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**for k and . The major differences in the models are as follows:
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the method of calculating turbulent viscosity the turbulent Prandtl numbers governing the turbulent diffusion of k and the generation and destruction terms in the equation

i-the transport equations, ii-methods of calculating turbulent viscosity, and iii-) model constants are presented separately for each model.

The features essentially common to all models: i-turbulent production, ii- generation due to buoyancy, iii-accounting for the effects of compressibility, iv-modeling heat and mass transfer. The Standard k- Model a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate ( ).

The model transport equation for k is derived from the exact equation, while the model transport equation for was obtained using physical reasoning. In the derivation of the k- model, it was assumed that the flow is fully turbulent,

and the effects of molecular viscosity are negligible. The standard k- model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent flows. Transport Equations for the Standard kModel The turbulent kinetic energy, k, and its rate of dissipation, , are obtained from the following transport equations:

and

Gb is the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyancy. Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity The ``eddy'' or turbulent viscosity . .Gk represents the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients. is computed by combining k and as follows: . and . numbers for k and. YM represents the contribution of the fluctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate. and are constants. are the turbulent Prandtl respectively. .

Model Constants The model constants and have the following default values : These default values have been determined from experiments with air and water for fundamental turbulent shear flows including homogeneous shear flows and decaying isotropic grid turbulence. !!! .where is a constant.

using a mathematical technique called ``renormalization group'' (RNG) methods . . The analytical derivation results in a model with constants different from those in the standard k.model. and additional terms and functions in the transport equations for k and .turbulence model is derived from the instantaneous NavierStokes equations.They have been found to work fairly well for a wide range of wall-bounded and free shear flows. The RNG k.Model The RNG-based k.

. Introduction to the Renormalization Group Method and Turbulence Modeling.model: and . 1993.A more comprehensive description of RNG theory and its application to turbulence can be found in : D. Fluent Inc. Technical Memorandum TM-107. Transport Equations for the RNG kModel The RNG k.model has a similar form to the standard k. Choudhury.

Gk represents the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients. Gb is the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyancy.In these equations. respectively. YM represents the contribution of the fluctuating dilatation in compressible turbulence to the overall dissipation rate. The quantities and are the inverse effective Prandtl numbers for k and . Modeling the Effective Viscosity The scale elimination procedure in RNG theory results in a differential equation for turbulent viscosity: .

. allowing the model to better handle lowReynolds-number and near-wall flows .where = 100 Equation is integrated to obtain an accurate description of how the effective turbulent transport varies with the effective Reynolds number (or eddy scale).

09 used in the standard k. RNG Swirl Modification Turbulence. derived using RNG It is interesting to note that this value of is very close to the empiricallydetermined value of 0.In the high-Reynolds-number limit. this equation gives with theory.model. in general. The RNG model provides an option to account for the effects of swirl or rotation by modifying the turbulent viscosity . . is affected by rotation or swirl in the mean flow.

. is a characteristic swirl number.appropriately. The modification takes the following functional form: is the value of turbulent where viscosity calculated without the swirl modification using either Equation or Equation .

Calculating the Inverse Effective Prandtl Numbers The inverse effective Prandtl numbers and are computed using the following formula derived analytically by the RNG theory: .is a swirl constant that assumes different values depending on whether the flow is swirl-dominated or only mildly swirling. a higher value of can be used. For strongly swirling flows. For mildly swirling flows is set to 0.05.

In the high-Reynolds-number limit ( ). . The R Term in the Equation The main difference between the RNG and standard k.where .models lies in the additional term in the equation given by .

. Using Equation the last two terms in ε can be merged. and the resulting equation can be rewritten as . The effects of this term in the RNG equation can be seen more clearly by rearranging Equation .where . .

In the logarithmic layer. the R term makes a positive contribution. and becomes larger than . it can be shown that . for instance. . giving .where is given by In regions where .

. the R term makes a negative contribution.model. less In comparison with the standard k. for weakly to moderately strained flows.model. As a result. in rapidly strained flows. however. . the RNG model tends to give results largely comparable to the standard k.model (1. making the value of than . In regions of large strain rate ( ). As a result. the smaller destruction of augments reducing k and eventually the effective viscosity.92). the RNG model yields a lower turbulent viscosity than the standard k.model.which is close in magnitude to the value of in the standard k.

Model In addition to the standard and RNG-based k. Model Constants The model constants have values derived analytically by the RNG theory.models described there is also the socalled realizable k.Thus. which explains the superior performance of the RNG model for certain classes of flows.model. the RNG model is more responsive to the effects of rapid strain and streamline curvature than the standard k.model . These values are The Realizable k.

To understand this. . consistent with the physics of turbulent flows.The term ``realizable'' means that the model satisfies certain mathematical constraints on the normal stresses. consider combining the Boussinesq relationship and the eddy viscosity definition to obtain the following expression for the normal Reynolds stress in an incompressible strained mean flow: Using Equation for .

but prediction of the spreading rate for axisymmetric jets (round) is unexpectedly .e. becomes negative. when the strain is large enough to satisfy Another weakness of the standard kmodel or other traditional k. quantity. The well-known round-jet anomaly (named based on the finding that the spreading rate in planar jets is predicted reasonably well. i. which by definition is a positive stress. ``nonrealizable''.one obtains the result that the normal .models lies with the modeled equation for the dissipation rate ( ).

Model The modeled transport equations for k and in the realizable k.poor) is considered to be mainly due to the modeled dissipation equation. The realizable k.model are and .model was intended to address these deficiencies of traditional kmodels by adopting the following: • • a new eddy-viscosity formula involving a variable originally proposed by Reynolds a new model equation for dissipation ( ) based on the dynamic equation of the mean-square vorticity fluctuation Transport Equations for the Realizable k.

Gk represents the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to the mean velocity gradients. YM represents the contribution of the fluctuating dilatation in compressible . Gb is the generation of turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyancy.where and In these equations.

models i.model and the RNG kmodel. Note that the k equation is the same as that in the standard k.. its denominator never .turbulence to the overall dissipation rate. However.e. i. ii. and are the turbulent Prandtl numbers for k and . respectively. except for the model constants. the form of the equation is quite different from those in the standard and RNG-based k.e. it does not contain the same Gk term as the other kmodels.Another desirable feature is that the destruction term does not have any singularity..One of the noteworthy features is that the production term in the equation does not involve the production of k. It is believed that the present form better represents the spectral energy transfer. i. C2 and are constants.

which have a singularity due to k in the denominator. Especially noteworthy is the fact that the realizable k.model. it predicts the spreading rate for axisymmetric jets as well as that for planar jets.model resolves the round-jet anomaly. For all these cases.e. even if k vanishes or becomes smaller than zero. This feature is contrasted with traditional k. the performance of the model has been found to be substantially better than that of the standard k..vanishes. free flows jets and mixing layers. This model has been extensively validated for a wide range of flows including rotating homogeneous shear flows. i. channel and boundary layer flows.models. and separated flows. Modeling the Turbulent Viscosity .

It is computed from where and . the eddy viscosity is computed from The difference between the realizable kmodel and the standard and RNG kmodels is that is no longer constant.As in other k.models.

where is the mean rate-of-rotation tensor viewed in a rotating reference frame with the angular velocity . The model constants A0 and As are given by where .

.It can be seen that is a function of the mean strain and rotation rates. Model Constants The model constants C2. and have been established to ensure that the model performs well for certain canonical flows. The model constants are . the angular velocity of the system rotation. can be shown to recover the standard value of 0. and the turbulence fields (k and ).09 for an inertial sublayer in an equilibrium boundary layer.

. representing the production of turbulent kinetic energy.models. From the exact equation for the transport of k.Models The term Gk. RNG.Modeling Turbulent Production in the k. is modeled identically for the standard. this term may be defined as To evaluate Gk in a manner consistent with the Boussinesq hypothesis. and realizable k.

where S is the modulus of the mean rateof-strain tensor.Models When a nonzero gravity field and temperature gradient are present . defined as with the mean strain rate Sij given by Effects of Buoyancy on Turbulence in the k.

For the standard and realizable k. . In the case of the RNG k. the k.simultaneously. . The generation of turbulence due to buoyancy is given by where Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number for energy.85. but with . the default value of Prt is 0.models account for the generation of k due to buoyancy (Gb).model. where is given by .models. and the corresponding contribution to the production of .

buoyancy tends to suppress the turbulence (Gb < 0). defined as . For stable stratification. . is For ideal gases. It can be seen from the transport equations for k that turbulent kinetic energy tends to be augmented (Gb > 0) in unstable stratification.The coefficient of thermal expansion.

By default. but is instead calculated according to the following relation : .The effects of buoyancy on the generation of k are always included when you have both a nonzero gravity field and a nonzero temperature (or density) gradient. the buoyancy effects on are neglected simply by setting Gb to zero in the transport equation for . While the buoyancy effects on the generation of k are relatively well understood. The degree to which is affected by the buoyancy is determined by the constant is not specified. the effect on is less clear.

where v is the component of the flow velocity parallel to the gravitational vector and u is the component of the flow velocity perpendicular to the gravitational vector. For buoyant shear layers that are perpendicular to the gravitational vector.Models . In this way. Effects of Compressibility on Turbulence in the k. will become zero. will become 1 for buoyant shear layers for which the main flow direction is aligned with the direction of gravity.

which is normally neglected in the modeling of incompressible flows . the dilatation dissipation term.For high-Mach-number flows. YM. Neglecting the dilatation dissipation fails to predict the observed decrease in spreading rate with increasing Mach number for compressible mixing and other free shear layers. To account for these effects in the kmodels. defined as . This term is modeled according to a proposal: where Mt is the turbulent Mach number. compressibility affects turbulence through so-called ``dilatation dissipation''. is included in the k equation.

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling in the k.where a ( ) is the speed of sound. The ``modeled'' energy equation is thus given by the following: . This compressibility modification always takes effect when the compressible form of the ideal gas law is used.Models Turbulent heat transport is modeled using the concept of Reynolds' analogy to turbulent momentum transfer.

depending on the physical models you are using . defined as represents the viscous heating. is the effective conductivity. Additional terms may appear in the energy equation.where E is the total energy. and is the deviatoric stress tensor.

the effective thermal conductivity is given by with the default value of the turbulent Prandtl number set to 0.model. For the RNG k. the effective thermal conductivity is .For the standard and realizable k.models.85.

where is calculated from Equation . from liquid metals ( to paraffin oils ( ). . is an The fact that varies with advantage of the RNG k. ) . It is consistent with experimental evidence indicating that the turbulent Prandtl number varies with the molecular Prandtl number and turbulence.model. but with . Equation works well across a very broad range of molecular Prandtl numbers.

Equation smoothly predicts the variation of effective Prandtl number from the molecular value ( ) in the viscosity-dominated region to the fully turbulent value ( ) in the fully turbulent regions of the flow. For the RNG model. For the standard and realizable k. the effective turbulent diffusivity for mass transfer is calculated in a manner that is analogous to the method used for the heat transport. Turbulent mass transfer is treated similarly.7. the default turbulent Schmidt number is 0. The value of .which allows heat transfer to be calculated in low-Reynolds-number regions.models.

.equation is .in. where Sc is the molecular Schmidt number.

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