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COLOUR FASTNESS

1.1. COLOUR FASTNESS It is a fundamental requirement that the colored textiles should withstand the conditions encountered during processing following coloration and during their subsequent useful life. Consideration of the subject of color fastness here is deliberately directed to an examination of the factors which determine the behavior of textile materials, when subjected to the conditions encountered during processing and use, and the principles upon which color-fastness testing must, in consequence, be used When a colored textile is subjected to particular conditions, e.g. light, washing, milling, and bleaching, one or more of several things may happen. As far as the color of the material itself is concerned there may be an alteration in depth, or in hue, or in brightness. In certain cases there may be alteration in all three. Thus a red material may become paler, yellower and duller. Further, under certain conditions, e.g. during washing, adjacent white material may become colored and colored material may acquire new color due to the transfer of dye from the original dyed material. This is generally described as 'staining or 'marking-off . The color fastness of a textile is therefore defined as its resistance to these changes when subjected to a particular set of conditions. It follows that color fastness must be specified in terms of these changes and expressed in terms of magnitude.1 1.2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT Systematic color-fastness testing began with the efforts of individuals within particular firms. Thus when in 1902 James (later sir James) Morton discovered how fugitive were the dyeing of many of the synthetic dyes, he set out to produce a range of tapestries and furnishing fabrics which would stand with repeated washing and prolonged exposure to light. The first serious attempt to establish standard methods of color-fastness testing was made by the German Society of Chemist, who in 1911, set up a Fastness Committee. The Society of dyers and Colorists, who in 1927, set up a fastness committee, which presented its first report in 1934, under took the pioneer work. In 1947 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was set up. 1.3. FACTORS AFFECTING CHANGE IN COLOUR AND STAINING

When a coloured material is subjected to particular conditions e.g. light, washing, milling and bleaching, the Colour may change in depth, hue or brightness. In some cases there may be alteration in all three. Thus a blue dyed fabric may become paler, yellower and duller. The resistance of a coloured material to any such change in colour is termed as its colourfastness. Also, during wet treatments such as washing and dry-cleaning, adjacent undyed material may take up colour due to transfer of dye from the original dyed material. This is known as staining. The substrate to which dye has been applied also affects the fastness properties. It is thus essential that while reporting colorfastness grades, the substrate, as well as the change in hue, value and chroma must be specified.2 The color changes which occur when dyed or printed textiles are subjected to a particular agency during processing are due to one, or both, of the following main causes. The first is breakdown of the colorant itself inside the fiber whereby it is converted in to colorless or differently colored compounds --- a very complex matter indeed. The second is detachment of the colorant, as such, from the fiber. Staining of surrounding areas in the same material occurs if the detached colorant is substantive towards either the original substrate or any other fibrous material with which it comes in contact during exposure to the agency. Staining is particularly likely to occur during exposure to conditions similar to those encountered when the material was being dyed or printed, i.e. during contact with water, wash-liquor etc. The possible effect on color fastness of a change in the color of the fibrous substrate itself is a result of exposure to the particular conditions must not be overlooked. 1. The chemical structure of the colorant: The resistance of a dye or pigment to chemical or photochemical attack is directly related to its chemical structure. Thus the relatively high fastness to light of dyeing of anthraquinone acid dyes on wool and the poor light fastness of triarylmethane acid dyes on the substrate are directly attributable to the stability of the one and the instability of the other to photochemical attack. Similarly, the good fastness to oxidizing/ bleaching agents of anthraquinonoid vat dyes on cellulosic fibre is related to the high stability of such compounds to oxidation. Where two or more dyes are present in the fibre, one may catalyze the breakdown of another. A well known example of this, but certainly not the only one, is the catalytic fading of dyeing of mixtures of vat dyes on exposure to light, particularly greens produced using mixtures containing certain yellow dyes. The progressive yellowing which occurs on exposure to light arises from acceleration in the rate of breakdown of the blue component due to the presence of the active yellow dye. Incidentally, when such active dyes are present alone or in presence of dyes, which are not so affected, photochemical attack on the fibrous substrate, it self may be promoted with consequent serious tendering of the fibre and the weakening of the material.
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The resistance of a dye or pigment to chemical or photochemical attack is an inherent property of the dye chromophore but the auxochromes may also substantially alter the fastness either way. Thus the good lightfastness of anthraquinone base natural dyes on wool and silk and the very poor fastness of curcumin and annatto dye on the same substrate are directly attributable to the stability of the one and the instability of the other chromophore to photochemical attack. The light fastness of hydroxyl anthraquinones and concluded that the fastness decreases as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. The decrease of light fastness depending on position of substituent. In anthraquinone nucleus, SH, -NH, -NHR or aquinoline nucleus decreases the light fatness, while NO2 has a favorable effect.2 When two or more natural dyes are present on the fibre, there might be a complete change in tone of colour with time because of dissimilarities in the fading behaviour. This effect is readily observed in old tapestries. In these historic textiles, green colours produced by over dyeing indigo with a natural yellow dye, inevitably to a bluer hue of the higher light fastness of the indigo (blue) component.3

2. The state of the colorant in the fibre: The state of the colorant in the fibre is obviously important. The superiority of the reactive dyes over the direct dyes in respect of fastness to wet treatments on cellulosic fibres is the direct result of the covalent attachment of the reactive dye to the fibre compared with the attachment of the direct dye through reversible forces, such as hydrogen bonds and other secondary attractive forces. In a dyeing or print of a reactive dye the colorant molecule and the fibre molecule become one-entity. In the case of dyeing of direct dyes on cellulosic fibres reversal of the dyeing process is fairly easily initiated since dye absorption and retention is due to weak forces of attraction which are easily over come. The very high fastness to wet treatments of dyeing and prints of, e.g., vat dyes, azoic combinations, and the small collection of dyes classified as Ingrain dyes in the Color Index, is due primarily to the fact that the dye inside the fibre is in the form of relatively large particles of insoluble colorant which, resistant to removal during wet treatments e.g. washing. At the same time the presence of the colorant in the fibre in this form also results in an improvement in its stability to chemical attack owing, presumably, to the in accessibility of the bulk of it to the attacking chemical. The overall high fastness of the anthraquinonoid vat dyes on cellulosic materials, which has led to their setting the standard of performance, is the net results of their high chemical stability and their presence in the fibre as particles which are insoluble in water and in aqueous solutions of the majority of chemicals used in textile processing, with the notable exception of alkaline solution of reducing agents. 3. The amount of colorant present on the fibre
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The colour fastness of a deep dyeing or print of a particular dye often differs markedly from that of a pale dyeing or print of the same dye on the same material. Where the principal effect of exposure to the particular conditions is to produce a change in the colour of the material, e.g. as is the case with exposure to light, it is generally found that the deeper the dyeing or print (i.e. the greater the amount of dye present on the fibre) the higher is its fastness in respect of change in colour on exposure. In certain cases the fastness to light of a deep dyeing may be two or more points higher (on the 1-8 scale) than that of a pale dyeing of the same dye. This is explained in part by the fact that the deeper the dyeing the greater the amount of dye, which must be destroyed before a visible change in the colour of the material, becomes apparent. In certain cases the situation is complicated by the fact that the colorant is present in the fibre in the form of large particles of pigment. In this case even a pale dyeing or print contains a relatively large amount of colorant in a state in which it is least susceptible to photochemical attack and thus the effect of depth of colour on light fastness is much less pronounced, or even absent. The high fastness to light of pale dyeing and prints of pigments resin-bonded to the fibre is a very good example of this. In the case of conditions such as washing, water, dry heat (disperse dyes) etc., the fastness of a dyeing or print in respect of staining of adjacent materials decreases as the depth of dyeing increases. This is easily understood, since the greater the amount of dye present the more likely is it that during exposure sufficient to cause staining will be detached from the material. The light fastness of a dyed fibre usually increases with increasing dye concentration. If a dyed sample is exposed to light, the number of molecules, which will be modified during a specified period, will be the same; irrespective of the percentage of dye on the fabric.4 Net fading is therefore greater in pale shades. In certain cases, however, improvement in fastness of deeper shades could be caused by aggregation of dye molecules within the fibre.5 It is because of this reason that it has become customary to state the fastness of a dye on a given fabric in three strengths of shade (e.g. 0.25, 1 and 2.5%). 4. The fibre: The Colourfastness of coloured textiles is related to the chemical structure and physical characteristics of the fibre itself. The wet fastnesses of disperse dyes on polyester fibre is much higher than on secondary cellulose acetate materials. This is because polyester fibres are much more compact in structure and, consequently, diffusion of dyes within them proceeds much more slowly under given conditions. The fastness of a coloured textile to light is influenced by effective humidity during exposure. Effective humidity is defined as the combination of air and surface-temperature in the relative humidity governing the moisture content of the surface of fibre. The ability of a fibre to absorb the water from the atmosphere, i.e. its moisture regain characteristics, is thus obviously important in this
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connection. Finally, the physical dimensions of the fibres or filaments may be determining factor. The higher fastness to light of certain direct dyes on high filament denier viscous staple fibre for carpets is attributed to the lower surface area: volume ratio compared with that of the low filament denier yarns used for other textile purposes. 5. Foreign substances: Substances other than the colorant may be present in the fibre. These include moisture, delustrants, e.g. titanium dioxide, residual dyeing assistants, examples carriers used when dyeing polyester fibre, after treating agents, finishing agents, e.g. synthetic resins deposited in the fibre to confer crease-shedding properties, and agents deliberately applied to improve colour fastness to a particular agency. Titanium dioxide can catalyze photochemical attack and thus the light fastness of a dye on titanium dioxide delustured fibres may be lower than on the bright material. It has been known that the presence of no more than traces of certain carrier, e.g. o-phenyl phenol, in dyed and printed polyester materials can reduce light fastness by as much as two points on the 1-8 scale. The reduction in light fastness of many dyes on cellulosic fibres that can result from resin finishing must be taken into account when selecting dyes for use in these circumstances. Cationic compounds applied to dyeing of direct dyes on cellulosic fibres to improve fastness to wet treatments can also exert adverse influence on light fastness. Fluorescent brighteners can affect the color fastness of textiles in two ways. Firstly, because of the relatively low stability to light of fluorescent brighteners on some substrates, materials treated with them may yellow on exposure. Secondly, absorption of these brighteners by coloured materials during washing can bring about a considerable change in appearance when the materials are subsequently viewed under illuminants containing a significant amount of ultraviolet radiation. Pale yellows, creams and fawns are particularly affected. Antioxidants such as gallic acid, cathechol, and tannins exhibit limited protective action on some dyes. After treatment of dyes with tannic acid and treatment of cotton with myrobolans before and after dyeing improves the fastness properties of most natural dyes. On the other hand, presence of substances such as TRO, starch and gums etc. might accelerate the fading process.2 6. Temperature and humidity: Under normal conditions of exposure to light, both temperature and humidity affect the rate of fading of dyed textile materials.6 The role of relative humidity and temperature of fading of museum textiles dyed with natural dyes have been investigated. It was found that a drop in relative humidity from 65 to 45% had very little effect but a further decrease to 25% relative humidity caused a significant reduction in fading. For fugitive dyes, a rise in temperature from 25 to 35C resulted in an increase in fading rate by a factor of 1.5.
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7. Atmospheric contaminants: Atmospheric contaminants, such as SO2 and oxides of nitrogen and ozone are known to react with dyes even in absence of light. It has shown that fading of some, but not all natural dyes is reduced in an inert gas atmosphere such as nitrogen or argon, but there is also evidence to show that madder and alkanet dyes in watercolors fade more in an inert atmosphere. Several researchers have reported that an NO2 gas is one of the prominent causes of dye fading. 7 Sulphur dioxide and ozone are also responsible for colour changes. 8. Effect of mordant: Most natural dyes are mordant dyes. The fastness of a mordant dye depends on the mordant and mordanting method, because different metal dye complexes are formed, which may differ in their stability to light and also because the metal may have a positive or negative catalytic photochemical degradation of the dye. A recent study on 18 yellow natural dyes concluded that the mordant was more important than the dye itself in determining the light fastness of coloured textile. Studies have also been conducted employing natural mordant such as tannins, paddy clay, bentonite and lanthanite to improve fastness of dyeing to light and washing.2 9. Nature of incident light: Not all absorbed wavelength in the visible and ultraviolet are equally effective in initiating a fading process. It has shown that fugitive dyes are faded mainly by UV radiation.8 Use of a UV filter has been shown to afford some protection to natural dyes. Cotton dyed with brazilwood on alum mordant had its colour preserved fairly well when UV filters were employed. Dyes, which fade only in UV light, are those that absorb strongly in the region 200-320 nm, while dyes, which are fast to both types of light, are transparent throughout the UV region. The ultraviolet content is particularly important because U.V. radiation is high-energy radiation and hence highly destructive. Infrared radiation is important because it is absorbed by textile fibres with consequent rise in the temperature of the material and reduction in its moisture content, which affect fading.

2. BASIC PRINCIPLES
In order to determine the fastness of a coloured textile to a particular agency, e.g. light, washing, it is necessary to submit a sample of it to conditions which represent that agency, and to estimate the
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magnitude of any consequent change in the color of the sample under test, and, where relevant, the extent to which adjacent undyed materials, exposed with the sample, become coloured (stained). The validity of any particular fastness test and hence the value of the results depends upon a number of conditions being satisfied. (1) Generally the test must simulate as closely as possible the conditions encountered when the material is exposed to the particular agency during processing and use. The establishment of such conditions can, in many cases, be a very difficult matter, as is revealed by published accounts of the development of certain test methods, e.g. fastness to perspiration. In these instance very considerable investigations was necessary in order to produce artificial perspiration the behavior of which resembled that of the natural product. (2) The test must be readily reproducible. (3) The method of assessing change in color of the sample and staining of adjacent white materials must be as objective as possible; otherwise the results value will be only to the person carrying out the test and of only limited and temporary value even to him. (4) When the purpose of the test is to determine the fastness characteristics of a particular dye on a given substrate the results obtained must be related to the depth of dyeing or print. (5) The time required to carry out the test and to asses the result must be as short as possible, consistent with reproducibility and accuracy, since further progress in the manufacturer and marketing of the textile often has to await the results of the test.2

3. TYPES OF COLOUR FASTNESS 9,10,11 The colour fastness test methods is divided into groups according to property
GROUP A GENERAL PRINCIPLES ISO 105-A01: 1994 General principles of testing ISO 105-A02: 1993 Grey Scale for assessing change in colour. ISO 105-A03: 1993 Grey Scale for assessing staining. ISO 105-A04: 1989 Methods for the instrumental assessment of the degree of staining of the fabrics.12 ISO 105-A05: 1996 Instrumental assessment of change in colour for determination of Grey Scale rating.13 ISO 105-A06: 1995 Instrumental determination of 1/1 standard depth of colour.
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ISO 105-A08: 2001 Vocabulary used in colour measurement GROUP B COLOUR FASTNESS TO LIGHT AND WEATHERING ISO 105-B01: 1994 Colour fastness to light (day light). ISO 105-B02: 1994 Colour fastness to artificial light (Xenon arc fading lamp). ISO 105-B03: 1994 Colour fastness to weathering (outdoor exposure). ISO 105-B04: 1994 Colour fastness to artificial weathering (Xenon arc fading lamp test). ISO 105-B05: 1993 Detection and assessment of photochromism ISO 105-B06: 1998 Artificial light at high temperatures (Xenon arc fading lamp test). ISO 105-B08: 1995 Quality control of blue wool reference materials 1 to 7.

GROUP C COLOUR FASTNESS TO WASHING AND LAUNDERING14 ISO 105-C01: 1989 Colour fastness to washing (test 1) ISO 105-C02: 1989 Colour fastness to washing (test 2) ISO 105-C03: 1989 Colour fastness to washing (test 3) ISO 105-C04: 1989 Colour fastness to washing (test 4) ISO 105-C05: 1989 Colour fastness to washing (test 5) ISO 105-C06: 1994 Colour fastness to domestic and commercial laundering. ISO 105-C07: 1999 Colour fastness to wet scrubbing of pigment printed textiles. ISO 105-C08: 2001 Colour to domestic and commercial laundering using a non phosphate reference detergent incorporating a low temperature bleach activator.15,16 ISO 105-C09: 2001 oxidative bleach response using a non-phosphate reference detergent incorporating a low temperature bleach activator.17,18 ISO 105-C12: 2004 Colour fastness to industrial laundering GROUP D COLOUR FASTNESS TO DRY CLEANING ISO 105-D01: 1993 Colour fastness to dry cleaning. ISO 105-D02: 2001 Colour fastness to rubbing (organic solvent)

GROUP E COLOUR FASTNESS TO AQUEOUS AGENCIES


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ISO 105-E01: 1994 Colour fastness to water. ISO 105-E02: 1994 Colour fastness to seawater. ISO 105-E03: 1994 Colour fastness to chlorinated water. ISO 105-E04: 1994 Colour fastness to perspiration. ISO 105-E05: 1989 Colour fastness to spotting (acid). ISO 105-E06: 1989 Colour fastness to spotting (alkali). ISO 105-E07: 1989 Colour fastness to spotting (water). ISO 105-E08: 1994 Colour fastness to hot water. ISO 105-E09: 1989 Colour fastness to potting. ISO 105-E10: 1994 Colour fastness to decatizing. ISO 105-E11: 1994 Colour fastness to steaming. ISO 105-E12: 1989 Colour fastness to milling (alkaline). ISO 105-E13: 1994 Colour fastness to acid felting (severe). ISO 105-E14: 1994 Colour fastness to acid felting (mild). GROUP F STANDARD ADJACENT FABRIC There are ten parts in this group, each of which specifies different adjacent fabrics used in the other groups of the standard. F01 to F08 are specifications for standard adjacent fabric; F01 wool, F02 cotton & viscose, F03 polyamide, F04 polyester, F05 acrylic, F06 silk, F07 secondary acetate and F08 triacetate. F09 standard rubbing cloth and F10 adjacent fabric (multifibre). GROUP G COLOUR FASTNESS TO ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT ISO 105-G01: 1993 Colour fastness to nitrogen oxides. ISO 105-G02: 1993 Colour fastness to burnt-gas fumes. ISO 105-G03: 1993 Colour fastness to ozone in the atmosphere. ISO 105-G04: 1989 Colour fastness to oxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere at high humidities.

GROUP H COLOUR FASTNESS OF TEXTILE FLOOR COVERING

GROUP J MEASUREMENT OF COLOUR AND COLOUR DIFFRENCES ISO 105-J01: 1997 Measurement of colour and colour difference. ISO 105-J02: 1997 Instrumental assessment of whiteness.
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ISO 105-J03: 1995 Calculation of colour differences. GROUP N COLOUR FASTNESS TO BLEACHING AGENCIES ISO 105-N01: 1993 Colour fastness to bleaching (Hypochlorite). ISO 105-N02: 1993 Colour fastness to bleaching (Peroxide). ISO 105-N03: 1993 Colour fastness to bleaching (Sodium chlorite; mild). ISO 105-N04: 1993 Colour fastness to bleaching (Sodium chlorite; severe). ISO 105-N05: 1993 Colour fastness to stoving. GROUP P COLOUR FASTNESS TO HEAT TREATMENT ISO 105-P01: 1993 Colour fastness to dry heat (excluding pressing) ISO 105-P02: 2002 Colour fastness to pleating (steam pleating). GROUP S COLOUR FASTNESS TO VULCANIZING ISO 105-S01: 1993 Colour fastness to vulcanization (hot air). ISO 105-S02: 1993 Colour fastness to vulcanization (sulfur monochloride) ISO 105-S03: 1993 Colour fastness to vulcanization (open steam) GROUP X COLOUR FASTNESS TO MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES ISO 105-X01: 1993 Colour fastness to carbonizing (AlCl3). ISO 105-X02: 1993 Colour fastness to carbonizing (H2SO4). ISO 105-X04: 1994 Colour fastness to mercerization. ISO 105-X05: 1994 Colour fastness to organic solvents. ISO 105-X06: 1994 Colour fastness to soda boiling. ISO 105-X07: 1994 Colour fastness to cross dyeing (wool). ISO 105-X08: 1994 Colour fastness to degumming. ISO 105-X09: 1993 Colour fastness to formaldehyde. ISO 105-X10: 1993 Assessment of migration of textile colours into polyvinyl chloride coating. ISO 105-X11: 1994 Colour fastness to hot pressing. ISO 105-X12: 2001 Colour fastness to rubbing. ISO 105-X13: 1994 Colour fastness of wool dyes to processes using chemical means for creasing, pleating and setting . ISO 105-X14: 1994 Colour fastness to acid chlorination of wool (sodium
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dichloroisocyanurate). ISO 105-X16: 2001 Colour fastness to rubbing (small areas). GROUP Z COLORANT CHARACTERISTICS ISO 105-Z01: 1993 Colour fastness to metals in the dye bath (chromium salts). ISO 105-Z02: 1993 Colour fastness to metals in the dye bath (iron and copper). ISO 105-Z03: 1996 Intercompatibility of basic dyes for acrylic. ISO 105-Z04: 1995 Dispersibility of disperse dye. ISO 105-Z05: 1996 Determination of dusting behavior of dyes. ISO 105-Z06: 1998 Evaluation of dye and pigment migration. ISO 105-Z07: 1995 Determination of application solubility and solution stability of water soluble dyes. ISO 105-Z08: 1995 Determination of the electrolyte stability of reactive dyes. ISO 105-Z09: 1995 Determination of cold water solubility of water-soluble dyes. ISO 105-Z10: 1997 Determination of relative colour strength in solution. ISO 105-Z11: 1998 Evaluation of speckiness of disperse colorant

4. TEST PROCEDURES
Normally determination of Colourfastness is based on subjecting a test sample to specified conditions for a specified time and assessing the magnitude of the changes thereby produced using the Grey Scales as the absolute standard of reference.

4.1. General Test Procedures: (1) Specimen of the coloured textile, with undyed materials attached if staining is also to be determined, is subjected to the particular agency using the specified procedure. (2) The extent and nature of any change in the Colour of the textile and the extent of staining of the adjacent undyed materials are assessed and recorded. 4.2. Specification of colourfastness: Colourfastness is specified on the basis of a numerical, supplemented as necessary by verbal description of Colour changes, which have occurred.

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The scales are: (a) A 1-8 (L1-L9-US practice) scale for specifying light fastness. (b) A 1-5 scale for specifying fastness to all other agencies. Where verbal description is also considered desirable, the terms used are: Redder, bluer, greener, yellower. Weaker, stronger. Duller, brighter. 4.3. Assessment of change in Colour: This includes alteration in depth, hue, or brightness, or any combination of these. Regardless of the character of the change, the assessment is based on the magnitude of the visual contrast between the original material and the sample. This could be determined quantitatively by instrumental measurement of the reflectance characteristics of the sample. Such a procedure would require expansive apparatus, would be time consuming and the data obtained would be unnecessarily complicated to handle. On the other hand if the color contrast is assessed by visual examination without reference to any standard contrasts, the result will be imprecise and very liable to subjective human error. The current mandatory method for assessment of color contrast in fastness testing is visual examination of the original and tested materials alongside a series of quantitatively specified contrast as reference standards. The series of standard contrast is known as the Grey Scale for Assessing Change in Colour, and consists of five pairs of the pieces of grey card numbered 1-5. The contrast between pair no.5 is zero that between pair no. 1 is 13.6 CIE Lab units. The series of contrast forms a geometrical progression. The original and tested samples are placed side-by-side and viewed under a suitable illuminant. Each of the pairs of grey is placed along side in turn and the number of the pair showing a contrast nearest to that shown by the samples is noted. The fastness rating of the sample under test is the number of the grey scale contrast, which is closest to the contrast between the original, and the treated specimen. If that contrast lies between two contrasts on the scale an intermediate rating, e.g. 3-4 is given. When the color change includes a change in hue and/or in brightness and it is desired to record the character of the change, adding the appropriate qualitative description using the following terminology does this. (1) Redder(R) Weaker (W) Duller(D) Yellower(Y) Stronger(Str) Brighter(Br)
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Bluer(B)

Greener(G)

Figure

The use of the scale and the significance of the ratings obtained are summarized and illustrated by the following examples. (2) RATING 3 3 redder Contrast-Grade 3 of the Grey Scale Contrast-Grade 3 of the Grey Scale MEANING Only loss in depth of colour has occurred. No significant loss in depth has occurred, but colour has become redder, i.e. there has been a change in hue Both loss in depth and a change in hue have occurred A loss in depth, change in hue, and change in brightness has occurred.

3 Weaker, yellower

Contrast-Grade 3 of the Grey Scale 3 Weaker, bluer, duller Contrast-Grade 3 of the Grey Scale 4.4. Assessment of staining: -

This also is determined visually. The contrast between the face of the undyed cloth in contact with the test sample during the test and a sample of the original undyed material is assessed using the Grey Scale for Assessing Staining (BS 1006: A03: 1978). This scale consists of nine pairs of pieces of card, numbered 5, 5-4, 4, 1-2, 1, where 5 is a pair of whites and the others consists of a white and a grey, giving a series of contrasts increasing in geometric progression, no.1 showing the highest contrast, 36.2 CIELAB units of color difference. The degree of staining of the undyed materials subjected to the test as part of the composite test specimen is determined using the grey scale for assessing staining in the same manner as the grey scale for assessing change in colour as follows: 1 (maximum contrast = lowest fastness) to 5(minimum contrast = maximum fastness), intermediate ratings (1-2, 2-3, etc.) being recorded. The great importance of the Grey Scale lies in the fact that they provide a direct, objective basis for color-fastness assessment which has been found to be sufficiently precise, and accurate and reliable in use, to be accepted internationally. The only exception to the use of the Grey Scale as the ultimate reference point in fastness assessment is in the determination of color fastness to light. In this case fastness assessment is based on
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comparison of the exposed specimens with a series of eight standard, dyed wool cloths, which have been exposed together with and under the same conditions as the material under test. The Grey Scale for assessing change in Colour is, however, used to specify the extent to which the exposed samples are required to fade before exposure is terminated.2 Table (1) Relation between CIELAB colour differences for fading and staining and the Grey Scale fastness grade CIELAB Colour difference for fading <0.40 0.40 1.25 1.25 (1.7) 2.10 2.10 2.95 2.95 (3.4) 4.10 4.10 5.80 5.80 (6.8) 8.20 8.20 11.60 > 11.60 Colour fastness grade 5 4-5 4 3-4 3 2-3 2 1-2 1 CIELAB Colour difference for staining <1.10 1.10 3.25 3.25 (4.3) 5.15 5.15 7.25 7.25 (8.5) 10.25 10.25 14.45 14.45 (16.9) 20.45 20.45 29.05 >29.05

Table (2) Description of the normal fastness grades Fastness Grade Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Shade change of tested sample No change Slight loss in depth Appreciable loss Significant loss Great loss in depth Fastness Excellent Good Fair Poor very poor Staining of adjacent white sample No staining Very slight staining Moderate staining Significant staining deep staining

Table (3) Description of the light fastness grades Fastness Grade Grade 8 Grade 7 Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Degree of Fading None Very, very slight Slight Moderate Appreciable Significant Extensive Very extensive Light Fastness Outstanding Excellent Very good Good Moderate Fair Poor very poor

COLOUR-FASTNESS TESTS
Colour can also play a part in colourfastness. When considering colour, blues and reds are affected by wider bands of light (UV and infra red). These colours tend to fade quicker than central
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spectral colours such as green, yellow or orange. While this isn't a fail-safe rule, the fibre and dyes used in the fabric composition is still the most important part.19 The principles and practice of Colourfastness testing are illustrated by the following examples. Fastness to washing and to light is very important to the producers and consumers of all kinds of coloured textiles. Since fastness to burnt gas fumes (nitrogen oxides) is relevant, particularly to dyed secondary acetate and triacetate, and fastness to various heat treatments is important in relation to dyed and printed materials made from cellulose acetates and synthetic-polymer fibres. When a coloured material is subjected to particular conditions e.g. light, washing, milling and bleaching, the Colour may change in depth, hue or brightness. In some cases there may be alteration in all three. Thus a blue dyed fabric may become paler, yellower and duller. The resistance of a coloured material to any such change in colour is termed as its colourfastness. Also, during wet treatments such as washing and dry-cleaning, adjacent undyed material may take up colour due to transfer of dye from the original dyed material. This is known as staining. The substrate to which dye has been applied also affects the fastness properties. It is thus essential that while reporting colourfastness grades, the substrate, as well as the change in hue, value and chroma must be specified.2 The fastness requirements, however, are largely determined by the end-use of dyed fabrics, e.g. perspiration fastness is not required in case of upholstery materials. Some examples of special parameters for different end uses of fabrics4:

Item Garment for Australia Swimwear / Beachwear Towel and Napkins

Special requirement Improved light fastness, UV protection Chlorinated water / Seawater Fastness, colour fastness to light. Absorbency
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Surgical Gowns / Apparel Woolen Merchandise Fire fighter apparel Defense textiles (tents / canvas etc.) Parachute cloth Soil resistant products Oil industry applications Household curtains and drapability Bathmats / table mats Upholstery Industrial uniforms Sportswear Baby wear / children wear Nightwear Rainwear Garment for artic condition

Anti bacteria properties, colour fastness to autoclaving, absorbency Moth proofing Fire proofing Protective textiles Air permeability Soil releasing fluorocarbon treatment Oil repellant finishes Tensile strength, colourfastness to light, Anti flammability Colourfastness: migration into PVC Abrasion resistance Strength, oil / soil repellency, flammability Abrasion resistant, seam strength and colourfastness to perspiration Colourfastness to saliva Flammability Water repellency, breathability Ability to withstand extreme cold: flexing / strength at low temperature

Following are the test methods for evaluation of the fastness characteristics of the dyed goods: Colour Fastness to Light

What is lightfastness? Lightfastness is the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure. Different dyes have different degrees of resistance to fading by light. All dyes have some susceptibility to light damage, simply because their strong colors are indications that they absorb the wavelengths that they don't reflect back. Light is energy, and the energy that is absorbed by pigmented compounds may serve to degrade them or nearby molecules. Fastness to light is one of the most important properties in order to fulfill its utilization purpose over a period of time. Fastness to natural daylight is the only light-fastness characteristic of colored textile materials, which required to be known. Artificial light, as normally employed for domestic and industrial illumination, does not cause serious fading. It can be used as an alternative to daylight for obtaining useful information on the possible behaviour of the coloured textile on exposure to daylight provided precautions are taken to ensure that the specified condition of exposure are complied with.20 The appropriateness of a particular lightfastness standard can be judged on the basis of three criteria: uniformity, linearity of fading with respect to time, and sensitivity.21
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Why does ultraviolet light cause color to fade? Because of photodegradation. It is all about the chemical makeup of an object. The technical term for color fading is photodegradation. There are light absorbing color bodies called chromophores that are present in dyes. The color(s) we see are based upon these chemical bonds and the amount of light that is absorbed in a particular wavelength. Ultraviolet rays can break down the chemical bonds and thus fade the color(s) in an object - it is a bleaching effect. Some objects may be more prone to fading, such as dyed textiles and watercolors. Other objects may reflect the light more, which makes them less prone to fade.22

There is a growing demand for sun protective textiles, as unfiltered ultraviolet (UV) rays mixed with the sunlight that hit human skin cause skin tumors and ageing. UV radiation is comprised of UVA rays of wavelength 320-400 nm, UVB rays of 280-320 nm, and UVC rays of 100-280 nm. The term sun protection factor (SPF) is used for sunscreens, and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) for textiles, to differentiate clothing and other textiles from sunscreens. Using a spectro radiometer or spectrophotometer, UPF is determined using the VITRO method, in which subjects are irradiated with monochromatic light. The sun protection properties of a fabric are determined by the extent to which a fabric transmits, reflects, or absorbs UV radiations. A fabric, which has the capacity to absorb or reflect maximum incident light and allows little time to transmit, is more beneficial to the skin.21 Mechanism of fading The absorption of one quantum of light of 4000A (the blue end of the visible spectrum) represents an increase in the energy of dye molecule of about 71 kcal; and when this is compared with
17

bond energies (C-C 58.6; C-N 48.6; C-O 70.0; C=C 100; C=O 142-152; N=N 80 kcal per mole), it is clear that light energy (particularly the energy of ultraviolet radiation) is adequate for the rupture of bonds in organic molecules, assuming that all the absorbed light energy is available for this process. It is thus remarkable that despite this, so many dyes exhibit such good stability to light. By the absorption of light, a molecule rises from its ground state of lowest energy to an excited state of higher energy in which one of the electrons is at a higher level. The life of an excited molecule is exceeding by small, about 10-7 to 10-8 sec, for a permitted transition. The activated molecule expends the energy of excitation in one of the several ways. It may emit radiation in the form of fluorescence or phosphorescence; or lose its energy as heat by collision with other molecules; or dissociate to take part in chemical reaction. Even with simple organic molecules, photochemical reactions of varied character are encountered and the fading of dyes might involve three photochemical reactions oxidation, reduction and decomposition or photolysis. Photosensitization may also occur. Fading of dyes by the action of light and air is usually an oxidative process. Lighter shades usually will fade more quickly than darker shades because they contain less dye. Most dyes are composed of two or more color components. If one color is affected more than the other, the fading may appear as a color change rather than a lightening of the color. For example, many greenish hues are made from yellow and blue dyes. If the yellow dye is affected and the blue is not, the green textile may seem to be turning blue. These green colors now appear very blue because the yellow dye has faded.23 It is realized that dyes may be extremely complex, may contain impurities or exist in various states of aggregation, or contain certain substituents that are photoactive in their own right.18 No direct relation between fluorescence and fading of dyes has been established, but they are related phenomenon. Many dyes that have poor fastness to light are fluorescent in solution or on the fibre. Fluorescent dyes are usually more photosensitive and fade more rapidly because the active life period of their molecule is longer and the chances of collision with oxygen of the air, therefore greater.24 All kinds of textile fibers (native and man-made) are liable to a destructive influence of the sunlight. Degradation reactions by light mostly occur when air oxygen and environment influence is present and therefore all range of oxygen products arise together. UV-radiation the most harmful part of the sunlight and also damp influences are affecting on the textile fibers. Photo degradation happens even in vacuum or in inert atmosphere. The photo degradation is also caused by artificial sources of UV-light the speed of photo degradation depends on the specific surface [m2/g].25 What exactly causes fading?

18

The sun's energy or more importantly the portion called ultraviolet radiation. Surprisingly, ultraviolet radiation only makes up for only 2% of the sun's energy, but accounts for an estimated 60% of the fading damage. The quality of dyes used on fabric plays a huge part in Colour fastness. Problems often occur in textile usage when a consumer decides to use a fabric, which had not been produced to meet certain end uses. Polyester and acrylic fibres are the most sunlight resistant fibres in common use. They outlast all other commonly used textile fibres when exposed to the weather. Thus their use for curtaining is ideal. Should the Colour fade, this is attributable to the dyestuff.19 There are three basic ways that fading occurs with dyes and lakes: 1. Breaking of a double bond and rearrangement of the molecules shape. Double bonds can receive enough energy to not only jump to a higher orbital, but they can break and leave the molecule, leaving a single bond or leaving the molecule without the electrons to jump to higher orbital. A change in bonds changes the shape of the molecule. 2. The bonds can receive enough energy to break altogether, breaking the molecule into two or more pieces. The breaking apart of the molecule into different, smaller molecules will cause a color change, hence the fading. 3. A small amount of the dyes that are water-soluble lose their grip on the fabric in the washing process. These molecules are torn off of the fabric and are then rinsed away. This is a slow fading process, but steady.26 Four general classes of color change27 1. Fading due to the destruction of the chromophore in the principal dye of the pigment. 2. Color shifts which the observer sees as a change of hue more than fading (although fading occurs). 3. Metameric fading, which goes undetected under some light sources. 4. Metameric color shifts which can be caused by the oxidation of a component in the tube color.

19

Factors Affecting fastness to light

Lightfastness of dyed textiles is related to the chemical structure and physical characteristics of the fibre itself. The colourfastness properties of several natural anthraquinonoid dyes on cotton and silk have been investigated .It was found that the extent of colour fading on cellulosic fibres was directly related to the oxidation index of each dye whereas the different systems are operated for protein fibres. 30 The fading on cellulose is an oxidative process, whereas on protein fibres, it is reductive in nature. In another study, indigo dyeing was found to be much more light resistant on wool than on cotton while the reverse was true of madder. The moisture regains characteristics of a fibre and its area: volume ratio is also important determining factors. In consequence, determination of light fastness is based on the fading behavior of standard dyed materials exposed alongside the samples under test and under the same conditions. The ISO Standards are eight blue dyeing on wool cloth, each produced with a different dye and forming a series ranging from No. 1 (very low light fastness) to No. 8 (very high light fastness). The dyes used in the current ISO blue wool scale fall into two categories; those used for light fastness standards 1 to 6 are all acid dyes, whereas for light fastness standards 7 and 8, solubilised vat dyes are used.17 In a dyed material the physical state of the absorbed dye, i.e. the size and location of its associated particles, as well as the structure, chemical nature, temperature and moisture of the substrate itself, all influence the light fastness of the dyes and lead to complex kinetic effects.31 Key factors influencing photostability18

The key factors influencing the photostability of textile dyes are: The wavelength distribution of incident radiation. The degree of dye aggregation The presence of moisture The presence of metal ions, either inextricably bound in dyes or bound in impurities. The chemical and physical structure of the textile substrate. The particular dye structure. Colour fastness to light: daylight
20

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02, B05

Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms, and of leather, to the action of daylight. If there is a possibility o a sample being photochromic, the test of photochromism shall be applied additionally. Principle: A specimen of textile or leather is exposed to daylight under prescribed conditions, including protection from rain, along with eight dyed wool standards. The fastness is assessed by comparing the change in colour of the specimen with that of the standards. 1. Fabric size: 1 x 6 cm 2. Fastness rating: 1 to 8 Blue wool cloth ranging from 1 to 8 i. C.I. Acid Blue 104 ii. C.I. Acid Blue 109 iii. C.I. Acid Blue 83 iv. C.I. Acid Blue 121 v. C.I. Acid Blue 47 vi. C.I. Acid Blue 23 vii. C.I. Solubilised Vat Blue 5 viii. C.I. Solubilised Vat Blue 8 Pattern dyed with 3 dyes should be deceived after dyeing. The patterns of light fastness from 1-8 may be obtained from ISI. The BS 1006:1978 test of day light exposure specifies that sample should be tested together with standard dyed wool patterns of light fastness. 1-8 respectively cover with opaque sheet of card board or aluminum leaving the other half exposed. When daylight is used fading is slow and quicker answer is often necessary under commercial purpose. Hence, xenon arc lamp is used. The SED of this lamp bears a close resemblance to a natural light. Test reports: Report the numerical rating for light fastness. It is represented by the figure alone (in the case of using the standards denominated 1-8).
21

If this rating is equal to or higher than 4 and the preliminary assessment is equal to or lower than 3, report the later figure in brackets. If the specimen is photochromic, the light fastness shall be followed by bracketed P along with the grey scale rating20.

Light fastness: daylight Brief description:

ISO 105/B01

Expose the test sample and light fastness scales 1-8 until a contrast on the test sample corresponding to stage 4 and then to stage 3 on the Grey scale Change of shade becomes visible but no longer than when the blue standard 7 shows a contrast corresponding to stage 4.The lightness rating corresponds to the number of the blue standard on the blue standard on the light fastness scale which shows a similar contrast to the test sample. Software used for the measurement of light fastness: Megasol light and weather-fastness apparatus to set test conditions fully automatically and to continuously log all test parameters via a touch sensitive interactive control panel and its own design software. At first sight, light fastness testing seem to be a very straightforward process. Simply expose samples of the material in question to an artificial light source, and note the elapsed time by which the sample has faded to match a reference standard. The Megasol light fastness/weathering test system recently introduced by Heals automatically sets and controls the chamber conditions for up to 50 different standards including various international standards One of the computer control displays is a test menu. This shows a plan view of the test chamber, with the current status of all relevant components. The Sample menu display shows the current exposure duration for the A and B sides of each of 10 sample holders, highlighting the samples with longest exposure time. Megasols computer control also provides comprehensive information on the life and the expiry dates for the burner and each operational filter, automatically logging all changes, events and service history in a series of screen displays within the Service menu. When a burner or filter require replacement, an appropriate from is displayed prior to starting a test21. COLOUR FASTNESS TO WASHING
22

Fastness to washing was one of the three fastness properties investigated by the first fastness committee set up by the SDC in 1927. Fastness to washing is one of the properties of a dyeing of importance to the consumer. Wash fastness properties of dyes: A dye must be able to withstand treatments in manufacturing processes and normal usage when present in fibre. Thus, it should be fast to wet treatments such as washing, shampooing and manufacturing process such as milling. Wet fastness of dyes is influenced by the rate of diffusion of dyes and the state of dye inside the fibre. The rate is a function of the geometry of the dye molecule i.e. it depends on the size of the molecule and its molecular weight. Affinity of dye for fibre also tends to reduce the rate of transport of dye into or out of the fibre. The dye-fibre attractive forces tend to cause the dye molecules to remain attached to fibre molecules rather than to diffuse along the force of the fibre. During the limited period of a normal washing treatment, equilibrium between the dye inside and outside the fibre may not be reached. Thus the amount of dye removed in the case would depend largely on its rate of desorption, so the wash fastness is expected to increase directly with the molecular weight or volume of the dye. State of dye inside the fibre: State of dye inside the fibre is very important. Direct natural dyes such as turmeric, annatto and carthomone (from safflower) have poor wash fastness as the dye is attached to the fibre through reversible forces such as hydrogen bonds and other weak forces of attraction, which are easily overcome. The very high fastness to wet treatments exhibited by e.g. Indigo is due mainly to the fact that the dye inside the fibre is in the form of relatively large particles of insoluble colorant which, because of size and insolubility in water, are very resistant to removal during wet treatments. Similarly, the superior wet fastness of metal complex dyes is due to the ability of dye molecules to aggregate into large particles in fibre and not because of the adhesion forces of attraction between wool and metal ions. Most washing test is carried out at relatively law temperatures for short times and the dye-fibre system does not come to equilibrium. Desorption of the dye from the fibre is therefore influenced mainly by kinetic factors. There is a variety of testing procedure. To some extent, these have arisen because: (1) Washing conditions vary from one country to another; (2) The method depends upon the use of the material being washed;
23

(3) To evaluate repeated washing, accelerated test methods are used. The situation becomes even more complicated when one considers that the degree of fading of a dyeing on washing depends upon the following factors, all of which must be standardized: (1) The temperature. This may range from 20C to as high as 95C; (2) The type and amount of detergent that is added to the washing bath. This may or may not include alkalis, phosphates, silicates, optical brightener, chlorine or peroxide bleach. In many testing procedures, a standard detergent formulation is required; (3) The extent of mechanical action. This can be varied by changing the agitation speed in a washing machine or by adding steel ball bearing to the revolving test bath; (4) The washing liquor to goods ratio and the hardness of the washing water; (5) The rinsing, drying or pressing methods use to restore the sample after the test. Most testing standards include several tests of increasing severity. These tests have successively higher washing temperatures, increasing wash times, possibly decreasing liquor ratios and the more severe tests may have higher levels of mechanical agitation as well as small amounts of chlorine bleach in the wash. A standard size sample of the fabric to be tested is visually stitched between two samples of white fabric, one of the same and the other of a different type of fibre. To assess staining, it is now common practice for one of the white fabrics is assessed with the appropriate Grey Scales or by colorimetric measurements. The condition for ISO test for colour fastness to domestic washing and commercial laundering are give in table 5. These tests are carried out using a wash wheel with a 5-gm/liter standard soap solution at a liquor ratio of 50:1.

Table 4. Conditions of the ISO washing fastness tests Test ISO 1 ISO 2 ISO 3 ISO 4 ISO 5 Temperature (C) 40 50 60 95 95 Time (Min.) 30 45 30 30 240 Steel balls 0 0 0 10 10 Chemicals Soap Soap Soap + Soda ash Soap + Soda ash Soap + Soda ash

Colour fastness to washing and laundering


24

BS 1006

SECTION: A01, A02, A03 Colour fastness to washing: Test Scope: This is test number 1 of a five washing tests that have been established to investigate the fastness to washing of coloured and which between them, cover the range of washing producers from mild to severe. NOTE: this method is designed to determine the effect of washing only on the colour fastness of the textile. It is not intended to reflect the result of the comprehensive laundering procedure. Principle: A specimen of a textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics is mechanically agitated under specified conditions of time and temperature in a soap solution, rinsed and dried. The change in colour of the specimen, and the staining of the adjacent fabrics, are assessed with the gray scales. Two adjacent fabrics, each measuring 10 x 4 cm, one piece made of the same kind of fibre as that of the textile to be tested, or that pre-dominating in the case of blends, the second piece made of the fibre indicated as follows or, in the case of blends, of the kind of fibre second in order of pre dominants, or as otherwise specified. If the first adjacent fabric is Cotton Wool Silk Linen Viscose Acetate Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Table 1 Test specimen: Fabric: 10 x 4 cm Yarn: Procedure: Place the composite specimen in the container and add the necessary amount of soap solution, previously heated to 4020C, so as to give a liquor ratio of 50:1, test it at this condition for 30 minute.
25

Second piece to be Wool Cotton Cotton Cotton Wool Viscose Wool or viscose Wool or cotton Wool or cotton

knit it in to fabric and then use as above

Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 x 4 cm

Remove the composite specimen, rinse it twice in cold distilled water and then in cold running tap-water for 10 minute and squeeze it. Dry it by hanging it in air at a temperature not exceeding 600C. Assess the change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics with the grey scales. The other tests major differ in temperature and time part. Test 2: Treat the specimen at 5020C, for 45minute Test 3: Treat the specimen at 6020C, for 30 minute Test 4: Treat the specimen at 9520C, for 30 minute (in the container add stainless steel balls) Test 5: Treat the specimen at 9520C, for 4 hour (in the container add stainless steel balls) Test report: Report the numerical ratings for the change in colour of the test specimen and for the staining of each kind of adjacent fabric used. Colour fastness to washing Brief description: Place test sample with adjacent fabric in a steel beaker (1250 ml volume) and treat with detergent solution for minimum 45 minute under the conditions in table in the Launder-O-meter. AATCC method 61

Table: Test method 1A 10 x 5 cm 2A 15 x 5 cm (6 x 5 cm) 490C 2 g/l 150 ml 1250 ml 50 3A 15 x 5 cm (6 x 5 cm) 710C 2 g/l 50 ml 1250 ml 100 4A 15 x 5 cm (6 x 5 cm) 710C 2 g/l 50 ml 1250 ml 150 mg/l 100 5A 15 x 5 cm (6 x 5 cm) 490C 2 g/l 150 ml 1250 ml 270 mg/l 50 conditions Test samples

(adj. Fabric) (6 x 5 cm) Temperature 400C Detergent solution 5 g/l WOB Liquor Beaker volume Available chlorine Steel balls 200 ml 550 ml 10

COLOUR FASTNESS TO RUBBING (organic solvents)

26

This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms, except loose fibre, to the combined action of rubbing and of organic solvents used in spotcleaning, i.e. localized spotting carried out by hand. A specimen of the textile is rubbed with rubbing cotton cloth impregnated with solvent. The change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the rubbing cotton cloth are assessed with the grey scales. Colour fastness to rubbing Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds, including textile floor coverings and other pile fabrics, to rubbing off and staining other materials. The method is applicable to a laid textile floor covering or to a detached sample or yarns. Two tests are made, one with a dry rubbing cloth and one with a wet rubbing cloth. Principle: Specimens of the textile are rubbed with a dry rubbing cloth and with wet rubbing cloth. Two alternative sizes of rubbing fingure are specified, one for pile fabric and one for other textiles. The staining of the rubbing cloth is assessed with the grey scale. Test specimen: Fabric: 5 cm x 14 cm Yarn: Procedure: Fasten each test specimen by means of clamps to the base board of the testing device so that the long direction of the specimen follows the track of the device. Dry rubbing: with the dry rubbing cloth flat in place over the end of finger of the testing device rub it to and fro in a straight line along a track 10 cm long on the dry specimen, 10 times to and fro in 10 second, with a downward force on the finger of either 22 N or 9 N Wet rubbing: repeat the test described with a fresh dry specimen and with a rubbing cloth that has been wetted with water, by placing it on the grating and dropping evenly onto its own mass of water, or use any method to ensure a take-up of about 100%. After rubbing, dry the cloth at room temperature. Assess the staining of the rubbing cotton cloths with the grey scale. Test report:
27

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A03

knit it in to fabric and then use as above

Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 5 cm x 14 cm

Report the numerical rating for dry staining and for wet staining for each direction of manufacture. COLOUR FASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of human perspiration. Specimens of the textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics are treated in two different solutions containing histidine, drained, and placed between two plates under a specific pressure in a testing device. The specimens and the adjacent fabrics are dried separately. The change in colour of each specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with the grey scale. Colour fastness to perspiration Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of human perspiration. Principle: A specimen of textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics are treated in two different solutions containing histidine, drained, and placed between two plates under a specific pressure in a testing device. The specimen and the adjacent fabrics are dried separately. The change in colour of each specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with the gray scales. Two adjacent fabrics, each measuring 4 x 10 cm, one piece made of the same kind of fibre as that of the textile to be tested, or that pre-dominating in the case of blends, the second piece made of the fibre indicated as follows or, in the case of blends, of the kind of fibre second in order of pre dominants, or as otherwise specified. If the first adjacent fabric is Cotton Wool Silk Linen Viscose Acetate Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Second piece to be Wool Cotton Cotton Wool Wool Viscose Wool or viscose Wool or cotton Wool or cotton
28

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02, A03

Test specimen: Fabric: 4 x 10 cm Yarn: Procedure: Thoroughly wet one composite specimen in each of the standard alkaline and acid solutions prepared as suggested at a liquor ratio of 50:1 and allows them to remain in the solution at room temperature for 30 minute. Press and then time to time to endure good and uniform penetration of the liquor. Pour off the solutions and wipe it also from the specimen. Then place each composite specimen between two glass or acrylic resin plates measuring about 6 x 11.5 cm under a pressure of 12.5 kPa. Use separate apparatus for the alkaline and aid test. Place both sets of apparatus containing a composite specimen in the oven for 4 hour at 372 0C. Then take out and dry it by hanging it in air at a temperature not exceeding 600C, with the three parts in contact only at the remaining of stitching. Assess the change in colour of each specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics with the grey scales. Test report: For each of the solution specified, report the numerical rating for the change in colour of the test specimen and for the staining of each kind of the fabric used in the test. Standards for Breathable Fabrics Water vapour permeability (WVP) or water vapour transmission (WVT) is the ability of fabric to transport water vapour and is commonly referred to as ability of a fabric to breathe. This fabric property is some important to clothing comfort. The human body continuously produces insensible perspiration (in the form of water vapour) and /or sensible perspiration (liquid sweat) to balance the body heat generated from daily activities of varying intensities. Ultimately its purpose is to maintain a constant body temperature. Standard testing methods The following outlines the standard test methods used in different countries; UK, USA, Japan, Canada, Australia and Germany. British standards BS 7209, British standard specification for water vapour permeable apparel fabrics
29

knit it in to fabric and then use as above

Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 4 x 10 cm

BS 3546 coated fabrics for use in the manufacture of water penetration resistant clothing, part 4. specification for water vapour permeable coated fabrics BS 3424 part: 34 methods 37, testing coated fabrics, method for determination of water vapour permeability index (WVPI). In these three methods a test specimen is mounted on the open mouth of an upright dish/cup that contains water. The assembled dish or cup is weighed at pre-determined intervals. The loss in water mass is used to determine the water vapour permeability of the sample. A reference fabric is used in these methods as a control cloth, tested simultaneously with the specimens. A ratio is calculated between the control and test cloth in the manner of calculating the percentage effectiveness. In this way error due to temperature fluctuation in the testing conditions can be reduced or eliminated. The various test methods of international standard are briefly discussed in the paper including, US, Japanese, Canadian, Australian and German22. Colour fastness to hot pressing: BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02, A03, BS 1051 Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds, and in all forms to ironing and to processing on hot cylinders. Principle: Dry pressing: the dry specimen is pressed with a heating device of specified temperature and pressure for a specified time. Damp pressing: the dry specimen is covered with a wet cotton adjacent fabric and pressed with a heating device of specified temperature and pressure for a specified time. Wet pressing: the upper surface of the wet specimen is covered with a wet cotton adjacent fabric and pressed with a heating device of specified temperature and pressure for a specified time Test specimen: Fabric: 10 cm x 4 cm Yarn: knit it in to fabric and then use as above Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 cm x 4 cm

Procedure:
30

The following temperatures are used: 11020C 15020C 20020C When necessary, other temperatures may be used, providing they are specially noted in the test report. Specimens of material that have been subjected to any heat or drying treatment shall be allowed to condition in the standard atmosphere for testing textiles i.e. 652% relative humidity and a temperature of 2020C, before they are tested. For dry pressing, place the dry specimen on top of the cotton cloth covering the wool flannel pad. Lower the top plate of the heating device and leave the specimen for 15 second at the specified pressing temperature. For damp pressing, place the dry specimen on top of the cotton cloth covering the wool flannel padding. Soak a piece of cotton adjacent fabric measuring 10 cm x 4 cm in distilled water and squeezed or extract it to contain its own mass of water. Place the wet fabric on top of the dry specimen. Lower the top plate of the heating device and leave the specimen for 15 second at the specified pressing temperature. For wet pressing: Soak the specimen and a piece of cotton adjacent fabric measuring 10 cm x 4 cm in distilled water and squeezed or extract them to contain their own mass of water. Place the wet specimen on top of the dry cotton cloth covering the wool flannel pad and place the wet adjacent fabric on the specimen. Lower the top plate of the heating device and leave the specimen for 15 second at the specified pressing temperature. Asses the change in colour of the specimen of colour and the staining of the cotton adjacent fabric with the appropriate grey scale. Test report: Report the test procedure and the temperature of the heating device. Report the numerical rating for change in colour immediately after testing and after conditioning for 4 hour in the standard atmosphere for testing textiles. COLOUR FASTNESS TO AQUEOUS AGENCIES (A) COLOUR FASTNESS TO WATER: The method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to immersion in water. A specimen of the textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics is immersed in water, drained and placed between two plates under a specific pressure in a testing device. The change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with the grey scales.
31

(C) COLOUR FASTNESS TO CHLORINATED WATER (Swimming-bath water): This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of active chlorine in concentrations such as is used to disinfect swimming-bath water (break point chlorination). A specimen of the textile is treated with a very weak chlorine solution and dried. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the grey scale.

Colour fastness to aqueous agency Colour fastness in water: Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to immersion in water. Principle: A specimen in textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics is immersed in water, drained and placed between two plates under a specified pressure in a testing device, the specimen and the adjacent fabrics are dried separately. The change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with the gray scales. Two adjacent fabrics, each measuring 10 x 4 cm, one piece made of the same kind of fibre as that of the textile to be tested, or that pre-dominating in the case of blends, the second piece made of the fibre indicated as follows or, in the case of blends, of the kind of fibre second in order of pre dominants, or as otherwise specified. If the first adjacent fabric is Cotton Wool Silk Linen Viscose Acetate or triacetate Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Table 1 Test specimen:
32

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02, A03

Second piece to be Wool Cotton Cotton Wool Wool Viscose Wool or cotton Wool or cotton Wool or cotton

Fabric: 10 x 4 cm Yarn: Procedure: Thoroughly wet the composite specimen in distilled water at room temperature. Pour off the water and place the composite specimen between two glass or acrylic resin plates, measuring about 11.5 6 cm, under pressure of 12.5 kPa. Place the apparatus containing the composite specimen in oven for 4 hour at 37 20C. Open out the composite specimen and dry it by hanging it in air at a temperature not exceeding 600C, with the three parts in contrast at the remaining line of stitching. Assess the change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the undyed adjacent fabric with the grey scales. Test report: Report the numerical rating for change in colour and the numerical rating for staining of each kind of adjacent fabric used. Water fastness Brief description: Wet out the test sample with adjacent fabrics completely with demineralized water at room temperature, pour off excess water, place test sample between two glass or acrylic plastic plates loaded with a pressure of 12.5 kPa (5 kP/40 cm2) and place in a drying oven for 4 hr at 37 0C. Hang to dry in warm air at max. 60 0C. (B) COLOUR FASTNESS TO SEA WATER: The method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to immersion in water. A specimen of the textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics is immersed in a solution containing sodium chloride, drained placed between two plates under a specific pressure in a testing device. The specimen and the adjacent fabrics are dried separately. The change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with the grey scales. ISO E01 knit it in to fabric and then use as above Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 x 4 cm

33

Colour fastness to seawater

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02, 03 Scope:

This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to immersion in seawater. Principle: A specimen in textile in contact with specified adjacent fabrics is immersed in a solution containing sodium chloride, drained, and placed between two plates under a specific pressure in a testing device. The specimen and the adjacent fabrics are dried separately. The change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabrics are assessed with the gray scales. The arrangement of the two adjusting fabric is as similar to given in table 1 Test specimen: Fabric: 10 x 4 cm Yarn: Procedure: Thoroughly wet the composite specimen in the solution at room temperature. Pour off the solution and place the composite specimen between two glass or acrylic resin plates measuring 11.5 x 6.0 cm under a pressure of 12.5 kPa. Place the apparatus in the oven for 4 hour at 37 20C Open out the composite specimen and dry it by having it in air at a temperature not exceeding 600C, with the three parts in contact only at the remaining line of stitching. Assess the change in colour of the specimen and the staining of the adjacent fabric with the grey scales. Test report: Report the numerical rating for change in colour and the numerical rating for staining of each kind of adjacent fabric used. Sea water fastness Brief description: Wet out the test sample and adjacent fabrics completely in a 30 g/l sodium chloride solution at room temperature, pour off excess solution, place the test sample between two glass or acrylic plastic plates under a pressure of 12.5 kPa (5 kp/40 cm2) and place in a drying oven for 4 hr. at 37 0C. Hang to dry in warm air at max. 60 0C. (C) COLOUR FASTNESS TO CHLORINATED WATER
34

knit it in to fabric and then use as above

Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 x 4 cm

ISO E02

(Swimming-bath water): This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of active chlorine in concentrations such as is used to disinfect swimming-bath water (break point chlorination). A specimen of the textile is treated with a very weak chlorine solution and dried. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the grey scale.

Colour fastness to chlorinated water (swimming bath water) Scope:

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02

This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of active chlorine in concentrations such as are used to disinfect swimming-bath water (break point chlorination). Principle: A specimen of textile is treated with a very weak chlorine solution and dried. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the grey scale. Test specimen: Fabric: 10 x 4 cm Yarn: knit it in to fabric and then use as above Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 x 4 cm Procedure: Immerse the specimen in sodium hypochlorite solution (standard prepared), liquor ratio 100:1, ensuring that the specimen is thoroughly wetted. Close the container and allow it to stand at 20 2 0C for 4 hour in subdued light. Remove the specimen from the container, squeeze or hydro-extract it to contain its own mass of solution, and dry it by hanging it in air at room temperature. Assess the change in colour with the grey scale. Test report: Report the numerical rating for change in colour. Chlorinated water fastness
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ISO E03

Brief description: Wet out test sample thoroughly in sodium hypochlorite solution, liquor ratio 100:1. Alternatives Treat with 20 mg/l available chlorine at 27 0C for 1 hr., pH 7.5 50 mg/l available chlorine at 27 0C for 1 hr., pH 7.5 100 mg/l available chlorine at 27 0C for 1 hr., pH 7.5 Squeeze and hang to dry at room temperature. (5) COLOUR FASTNESS TO SPOTTING (A) ACID SPOTTING: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of dilute solutions of organic and mineral acid. Three tests differing in severity are provided. Any or all may be used, depending upon the nature of the fiber. Drops of the acid solution are placed on the specimen, the surface of which is rubbed gently with a glass rod to ensure penetration. The changes in colour of the textile, while it is still wet and after drying are assessed with the grey scale. (C) WATER SPOTTING: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to spotting by water. When the specimen is a textile a droplet of distilled water is worked in to the textile with a glass rod, and the change in colour is assessed with the grey scale after 2 min, and after drying.

Colour fastness to spotting: acid Scope:

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02

This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of dilute solutions of organic and mineral acids. Principle:
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Dorps of the acid solution are placed on the specimen, the surface of which is rubbed gently with a glass rod to ensure penetration. The changes in color of the textile, while it is still wet an after drying, are assessed with the grey scale. Test specimen: Fabric: 10 cm x 4 cm Yarn: Procedure: Spot the specimen at room temperature with the appropriate solution so that after working the solution into temperature specimen with the glass rod a spot of diameter approximately 20 mm is formed. Dry the specimen by hanging it in air at room temperature. Assess the change in colour with the grey scale. Teat report: Report the numerical rating for change in colour for each kind of acid used. knit it in to fabric and then use as above Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 cm x 4 cm

Acid fastness Brief description:

ISO E05

Drip on to the test sample at room temperature a sufficient amount of the relevant acid solution. b. acetic acid (300 g/l glacial acetic acid) or c. sulphuric acid (50 g/l sulphuric acid conc.) or d. tartaric acid (100 g/l tartaric acid crystal) So that after working it into the test sample with a glass rod a spot of about 20 mm diameter is obtained. Hang the test sample to dry at room temperature. Assessment: change of shade damp (after 10 min) and dry with grey scale change with mention of the acid.

(B) ALKALI SPOTTING: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of dilute alkaline solutions.

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Drops of a solution of sodium carbonate are placed on the specimen, the surface of which is rubbed gently with a glass rod to ensure penetration. The changes in colour of the textile are assessed with the grey scale.

Colour fastness to spotting: alkali

BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02

Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of dilute alkaline solutions. Principle: Dorps of solution of sodium carbonate are placed on the specimen, the surface of which is rubbed gently with a glass rod to ensure penetration. The changes in color of the textile, while it is still wet an after drying, are assessed with the grey scale. Test specimen: Fabric: 10 cm x 4 cm Yarn: Procedure: Spot the specimen at room temperature with the appropriate solution so that after working the solution into temperature specimen with the glass rod a spot of diameter approximately 20 mm is formed. Dry the specimen by hanging it in air at room temperature. Assess the change in colour with the grey scale. Teat report: Report the numerical rating for change in colour. Alkali fastness Brief description: Drip onto the test sample at room temperature a sufficient amount of sodium carbonate solution (100g/l) so that after working it into the test sample with a glass rod a spot of about 20 mm in diameter is obtained. Hang the test sample to dry at room temperature. Assessment: change of shade with Grey scale change of shade.
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knit it in to fabric and then use as above

Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 cm x 4 cm

ISO E06

(C) WATER SPOTTING: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to spotting by water. When the specimen is a textile a droplet of distilled water is worked in to the textile with a glass rod, and the change in colour is assessed with the grey scale after 2 min, and after drying. (1) COLOUR FASTNESS TO DRY CLEANING This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to dry cleaning. This method is not suitable for the evaluation of the durability of the textile finishes, nor is it intended for use in evaluating the resistance of colours to spot and stain removal procedures used by the drycleaner. In this method a specimen in contact with a cotton fabric bag, together with non-corrodible steel discs, is agitated in tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), then squeezed or centrifuged, and dried in hot air. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the grey scale. At the conclusion of the test the coloration of the solvent is assessed by comparing the filtered solvent with unused solvent by transmitted light, by means of the grey scale for assessing staining. Colour fastness to dry cleaning: Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms, to dry cleaning. BS 1006 SECTION: A01, A02, A03

Principle: A specimen of the textile in contact with a cotton fabric bag, together with non-corrodible steel discs, is agitated in tetrachloroethylene, then squeezed or centrifuged, and dried in hot air. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the grey scale. At the conclusion of the test the colouration of the solvent is assessed by comparing the filtered solvent with unused solvent by transmitted light by means of the grey scale for assessing staining. Procedure: Prepare a bag with inside dimensions of 10 cm x 10 cm using the undyed cotton twill cloth by sewing together two squares of this cloth around three sides. Place the specimen and 12 steel discs inside the bag. Close the bag by any convenient means. Place the bag containing the specimen and the steel
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disc in the container and add 200ml of tetrachloroethylene at 3020C. Treat the specimen for 30 minute at3020C in the specified equipment. Remove the bag from the container withdraw the specimen, place it between absorbent paper or cloth and squeeze and centrifuge to remove surplus solvent. Dry the specimen by hanging it in air at temperature of 6050C. Test report: Report the numerical rating for the change in colour of specimen and the numerical rating for staining of solvent. Dry cleaning fastness Brief description: Sew the test sample with 12 steel plates into a cotton bag (10 cm x 10 cm), place in a stainless steel beaker of 550 ml volume and treat with 200 ml perchloroethylene for 30 min at 300c in the Launder-Ometer.Then remove the test sample, squeeze or hydroextract and hang to dry in warm air at 600c. COLOUR FASTNESS TO OZONE IN THE ATMOSPHERE This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of ozone in the atmosphere both at ambient room temperatures with relative humidity not exceeding 65% and at elevated temperatures with relative humidity above 80%. 1. A specimen of the textile and the test-control fabric are exposed simultaneously to ozone in an atmosphere under ambient room temperatures with relative humidity not exceeding 65%, until the test-control fabric shows a colour change corresponding to that of a standard of fading. This exposure period continues one cycle. The cycles are repeated until the specimen shows a definite colouir change or for a prescribed number of cycles. 2. A specimen of the textile and the test-control fabric are exposed simultaneously to ozone in an atmosphere which is maintained at 855% relative humidity and a temperature of 405C until the test control fabric shows a colour change corresponding to that of a standard of fading. The cycles are repeated until the specimen shows a definite colour change or for a prescribed number of cycles. 3. The fading of dyes on certain fibers does not readily take place at humidity below 80%. A test at high humidity is required to produce colour change that predicts service fading under warm, humid conditions. Colour fastness to ozone in the atmosphere
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ISO D01

BS 1006

SECTION: A01, A02 Scope: This method is intended for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of ozone in the atmosphere both at ambient room temperatures with relative humidity not exceeding 65% and at elevated temperatures with relative humidity above 80%. Principle: A specimen of the textile and test-control fabric are exposed simultaneously to ozone in the atmosphere under ambient room temperatures and relative humidity not exceeding 65%, until the test-control shows a colour change corresponding to that of a standard of fading. This exposure period constitutes one cycle. The cycle are repeated until the specimen shows a definite colour change or for a prescribed number of cycles. A specimen of the textile and test-control fabric are exposed simultaneously to ozone in the atmosphere which is maintained at 855% relative humidity and a temperature of 4050C until the test-control fabric shows a colour change corresponding to that of a standard of fading. The cycle are repeated until the specimen shows a definite colour change or for a prescribed number of cycles. The fading of dyes on certain fabric does not readily take place at humidity below 80%. A test at high humidity is required to produce colour change that predicts service fading under warm, humid conditions. Test specimen: Fabric: 10 x 6 cm Yarn: Procedure: Under relative humidity not exceeding 65 %: Suspend the specimen and a piece of test-control fabric in the exposure chamber so as they hang separately, at room temperature 18-280C and relative humidity 65%. Ozone should be present in concentrations that produce one cycle of fading in 1.5 hour to 6 hour of test. Compare the colour of the test-control fabric with that of the standard of fading periodically in daylight ranging from average to a slightly bluish North sky light, or equivalent artificial light. Under high relative humidity: Here the chamber is maintained at 855 % relative humidity and a temperature of 4050C. ozone should be present in concentrations ranging from 10 to 35 parts per hundred million (by volume), which should produce one cycle of fading in 6 hour to 24 hour of test.
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knit it in to fabric and then use as above

Loose fibre: comb and compress and make a sheet of 10 x 6 cm

Colourfastness to ozone in the atmosphere Brief description:

ISO G03

Expose the test sample and control dyeing for the test at 18-280C and maximum 65% relative humidity (low humidity=AATCC 109) and for the rest at 39-41 0C and 85-90% relative humidity (high humidity=AATCC 129) In a special chamber with an ozone lamp until the shade of the controlled dyeing has changed to agree with that of the standard dyeing 109 or 129= 1 cycle (testing time generally up to maximum 4 cycles)

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