# Magnetic Flowmeter

This voltage is picked up by sensing electrodes mounted in the meter tube and sent to the transmitter which takes the voltage and calculates the flow rate based on the cross sectional area of the meter tube . the higher the voltage.the faster the flow rate. The liquid acts as a conductor as it flows through the pipe. This induces a voltage which is proportional to the average flow velocity .Magnetic Flowmeter are based on Faraday's Law of Magnetic Induction.

V = Velocity of the conductor. D = Conductor Width.Faradays Principle states that a voltage will be induced in a conductor moving through a magnetic field. B = Strength of the magentic field. ." E=kBDV Where E = Induced Voltage.

When equipped. the propeller meter can send an output signal (requiring an external power supply) to a remote location. These rotations are interpreted as flow by a totalizer.Propeller flowmeters  have a blade which rotates as the flow passes. Propeller meters do not require a power source to operate. .

When there is no fluid passing through the rotameter. the pressure drop increases. . the float rests at the bottom of the tube. constructed such that the diameter increases with height.Rotameter The Rotameter consists of a metal float and a conical glass tube. The higher the pressure drop the farther up the tube the float rises. As fluid enters the tube. The higher the flow rate the greater the pressure drop.  This type of flow meter is usually used to measure low flow rates. the float will rise to indicate the amount of flow.As flow increases in the tube. When the pressure drop is sufficient. the higher density of the float will cause the float to remain on the bottom.

the faster the flow. The greater the difference in time between upstream and downstream pulses. Pulses fired upstream travel slower as it fights the flow.Ultrasonic Flowmeters  Ultrasonic pulses are beamed from transducers mounted on opposite sides of the pipe. The flow rate is calculated based on the cross sectional area of the meter tube. Pulses fired downstream travel faster as they are carried by the flow. These pulses are fired alternately upstream and downstream. . The difference in time for a pulse to travel upstream and downstream is measured.

raw sewage. there is no liquid conductivity requirement as with a magnetic flow meter. conductivity or viscosity and provide obstructionless flow. plant water. bases. Not used with higher percentages of solids as these can cause loss of echo (meter failure).  . filter effluent. Since the time-of-flight meter uses ultrasonics. influent. Like magmeters. light hydrocarbons. acid mine drainage. treated effluent. they are unaffected by changes in temperature. density.Uses of Ultrasonic flowmeters  Ideal for relatively clean liquids in closed pipes such as raw water. acids. backwash water.

If the pipe internal diameter is known. The net result is a frequency shift between transmitter and receiver frequencies that can be directly related to the flow velocity.Doppler Flowmeters  Doppler ultrasonic flowmeters operate on the Doppler shift principal . Doppler meters require a minimum amount of solid particles or air in the line to achieve measurements. whereby the transmitted frequency is altered linearly by being reflected from particles and bubbles in the fluid. . the volumetric flow rate can be calculated.

Doppler meters are sensitive to changes in density and temperature. Acoustic signals of known frequency are transmitted. and flow profile. These problems make Doppler flowmeters unsuitable for highly accurate measurements in some applications. Doppler flowmeter performance is highly dependent on physical properties such as liquid's sonic conductivity.  The Doppler flowmeter measures the velocity of particles moving with the flowing fluid . . reflected from particles. particle density. The received signals are analyzed for frequency shifts and the resulting mean value of the frequency shifts and are directly related to the mean velocity of the particles moving with the fluid. and are picked up by a receiver.

Doppler meters require a minimum amount of solid particles or air in the line to achieve measurements. The net result is a frequency shift between transmitter and receiver frequencies that can be directly related to the flow velocity. whereby the transmitted frequency is altered linearly by being reflected from particles and bubbles in the fluid.  Doppler ultrasonic flowmeters operate on the Doppler shift principal . .

commercial and laboratory flow applications. Suitable for industrial. operate on 12 Vdc power .Air/Water Flow Sensors With 0 to 5 Vdc Output    Can measure very low flow rates from 20 ml/min to 5 liters/min.

fluid dispensing.MiniMini-flow Sensors  This sensor is ideal for precision low flow & Accurate Flow Measurements upto 500 ml/min Typical applications include critical flows in labs. such as food dyes in the food processing industry  . medical flow applications. liquid ingredient additions. bottling lines.

 . transparent and translucent fluids which must transmit infrared light. electro-optical transmitter and receiver molded into the flowmeter¶s body  Suitable for clear.Plastic Flow Sensors for Low/Medium Flows It is an infrared.

Positive Displacement Flowmeters    The oval shaped smooth gears in the flowmeter are used to displace a precise volume of fluid. or 4 to 20 mA analog signals . which is passed through the measurement chamber during each revolution The displacement of the fluid is translated via a magnetic or Hall effect pick-up into a pulse output that is proportional to the flow the frequency output can be converted to 0 to 10 Vdc.

or amplified pulse outputs Turbine meters are used for clean fluids only .Low Flow Turbine Meters    It utilizes a wheel-like rotor whose motion is converted by a pickup coil into a frequency output that is proportional to flow . 0-5 V. 4-20 mA.