1 .. . {. ~I I ..~: > .' :I ~ - lit ')C I _l!l )( ()( III ~ ( ]II ]I I (if ~l . r. •• . ! 1]11 1'M _l'~ )( . {..1 'J .:) _ )c! I 11 I _. OI~l JI._..- )I: I i.' ._L.> I .1 J ~ .. .. JlI'J ]I .'~I - " - • '.~~ I .~ . . _ > {. ' t I .• f . )I. i • 71t _'I _ill_' .. II I I.. '~I -- .. II 'J AI II J:~)_ :i! " ~ _ta . I _. _- > "I Il .'l. . :)(!~ i t.>.l - _ I 1 ._ .1 . I I..1 II I _. ~ I~. ~ . • ' ...J .---.. .-' 11- ._. > I J_ . . L ...':1' 1'.1 I-' IIiii I _.. _.tl .. . I - II II' - ' ~~ 1 -.1 '. I .. JI.• • . __ . _'. I I :) .. I ' .. L ..> . .1' '... :II (I~~ .' t ~.... .f.'. It > > _. ... ']c r...:I~. ~I ::!:IC. ':!I~l 'f.I . -1(11) I - 11..I >II I- . _.I j. I I ~'. I j - :I' :ill III I :I ." _.0 11l •• ]I • . I 7_ ': > I . ._ ~ • _ ~.. I~ . I I ~ If.. ~ . • II I I f... I .' ~I ~i.. .~I _L j_ .___ Ii (1)1]....i:M .j~. _.JI ~ -- . I -1 il _. .I~J I I 11 _J(tI ) :II I.... • I I ' tII:l_ l . - _ . .~I 1 )(1 ')(.29 _a.' I' )\\ I )C'.. '... _.J.t . ]I" - ..j )( _)( lC (:. L JlI~~ "" -_.. > ~ _'~_') . '" . I 4: ) __ . . ~I I' - ~ .. ~I j. l.I J I . " .. ~. ~I ...1 1r _(ill 'j. 0:- I .. : I . II I I. .. - - { ~ I' ... I . ~ jJ.. I I~. .~.. - 0' (.

._ J " I _J ~ X -- ]II :II -- ..ay~n..a..iI '. -.18 bass tumbso takes those' elements from the drums that best connect rhythm and harmony.cUM' ghost . notes" or even.go. h:· ~.J!..~ s p~. I ~)( ~ _)( ._~~VI =-+=--. d by --Zi:VT..Id G . b'" onngmg . freeing yourself up from a baekbea [ pulse on 1!~of each Ii second bar.his groove.1 ... d dd' ') .a.: I I ~I ~.~ .:' ...x.: . aoc mg roms. When plil.1 _~_it . here is a. One interesting pan-ern COffi.o: 8x· . ':-~..h d-\an'd re1 10 many ue nearc I . I usually feel the' 'time mov.ing in do. the 6.. c .~. i' ~ - I I I ~ .~_. '~. which ca n involve aU sons of changes) such as using diffe.g 'wmth the feet.' J~ Ir ... • d .'l..g' nd even . Note its melodic similadty . " ..JI_ ]I--="~I+=-=='Iir.. I :I)- ..nauon suggested b D-.A"swl'rJh all (he other Afro-Cuban rhythnlmc forms shown in. a bass drum/hih at com b. _1 2'0'\ J-.!!.r.m'!_.-'~ ill ill: II: CJ' ~ ~I > " I .""" . ~ ~~ >- ~ o Keep hI mind [hat.. thts book. 11 .:ar...t:-"'.g~' ')-.i Ii I I I Keeping 'this. tom idea which echoes a more folkloric conga pattern.-\ .. there are many variations of ]t. ~ I ~ - ~I I I ~ -~ ~ ~~~~ ~.!I. ... ._. -11 ~_.tted quarters and make the notes ~on. 1-' _iil-' ..' dif'Eere'nt 'ways." ~I ml __ iI--... ' .Jill -- 'I II il -- H " --.. i " . .' very poiyrnytnrnic In nature ano can. _.. a I I l ..fS fr-om.' 'Bas: _:-_ii'l:J'.pattern . -1.b ~'d-' 1" W lmc can be used underneath all of these patterns: ~I . to th:e gU:alguanc.jn. These lines are 'J iI!. oass orum patterns.I ....Ij--...li" ]41 • 'M .en~ m""._.. r..__ "'---.'>~-'--.ying them.

~...~..."" T i T T 1\ i I' I ... --. ~..L 11.'JI~..J- ..._ .. r Jill -. jIf If I . .. . .I -I i! il II ]1-' I .....A.. '-- Ili. _..~ -.oiiIlIli J -I__ ..... r . P --T ._J: . _.-.. . .I~ II jl. If_ I._ _...~ --. ..'7 _. --" Ii. )1 .."'.~---=~--~~~--~---=~--~4-~I!--~=-~~~3~i-..~ 'I- I'r"'" .ai IL -.- T - I It I Pi T I \." ..)I1F' ~'~-I If.~~~~---=---=~---~....~ '1 ""'. II 111-~. r I'...T' I: .. II -'!llJ!!I" ..~~----~JIt~... ~ Jl_ _r I .. -..... . .-~ I . :p IT I . . •• ..iiIIiiiiII. II -- '. ........ Ii '7 !IJ: 1 -- -y _if.~~~--~--~. .. r --. ....P T . \1 I' ~- II""" I .-~~~J~".. ..- 'p ..... ._ Ir...- '- _. 1- 'P' I~ II :1 '1 I I • ' ..~--~--~~~~--~---=~--~~~lp·--~--~=-+:~. l j- .1II I ~ I ..~ ::r ~.... "" I jl(... -""I. . ~. e» f-' I ~.r II! . r '._ . III I" FI.~.! -. .J 'P ..iii I. I .

1 o o 00 I I o . :.I' :x 4' 4.CHAPTER FIVE: CHA-CHA AND MOZAMBIQUE C :.' .4 " 'with ihe incorporntlon of 'the bass and sometimes bass. [tt may be' the easiest to. .·RA.. 'Is.1 .. .-. '')ii. medium (M .. basic rhythms that lends i.X 0 . x ..E mean. 23 II"':'._~..~ which is generally med ·1lJ.!~ha-c ha can a .. . . '. -~.M.tse~freadily to a backbeat on "'2" and ".' ··· .Ail 9... 1 'I ..on the small cha- Smallcha-cha bel] u l LH on drum Remember_ .I •.2 - . 88-'} .0 0 1\ I .J the Afro-Cuban tradition.)._~ __ '-I" iCIll:.' o ..It ' - ... \..1 o o t.zo.. '. 1 [. . 'by the constant quarter-notes the timbale player plays .: .)I: I I .Wa ~. The cha-cha " groove ls OlOS[ easilv recognized bv temoo.. rock OU[ it is one of the' on:I~·. More than any other Latin style. 01 --I -I .' '. :. . ".. -. ___ oIi -. "...l . ...1 _. .. ~. I~ ')It o o i' ill' ...' " .=_' .. !1 JI . .' '.C· '-HA'" .52}. .... o '~. ~'r 3[. ~l l~. . .. '-_.--.._ I· - .. "_. .)(11 - I 1. drum 'on the downbeat..~I 1 )( _ 1 . Anyone who has ever listened [0 Santana's version of ~he Tlto Puente standard "Oye Como Va" knows WhiJ]. _.iC -- '...2.' '" liD 0 4 ':)c' J l' .' '.m~5~'O'W 'to. we on..... the cha-cha is best characterized cha bell.. I ' 4.be played in 3':".jJ]S o . II W~th~nthe latin context. ~l llWl: 1~- r:ru..WiiJ!· .' ! o o 0 . " o __ o .' _t( . c lso ~ ~":1i'v.~ " 'This chapter will focus on two other common grooves tvwthin .

played. ... - ":~..The bass tumbacs in the cha-eha often resemble the turnbalos· of Chapter 1 . -("' . spectrum of tempos.... - - >- RtRL '0' .ening. . also work.. Once again. ~. o " \ - . ere Is a.. . Part of the funk comes from the' 'bass drum playing both ~lrf'and 'H. '"' 'U. is found in the guaj:ira groove (C:hapt[er 1. such as dl. """~' ~ . T' I. fu!oky version of the mozambique 'that Jn H grooves nicely over a broad.good example of this.' .'. ' 0. in a rock and funk comexr..: 'b' _:iI I..A... Slap SOing()< lines can.IQ' "··UE'.~ .. _ .1 . : .. the 3-part of the c]~ave..'·"·B:". tH stick on drum..!. 6).. . we see the heavy accent on me "and" of '~~2~. .2: of the flrst bar of the clave. -. MO"'~·.' '_- - _ . ~ . .r __ -... .1' . at a sjow[t!r' tempo. b' '"' mozam b''.'1. .- 2._1.~ I" - '» ' .. -.1 .:'.'d on U' ere IS: .. ... cr P 'T T P'T'T' 1.~_'~"<'_ !Ii I "'3 1 3 4 ~ . . _' 33 •- :...:. tim" . It forms the heartbeat of [qui~'e few' of Steve a Gadd's Lat~ngrooves. .!2: . -::: ' _ .I" T T' PTT P T' T .~ _I.~Exam. . --. ple Here are some examples- .1.e ia5IC :'!lque' paye.e drum part on Paul Simon's "Late In The lEv. ' _.'~:" ._ r ::_' Mozambique is another rhythm which has often been used. well alt the cha-cha tempo . :::~_ '.we$. ~ =e e ..

.I _.\t ~GILI :.... ~. I X _1'- .' ~!ii. me bass line for the mozambique often starts. -_.I!!II!- =4~~~t:_:~. me rhythmlc . x~-]I .~3clave. .~I .. I -.~I • I.> ..i'P' ---:1.... . II.A. • .ID.I " '~...' II -I JI- ~~~~~~I • I ~ . ..Ill t . . ii r' II ~ .. --. Also charactensuc is pattern of the first bar and the..)!l I _. ·le· '. ) • II ~.le 1 ]I' )IL --. ... - . ~~ ~ 1\ I i . I... ...•. t ~.. -... 1-- r I~ . . " I .>.. )I' .- lI' .~'.I~' _.. I .1 _.-.~ .1 :II. -. > . - )(.-~~ I"le ._- .I -- II '~. t > I . . '- .. I :II' )Ci !j.. )1:1 ')': >III .. > I '~ If -. }t.. L .::::::::::::::::::::::~ I . >. -_A II ~.~~~:~~' r • . JI.I )Ie I I I II il! X II ~ Jt -I ..' . i t like the drums. .. .1<.' J I :JI. ·. >I '~ R. > )I. - --.. - I ~. ..~~~ .~~::::::::::::::::::::::J..1 '"x'. ')( '.: 'X'----- ¥. on the downbeat of the 2. . _ ..._.___." .I l' II"'" ._~. '-=-11 . v . .. . '. :> ')C > )C. . I 2 . ~.I I. R L.. I' _l~ t .. :.. l• . )( I .~~J.. I I~ '34 .II .:" 4x.. Ii .II:~' e- > 'I Ir l > II '~ . I ' ~ Ii '~ I ~. >.r+ . I > I' ~ . '. .' J I l II •• . I >. .8i . ..11 • . 7th of the chord on the Brh-ncte preeeeding the second bar.1 ! ._' ~~jI' - . '1. II 11u II _. :II! I '~' • :ii' i I X '. '3" ..- .--~I I - __II.1 .I"i.1 i - . I' . I' -x ]I ''''~ 'I I' .> I.)( ~ > ... .~.~ [I I ~..4. ! . ')1 I '~.._'~I :II :il' I "]1 .0 _~.. I ._- . ?I.J!!I! I .. •.i ...... .. I II I_ -...A.. I I ti 1.

:l .2 4x ""'".M.J -- \'_- «» • " . rg~e. - . 4x _I ~_.. T X. II _-~ . :By and la.yedL be w~ncorpora:~ed~ 'whether on zhe 2-side Of' the 3....gde of the clave....P' 'T' In certain cha-cha and mozambique grooves the downbeat will Orleans-guagwanco grooves 'where the downbeat of the 3.}.. .-side of the clave is .~ e have only seen this to..~.~a..~! . 1.. 2:·~.: 35 ..~....}. ~ _-T _.. -.. ' .' T P' 'T P 'T II "I • I .. T T PT . __ .. . occur in the New w i : .'2. .. I -I ·X '_. II_ II -.p..

~ r II I ~ ~ ~ I. { Mike Stern . J i j' I. ..: I .' 1 t~ { I 1 .

-'"H"":...··.z.n._ I • _.' sc... j J 1 · ..0··-· ._-..... : '. l .al 'e'" ':<··a id ._.I i' Robby " 3 '_ II _ ••• _ I . .:rn_.".:' ..e..

The key here is nom:to rUt arou nd the figufes..~Iazz flav 'ow"Section [ill 1S a breakdow n fea ture ... - . By catchi ng parts of [he line ~dth rhe kick and a hi.:~_:::. f ~ ~ "'~o·· Song ·O··H' . .i::.M'~-'-e __ ..- ~ 't . Besides being a.0 the bell.L...'..a.' sthru to cl ave.2. '~. with some ot '[the.n ~11e~! secuon h lJ'3S. l '.0' Connell.. the bass-try to feel '[he clave 'when phrasing your own fUbL Osca r's synth solo at I Is the traditional monnmo section-here lpi I: just lay on a straight tumbao..D-: ..p~e 12 . '[in [ h b kd lwt .wanted to show a songo style which [be three of us.'_ . nota:. Exan1J. ~'he 15t no~eon.y 10. E alter :the ~l·' k d dne to make a 1." . in u~ison.". I ~t . blv i w· -R' 'b. l 1 I' - .Ie'. T'h·e adde...L2.2~sidefS 'tied over to.. bass line gets played in its entirety.. =.t a. snnp Ie I: . The momuno (synth .~. ~. .-~." ~..amp."' 'D. . pays 1 tne ~ a .' ..s..... b n11S tune."' ~' d..~ '-.. ... d-' :0' 1. 1I'e._.J1 . " ]'~ ~m. you can stU] add the backlx at with the right kind of bass lin without sounding like' you..~:aps.Oscar Hernandez wrote this for us as an example of a typical salsa structure of verse (melody). b. JUi.... ! ~ ~ . ..:.ap. "d'i e. ··1· ~.. .!: ..~ r. verse and out. . m wanted to show here how the bass can carry a melody while sdI:l playmg a mrnbao..l .~ B 'D:erived fFcornE:xamp·~€8 C.0.e orea roown '. 's -~ I :- I ~ !i J .t1 .ter :2) '!II B(~'~~'S'" ~~···. percussion.. . I" . h r. A typica] device for the mambo Includes a strong unison li~~~ wltb [he other Instruments.. if tu m:aq".n p lay a line that stays] w~. '~4 fa make a Latin g oove sound funky ~ The groove then ~~ moves back to the songo backbeat over the piano montuno.. '.:x:a. This rune came about as a . d roppmg tlae quarters-notes on tne l'oeu.·'en flI' ad" .[ I!i. JU'[ It'S '''!~I ln -nl:f T-!Jh" nne ]S reany f unx I ..- . JIJ.'1. .. The fills during 'the band.:. spicing it up without gen].)1 ~s.4 ~ ~-J ] .=~ f 1"1\ is an.. ". bUE rather within dlt::m .i.~n. mtroouce W lru newhic 11.ng in the way. mambo. I [IS t":.. well-established salsa pianist and arranger Oscar is also known for bringing a more progressive' style to salsa "-'.~' ''II .~ meto dy t har matches • up with Robby's bass drum.1 • -[ .~. i\t . :. as dem "O~'n strated here .side of 'the clave... I D'._.re~kdown.. -. -. ~~~ ] 1 rma ]'1. the~ . '. J- ~:I • _' .. his arrangements tor .t The drums begin at wnh (he basic songo cross-stic k p3J rtern the bass dru 111 catching some of 'the movements within the bass tumbao. " _~!.p~e 1 played on the cymbal b~en".g h[ t 'ho!'!l. '.i[. have' developed over the yea rs as a rhythm section for Da ve 'taJenUn..P~. [~I is a slap.50]0.~o is derivied fron] Exa~npl.~~~ 'i. ... J. ..wU solo. uhi ~ 1 En -u re grves ~. ~ The drum grooves demonstrate some posslbilltjes on the kit 'w~i[hinthe idiom while nor playing songo.r wnang. The second time around. The secrson of the verse goes.! .a_t L£I starts w] rh the sanga backbeat. which seems 1[0 swmng a lot bener at this tempo and...' " so1.~~.e rumba clave.n.L B is example .. .S'scond .". just started playing '.bass" ~. t· Example Breakdown (from Chapter 1) Drums The Intro wse~~Ulll. [ '.'S [~Ilie . The verse ts straight cascara with dl. [.ample 1 I" '["D""'r.ff()m the. (he' f~gh~hand hi-hat is added '[.A is.p i I • Ex. which goes into '[he rtde-out songo for :B. (he cymbal.d 9'.Tbe· ..Breakdown (from Ch..r Dnw:ms {A' II .__ e~abonrt~on or .hat groove. if: . .s t f .'.'.' wg:'" for ..I'. [he tu ne n builds.[[n l£J_' • at secno r.'. and ~E ~u'iesimi~-arto Exa:mple 8· '~n the tune~. 1 .rums: .II j3] a funkier sound starts to be implied and the extra snare hus are 1~Y'ed.:. songo. 'iib:' 6' . 'I wanted to demonstrate here how the bass C3.' C ike songo. t. ~he last 8th~1"'Ote. most.) uses tthe basic umbale bell IL~J J ride while in the mambo things get a ~ ru~de' looser with the le-i[: hand playing against a cascsra-like pattern on. an d snn tee ]S lik . F' I P'~ano so." .I1c..'~ and. · .J-S~. t ~ .&Ii~[~ jPII'II.iI'~'£~ :l :U!aJ ~ ['." ..: AI I F'irslt tim.. to the son clave with the backbeat on 'the.al~ .JS ~!.. wi~bou~._. . also example 1 Ii" I-'--D I(M'" '(I . .'.ns E.•.ot!Ii. is developed into a funkier ~~e at [g_J as.... rnontuno (coro).f ". ~a.'".F c-i!.)e .:' .::)11. . a little like' fil ~ng while playing a groove.I·:o.=l -e _''''_ .." ..r .. '- l' II i 38 1 . exalnp.. th ba r of this section._Ionruno . L -- il'rh .r.group effort with Bill .' ..J. Note thal in the' 1.example 1..I =. I.. wun tne snare.. I '_. breaks almost become part of the' breaks.y teac So wnto· uc f'" 1 [~J a straight backbeat as 'the.~.mp'}" e.e 13 Secdo..is lronl Ex. riding on the hi-h a" and ". . i · ~ • .~e "').. 11 'I]' 'E..'B.!I~.th the clave and keeps 'the spirit of sougo while 21 " I 't" ~ ~ - the band goes from Latin [0 fu nk and back aga run" . b'egms wit h~a ~.US~ 1.

.e section "B:·I·u·e·~ [C'·ha. "The guitar solo sta rts out as ha lf-time rock mixi ng single backbeats with t:1\ o hits on the 2~side of the clave. so I went to the piano solo there's .I\! Is derived .~de -"8I is I~ke the 2nd part of Example 5 C .< < th u F' Ii h ill.2. J . written by BiU O·!IConneU..enJoy p]. four" and shuffle moves in quarternotes. ~." .P the clave the nrst time through i.. or snare' dru m (for the gUJltar solo). . : 'S:": .C"·"h'' . ch '. l"ht.'.n("o) In [his rune we wanted to link up the more tradltlonal guaguanco l he t\VO with the funk guaguanco. of rocking our on a.. .3) k~ .. ume through..~ ..o.~"!. is similar to Example 3 I' . The half-time and the straight backbeats are two common 'ways. _1'I"ft"i.I u"I. the clave goes wnrtoa straight rock' backbeat for a wh~]e. used to give . .I:l.cha groove.Chand hi-hat sets. ··. particularly in the jazz and blues vein."... · Once you get 'p3~1: the Bassr [he' 6/8 heads and the j. 'DJ .can be applied 'to.···Iwkc nd Oscar worked up a m. Exam. "_'.: .. slower [E] version of Example -4 a~~ ~ J are based on Examples 1 and . . ' . The double-time Iicks are I~"~flT1r'~'" 1& U-I.3..1". tDJ lha~ anticipate the funk feels and smooth the' transitions ..I. n adds the conga parts on the toms the second.. . t'o think about these feel changes are not a. .~e hl cymbal. D The left hand is basically praying clave throughout the' tune: whether as cross-stick (for the' bead and piano solo).aying: with him as much as we do.~azz.. 5~7 "r'~s tune.~urany them depending on what the' soloist is doing. These are alternated wtrh Exam:p. you can begin. lines.i!ft-.akdowo (hom Chapter .ru~n-'. . dle'ln ]ody while still keeping runclave. _a '" '.3lZZ waltz t~g:-in the waltz I put a. so we moved back and forth betw een feels. " . Similarly..I .SS.. Bass In this tune [he bass plays folkloric-style lines stretched out ito fit guaguanco funk.S ~ight cha nge. cha . 1t..~-en!"approa.~Is a good ehicle for exploring the' V:'"lriOUS time feels which can be superimposed over the . we go back (0 the orlgina ~ guaguanco.....from example .AQ'" I . wnrh ~~'Ie'II!... The bell patt ern is..&&Q.p. [!i is the Ist part of Ex:. Utde bit of forward motion and dcntals and chord movement in the ifaZZ section...begin ing 'On the . 'lID p. [.. We' carne up 'w~[h a chord progression and . D 'il"'IiI'IIi'll'Y'llr£. I')··s' The pulse in both the "·.1' 't~ C'." rig. the second time through the head and piano solo. r\~a.:.[y different atthude between (from.I:&Di s 6/8 groo. while in the 6/8 ill focus more [on the fnidshuffle I srick mostly '['0 a p ruatonic approach. 1. p~ay fills in the bars before sections 1~'SI~ and.Afr>()-!Cu:I·an 6/8 groove.. I dlstingulsh between the '(\\\'0 feels by using more seer- a shght. .~ro open it F~nally. . !vmc~. \ - 'Blass . more of a block cho:rd montuno-llke feel golng on: I felt th Is needed a ..' "rh~s quartet tune shows hO~T a eha-cha feel . ..n~· hile.3~s.le: Breakdown --" .. while in 'the' bounce on th pulse.t variation for 6/8 heads) Example . Chapter 4) B -. _ '_. e.A-! .•.cyn1ba."'Holt'e.le' Bre.[ dun'::." . die of the bear. a "- ~l piayecd I unison m l - - "1" '~ 39-' .2. Uit.. For ~he second half of the I ..1 National" (gu~agu:a.2 _E -8 and IPJI are based on Examples . wirh sweeps on the hi-hat the ~ast 'time around . for shu m. . but playing the whoille Orr Pal" of the' clave on ~he snare can also sound pretty strong for a . 3. fit the mood.. the clave is stili implied with the right hand ghosting on the sna re during the funk: sect ions.unp Ie 5 E is like ExaJ1TIp:~e ~ 11 Drums I. '1· ise Example I (ls..._j ms aJ. . BHl is an exciting improviser and we hope you ... -. 11 medium rock groove'.·"3) planned in advance: concentrate w hatever ume free'] ]5 corning next' so' thar the transitions will reel on making YOUI self comfortable moving back and forth between oomfortabie and the sections ·~in flow into ea>(:ll other . there is... ']ody to a .mna'Y:I wnen iii go up to m~. A (he.

. .'" -].lCuban rhythmic forms could make up a Ufetinle of study. Cuban grooves. '1'. _ grQOV~ T.1. IF...' -: 1 The reader shotdd realize that [here are a mulUtude. l .'__'. . and shown how 'they C~Ul complement some of today's contemporary music styles.p.....are I!l.."" ~..I. wC'" " 'C -.he \f~A' t.. TIlfS . .51[ .. ~.(: d'" h. mg or even tllh" k" -1Q.ith ' d-rum . ~u '.Chapter ·4) 2nd A.. .. the mozarnbtque rh~ ll'\i 'III and decided to Just rock out on it.. ._a _ _'.1.. '-:" .' . wh.are almost always in unison.. . it un_. I • i r ~ ~..". a. In closmg._ -'~'.n (friom.0.. U>C'9 'iJI'Il.~ denved from. was ~ >..ID'." American and Caribbean countries.au tne ti re mt ror rounc mg out til e trio wr'·d.." . :in 'WII" th :e I" "'.[. I -' . . 'we' hope tba:t we have provided a means of ca. Mike's solo is similar rhythmically to Exa. . .• If!' " une:.' (he slapping./..-1.. '""...~. " k =fOC. n '0-n E"va: rn'p')-"~ .'lng ... . The tune illusrrates that not everyone has to be' 'p~ay= . . -. and the line at caned for straight rock quarters on I ..: .. . ~ I DliI"'IiI'ilms' . '0'0.. and 2nd t B] ~s Exa..l:lU It lii . .f 0'( gum~ar5'01:0 in t C' is Exantple 3 fA I~sExample 1 J 1 'B:ass denve: d .I even notes :(. '2 ..' B 'I'!:i~a ~t:.tn t d:.1 h ms r We l I. m:mon match .by understanding and .." '1.c :rvljke''s solo.. to \ \ ~ ! Drums: ' ' :. 'es ~ a. the drums and bass..' :.grlm'Yf ~ts roots.. . . '.... brought into a rock power trio format.i"ttln . ~Oc... '~r.ideas and possfb~I~[rues s [Q' wher-e these rhythms can go.e penec C~fOJ'Ce '~11~1 k M""'k'"' S-: h t: 'l. presented here' are just 501ne.'1." '.'.... '. . We wanted to show how . rom exampse . [~J r~) 'T"h' e lIne..' - -- r. I' concentrate on strong .fi) U!I![O "a e..-'. .. r .take them somewhere new.He at the same time o " away ~'tju preconceptions... -G'.'.a'.' .he way through Ito' g:et 2].' 'Throughout this tune. U". CL' 0'· 'S~' .mnple 1 (funk vanations) r~ ~: "'M'.-' turing [he a[chu. . _.:\.n1s!1 whose Afro.11 .~ u ~ " m: d omg auowmg rh e music to reacn more and more people..te.Ieve'j" O..-'. i> e... h 1Ii'~ly:1 'k'ed ". .. .. '''J!I["Oal_ . The' little changes wi~hjn ltrhe groove at' are played together.)r'l. I' .1 /1 . Drums Intro and Br:eakoolw. .0 hemp keep the tempo from picking up. AisQ:~ we 'have nor touched upon the basa dnJ. .. 1...' came' up \\dfu a strong funk ~-e.k !it\-'.he· music growing. 'e-" t o 'l'. n he time [0 s~~ruu rna ke l CWOf. itJl.:t. hard definlIi:!' .. I::l!"e 'tern._"-' ... zam 'b' :lq''. The Dominruc2ln Republic and many adler SOUl... Ultimately.'" . ~ .ruS the best way to keep l.~g.'.. Haiti. g' illJ an e. these' slower 'kinds of grooves. ·····1' . discovertng new grooves that work well in your own musical situaricn..de of some common Afro.rvl~ke's and .._~'.bo!lrg:..u."'e:al·· II M. technique all t..3 Latin-oriented groove could be.Exam:ple. ..ad:U:ion not to mention those' of Brazil..2 2nd ha~..Robby s mtensky. The' [A Isection uses Exam p he' 6 Bass lIN". of Latm rhythms '~n the Afro-Cuban tr. a you should feel free to.0 powerfulsoloing style and mnsHnctfor bringing out the essence of the groove. What have been.'" _ _ ..:. .... tte ns '" p. '..'.. _..mp.Qlaintain:i'ng [he ~nme.

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..0' dreguez ) "Dance 'Mani':-iID. 3--GI\laguanco. '...' [11!. iIi. 11. ~ .' . The ··Struui.~~ ~.. .~ Blue '·'':''0': '.C'. " c:oco Coco RVC R. ~j ~ ... BIi1'.""..TO..CA Internatlonal .G'" :-RAPI ~." _ :. ...~.:cc-uba . ... .'_ '.:i-o'c: ':-) .nja. ".' . Sie:[llbra~~1 with Sa~Cuevas) { {aJ[ [Electra/ Asy]um..: _JCU.." . Rubaica.ru.iI!. us tea ' (i c. " .11.en .e'fS. _.. .. _' 'Is.C .C.'.1IU.' '''. . [ CI!!lIl.-_.-.r iGI._' "Grupe Proyecto de Gonzalo Rubalcaba" (2) Santamaria. Iaz . ....."O"".:: :HY: ... ' ) .0' :. Pangaea ... In navana .on ":' __.''''' 1') :bl' .' with Andy Gonzalez) ~"Patato Y' 'Tolico" · wun cacr A 'R . ..A Bsu.. ..._I _ .) "Reconstruction' (] J5vv~UhSaJ. " · Ma~i"':IL!'to ~-~ ~..a. 'I. "".. :. West Side Latino "G'..._. (3:.1-.. _'."...! d'l-eOl' "Ia-.RYU. .. "g..e$sjdor Messidor Ar....].I .'.The.ru:re--Descargas ~(1) '~M~chel Carnilo" (1~2) :Panan: Impulse "Obatala" (all chapters with Andy Gonzalez) 'Y::l Yo.~ ~ :I'~..5. ave "Kalahari" C~~5) '·"Ll~'V-"oE> at }. ' [r:akiere Que' Pista (1 .[J[ld.4with Andy Gonzalez) e E..(:"JIlU! _aJllJl! ~ chapters) ..nmJ~(3) .rve ~ "U ..~ra~![:1a··.' I" ~~.&'7 'TI"'.'.. Farua 1• Cac:hao... .t.'' '~:' .". .. e- 2. ..:.U'D..ba. ... Me Cure' (3.-d W--.' .. - tOI their general chapter relevance as follows. . "~."'" ..r.f\~. 'T:iader.'~' 1(..en anc ":' re '\..-:. " 61 -I.. Egreln Egrem .. ..-'..lJ0 T~err:azo Tierrazo lmd" [~...-.. C' . -Songo. 4-'Afro Cuban 6/8. EY su Ritmo 'CaIi..cs.. 'I S. .'iIU" c_ 1:·...pr. I... co' .WI w..g' Montuno vaten tj' 'D'. R' -... .~01.: '('..o an' ~JS..e~wlio '''' '('J) '. with Bobby Rodriguez) "Goza ~H 11mbal~(I !2) D ""'_. b'"'.....-.C'' ' ..I~. Cuevas) F'anwa 'Fa-rna Tit(!'rrn... "Totico 'Y sus Rumberos" (3 with Andy Gonzalez) '1.' GRP".~~' ~~ ... ...[ D 'Ie_ ~ _:_ __ ..10.oU1l.. _...£~ ..l... ~lld ..2 Vv~ilh Changuito) Anda Yen 'Y M'uevei£e' (1 ~ 2) 1 .ellte "Cuban jam Sessions in Mlnma. '- _ . . --_ I -'I 'I' I! • . -:_ :'S~.).......!fl.l.nd ~ .. .l~~.. Earern..... C.cha~C:haand Mozambique . Gonzalo -hI" '~.. Be ..~ III .5.0' c:' a'I' -_.:. Iij'~'~ lIJ. .'-""an. 0. Verv. ·Que Viva La lV1.blnl1sre referenced acco-rding a l-=C[ave and Tumbao... J I • !.llJo.Db'._' ._es.~ ith C h ao an d~" rseruo .'" iI -) 1100:. I" 1 "Live" [chapters) .Sun of Latin Mus~c!'(1 3!5) "Seruido" (ll'.eCharley Meters.

House DM"P' " .ncred'rb~e I journey" ~'I. '._.. M···O.a. . '~~'I . I.. ~Live' at the Blue Note" 'i'·. :1 ..D. . l·' . . .[ '.. Lrnncoln Goines €'udornes...' ..···:w~ 'B' 'ki'" .wU CBS . '~'V'~sit With the Great S..Me:~· "Made In New York ..:.om: :'0"· M6'_ kS ki . 'No".."HY'" .1 I sn o-ce"ru'~' ":' ". "'Ce~ebra[. ':'o. I~!~ . P:aqultol. ." l•. _ .. .'[ ._:.-.'1 _ gll£OII~ Denon C"B·"S··· """ I "'.b' ""liC!'~ "Start Here' rban Contours" '.. Stern L 'iEnja. -~ :/' IGc····W' ' .CBS .i ''-'. __ ' __ ~ '~"'_> _I I"D'-'" D:"IS' C···· . ".e· Mendoza 'Bob ~M:intzer 'B~ :..BS/Sony Concord Jazz M"lnhattan . ' I . . Vmc. .~~r. eni..~ "Horizon D:dve~'~ "Little Tree" '!!!!Iil'i'\"~' ~l_\.iUenltin D ave:" ·V~'· .b. .B:"S~·/S···O:lf"Ily' ' .Pun. : ' 'OGRAP' i~.GNP' 'GRP ! '. ·'C~oser'to the Lighr~~ "Dave Valentin/Herbie _ '.' I...~'nndTtme" . ·iI· COS.Switchback" "'Wh' ... . >j . .IlnS.I ..._i' .J. .SD '''P...' "1il~.. .I' S'"'ELE"en": :~.-.t'~J .' C·. .'. 62 '" .n ..i.· 'ri Bob Berg' ...' '_ >'liven "Come 'With. .".P basses ...:l'~' .ve For sale" "Overjoyed "Secrets '..1 . Mann Flute Summa" El1j\a ~~ G'RP""" .~on ». \ . :...1n . .i. -.. Arnigos" Los "In Th~ Shado\vs~ ~~ M~c'hel Camllo ~~ ...' 'D'" '0' cto jazz "r.•.._' ""Our Of the Shadows" "'Night tinei~~ G·RP Muse C.C'J" ... . Gato... .: O'M:'P'-" Gramavtsion j.:w."_ . ..zz City (P'ooy Canyon) Jazz CIty (flony 'Canyon) 'Spectrum" I B' ..MP .. ' '.. .. .&i~' ll " _ . ·Bar.. Camllo · "·D.esp i-'Ie ::ew Faces' Dave IGruS.'Un Ka ". ~~ :" ._-.Light Struck" '~Jung~e Garden" Kalahari'" 01 GRP GRP GRP 'bA ·GNP Christmas' GRP ..tve.ra.~.j. \V~odham H.. scorn' Michel..::. 0... "o. J. O-"U::. '.GRP Arista ? ~. _ -' "'. '" ..pwdt ~ 'Lo.. Vi.. I•• ~"'~' . :' . ..'-. [.ES..

.&j .~Uon ~slar~d R:C.._' "OG' Ru..n . ·FU' . all U' ." :' '. 'H'iJ~ GRP' Impulse American Clave Paul 'Hames.:·ueno '~'Ch~ ge te Llama" n blV:: rted" Pangaea Pangaea I.LE' ··C··'E"'.leV'CUSS10fi- and Latin.n... ..-1_ r '.. U1an Metal P. _.'.'a.ktra.L 'G.._' . I. '.~ '·'Then She Turned So That .Da. '" _'L 'IC'.ekIra Ele.o"i.Eddie Palmi..a.' .Cro :Sc.anl.'. .. Vater sticks.Re I Momo" 'Cab CLIUo~. :Ele'krra E~ekua \V~irn· Brothers r American [Clave ..rn m'(~' .• .P Chfistnwas'~' G'RP IGRP GRP' Robby Ameen endorses Pearl drums."."" . ". ight Struck" L .l\/N'ov1J. -.enas·· .UJ.:. ~' "Days and Nights of Blue luck "Love For Sale" "S" .des._. aDnl'. '·.. Peter Eng.:ap H'.I 8::'1111 "0"~C' .\' Stands wn for 'the Moon" ~ ~ I:.' ver Dre "lPl.r~" ·~:A[GR. .S"vi tchback' "'New F..__ '.··'D-:· DIS..II ..'~ . Percusssion.I 'T SE.-' .ces.L Endlessl y'" 'Windh._'RAPHY'.) " _.RP GRP IG~'RP":"" -r ~ _' ~ ~Jung~e Garden" Ka ~alla.-:.eri Daniel Ponce Hilton Ru:a Dave "'alenti..nlb .a Is. ··Esc. 6."O.o~ft.Mn Bfa. "Live" "Nothing Bur d1e'Truth" "Agua de Luna" E~.'..£ "Live ~~ the Blue Note" :.~~ndime" T ...' J:'lZZ Ci ty (P'«}n Y' Canyon) Innj. E~ektra. 'It"!1 'h n.3 - s'OI . Sablan c y.e.g GRP "Strut" "Two Am igos 0.

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