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optical character recognition

optical character recognition

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Published by sanjoyjena
Image Processing is now days considered to be a favorite topic in Digital Signal Processing. One of its major applications is Optical Character Recognition (OCR). When the object to be matched is presented then our brains or in general recognition system starts extracting the important features of the object that includes color, depth, shape & size. These features are stored in the part of the memory. Now the brain starts finding the closest match for these extracted features in the whole collection of objects, which is already stored in it. This we can refer as standard library. When it finds the match then it gives the matched object or signal from the standard library as the final result.

For humans character recognition seems to be simple task but to make a computer analyze and finally correctly recognize a character is a difficult task. OCR is one such technology which enables the computer with the power of vision to analyze images and find important data from it. This application is used in all major sectors of humankind like medical sector, banking, ANPR, pattern recognition etc.
Image Processing is now days considered to be a favorite topic in Digital Signal Processing. One of its major applications is Optical Character Recognition (OCR). When the object to be matched is presented then our brains or in general recognition system starts extracting the important features of the object that includes color, depth, shape & size. These features are stored in the part of the memory. Now the brain starts finding the closest match for these extracted features in the whole collection of objects, which is already stored in it. This we can refer as standard library. When it finds the match then it gives the matched object or signal from the standard library as the final result.

For humans character recognition seems to be simple task but to make a computer analyze and finally correctly recognize a character is a difficult task. OCR is one such technology which enables the computer with the power of vision to analyze images and find important data from it. This application is used in all major sectors of humankind like medical sector, banking, ANPR, pattern recognition etc.

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Published by: sanjoyjena on Feb 07, 2012
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04/16/2015

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OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

P R E S E N T E D B Y: S ANJOY J ENA 7 TH SEMESTER ELECTRONICS &
T E L E C O M M U N I C AT I O N E N G I N E E R I N G

INTRODUCTION

It is always fascinating to be able to find ways of enabling a computer to mimic human functions, like the ability to read, to write, to see things, and so on. OCR enables the computer or machine to visualize a image and extract text from it such that it can edit the text, store it, display or print without any scanning & apply techniques like text to speech and text mining to it .

N EED

AND

D EFINITION

OCR is the process of converting an image of text, such as a scanned paper document or electronic fax file, into computer-editable text. The text in an image is not editable: the letters are made of tiny dots (pixels) that together form a picture of text. During OCR, the software analyzes an image and converts the pictures of the characters to editable text based on the patterns of the pixels in the image.

OVERVIEW OF AN OCR SYSTEM

LAYOUT ANALYSIS Binarization, Form identification and registration, Deskewing, Item location & extraction. DATABASE ENTRY ASCII strings PRE-PROCESSING Cleaning, Smoothing, enhancing, presegmentation & Normalization

KNOWLEDGE BASE POST-PROCESSING Lexicon- Driven Correction, Knowledge-Driven Correction. CHARACTER RECOGNITION Thinning, Singular Point Determination, Grid formation, Line detection, Feature detection

L AYOUT ANALYSIS

Binarization: It converts the acquired form images to binary format, in which the foreground contains logo, the form frame lines, the preprinted entities, and the filled in data.

Binarization

Global Gray Thresholding

Local Gray Thresholding

Feature Thresholding 

Form Identification & Registration: for an input form image, identify the most suitable form model from a database and does the alignment.

Skew Detection

Slant Angle Estimation

Image Extraction : It extract pertinent data from respective fields and preprocess the data to remove noise and enhance the data.

P RE - PROCESSING

Smoothing :- It is used for blurring and for noise reduction.

masks for filtering

Cleaning:- It is done to separate and remove the preprinted entities while preserving the user entered data (filled in data) by means of image-processing techniques (base line removal). Enhancing:- It reconstructs strokes that have been removed during cleaning. Pre-segmentation:- It separates the characters from preprinted texts.

Input Output

Smoothing Preprinted text removal Baseline Removal Enhancing
Knowledge Base

C HARACTER R ECOGNITION

Separation

Normalization

Thinning

Character Line Detection Matching

Grid Formation

Singular Point Determination

SEPARATION OF CHARACTERS:

When the selected word is scanned, right from the first character then each time it will come across a pixel i.e. tiny dots which indicate the presence of a part of character. This will continue till it gets the two or three continuous blanks, which is the indication of the end of a single character. In this way the characters can be separated.

NORMALIZATION :

The characters written by hand vary greatly in size and shape. By normalization, we mean that the character is made to fit into a standard size square. This is done by filling a 2-D array by 1 s or 0 s depending upon the presence or absence of text pixel in that particular area in input image.

NORMALIZATION

THINNING:

Thinning reduces the thickness of the characters to their actual skeleton as well as removes all the redundant ones in the standardized array without affecting the general shape of the pattern. The skeleton obtained must have the following properties: Must be as thin as possible; Connected; Centered.

GRID FORMATION:

In grid formation, the standard array is divided into grids to analyze SP & lines.

SINGULAR POINT DETERMINATION:

SP s are those points where branching occurs. The degree of a point is equal to the number of lines emerging from that point. SP is determined by checking no. of 0 to 1 transitions in pixels in 5 by 5 neighborhoods.

LINE DETECTION:

Line detection is done on the basis of direction flags set for each pixel in the grid. To detect the lines the direction flags assigned to every pixel are counted & the direction that has majority of the pixels is assigned to the line.

CHARACTER RECOGNITION:

Grid level :- Number of lines, SPs & direction of each line in a grid 1. Array Level:- Nine grid structures of the form of grid1, the actual character, total number of SPs in the character, total number of grids marked as important, grid number of the important grids. The above data is retrieved from the input character & it is matched with the inbuilt library of characters. In the end the character scoring the maximum number of matched points is selected as the recognized character.

P ROS

AND

C ONS ««

pros
Human readable Converts any documents to editable form like HTML, MS word, etc.

cons
Low recognition rates on cursive writing style.

High set up cost. Time saving

A PPLICATIONS

Banking sector signature recognition for cheques, credit cards & other transactions. Automatic Number Plate Recognition. Documentation -Conversion of books and documents into electronics files in offices. Conversion of handwritten material to computer fonts for documentation. Medical field:- for processing large voluminous of forms of each patient.

CONCLUSION

From all the above explanations, it is observed that though the character recognition is a very small part of a very vast field of Digital Signal Processing, it is considered to be a boon to the banking institutions for signature recognition. The other applications include pattern recognition of the scanned digital images from the satellite and comparing them with the previous images. By doing this, the prediction about the climate can be made effectively. It will soon be able to overcome it s drawbacks through human intervention and will find it s application in medical fields also.

REFERENCES
INTERNET:

www.google.co.in http.//en.wikipedia.org www.seminarprojects.com BOOKS:-

CHARACTER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS by Mohamed Cheriet, Nawwaf, Cheng-lin, Ching Y. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING by R. C. Gonzalez and R. E.Woods

T HANK

YOU «.

A NY

QUERIES ««.

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