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PREPOSITIONS Par Men Ko Se On, at In To From, by, of For With Ke niche Se niche Ke upar Se upar Ke aage Ke piche Ek saath Alag Outside Out of Taraf Under Down On top of Up In front of Behind
final “n” is always nasal BASIC WORDS AND PHRASES Namaste Kripaya Shukriya, Dhanyavaad Maaf kijiye (maaf karo) Ji hanh Achchaa Tik hai Bilkul Zaroor Ji nahin Nahin chahiye Bas Jao Chee Dekho Chalo Leh lo Chup raho Hello Please Thank you Excuse me OK Yes
Keliye, Ke vaaste Ke sath Andar Ke andar Baahar to Ke baahar Inside Into
Together Apart Tak Towards Up
All right Absolutely Certainly No Don’t want Enough Go away Yuck Look Let’s go Take it Be quiet
Kitaab palang par hai. Mera pati ghar par hai. Pen mez ke niche hai. table. Larkiyan car men hain. Main USA se ati hunh.
The book is on the bed. My husband is at home. The pen is under the The girls are in the car. I come from USA.
PRONUNCIATION GUIDE e i aa a u ou au o ai au y w ph th gh bh chch “eh” “ee” “ah” “uh” “oo” as in “book” “oo” as in “toot” “aw” “oh” “ay” or “eye” (latter is usually at end of word, e.g. malai, bhai) “oh” “eey” in between “v” and “w” (loose-lipped “v”) “p” with extra puff of air at end (not “f”) “t” with tongue against upper teeth (not “th”) “g” with extra puff of air at end “b” with extra puff of air at end strong “ch”
Main todi Hindi bolti aur samajhti hunh. I speak and understand a little Hindi. Main Hindi sikh rahi hunh. I am learning Hindi. Mere dosten Hindi nahin samajhti hain. understand Hindi. In bachchon ko Hindi nahin bolte hain. don't speak Hindi. Main nahin samajhti hunh. Shukriya, aur ahista boliye. slowly. Kripaya, duraliye. Isko Hindi me kya kaihte hain? Hindi? Iska matlab kya hai? Hamko aapki madad chahiye. Hamaare paas moushkil hain. Kya baat hai? Kya yeh moushkil hai? My friends don't These children
I don’t understand. Please, speak more Please repeat. What is this called in What does it mean? We need your help. We have a problem. What's going on? Is there a problem?
single “r” is slightly rolled by touching tip of tongue to top of palate
Shukriya aapki madad keliye. Shukirya aapki meherbaani keliye. kindness. Aapko yaad karenge. Kripaya, _____ laiye. Kripaya, aur _____ laiye.
Thank you for your help. Thank you for your We will remember you.
Please bring _____. Please bring more _____.
Mera, meri, mere my Tumhaara, tumhaari, tumhaare Aapka, aapki, aapke Iska, iski, iske Hamaara, hamaari, hamaare Inka, inki, inke Donon Both Koi, Kisi Someone Sab koi, sab log Everyone Kuch kuch Something
your (familiar) your (polite) his/her our their No one
PRONOUNS & BASIC VERBS Main hunh I am Tum ho You are You were Aap hain You are You were Ye hai This/it is This/it was Vo hai He/she is was Ve hain They are They were Ham hain We are We were Mere paas _____ hai. Aapke paas _____ hai. Iske paas _____ hai. Inke paas _____ hai. Hamaare paas _____ hai. Mujko _____ chahiye. Aapko _____ chahiye. Isko _____ chahiye. Inko _____ chahiye. Hamko _____ chahiye. Mujhe _____ achchaa lakta hai. Aapke _____ achchaa lakta hai. Ise _____ achchaa lakta hai. Inke _____ achchaa lakta hai. Hame _____ achchaa lakta hai. … … … … dahin achchaa lakta hai. dosai achche lakte hain. chai achchi lakti hai. mitthai achchi lakti hain. Main tha/thi I was Tum tha/thi
Kuch nahin Nothing
Aap the, thin Ye tha Vo tha/thi He/she Ve the Ham the/thin I have _____. You have _____. He/she/this/it has _____. They have _____. We have _____. I want _____. You want _____. He/she wants _____. They want _____. We want _____. I like _____. You like _____. He/she likes _____. They like _____. We like _____. … … … … likes likes likes likes yogurt. dosai. tea. sweets.
Main ise bolna chahiye. I want to speak to him. Voh kidhar gaya hai? Where has he gone? Main aapka photo le sakti hunh? May I take your photo? BODY PARTS, ANIMALS & OTHER NOUNS Baal hair (m) Angli, fingers Aankh, -khen eye, eyes (f) Hath hands (m) Sir head Baahen Chehera face Gutnon Todi chin Paaon Naak nose Per Kaan ear Pet Mumh mouth (m) Daanton teeth -yan finger, hand, arms knees
foot leg stomach
dog (m) elephant Billi cat (f) Ghora horse (m) Cherdiya bird (f) Machchli fish (f) Bel bullock (m) Gayi cow (f) Suwar pig Pher sheep Harghosh rabbit Machchar mosquito (m)
Haathi Bagh Sher Bhaalu Bandar Undh Mor tiger lion bear monkey camel peacock
Saamaan luggage bed (m) Gend ball net (m) Kitaab book sheet (f) Tokri basket Tel bag
Palang Machchar daani Chadar Chaabi Mez table key (f) mosquito
IMPORTANT VERBS be able bring call clean come do drink dry eat fall meet get, receive give, pay go go, walk happen hear keep, put know learn lift lose make open play put on read reside run say, tell see show shut sit sleep speak stay, wait stop take teach think touch understand want, wish wear write sakna laana bulana saf karna ana karna pina sukhna khana girna milna pana dena jana chelna hona? sunna rakhna janna sikhna uthana khona banana kholna khelna pehena parhna rahna dorlna kehena dekhna dikhana band karna baithna sona bolna therna rukhna lena sikhana sachna chuna samajhna chahna pehena likhna saklaabulasaf kar-? akar-? pisukhkhagirmilpa-? de-? jasunjankhoho-? rakhsikhuthabanakholkhel? parhdorlkeh-?
BASIC CONVERSATION Namaste, bhaiji/behenji. Hello, brother/sister. Aap ka naam kya hai? What is your name? Mera naam Christine hai. My name is Christine. Veh mere saheliye hain. These are my friends. Yeh India men inke pehli baar hai. It is their first time in India. India mera dussraa ghar hai. India is my second home. Ham USA se ate hain. Main Chicago se ati hunh. Aap kahan se ate hain? from? chelAap kaise/kaisi hain? Main bilkul tik hunh, shukriya. thank you. Aap ka pati/patni kaisa hai? husband/wife? We are from America. I am from Chicago. Where do you come How are you? I’m absolutely fine, How is your
dekhdikhband kar-? baithsoboltherrukhlesikhasachchusamajhchahpaihnlikh-
Mere bachche main ne Calcutta se My children were adopted goadliye hain. from Calcutta. Hamare bachche hame ashram se Our children were adopted goadliye hain. from Ashrams. Mere paas teen Hindustani bachche hain. I have three Indian children. Inke namen Leo, Annie, aur Peter hain. Their names are Leo, Annie and Peter. Nahin, mera pati American hai. No, my husband is American. Mera chota beta ghar par hai, iska My small son is at home with Daddy ke sath. his father. Aap ki beti ka nam kya hai? What is your daughter's name? Aap ka beta ki umre kya hai? How old is your son? Mere bete pandra aur saat salke hain.My sons are 14 and 7. Meri beti baara salka hai. My daughter is twelve. Veh phir bhee Hindustani hain. Veh Bhaagwaan-Allah ke bachche. Main inko dil se pyaar karti hunh. heart. They are still Indian. They are God's children. I love them with all my
Main bahut bageshali hunh. Yeh meri achchi kismet. Ham ek hush parivar hain. Aap ka ghar bahut achchaa hai. Yeh aap keliye hain. Shukriya aap ki meharbaani keliye. kindness. Aapko yaad karenge.
I am greatly blessed. It is my good fate. We are a happy family. Your home is very nice. This is for you. Thank you for your We will remember you.
CONDITIONS AND COMMANDS Mujhe khaana chahiye. Ise bukh lagi hai. Hame bukh lagi hain. Mujhe baithna chahiye. Ise dekhna chahiye. Hame sunna chahiye. Main thak gayi. Ve thak gayin. tired. Hamko sona chahiye. Mujhe pina chahiye. Ise pyaas lagi hai. Hame pyaas lagi hain. Meri tabiyat achchi nahin hai. Iski tabiyat achchi nahin hai. Voh bilkul thik nahin hai. Ise dard lagi hai. Mera pet bimaar hai. Mujhe pet men dard hai. Ise sir men dard hai. Main garmi hunh. Ham tande hain. Kripaya, blanket laiye. Mujhe Mujhe Mujhe Muhje boliye. batiye. samajiye. dijiye. I want to eat. She is hungry. We are hungry. I want to sit. She wants to look. We want to listen. I am tired. They (females) are We want to sleep. I want to drink. She is thirsty. We are thirsty. I am ill. She is ill. He is not too well. She is in pain. My stomach is sick. My stomach hurts. My head hurts. I am hot. We are cold. Please bring a blanket. Speak to me. Tell it to me. Explain it to me. Give it to me. Be happy. Clean this. Close this. Dry this. Don’t iron this. It is too noisy. It is too dirty.
bolbolna want to speak).
stem infinitive present Mujhe bolna chahiye. (I Main bolti hunh. (I Main bol rahi
boltaa/bolti/bolte/boltin speak). bol rahaa/rahi/rahe/rahin hunh. (I am speaking). boltaa/bolti/bolte/boltin speak). bol rahaa/rahi/rahe/rahin speaking).
past (far past) Main bolti thi. (I used to past imperfect Main bol rahi thi. (I was
bolaa/boli/bole/bolin* perfect (near past) Main boli hunh. (I have spoken). bolaa/boli/bole/bolin* pluperfect Main boli thi. (I had spoken). bolo boliye** familiar imperative Bolo! (Speak!) polite imperative Boliye! (Speak!) future (I/we) (fam. you) Main bolungi. (I will Tum bologe. (You will Aap bolengin. Ve bolenge. Main bolun. (I
bolunga/bolungi/ bolenge/bolengin speak). bologe/bologi future speak). bolenge/bolengin (You will speak). bolega/bolegi/ bolenge/bolengin (They will speak). bolun*** should/would speak). bolo should/would speak). bolen speak). bole speak).
future (polite you) future (3rd person) conditional (I/we)
cond. (fam. you)
Tum bolo. (You
cond. (pol. you) Aap bolen. (You should/would conditional (3rd) Ve bole. (They should/would
Suki raho. Yeh saf karo. Yeh band karo. Yeh sukh karo. Yeh nahin “press” karo. Is men bahut shor hai. Is men bahut ganda hai.
*Note: For perfect tense, if stem ends in long vowel, to form perfect/pluperfect, add “-yaa/yi/ye/yin” instead of “-aa/i/e/in” e.g. muskuraanaa muskuraa muskuraayaa **Note: For imperative tense, if stem ends in –e, change –e to –i and add “jiye” instead of “iye” e.g.: lenaa le li lijiye ***Note: For conditional tense, use same endings as future tense without – ga, -gi, -ge.
raha hai nevaala hai chuka hai
is ---ing is about to --just ---ed
Isko/inko pek kaaro! Rang Color Satrangi Rainbow-colored Safed White Gulabi Pink Silk Laal Red Narangi Orange Sari (f) Pila, pili Yellow (f) Hara, hari Green Nila, nili Blue Bhaingana, -ni Purple Skirt/blouse set (f) Badama, -mi Brown (m) Sleta, sleti Grey (m) Kala, kali Black set (f) scarf (m) Chappal Sandals (m) Jute Shoes (m) (f) Mose Socks Shirt/pants set (m) Ghungroo Ankle bells (m) Sona Moti
Pack it/them up! Gold Chaandi Pearl Resham Sari Paloo Sari end Silver
(Use these for non-continuous actions). When stating a general fact, use: hota hoti hote + hai hain instead of just hai/hain
i.e. someone/something is …
SHOPPING Mujhe _____ chahiye. Kya aap ke paas _____ hain? Kya ye aap ke paas in a _____ color? Kya ye aap ke paas in my size? Kya ye aap ke paas his/her size? Kya ye aap ke paas a bigger size? I want _____. Do you have _____? Do you have this Do you have this
Petticoat Underskirt (m) Choli Sari blouse (f) Chanya choli Gagra Lehenga Skirt/blouse set Skirt/blouse set Punjabi Long
_____ rang me hain? mera saiz me hain?
Salwaar kameez Dupatta
iska saiz me hain? Do you have this in aur bara saiz me hain?Do you have this in How much? It is very expensive. I'm not a millionaire. I won’t give that much. It’s not very nice. It’s dirty. It’s broken/faulty. It doesn't fit/isn't nice/won't do. I don’t want it. Show something cheaper. Show something better. Some something Show something smaller. Show something in my Some something for a
Kurta Shirt (m) Pant, Pyjama Trousers Kurta pyjama Kapre PEOPLE Clothes
Kitne rupaiye? Yeh bahut mahenga hai. Main lakhpati nahin hunh. Main nahin dungi hai. Yeh bahut achchaa nahin hai. Yeh ganda hai. Yeh karab hai. Yeh thik nahin hai. Nahin chahiye. Aur sasta dikaiye. Aur badiya dikaiye. Aur bara/lamba dikaiye. bigger/longer. Aur chota dikaiye. Mera saiz me dikaiye. size. Larka keliye dikaiye. boy.
Maataji Mother Daadaji Pat. grandfather Pitaji Father Daadiji Pat. grandmother Maata-pita Parents Daada-daadiPat. grandparents Pati Husband Naanaji Mat. grandfather Patni Wife Naaniji Mat. grandmother Bahu Daughter-in-law Naana-naani Mat. grandparents Saas Father-in-law Dulhan Bride Saasur Mother-in-law Saajan Groom
Maasi Buaa Didi Bahen Bari bahen Choti bahen Beti, betiye Saheli Parivar
Aunt (non-specific) Mat. aunt Elder sister Sister Big sister Little sister Daughter, daughters Female friend Family
Maamaa Bhai Bara bhai Chota bhai Beta, bete Dost Log
Pat. uncle Brother Big brother Little brother Son, sons Male friend People Man
Aurat Woman Buddhi Old woman Old man Larki, larkiye Girl, girls Baby(ies)/child(ren)
Larka, larke Boy, boys Bachcha, -che
Naukar Servant (m) Ustaad, Guru Teacher _____-walla _____-man (-person) Vidyaarthi, -thni Student Dhobi Washerman Hakim, Doktar Doctor Danton ka doktar Dentist Chor Thief (m) Vakil Lawyer Badmash Bad guy (m) Maalik Proprietor Goonda Thug (m) Mistri Mechanic
QUESTIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS Kya? else? Kya hai? this? Kya … hai? ? What? What is it? Is … ? Aur kya? Yeh, kya hai? Kya yeh … hai? What What is Is there … Duniya World (m) Desh Country Way Nagar City, town (m) Srdak Street, road (f) Maidan Park (m) Garden Phool Flower, flowers forest Pher Tree, trees Daryaa Mahel Ghar River Gaon Raasta Bazaar Mela Baagh Jangal Jungle, Market Fair (m) Village PLACES
Yeh idhar/udhar kya hai? Bank, kya qarib hai? Kya aap ke paas seb hain? Kya yeh moushkil hai? Kon? Kon hai? …? way is … ? Kab? Kitne? Who? Who is it?
What is this over here/there? Is the bank nearby? Do you have apples? Is there a problem? Kahan? … kahan hai? … kidhar hai? Where? Where is Which
When? How much/many? How?
Kaisa, -si, -se? Kyon? Kyonki …
Why? Because … When will the train come? Which way is the bank? What time is it? How are you? Why is the train late?
Tren, vo kab aega? Bank, kidhar hai? Kitne baaje hain? Aap kaisa hain? Kyon tren der se hai?
Palace Daak ghar Post office House, home (m) Vidyaalay, -yen School, schools Imaarat, -ten Building, buildings Girija ghar Church Kaamraa, -re Room, rooms Thaana Police Station Divaar Wall Bank Bank Kirki, -kiyan Window, windows (f) Mandir Temple Darvaazaa Door Sidi Step Sidion Stairs Are there many steps How many steps? Is there a lift here? Is the lift working? Is the lift this way?
Aur Jo, Lekin Ke sath Ke bina
Vahan, kya bahut se sidian hai? there? Kitne sidian? If Yahan, kya yeh lift hai? Kya lift chal raha hai? Kya lift is taraf hai?
Inke teen admiyon ka kaamraa chahiye, They need a 3person room on the ground floor par. ground floor. Ham yeh kursi kahan choden? chair? Where can we leave the
Kya ham yeh kursi yahan choden? here?
Can we leave the chair
Kripaya, aur jaldi cheliye. Kripaya, aur dhire cheliye. Kripaya, dahina cheliye. Kripaya, baaya cheliye. Kya mandir paas hai? Kitni dur hai? Kripaya, udhar le cheliye.
Please go faster. Please go slower. Please turn right. Please turn left. Is the temple near? How far is it? Please take us there.
Kripaya, mandir ka raastaa dekaiye. Please show the way to the temple. Is taraf? This way? Us taraf? That way? Kya bank khula hai? Voh kitne baaje kultah hai? Voh kitne baaje band hota hai? Ham dekh sakte hain? Hamko jana chahiye. Is the bank open? What time does it open? When does it close? Can we watch? We need to go.
GETTING AROUND Yahan Here Yahin Right here Idhar Over here, inside there, outside Andhar Inside Outside Dayi Dahina Right (thing) To the right Vahan Vahin There Right there Udhar Over Baahar Bayi Dur Khula Left (thing) Baaya To the left Far Open
ADJECTIVES AND COMPARISONS Sundar, -ri, -re lovely, pretty Kubsuraat beautiful Batsuraat ugly Pyaara, -ri, -re sweet, dear, loving Madhur melodious Shaant peaceful Meetha, -i, -e sweet (food) Khatta, -ti, -te sour (food) Achchaa, -i, -e good, nice Kharab bad, broken, faulty Bardiya good, fine Taiyar ready Khatam finished Saral easy, simple Moushkil difficult Mumkin possible Naamumkin impossible Sachcha, -i, -e true Jhutha, -i, -e false Paagal crazy Buddhuu foolish, sily Bahadur brave Balwaan strong Kamzoor weak Hoshiyar smart Baadtamiz rude Sharminda embarassed
Paas, Qarib Near, Nearby Bandh Closed Main baahar ja rahi hunh. Ham andhar ja rahe hain. We will come very soon. Yahan rukiye. Vahan teriye. Aap kahan terenge?
I am going outside. We are going inside. Ham bahut jeldi aenge. Stop here. Wait there. Where will you wait? Please wait until We will come at 7:00. Please come at 9:00. Please drive to the post
Kripaya, talak teen baaje teriye. 3:00. Ham sat baaje aenge. Kripaya, nau baaje aiye. Kripaya, post office ko cheliye. office.
Hush happy Saaf clean Sukha, -i, -e dry Taaza, -zi, zi fresh Naya, -yi, -ye (thing) Jivan young (person) Bara, -ri, -re big Lamba, -bi, -be short Patla, -li, -le thin Halka, -ki, -ke heavy Sakhta, -ti, -te Sidha, -dhi, -dhe Amir rich Mahenga, -i, -e cheap Garam, garmi cold Bahut … very … new
Udaas sad Ganda, -di, -de Gila, -li, -le wet Andhera, -ri, -re
dirty dark old
Puraana, -ni, -ne Buddha, -i, -e old
tall light hard straight expensive hot
Chota, -ti, -te small Naata, -ti, -te Mota, -ti, -te fat Bhaara, -ri, -re Mulayam Garib soft
poor Sasta, -ti, -te Tanda, -di, -de
Aur … Sab se …
more … most …
Mausam bahut garmi hai. warm. Yeh dosa chota hai. Yeh dosa aur chota hai. Yeh dosa sab se chota hai.
The weather is very This dosa is small. This dosa is smaller. This dosa is smallest.
QUANTITY AND TIME Kaee Several, many Kuch Some Toda/todi A little Kuch aur/Kuch zyaara Some more Toda/todi aur A little more Kuch kam Less Toda/todi kam A little less Sab Bas Bina, Sirf All Enough Only Kuch nahin Nothing Koi nahin None Das, Bis, Tees Chales, Pachas, Saat Satar, Aaasi, Ek sau Ek hazar Ek lakh/crore Today Tonight
Raat, -ten Forever Subah Paihar Sometimes Shaam Again Haftaa Mahinaaa Saal Ek haftaa hua
Night, nights (f) Morning Afternoon Evening
Hamesha keliye Kabhi nahin Never Kabhi kabhi Phir
Week (m) Phir bhee Still Month (m) Der se Late Year (m) Baad me Afterwards One week agoTalak Until
Shune, Aadhaa 0, ½ 10, 20, 30 Ek, Do, Teen, Char 1, 2, 3, 4 40, 50, 60 Panch, Chay, Saat, Art 5, 6, 7, 8 Nabe 70, 80, 90 Nau, Das, Gyaara, Baara 9, 10, 11, 12 100 Tera, Chauda, Pandra 13, 14, 15 1000 Sola, Sattra, Atthaara 16, 17, 18 10,000/10,000,000
Is same das baaje hain. The time is 10:00. Kya tren der se hai? Is the train late? Ham phir aenge. We will come again. Ham baad men aenge. We will come later. Kripaya, das baaje aiye. Please, come at 10:00. Kripaya, talak teen baaje teriye. Please, wait until 3:00. Ham sat baaje jaenge. We will go at 7:00. EATING AND DRINKING Khaana Food (m) Naashtaa Breakfast (m) Namak Salt (m) Coffee (f) Chini Sugar (f) Aaataa Flour Chaaval Rice (m) Pickles Roti Bread Dabal roti Western bread Phal Paani Baraf Chai Daal Ghosht Murgi Ice (m) Kaafi Tea (f) Lentils Achaar Meat Chicken Water (m)
Pehlaa, -li, le First Yesterday, tomorrow Dusraa, -ri, -re Second Ab, Abhi Now, Right now Tisraa, -ri, -re Third Jaldi Soon Aglaa, -li, -le Next Kuch dinon men In a few days Same (f) __ baje Savaa __ baje Once Saade __ baje Twice Paune __ baje times Din Time Baar __ o’clock __:15 __:30 __:45 Day (f) Time, occasion Pehli baar Ek baar Do baar Bahut baar Many Aksar Hamesha Often Ever, always First time
Aaj Aajraat Kal
Fruits (all are m) Sabzi Vegetables (f) Narangi Orange Bhaaji, Saag Greens Narangi ka ras Orange juice Gajar Carrot Nimbu Lemon Tamaatar Tomato Kela Banana Bhaingan Eggplant Seb Apple Pyaaz Onion Aam Mango Aalu Potato Naariyal Coconut Sem Beans Ananaas Pineapple Gobi Cauliflower Anda, ande Egg, eggs (m) Doodh Milk (m) Dahin Curds (m) Thali, Plet Plate (f) Glaas Glass (m) Chaaku Knife (m)
Ghee Clarified butter (m) Panir Cheese (m) Mitthai Sweets (f) Napkin (f) Aap kya lehenge? Abhi, kuch nahin, shukriya. thank you. Kafi/chai chelegi. Pani chelega. Kuch tanda chelega. Hamko baraf nahin chahiye.
Kangtaa Fork (m) Nepkin Katori Bowl (f) What will you take? Right now, nothing, Coffee/tee will do. Water will do. Something cold will do. We don’t want ice. Very good. The food is very tasty. I like Indian food He/she doesn’t like They don't like Indian
Bahut badiya. Khaana bahut souad hai. Mujhe Hindustani khaana bahut very much. aachcha lakta hai. Ise Hindustani khaana nahin aachcha Indian food. lakta hai. Inke Hindustani khaana nahin bahut food very much. aachcha lakta hai.
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