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Shaping Methods of Metals
1- Casting cast structure **Liquid metal **Mould

2. Cold Working Fibrous or wrought Structure

1- At room temperature 2- Stresses should YIELD strength

3. Powder metallurgy (sintering)

4. Electroforming .

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Mechanically separable portion of a system . Physically distinct 3.Alloys An alloy is a combination of two or more metals which are soluble (miscible) in the molten condition. Phase: 1. Homogeneous 2.

Classification of alloys a. quaternary« etc. According to solubility in the solid state: SolidSolid-Solution alloy Intermetallic Compound Eutectic alloy . ternary. b. Binary. According to the number of constituting metals.

the structure is homogenous. Types of solid solutions Interstitial Solid Solutions Substitutional Solid Solutions **Ordered **Ordered **Disordered **Disordered .Solid Solution Alloys olid The metals are said to be soluble in each other in the solid state.

S. 2. Same valence. 4. Hardness and ductility 2. Atomic size difference must be less than 15 %. 1.S. intermetallic compounds may form Properties of S. the resistance to tarnish and corrosion is high. Being one phase system (homogenous structure). other wise. which results in: strength. other wise. Same space lattice type.S. interstatial S. 3. No chemical affinity. 3. may form. Due to difference in atomic size localized distortion of the lattice dislocation movement becomes more difficult.S. 1. alloy has a melting range . The S.Conditions for S.

Equilibrium phase diagram of solid solution .

the solid and liquid phases exist between.Interpretation of phase diagram of solid solution From the phase diagram the following can be noticed: **The melting point of silver Is 960 0C. the line RM (the tie line) is drawn parallel to the base line. **Consider an alloy of composition **Consider 65% 65% palladium and 35% silver at various temperatures: 35% --At temperature 1500 0C only liquid is present with a composition of 65% --At 0C 65% palladium and 35% silver as indicated by the dotted line PO 35% --At temperature 1400 0C liquid and solid phases are present. **The and the line ADC is the solidus line. --At temperature 1370 0C. The tie line intersects the liquidus line at R and the solidus line at M. please identify by yourself the composition of the --At 0C. that of palladium is 15550C 15550C **The line ABC is the liquidus line. --At 0C To determine the composition of the alloy first solidifying. . **The 0C. different phases.

-It is the lowest solidification temperature shown in the whole system Properties of eutectic alloys: 1.Eutectic Alloys Definition: **Upon solidification. melting. Eutectic alloys are brittle because the presence of insoluble phases definitely inhibits slip. -Eutectic is a Greek word that means lowest melting. Strength and hardness surpass those of the constituent metals heterogeneous structure of the alloy 3. They have poor corrosion resistance due to the heterogeneous structure having different phases with different electrode potentials . the two metals show partial solubility or in extreme **Upon theoretical cases complete insolubility. -For an alloy system that has a eutectic composition there is a eutectic temperature which is a melting point not a melting range. 2.

Melting range **Properties -Similar to the parent metals with increase in strength and hardness and decrease in ductility **Resistance to . hard.One phase ³homogeneous´ **Melting Properties .High tarnish and corrosion **Uses . base metal alloys and gold alloys Eutectic Partial Two phases ³heterogeneous´ Melting point Strong. brittle Very low Only: In soldering & admixed amalgam alloy .Most of metallic dental restorations are solid solution alloys e.g.Differences between solid solution and eutectic alloys Solid solution **Solubility in the .Complete solid state **Phases .

Complete Insolubility .

. both metals have chemical affinity towards each other forming intermetallic compounds with certain composition and below certain temperature. Properties of intermetallic compound: ** They are usually very hard and brittle. ** Their properties commonly differ from those of metals making up the alloy.Intermetallic Compound Definition: Upon solidification.

quaternary« etc. According to solubility in the solid state: SolidSolid-Solution alloy Intermetallic Compound Eutectic alloy . ternary. b. Binary. According to the number of constituting metals.Classification of alloys a.

Solid Solution Alloys The metals are said to be soluble in each other in the solid state. Types of solid solutions Interstitial Solid Solutions Substitutional Solid Solutions **Ordered **Ordered **Disordered **Disordered . the structure is homogenous.

Hardness and ductility 2. the resistance to tarnish and corrosion is high. 2. 3. Same space lattice type.Conditions for S.S. Being one phase system (homogenous structure).S. alloy has a melting range . Atomic size difference must be less than 15 %. interstatial S. Due to difference in atomic size localized distortion of the lattice dislocation movement becomes more difficult. other wise. No chemical affinity. may form.S. 3. which results in: strength. 1. Same valence. The S. 4. 1.S. intermetallic compounds may form Properties of S. other wise.

Eutectic Alloys Definition: **Upon solidification. Strength and hardness surpass those of the constituent metals heterogeneous structure of the alloy 3. 2. -Eutectic is a Greek word that means lowest melting. -For an alloy system that has a eutectic composition there is a eutectic temperature which is a melting point not a melting range. Eutectic alloys are brittle because the presence of insoluble phases definitely inhibits slip. They have poor corrosion resistance due to the heterogeneous structure having different phases with different electrode potentials . -It is the lowest solidification temperature shown in the whole system Properties of eutectic alloys: 1. the two metals show partial solubility or in extreme **Upon theoretical cases complete insolubility. melting.

Melting range **Properties -Similar to the parent metals with increase in strength and hardness and decrease in ductility **Resistance to .One phase ³homogeneous´ **Melting Properties . base metal alloys and gold alloys Eutectic Partial Two phases ³heterogeneous´ Melting point Strong.Complete solid state **Phases .High tarnish and corrosion **Uses .Differences between solid solution and eutectic alloys Solid solution **Solubility in the .g. brittle Very low Only: In soldering & admixed amalgam alloy .Most of metallic dental restorations are solid solution alloys e. hard.

. both metals have chemical affinity towards each other forming intermetallic compounds with certain composition and below certain temperature. Properties of intermetallic compound: ** They are usually very hard and brittle. ** Their properties commonly differ from those of metals making up the alloy.Intermetallic Compound Definition: Upon solidification.

Cooling Curve of a pure metal: TO Time .

Cooling Curve of a pure metal: .

Cooling Curve of a Solid Solution: TO Time .

Cooling Curve of a Solid Solution: .

Cooling curves of a pure metal and a solid solution .

TO Time .

TO Time .

TO Time .

Cooling Curve of a Solid Solution : TO Time .

Cooling Curve of a Solid Solution: .

Phase diagram of a solid solution .

Phase diagram of a solid solution .

**Consider an alloy of composition **Consider 65% 65% palladium and 35% silver at various temperatures: 35% --At temperature 1500 0C only liquid is present with a composition of 65% --At 0C 65% palladium and 35% silver as indicated by the dotted line PO 35% --At temperature 1400 0C liquid and solid phases are present. please identify by yourself the composition of the --At different phases. --At 0C To determine the composition of the alloy first solidifying. --At temperature 13700C. the solid and liquid phases exist between. the line RM (the tie line) is drawn parallel to the base line. **The and the line ADC is the solidus line. **The that of palladium is 15550C **The line ABC is the liquidus line.Interpretation of phase diagram of solid solution From the phase diagram the following can be noticed: **The melting point of silver Is 9600C. . The tie line intersects the liquidus line at R and the solidus line at M.

Complete Insolubility .

Eutectic System: .

Crystallization: dendrites and grain boundary .Nucleus formation: nuclei of crystallization. 2. crystallization.Mechanism of Solidification 1.

the atoms try to aggregate forming initial starting points of crystallization [nuclei of crystallization] at supper cooling point .1) Nucleus Formation: When a molten alloy is cooled and approaches its freezing temperature.

Nucleus formation can occur by A) Homogenous nucleation The atoms of the metal itself form the nuclei of crystallization B) Heterogeneous nucleation Foreign solid metallic particles e.g. which has a higher melting temperature than that of the liquid metal are added to the liquid metal They share in the formation of the nuclei of crystallization . iridium.

2) Crystallization: ± The metals can solidify in single crystal [grain] which is very rare. or polycrystalline As cooling continues the nuclei of crystallization grow independently in three dimensions [tree like structure] to form crystals [grains] The growth is stopped when there is contact with adjacent growing crystals .

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Nucleating agents (grain refiner) .Factors affecting grain size ** Time & Temperature controlled 1.Rate of nucleation and crystallization crystallization • nucleation grain size 3.Rate of cooling 2.