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Dr. Alan Doolittle School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology

As with all of these lecture slides, I am indebted to Dr. Dieter Schroder from Arizona State University for his generous contributions and freely given resources. Most of (>80%) the figures/slides in this lecture came from Dieter. Some of these figures are copyrighted and can be found within the class text, Semiconductor Device and Materials Characterization. Every serious microelectronics student should have a copy of this book!

Diodes

PN Junction Diodes Current - Voltage Series Resistance Schottky Diodes

PN Junction Diodes

The current in a Si pn junction diode at room temperature is due to recombination in the space-charge region, Iscr, and the quasi-neutral regions, Iqnr

q (V Irs ) q (V Irs ) exp 1 + Io ,qnr exp I = Io ,scr n kT n kT 1 scr qnr

100

V = Irs qnr

Slope = 1/2.3nkT/q

Current (A)

10-2 10-4 10-6 10-8 scr 10-10 10-12 0 Io,scr Io,qnr 0.2 0.4 0.6

qV I = Io exp nkT

Slope =

0.8 1

1 d log I = ln 10 nkT q dV

Voltage (V)

ECE 4813 Dr. Alan Doolittle

qVd I = I0 exp 1 nkT V = Vd + Irs

I + V _

rs + Vd _

100

Current (A)

10-2 10-4 10-6 10-8 scr 10-10 10-12 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 qnr

V = Irs

0.8

Voltage (V)

ECE 4813 Dr. Alan Doolittle

Diode Resistance

I/gd (V)

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 Slope = rs Intercept = nkT/q 0.2 0.4 0.6

Diode conductance

gd = I (1 rs gd ) nkT q

0.8

gd 1 rs gd = I nkT q

gd/I (V-1)

I nkT = + Irs gd q

Current (A)

40 30 Slope = qrs/nkT 20 10 Intercept = 1/rs 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Intercept = q/nkT

gd (S)

ECE 4813 Dr. Alan Doolittle

Schottky barrier diodes have I-V curves very similar to pn junction diodes The turn-on voltage can be controlled more than that of pn diodes because the barrier height can be controlled somewhat I = I s (e qV nkT 1); I s = AA*T 2e q kT

B

* * A* = 4qk 2 mn h 3 = 120(m0 mn ) A / cm 2K 2

Richardson Constant

Ec EF

Ec

Ev

EF Ev

I = I s (e qV

nkT

1); I s = AA*T 2e q

kT

Want n, A* and B

Current - Voltage

log I = log IS + qV nkT ln 10 V = 0 intercept I = IS

10-5

Current (A)

10-7

Slope = 1/2.3nkT/q

10-9

Intercept = IS

kT AA*T 2 B = ln q IS

10-11 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

For V 4 kT q I = I se qV

nkT

Need to know A*

To determine

B and A*

J/T2 (A/cm2K2)

q (B V n ) ln (J T ) = ln A kT

2 *

J = A*T 2 exp( q (B V n ) kT )

10-6

Intercept = A*

10-7

Slope= -q(B-V/n)/2.3k

1/T = 0 intercept = A*

3.3 10-3

1/T (K-1)

Barrier height can be determined from I-V or I-T plots Forward-biased current is very sensitive to barrier height If barrier height non-uniform, the lowest barrier height regions dominate Series resistance is important

101 101

Current (A)

Current (A)

0.6 V

B=0.7 V

B=0.7 V, rs=0.1

C qK s 0ND = A 2(Vbi V ) 2(Vbi V ) A = qK s 0ND C

2

Vbi Vo Ec EF Ei

Slope ND

Slope =

(A/C)2 (cm4/F2)

2 qK s 0ND

Intercept B

B = Vbi + Vo

Vo = EG q E i / q F

Slope

Review Questions

Why is the I-V curve a straight line on a semilog plot? Why does a Si diode logI V curve have two slopes? How does series resistance affect the diode current? How is the barrier height of Schottky diodes determined? Why can the Schottky diode barrier heights be different when determined from I-V or C-V data?

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