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the fingers, toes
and/or nose. This physical finding is associated with many diseases and conditions, such as anorexia nervosa, autoimmune diseases, cold agglutinins, or Raynaud’s disease or phenomenon. Cyanosis of the extremities may be commonly observed in newborns and in others after exposure to cold temperatures, and in those patients with reduced cardiac output. In patients with suspected hypoxemia, it is an unreliable sign of diminished oxygenation.
2. Moro- or startle reflex- a reflex seen in infants in response to stimuli, such as that produced by
suddenly striking the surface on which the infant rests. The infant responds by rapid abduction and extension of the arms followed by an embracing motion of the arms.
3. cephalhematoma- a mass composed of clotted blood, located between the periosteum and the
skull of a newborn. It is confined between suture lines and usually is unilateral. The cause is rupture of periosteal bridging veins due to pressure and friction during labor and delivery. The blood reabsorbs gradually within a few weeks of birth.
4. caput succedaneum- diffuse edema of the fetal scalp that crosses the suture lines. Head
compression against the cervix impedes venous return, forcing serum into the interstitial tissues. The swelling reabsorbs within 1 to 3 days.
5. ductus arteriosis- a channel of communication between the main pulmonary artery and the aorta
of the fetus.
6. ductus venosus- the smaller, shorter, and posterior of two branches into which the umbilical vein
divides after entering the abdomen of the fetus. It empties into the inferior vena cava.
7. fontanel-anterior and posterior-where located?-why?-shape?- an unossified membrane or soft spot
lying between the cranial bones of the skull of a fetus or infant. Anterior- the diamond-shaped junction of the coronal, frontal, and sagittal sutures; it becomes ossified within 18 to 24 months. Posterior- the triangular fontanel at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures; ossified by the end of the first year.
8. foramen ovale- The opening between the two atria of the fetal heart. It usually closes shortly after
birth as a result of hemodynamic changes related to respiration.
9. molding- shaping of the fetal head to adapt itself to the dimensions of the birth canal during its
descent through the pelvis.
10. erythema toxicum- (papules, 24-28 hr.-newborn rash) a benign, self-limited rash marked by firm,
yellow-white papules or pustules from 1 to 2 mm in size present in about 50% of full-term infants. The cause is unknown, and the lesions disappear without need for treatment.
11. chemical conjunctivitis- most common eye infection- of the conjunctiva usually caused by
12. vernix caseosa- a protective sebaceous deposit covering the fetus during intrauterine life,
consisting of exfoliations of the outer skin layer, lanugo, and secretions of the sebaceous glands. It
is most abundant in the creases and flexor surfaces. It is not necessary to remove this after the fetus is delivered.
13. lanugo- fine downy hairs that cover the body of the fetus, esp. when premature. The presence and
amount of lanugo aids in estimating the gestational age of preterm infants. The fetus first exhibits lanugo between weeks 13 and 16. By gestational week 20, it covers the face and body. The amount of lanugo is greatest between weeks 28 and 30. As the third trimester progresses, lanugo disappears from the face, trunk, and extremities.
14. milia- white pinhead-size, keratin-filled cyst. In the newborn, milia occur on the face and, less
frequently, on the trunk, and usually disappear without treatment within several weeks.
15. telangiectatic nevi or hemangioma- (stork bite) a benign tumor of dilated blood vessels. 16. Mongolian spots- bluish-black areas of pigmentation may appear over any part of the exterior
surface of the body. Commonly noted whose ethnic origins are in the Mediterranean area, Latin America, Asia, or Africa
17. Apgar (know scoring)- a system for evaluating an infant’s physical condition at birth. The
infant’s heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, response to stimuli, and color are rated at 1 min, and again at 5 min after birth. Each factor is scored 0,1, or 2; the maximum total score is 10. Interpretation of scores: 7 to 10, good to excellent; 4-6, fair; less than 4, poor condition. A low score at 1 min is a sign of perinatal asphyxia and the need for immediate assisted ventilation. Infants with scores below 7 at 5 min should be assessed again in 5 more min; scores less than 6 at any time may indicate need for resuscitation. In depressed infants, a more accurate determination of the degree of fetal hypoxia may be obtained by direct measures of umbilical cord oxygen, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and pH.
18. Silverman (respiratory function test)- 5 evaluations – what are they? – (handout)
1. Upper chest. 2. Lower chest. 3. Xiphoid retractions. 4. Nares dilation. 5. Expiratory grunt. Graded 0, 1, 2
19. pseudomenstruation- withdrawal bleeding after birth, a scant vaginal discharge that reflects the
physiological response of some female infants to an exposure to high levels of maternal hormones in utero.
20. tonic neck reflex- (“fencing”) –with infant facing left side, arm and leg on that side extend;
opposite arm and leg flex (turn head to right, and extremities assume opposite postures).
21. colostrum- high in?-breast fluid that may be secreted from the second trimester of pregnancy
onward but that is most evident in the first 2 to 3 days after birth and before the onset of true lactation. This thin yellowish fluid contains a great number of proteins and calories in addition to immune globulins.
22. neonate- from birth through 28h day of life. 23. bilirubin – normal? Why higher in neonate?- normal <5 mg.dl. (usually drop to 1 mg/dl).
Neonatal jaundice occurs because the newborn has a higher rate of bilirubin production and the reabsorption of bilirubin from the neonatal small intestine is considerable.
24. physiologic jaundice – when?- 50-80% of all full-term newborns are visibly jaundiced during the
first 3 days of life. Term: appears after 24 hours and disappears by the end of the 7th day. Preterm: evident after 48 hours and disappears by the 9th or 10th day.
25. phenylketonuria- a congenital, autosomal recessive disease marked by failure to metabolize the
amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. It results in severe neurological deficits in infancy if it is unrecognized or left untreated. PKU is present in about 1 in 12,000 newborns in the US. In this disease, phenylalanine and its byproducts accumulate in the body, esp. in the nervous system, where they cause severe mental retardation, seizure disorders, tremors, gait disturbances, coordination deficits, and psychotic or autistic behaviors. Eczema and an abnormal skin odor also are characteristic. The consequences of PKU can e prevented if it is recognized in the first weeks of life and a phenylalanine restricted (very low protein) diet is maintained throughout infancy, childhood, and young adulthood.
26. petechiae- (pinpoint rash) small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin that appear in patients
with platelet deficiencies (thrombocytopenias) and in many febrile illnesses.
27. kernicterus- a form of jaundice occurring in newborns during the second to eighth day after birth.
The basal ganglia and other areas of the brain and spinal cord are infiltrated with bilirubin, a yellow substance produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin. The disorder is treated aggressively by phototherapy and exchange transfusion to limit neurological damage. The prognosis is quite poor if the condition is left untreated.
28. nevus flammeus- (port-wine stain) – a large reddish-purple discoloration of the face or neck,
usually not elevated above the skin. It is considered a serious deformity due to its large size and color. In children, these have been treated with the flashlamp-pulsed tunable dye laser.
29. Epstein’s pearls – in infants, benign retention cysts resembling small pearls, which are sometimes
present in the palate. They disappear in 1 to 2 months.
30. umbilical arteries- (2) carry blood from the fetus to the placenta, where nutrients are obtained
and carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged.
31. umbilical vein- (1) oxygenated blood returns to the fetus through the umbilical vein.
ALTERNATE VOCAB LIST
NEWBORN VOCABULARY LIST Abdominal Circumference: measured by placing the tape around the newborn’s abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with the bottom edge of the tape measure at the top edge of the umbilicus. Acrocyanosis: Cyanosis of the extremities. May be present in the first 2 to 6 hours after birth. Condition is due to poor peripheral circulation which results in vasomotor instability and capillary stasis, especially when the baby is exposed to cold. If the central
circulation is adequate, the blood supply should quickly return to the extremity after the skin is blanched with a finger. If hands and nails are blue, face and mucous membranes should be assessed for pinkness indicating adequate oxygenation. Apgar Score: A scoring system used to evaluate infants at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. The total score is achieved by assessing five signs: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. Each of the signs is assigned a score of 0, 1 or 2. The highest possible score is 10. See page 670 for further detail. Behavioral States: States in the infant sleep/awake cycle. See below for specific states. Page 1115 has a great chart on behavioral states. Sleep State: consists of deep or quiet sleep and light or active rapid eye movement sleep. In deep or quiet sleep the baby has closed eyes with no eye movement, regular even breathing and jerky motion or startles at regular intervals. Behavioral responses to external stimuli are likely to be delayed. Startles are rapidly suppressed and changes in state are not likely to occur. Heart rate may range from 100 to 120 bpm. In active rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the baby has irregular respirations, eyes closed with REM, irregular sucking motions, minimal activity, and irregular but smooth movement of the extremities. Environmental and internal stimuli initiate a startle reaction and a change of state. Active Sleep State: Same as light or active eye movement sleep Drowsy State: Infant may return to sleep or awaken further. Has smooth movements with variable activity level. Eyes may open and close. Eyes may appear heavy lidded or may appear like slits. May have no facial movement and appear still or may have some facial movements. Breathing is irregular. Infant will usually react to stimuli but may be slowed. May change to other states such as quiet alert, active alert or crying If infant left alone, may return to a sleep state. Quiet Alert State: Infant is attentive to environment, focus attention on stimuli. Body activity is minimal. Eyes are bright and wide. Facial expression is attentive. Breathing is regular. Response is most attentive, focus attention on stimuli. In the first few hours after birth, may experience an intense alertness before going into a long sleeping period. This state increases in intensity as the infant becomes older. Active Alert State: Infant’s eyes are open but not as bright as quiet alert. More body activity than quiet alert. Smooth movements may be interspersed with mild startles from time to time. Eyes are open with a glazed dull appearance. Facial movements may be still with or without facial movements. Breathing is irregular. Infant reacts to stimuli with delayed responses to stimuli or may change to quiet alert or crying state. Infant may be fussy and become more sensitive to stimuli, may become more and more active and start crying. If fatigue or caregiver interventions disturb this state, infant may return to drowsy or sleep state.
Crying State: communication tool, response to unpleasant stimuli from environment or internal stimuli. Characterized by intense crying for more than 15 seconds. Increased motor activity, skin color changes to darkened appearance, red or ruddy. Eyes may be tightly closed or open. Grimaces in facial expression. Breathing is more irregular than in other states. Indicates that the infant’s limits have been reached. May be able to console himself or herself and return to an alert or sleep state or may need intervention from caregiver. Bilirubin: pigment which causes jaundice. Most jaundice is benign but due to potential toxicity of bilirubin, jaundiced infants must be closely monitored. Accumulated bilirubin is due to infant’s inability to balance the breakdown of red blood cells and the use or excretion of by products. Phototherapy is used as treatment for newborn jaundice. Brown Fat: Also known as brown adipose tissue (BAT). Fat deposits in newborns that provide greater heat generating activity than ordinary fat. Found around the kidneys, adrenals, and neck; between the scapulas and behind the sternum. Caput Succedaneum: localized, easily identifiable soft area of the scalp.This generally results from long and difficult labor or a vacuum extraction. Fluid is reabsorbed within 12 hours to a few days after birth. Cephalohematoma: a collection of blood resulting from ruptured blood vessels between the surface of a cranial bone (usually the parietal) and the periosteal membrane. Emerges as a hematoma between the first and second day. Relatively common in vertex births and disappear within 2 weeks to 3 months. May be associated with physiological jaundice as extra red blood cells are being destroyed within the cephalohematoma. A large one can lead to anemia and hypotension. Chest Circumference: Should be measured with the tape measure at the lower edge of the scapula and brought around anteriorly directly over the nipple line. The average is 32 cm or 12.5 inches with a range of 30 to 35 cm or 12-14 inches. Circumcision: surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis.
Cold Stress: Excessive heat loss resulting in compensatory mechanisms (increased respirations and nonshivering thermogenesis) to maintain core body temperature. Colostrum: secretion from the breast before the onset of true lactation; contains mainly serum and white blood corpuscles. It has a high protein content, provides some immune properties and cleanses the newborn’s intestinal tract of mucus and meconium.
Conduction: Loss of heat to a cooler surface by direct skin contact. An infant could lose heat due to conduction if subjected to chilled hands, equipment, scales, etc. Convection: loss of heat from the warm body surface to cooler air currants. An example would be an infant losing body heat because their crib is placed in an air conditioned room. Crypytorchidism: failure of the testes to descend in a newborn male. Ductus Arteriosus: A communication channel between the main pulmonary artery and the aorta of the fetus. It is obliterated after birth by rising PO2 and changes in the intravascular pressure in the presence of normal pulmonary functioning. It normally becomes a ligament after birth but sometimes remains patent (patent ductus arteriosus, a treatable condition). Ductus Venosus: A fetal blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood between the umbilical vein and the inferior vena cava, bypassing the liver. It becomes a ligament after birth. Epispadias: when the male urethral meatus occurs on the dorsal aspect of the penile shaft Erythema Toxicum: Innocuous pink papular rash of unknown cause with superimposed vesicles: it appears within 24 to 48 hours after birth and resolves spontaneously within a few days. Evaporation: Loss of heat incurred when water on the skin surface is converted to a vapor. An infant is subject to body heat loss by evaporation immediately following birth when still wet with amniotic fluids or during bathing times.
Fetal Circulation: Blood flow from the placenta flows through the umbilical vein, enters the abdominal wall at umbilicus, through the ductus venosus directly into inferior vena cava (small amount enters liver instead). Blood enters right atrium, passes through foramen ovale into left atrium into left ventricle and into aorta. Some blood returning from head and upper extremities by way of superior vena cava enters right atrium and passes through tricuspid valve into right ventricle and small amount goes to lungs for nourishment only. Larger portion of blood passes from pulmonary artery through ductus arteriosus to descending aorta bypassing the lungs. Finally blood returns to the placenta via umbilical arteries and process is repeated.
Forman Ovale: Special opening between the atria of the fetal heart. Normally the opening closes shortly after birth; if it remains open, it can be surgically repaired. Head Circumference: Place the tape measure over the most prominent part of the occiput and brought to just above the eyebrows. The measurement should be 32 – 37 cm or 12.5 – 14.4 inches or approximately 2 cm larger than chest circumference. If the infant experienced significant head molding it is advisable to take another head measurement on the second day. Hyposadias: when the male urethral meatus occurs on the ventral aspect of the penile shaft. Jaundice (pathological and physiological): Jaundice refers to the yellowing of the skin and sclera frequently seen in newborns. Physiological jaundice refers to a normal process that occurs during transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life and appears after 24 hours of life. Is a common problem with newborns and may be treated with phototherapy. Pathological jaundice is diagnosed in infants who exhibit jaundice within the first 24 hours of life, have a total serum bilirubin concentration increase of greater than 0.2 mg/dL/hour, surpass the 95th nomogram for age in hours or have persistent visible jaundice after 1 week of age in term infants or after 2 weeks in preterm infants. Latch On: refers to positioning needed for a newborn to properly breast feed. Mother and infant should be properly positioned in order to achieve optimal attachment. Infant needs to attach his or her lips far back onto the areola, not on the nipple. To obtain a deep latch, mother needs to elicit her infant’s rooting reflex, stimulating the infant to open the mouth as wide as possible. Once infant does this, mother draws the infant close to her. If the infant latches onto nipple only, sore nipples may result. Lanugo: Fine, downy hair found on all body parts of the fetus, with the exception of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, after 20 weeks gestation. Large for Gestational Age (LGA): Excessive growth of a fetus in relation to the gestational time period. An infant considered LGA is above the 90th percentile when considering gestational age and birth weight. Let Down Reflex: Pattern of stimulation, hormone release, and resulting muscle contraction that forces milk into the lactiferous ducts, making it available to the infant. Also called milk ejection reflex. Meconium: Dark green or black material present in the large intestine of a full term infant; the first stools passed by the newborn. Milia: tiny, white papules appearing on the face of a newborn as a result of unopened sebaceous glands; they disappear spontaneously within a few weeks.
Mongolian Spot: Dark, flat pigmentation of the lower back and buttocks noted at birth in some infants; usually disappears by the time the child reaches school age. Molding: an asymmetric appearance of the head at birth due to overriding of the cranial bones during labor and birth. Diminishes a few days after birth. Nevus Flammeus: Also known as large port wine stain. Is a capillary angioma directly below the epidermis. Is a nonelevated sharply demarcated red to purple area of dense capillaries. Does not grow in size or fade with time. Does not usually blanch with pressure. If accompanied by convulsions or other neurological problems is suggestive of Sturge-Weber Syndrome with involvement of 5th cranial nerve (ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve). Nevus Vasculosus: a capillary hemangioma. Consists of newly formed and enlarged capillaries in the dermal and subdermal layers. A raised, clearly delineated dark red, rough surfaced birthmark commonly found in the head region. Such marks usually grow, often rapidly during 2nd or 3rd week of life and may not reach full size for 1 to 3 months. They begin to shrink and start to resolve spontaneously several weeks to months after they reach peak growth. Also called Strawberry Marks. Nonshivering Thermogenesis: physiological mechanisms of increasing heat production. Include increased basal metabolic rate, muscular activity and chemical thermogenesis. PKU: Phenylketonuria. Is the most common of the group of metabolic disorders known as amino acid disorders. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid used for growth and in an normal individual any excess is converted to tyrosine. Infant with PKU lacks this converting ability and experiences an accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood. Excessive accumulation can lead to mental retardation. Preterm Infant: any infant born before 38 weeks gestation Postterm Infant: any infant born after 42 weeks gestation. Radiation: Heat loss incurred when heat transfers to cooler surfaces and objects not in direct contact with the body. Placing cool objects near an infant such as ice for a blood gas draw could cause this type of heat loss. Reflexes: See specific types listed below Moro Reflex: elicited when the infant is startled by a loud noise or is lifted slightly above the crib and lowered suddenly. In response, the infant straightens arms and hands outward while the knees flex. Slowly the arms return to the chest as in an embrace. The fingers spread forming a C and the infant may cry. This reflex may persist until about 6 months of age.
Palmar Reflex: also called the grasping reflex. Is elicited by stimulating the newborn’s palm with a finger or object. The newborn will grasp and hold the object or finger firmly enough to be lifted momentarily from the crib. Plantar Reflex: elicited when pressure is applied with the finger against the balls of the infant’s feet. Response is a plantar flexion of all toes. Disappears by the end of the first year of life. Babiniski Reflex: a fanning or hyperextension of all toes and dorsiflexion of the big toe, occurring when the lateral aspect of the sole is stroked from the heel upward across the ball of the foot. In children older than 24 months, it is considered an abnormal response if there is an extension or fanning of all the toes; in such cases indicates abnormality of upper motor neurons. Rooting Reflex: Is elicited when the side of the newborn’s mouth or cheek is touched. In response, the newborn turns towards that side and opens the lips to suck (if not fed recently). Sucking Reflex: normal newborn reflex elicited by inserting a finger or nipple in the newborn’s mouth, resulting in a forceful, rhythmic sucking. Tonic Neck Reflex: is elicited when newborn is supine and the head is turned to one side. In response, the extremities on the same side straighten whereas on the opposite side they flex. May not be seen during early newborn period but once it appears it persists until about the 3rd month. Stepping Reflex: Occurs when infant is held upright with one foot touching a flat surface. The infant will put one foot in front of the other and “walk”. This is more pronounced at birth and is lost in 4 to 8 weeks. Small for Gestational Age: An infant who falls below 10th percentile in terms of birth weight, length, occipital-frontal circumference and gestational age. Surfactant: A substance composed of phosolipid which stabilizes and lowers the surface tension of the alveoli during extrauterine respiratory exhalation, allowing a certain amount of air to remain in the alveoli during exhalation. Thermoregulation: regulation of body temperature Vernix: a protective, cheeselike whitish substance made up of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells that is present on the fetal skin. Veneral Disease Research Lab (VDRL): blood test to detect syphilis
8-POINT POSTPARTUM ASSESSMENT WORKSHEET INSTRUCTIONS SPECIAL POINTS TO NOTE 1. Breast A. Gently palpate each breast B. If you feel nodules in the breast, the ducts may not have been emptied at last . C. Stroke downward towards the nipple, then gently release the milk by manual. D. If nodules remain, notify the doctor. E. Take this opportunity to explain the process of milk production, what to do about engorgement, how to perform self breast examinations, and answer any questions she may have about breastfeeding. 2. Uterus A. Palpate the uterus B. Have the patient feel her uterus as you explain the process of involution C. If uterus is not involunting properly, check for infection, fibroids and lack of tone. 3. Bladder A. Inspect and palpate the bladder simultaneously while checking the height of the fundus. B. An order from the physician is necessary catherization may be done. An order for culture and sensitivity test since definitive treatment may be required. C. Talk to mother about proper perineal care. Explain that she should wipe from front to back after voiding and defecating. 4. Bowel Function A. Question patient daily about bowel A. What is the contour? B. Are the breast full, firm, tender, shiny? C. Are the veins distended? D. Is the skin warm? E. Does the patient complain of sore nipples? F. Are breasts so engorged that she requires pain medication?
A. Uterus should the firm decrease approximately one finger breadth below B. Unsatisfactory involution may result if there are retained secundines or the bladder not completely empty A. Bladder distention should not be present after recent emptying. B. When bladder distention does occur, a pouch over the bladder area is observed, felt upon palpation; mother usually feels need to urinate. C. It is imperative that the first three post-partum voidings be measured and should be at least 150cc. Frequent small voidings with or without pain and burning may indicate infection or retention. Notify the doctor if the lochia looks
movements. She must not become constipated. If her bowels have not functioned by the second postpartum day, the doctor may start her on a mild laxative B. Inform the mother about what changes she should expect in the lochia and when it should cease. C. Tell the mother about what changes she should expect in the lochia and when it should cease. D. Tell the mother when her next menstrual period will probably begin and when she can resume sexual relations. E. Discuss family planning at this time. 6. Episiotomy A. Inspect episiotomy thoroughly using flashlight if necessary, for better visibility. B. Check rectal area. If hemorrhoids are present, the doctor may want to start on sitz bath and local analgesic medication. Reassure patient and answer questions she may have regarding pain, cleanliness, and coitus. 7. Homan’s Sign A. Press down gently on the patient’s knee (legs extended flat on bed) ask her to flex her foot 8. Emotional Status A. Throughout the physical assessment, notice and evaluate the mother’s emotional status. B. Explain to the mother and to her family that she may cry easily for a while and that her emotions may shift from high to low. The changes are normal and are probably caused by the tremendous hormonal changes occurring in her body and by her realization of new responsibilities that accompany each child’s birth. NOTE: Be sure that the mother has emptied her bladder and that she is lying in supine position on a flat bed before beginning assessment.
abnormal in to color or contains clots or other small ones.
A. Check episiotomy for proper wound healing, infection, inflammation and suture sloughing. B. Is the surrounding skin warm to touch? C. Does the patient complain of discomfort? Notify the C.Doctor if any occur Pain or tenderness in the calf is a positive Homan’s sign and indication of thrombophlebitis. Physician should be notified immediately. A. Does the patient appear dependent or independent? Is she elated or despondent? B. What does she say about family? C. Are there other nonverbal responses?
Antepartal nursing • Period of pregnancy between conception and onset of labor, used in reference to the mother.
Pre-embryonic development • Two week period that includes: o Fertilization (conception) o Implantation Miscarriage is a problem at this stage.
Embryonic development • • 3-8 weeks major functions of this period: o Cell multiples and grow o Cells differentiate and grow o By the end of week 8, all organ systems and external structures are present. Primary germ layers develop o Ectoderm (brain, nervous system) o Medoderm (heart, bones) o Endoderm (lungs, intestinal organs Fetal membrane develops o Amnion inner lining produces amniotic fluid o Chorion outmost linging chorionic villi develop into placenta Amniotic fluid o Function: shock absorber o Amount: 1500ml or more Placenta o Provides “food” and secretes hormones that continue the pregnancy o Circulation: Mom and baby’s circulation is completely separate! o Metabolic function Respiration Nutrition Excretion
• • •
Storage Umbilical cord o Lifeline to mom o 2 arteries unoxygenated blood o 1 vein oxygenated o Wharton’s jelly Outer covering of umbilical cord (protects cord)
Human chorionic gonadatropin (hCG) • • • • Supplied by corpus luteum Detected in mom’s blood 8-10 days after conception Keeps corpus luteum active which supplies: o Estrogen o Progesterone The placenta takes the place of the corpus luteum around the 16th week of pregnancy
Human placental lactogen (hPL) • • • • • Acts as a growth hormone Stimulates mom’s metabolism (mom needs extra energy) Increases mom’s resistance to insulin (sends more sugar to baby) Facilitates glucose transport across placental membrane Stimulates breast development to prepare for lactation
Progesterone • • • Maintains endometrium Decreases contractibility of uterus Breast development
Estrogen (by 7 weeks) • Stimulates uterine growth and blood flow between uterus and placenta (uteroplacental)
An important point • • Placental function depends on maternal blood pressure If there is interference with circulation with the placenta, the following develops: o Vasoconstriction (blood flow to baby is decreased) Maternal hypertension Maternal smoker Cocaine abuse
Fetal development • • Fetal period is 9 week to birth Rapid growth and organ development
Some dates/terms related to fetal growth: • Integumentary o Lanugo: Downy hair covering the body Appears at 13 weeks, disappears at 36 weeks o Vernix caseosa Protects skin; most abundant in the creases (neck) and flexor surfaces. Cardiovascular o Heart beat heard at 10 weeks by Doppler o Heard at 16 weeks via fetoscope Respiratory o Surfactant matures by 36th week Surfactant permits expansion of the lungs GI system o Meconium (tarry stool) Urinary system o By 5th month, fetus urinates into amniotic fluid o 2nd half of pregnancy: urine makes up major part of amniotic fluid Sexual o Can identify male/female by 16th week
• • • • •
Emotional responses to pregnancy
• • • • • • • • •
Ambivalence (contradictory feelings) Grief Self-centered; feels need to protect her body Introversion or extroversion Body image changes Stress Mood changes Sexual desire changes Couvade syndrome o The father experiences the physical symptoms; morning sickness or backache; the “empathy” belly.
Three Psychological tasks of pregnancy • • • 1st trimester: accepting the pregnancy 2nd trimester: accepting the baby 3rd trimester: preparing for parenthood; nesting
Terms related to pregnancy • • • • • • • Para: number of babies born after 22 weeks Gravida: A woman who is or has been pregnant Primigravida: a woman who is pregnant for the 1st time Primipara: A woman who has delivered one child after 22 weeks Multigravida: A woman who has been pregnant previously Multipara: A woman who has carried 2 or more pregnancies after 22 weeks Nulligravida: A woman who is not pregnant and is not currently pregnant.
Estimated Delivery date
Nagele’s rule • Begins with 1st day of last menstrual period, subtract 3 months, and add 7 days
McDonald’s method • Measure from top of symphysis pubis over curve of abdomen to top of uterine fundus in cm. o Helps determine gestation week
o o o
Gives indication of IUGR, twins, hydramnios (excess amniotic fluid) 12-16 weeks, just above the symphysis pubis 20-22 weeks, at umbilicus
Pregnancy tests • Measure hCG (human chorionic gonadatropin) o 95-98% accuracy o blood and urine tests
Danger signs of pregnancy—call M.D. for ALL of these • • • • • Sudden gush of fluid from vagina Vaginal bleeding (however, a little spotting can be normal due to fluctuating hormones) Abdominal pain Apigastric pain (placenta may be tearing away from uterine wall) Signs of toxemia/pre-eclampsia o Dizziness, blurred vision, diplopia (double vision), see spots o Severe headache o Edema of the hands, face, legs, and feet o Muscular irritability, seizures Oliguria (decreased urine output) Dysuria (Painful or difficult urination) Temp above 101 and chills (could mean sepsis) Persistent vomiting Absence of fetal movement (12 hours)
• • • • •
Prenatal Health assessment • • hCG confirms pregnancy Complete health history o genetic disorders o chronic illnesses o meds o obstetrical history o personal habits Complete physical exam o VS o Weight/height o Pelvic exam o Assess size/shape of boney pelvis Lab tests o Serology
Hematocrit and hemoglobin N: 38-47% and 12-16 g/dl o Sickle cell trait o WBC N: 4,500-11,000 o ABO and Rh typing (indirect coombs) N: Rh neg Rationale: check for presence of Rh antibodies o Rubella, Hep B, and Varicella titers N: Increased titer indicates immunity o Urinalysis Abnormal color Protein, RBC’s, WBC’s Glucose: small vs. large amount Subsequent visits o Physical assessment o Measure fundal height Fetal heart tones o Fetoscope 16 weeks, and almost always by 19 or 20 weeks o Doppler 10-12 weeks Prenatal visits o Q 4 weeks for 1st 28 weeks o Q 2 weeks until 36 weeks, then o Q 1 week until childbirth o
Nutrition during pregnancy • Who the hell knows from that damn handout. This is all I know: o Vitamin D and Folacin (folic acid) is increased 100% o Iron is HUGE, need 433% due to that pseudoanemia Pseudoanemia is a drop in hematocrit during pregnancy. The increase in circulating blood volume reflects an altered ratio of serum to RBC’s; plasma volume increases by 50%, whereas the RBC count increases by 30%. 2nd and 3rd trimesters need to increase 300 kcals/day
Fluids and Fiber • • • • Drink 8 glasses of fluid daily (water is best fluid) No alcohol, limit caffeine Limit artificial sweeteners Fiber is good! o Fights constipation o Lowers cholesterol
• • • •
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy: o 25-40 lb st 1 trimester o gain 1 pound per month 2nd and 3rd trimesters o gain 1 pound per week Watch for sudden large gains- could be fluid
Physiological changes and discomforts in pregnancy
Uterus • Hegar’s sign o Softening of the lower uterine segment, a probable sign of pregnancy that may be present during the 2nd and 3rd month of pregnancy. o The lower part of the uterus is easily compressed between the fingers placed in the vagina and those of the other hand over the pelvic area. o Due to the softening of the uterus related to increasing vascularity and edema and because the fetus does not completely fill the uterine cavity at this point, so the space is empty and compressible. Braxton Hick’s o Changes in contractibility o “False labor”; does not cause dilation and effacement of the cervix. Effleurage (massage) and rest Ballottement o A diagnostic maneuver in pregnancy. The fetus rebounds when displaced by a light tap of the examining finger through the vagina. Quickening o Initial awareness of the movement of the fetus within womb o Felt 16th-18th week Lightening o The descent of the presenting part of the fetus into the pelvis. Feels as if the baby is “dropping”. o Happens around the 36th week
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Cervix • Goodell’s sign
o Softening of the cervix (due to increasing vascularity and edema) Chadwick’s sign o Deep blue-violet color of the cervix and vagina Mucus Plug “Operculum” o The plug of mucus that fills the opening of the cervix on impregnation o Prevents bacteria from getting into uterus
Ovaries • • • No ovulation Corpus luteum increases until week 16; then replaced by placenta Increased estrogen and progesterone inhibit the release of LH and FSH.
Vagina “VaJay-jay” • • Chadwick’s sign Preparing for stretching during labor and birth: o Connective tissue loosens o Hypertrophy o Lengthens o Luekorrhea White, thick secretions pH in vagina becomes more acidic o fights off bacteria, but, o promotes fungus/yeast infections bathe daily, wear absorbent cotton panties no crossing legs or douching
Breasts • • • • Increase in fullness, heaviness, tenderness Nipples darken Thin and watery secretions Montgomery’s tubercles o Sebaceous glands in the areola surrounding the nipple of the female breast o Prevention of nipple cracking Blood vessels more visible Estrogen and progesterone cause these changes During 2nd and 3rd trimesters, most growth due to mammary glands o Wear a well fitting bra for breast tenderness
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Cardiovascular • Blood volume in mom increases by 1500ml or 40-50% above pre-pregnancy levels. o Changes due to hormones, meet woman’s and growing fetus’ needs o Cardiac output increases 30-50% o Heart rate increases 10-15 BPM o RBC’s increase, but cannot keep up with the pace of the plasma volume; decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit occur. This is called pseudoanemia. Know it and love it. Blood pressure : o First trimester: no change o Second trimester: systolic and diastolic decrease 5-10 mm Hg o 3rd trimester: Returns to first trimester levels. o Supine hypotension syndrome can occur in the 2nd half of pregnancy (vertigo, decreased BP). Palpitations and murmurs can cause an issue for these issues. Encourage mom to take naps, have partner assist with housework, get to bed early, and good nutrition. Teach mom that that these symptoms are normal. If mom feels faint, tell her to lower head between legs, lie down, rise slowly, avoid standing long periods. Avoid lying on back, instruct to lie on side (due to compressed inferior vena cava). WBC are elevated in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy o Could mask infection. Varicose veins o Due to the compression of the iliac veins and inferior vena cava by uterus; increases venous pressure and decreases blood flow to the legs. Interventions: Exercise, don’t cross legs; wear support hose; keep legs and hips up; exercise feet.
Respiratory • • • • • • Increased tidal volume Increased oxygen consumption Slight elevation in respiratory rate (18-20 in pregnancy; 12-20 is normal) Nasal stuffiness (1st trimester) SOB (not hubby, breath) 2nd trimester Dyspnea o Estrogen causes upper respiratory tract to become more vascular. As capillaries fill, edema develops in the nose. Interventions: Use cool air vaporizer NO SPRAYS Proper position; semi-Fowlers when sleeping.
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Nausea and vomiting (1st trimester) Gingivitis Increased saliva Increased gastric acid (heartburn/pyrosis) o Causes are due to the cardiac sphincter relaxes; increased progesterone; gastric displacement; hCG levels Interventions: Avoid greasy, highly seasoned food, eat small meals frequently, eat dry toast or crackers before arising. Warm sprite and ginger ale can be helpful. Sit upright 1 hour after eating Sodium bicarb after eating 6-8 glasses of water every day Decreased motility constipation (2nd half) o Causes are due to the iron supplement most women are on; displacement of the intestines. Interventions: Exercise qid, increase fluids/bulk, be regular Hemorrhoids (2nd half of pregnancy) o Productions of relaxin Avoid constipation, prolonged standing, constricting clothing Use topical meds, warm soaks, anesthetic agents Flatulence (2nd half o I don’t know why? Avoid gaseous foods, chew thoroughly, exercise.
Integumentary • Increased skin pigmentation o Melanocyte-stimulating hormone o Facial mask (melasma) o Linea ligra (dark line from pubis to umbillica) o Vascular spider nevi o Stretch marks on abdomen (striae gravidarum) Stretching ruptures small segments of connective tissue o Rectus diastasis: Blue groove after pregnancy Abdominal wall separates o Increased sweat glands (problems with perspirations Increased estrogen levels o Palmar erythema Increased estrogen Use lotions
Renal • • • • Fluid retention: Aids with increased blood volume Increased water absorption Increased aldosterone Increased diameter of uterers
Increased bladder capacity (urinary frequency and urgency (symptoms disappear at 12 weeks, then reappear 3rd trimester) o Estrogen and progesterone cause this o Mom gets rid of own waste and fetus’; compression of the bladder and uterers o Ankle edema Decrease fluid intake in the evening, limit caffeine; empty bladder Q2h to prevent distention and stasis; kegal exercises Avoid tight garments; elevate legs; do dorsiflexion of the feet while standing or sitting for prolonged time May be slight (trace) spilling of glucose (glucouria)
Musculoskeletal • • • • Changes in gravity Calcium and phosphorus needs increase Later in pregnancy, gradual softening of pelvic ligaments and joints Lordosis o Caused by relaxin and progesterone o Leg cramps (late pregnancy) o Backache (late pregnancy) Good nutrition, rest with legs elevated, wear warm clothing. During leg cramp, pull toes up toward the leg while pressing down on the ankle Use proper body mechanics; avoid high hells (duh)
Endocrine • Placental hormones o Estrogen: breast/uterine enlargement o Progesterone: maintains endometrium; inhibits uterine contractibility; lactation o hCG: stimulates corpus luteum to produce estrogen and progesterone until placenta takes over. o hPL (Human placental Lactogen): antagonist to insulin (frees fatty acids for energy so glucose is available) o Relaxin: Inhibits uterine activity; softens cervix and collagen in joints. o Prostaglandins: May trigger labor Pituitary gland o Oxytocin o Prolactin: lactation Thyroid increases in size o Increased BMR o Better use of calcium and vitamin D Adrenal glands o Aldosterone Pancreas:
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Insulin; additional glucose available for fetus
Immune system • • • • Resistance to infection during each trimester 1st trimester: 3-5 pounds 2nd trimester: 12-15 pounds 3rd trimester: 12-15 pounds
Gestational Diabetes • • • • • • • • Occurs during pregnancy Pancreas cannot meet demands for insulin production during pregnancy, or Certain hormones block the action of insulin… insulin resistance. Occurs during 2nd and 3rd trimester Usually resolves after delivery About 50% of these women develop diabetes within 22-28 years Occurs in 2-3% of women Often reoccurs in later pregnancies
Risk Factors • • • • Obesity Age Family history of type 2 DM Obstetric history of: o Infant wt >4000g (9 pounds) o Unexplained stillbirth o Miscarriage o Congenital anomalies
Hormonal influences during pregnancy • 1st trimester: Insulin sensitivity due to: o increased estrogen and progesterone o results in: decreased glucose in mom
mom may become hypoglycemic 2nd trimester: Insulin breakdown due to: o Human placental lactogen (hPL) o Increased breakdown of insulin due to: Placental insulinase o Overall effects: Increased plasma glucose levels = hyperglycemia Increased insulin requirements
Insulin needs • Diabetogenic effect on pregnancy o Is usually a good thing o Increased insulin needs to be released to cover glucose in laboring moms
Effects on mom when she doesn’t have enough insulin • • • • • • • • Difficult labor Increased risk of pregnancy induced hypertension Polyhydramnios: amniotic fluid > 2000 ml (remember, 1500 ml is the regular) Postpartum hemorrhage UTI Ketoacidosis death of mom and baby If mom has extra glucose circulating, it goes directly to the baby Remember, mom and baby share glucose, but not insulin.
Effect on baby (not enough insulin) • • • • • • • • Macrosomia: “large body” Insulin does not cross placenta, which results in: o Increased insulin production from baby o Acts as a growth hormone Hypoglycemia o When umbilical cord is cut, the glucose from mom stops. o The result is a newly born, very hypoglycemic baby. Difficult birth o Shoulder dystocia or other injury due to macrosomia (large baby) Congenital anomalies Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) Lungs less mature Fetal death
Management of Gestational Diabetes
Detection and diagnosis • Screen pregnant women at high risk for GDM for diabetes o 24-28 weeks 50gm oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) Pre-gestational diabetes (HbA1c)
Goals for GDM • Maintain normal glucose levels o Fasting glucose levels <105 o 2 hr postmeal (postprandial) <120 o During sleep, no less than 70. Maintain normal weight gain; for most women with GDM, this is: o Weight gain of 22-30 lbs (different norms; remember that mom without gestational diabetes is 25-40 lbs) Prevent hyper and hypoglycemia
Goals achieved through: • • • • • • Office visits Diet Blood glucose monitoring Insulin Exercise Education
More on Goals… • • • 1st and 2nd trimester o every 1-2 weeks 3rd trimester (after 32 weeks) o 1-2 times a week At each office visit, mom is assessed for: o Hypoglycemia o Hyperglycemia o Glycosuria (glucose in urine) o Hypertension o Vaginal infections and bleeding o UTI
o Fetus o o
Tests o o o o o o Diet o
Retinopathy—spots/blurring (symptoms are more long term) assessed for: Macrosomia Hydramnios This happens in 25% (fetal polyuria) Increase in amniotic fluid to determine fetal condition Ultrasound Daily fetal movement count (DFMC) Alpha fetal protein (AFP)- neural tube defect Biophysical profile Contraction stress test (to see how well baby responds to contractions) Amniocentesis
Dietary modifications (30-35 kcal/kg/day) 2200 cal/day (1st trimester) 2500 cal/day (2nd and 3rd trimester) 3 meals, 3 snacks, including bedtime snacks eat at the same time each day Blood glucose monitoring o If on insulin: Accuchecks ac, hs, 2 hrs after meals Check urine ketones on awakening, during illness, if BS is elevated o Not on insulin May do accuchecks weekly or at office apts. Insulin o Cannot take oral hypoglycemic agents o 50% with GDM require insulin o Reg and NPH 2 or 3 times a day Check blood glucose as stated above Exercise o Walking after a meal o Swimming o Stationary bicycling o Carry glucose when exercising o Whatever their body has been used to in the past
Teaching mom and dad • Teach o o o signs of hypo and hyperglycemia <60mg/dl drink or eat a “glucose booster” Call M.D. if still <60 after 15 minutes Call M.D. if 2 or more episodes are in a week
Monitoring during labor and delivery
Monitor glucose Q 1-2 hours and maintain 100mg/dl or less Continuous fetal and mother monitoring
Monitoring during post-partum • • • Insulin requirements decrease 98% revert to normoglycemia Do a glucose tolerance test in 6-12 weeks as follow-up
Gestational Hypertensive Disorders Pregnancy Induced hypertension or PIH • • • Mom is not hypertensive before pregnancy Hypertension and other symptoms that occur due to pregnancy Disappear with birth of fetus and placenta
High risk factors • • • • • • • • • • Chronic renal disease Chronic hypertension Family history Primagravidas (a woman who is pregnant for the 1st time) Twins Mom <19 and >40 Diabetes Rh incompatibility Obesity Hydatidiform mole
Pathophysiology • • Can progress from mild to severe Aterial venospasms decrease diameter of blood flow, which results in: o Decreased blood flow o Increased BP
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Transcient Hypertension Preeclampsia o Mild o severe Eclampsia HELLP syndrome
Transcient Hypertension • • • • • BP > 140/90 Develops during pregnancy No proteinuria No edema (other than “normal” places like ankles) BP returns to normal by 10th day postpartum
Mild Preeclampsia • • BP > 140/90 x 2 at least 4-6 hours apart Weight gain o +2 pounds/wk in 2nd trimester, or o +1 pound/wk in 3rd trimester, or o sudden weight gain of 4 pounds/week anytime Norms 1st trimester: 1 lb/month 2nd and 3rd trimester: 1 lb/week Dependant edema o Eyes, face, fingers Proteinuria Urine output > 30ml/hr
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Nursing care for Mild Preeclampsia • • • Patient at home Bedrest (with BR privileges); side-lying position Mom and family will be taught to monitor: o Daily weight o Urine dipstick o BP o Fetal movements Diet: Regular with no salt restrictions If symptoms progress to severe Preeclampsia Hospital!
Severe Preeclampsia • Presence of any of the following in a woman diagnosed with Preeclampsia: o BP > 160/110 (x2) 4-6 hours apart o Weight gain—same as mild Preeclampsia o Proteinuria >4+ dipstick o Urine output < 30 ml/hr o Generalized edema, may also include pulmonary edema Crackles heard in lungs o Cerebral (headache) or visual (blurred vision) changes o Liver involvement o Thrombocytopenia (decrease in number of platelets) with low platelet count (same thing?) o Cardiac involvement o Hyperreflexia >3+ o Development of HELLP syndrome Hemolysis (destruction of RBC’s) H Elevated liver enzymes EL Low platelets LP o Fetus growth severely shunted
Care of patient with severe Preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome • • • • • • Hospitalized until baby is delivered Bedrest on side Bed near nurse’s station with code cart nearby Quiet, calm environment Siderails up, padded Frequent assessments to include: o BP, P, R o Daily weight o Assess edema o Deep tendon reflexes o Assess for headache, visual disturbances, epigastric pain (liver is getting involved) o Insert foley o Strict I and O o Evaluate urine for protein o Monitor fetal well-being o Assess labs; platelets, liver enzymes
Medical management • Prevent seizures MAGNESIUM SULFATE o Decreases neuromuscular irritability o Decreases CNS irritability (anticonvulsant effect) o Promotes maternal vasodilation, better tissue perfusion
Watch for magnesium toxicity Loss of knee-jerk reflexes Respirations <12 Urine output <30ml/hr Cardiac or respiratory arrest Toxic serum levels >9.6mg/dl Sign of fetal distress Calcium Gluconate is the antidote Control hypertension o BP meds via IV o Continue observations 24-48 hrs after birth o Symptoms usually resolve within 48 hours after birth o
Eclampsia • • Onset of seizure activity or coma in person with PIH Assessment findings o Increased hypertension precedes seizures followed by hypotension and collapse o Coma may occur o Labor may begin, putting fetus in great jeopardy Treat with magnesium sulfate and above measures for severe Preeclampsia
HELLP syndrome • • Occurs in 4-12% of patients with PIH; life-threatening situation to mom and/or baby. No known cause. Treatment: o Give platelets o Deliver infant ASAP o All usually returns to normal after the delivery
Complications of Pregnancy
Hydatiform Mole • • • • Proliferation and degeneration of trophoblasts (the outer layer of blastocyst) Cells fill with fluid Resembles a bunch of grapes due to the fluid filled (hydropic) vesicles Mole
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o Vessels grow rapidly large uterus o Mole has no fetus, no placenta, no amniotic fluid or membrane 1 in 2000 pregnancies in US higher incidence in Asia and tropics Most often seen: o In women after ovulation stimulation with climiphene (clomid) o Early teens or perimenopausal o Lower socioeconomic groups o Risk of 2nd mole 4-5 x higher than the first Signs and symptoms: o Bleeding during 1st trimester Dark brown/prune juice o Unusual uterine growth o No fetal parts can be palpated o No FHT o Snowstorm pattern on ultrasound o Abnormal labs Very high serum hCG o PIH Medical management o Many moles abort spontaneously o Suction curettage to evacuate mole o One year following: Serum hCG levels Physical and pelvic exams 3-20% of cases progress to choriocarcinoma pregnancy should be avoided for one year
Hyperemesis Gravidarum • Extreme nausea and vomiting during first half of pregnancy that is associated with: o Dehydration o Weight loss o Electrolyte imbalance Relatively rare Worse than “morning sickness” Usually lasts beyond week 12 Increased levels of hCG
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Pathology of Hyperemesis Gravidarum • • • • Dehydration Fluid-electrolyte imbalance o Hypokalemia Alkalosis due to loss of HCL Protein deficiency
Starvation with muscle wasting
Fetus is at risk for: • • • Abnormal development Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) Death
Diagnosis: • • • • • History of intractable vomiting in the first half of pregnancy Dehydration Ketonuria Weight loss of 5% pre-pregnancy weight Other signs and symptoms of dehydration
Medical therapy • • • • • • • • • • • Control vomiting Correct dehydration Restore electrolyte imbalance Maintain nutrition If mom is NPO, usually 24-48 hours IV fluids, 3000 ml or more first 24 hours Antiemetics Antihistamines If no vomiting in 24 hours, started on clear liquids; mom sent home usually with a referral for home care Eventually goes to soft diet, then regular If vomiting occurs, will usually start TPN in the home
Urinary Tract Infection • • • Affects 10% of all pregnant women Frequent site: dilated, flaccid, and displaced ureter May cause premature labor if severe
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Frequency and urgency of urination Suprapubic pain Flank pain (if kidney involved) Hematuria (blood in urine) Pyuria (purulent pee) Fever and chills
Nursing interventions • • • • Encourage high fiber intake Provide warm baths to relieve discomfort and promote perineal hygiene Administer and monitor intake of prescribed medications Monitor for signs of premature labor from severe or untreated infection
Substance Abuse • Alcohol, no safe level o Displaces other nutritional food intake o Fetus may show signs of: IUGR CNS dysfunction Craniofacial abnormalities (FAS) Cocaine o Causes vasoconstriction, elevated BP, tachycardia o May cause seizures o May cause spontaneous abortion, fetal malformation, neural tube defects o Newborn: irritability, hypertonicity, poor feeding patterns, increased risk of SIDS Opiates o Produces analgesia, euphoria, respiratory depression o Newborns experience withdrawal within 24-72 hours after delivery o High-pitched cry, restlessness, poor feeding seen in the newborn Nursing care: o Provide quiet environment o Wrap infant and hold snuggly o Observe for seizures o Administer anticonvulsants, sedatives as ordered o Difficult to quiet
Care of the pregnant adolescent • • Over 1 million teenage pregnancies per year US Developmental tasks:
o Body image o Sexual identity o Values o Independence from parents o Decision making skills o An adult identity Current problems—STD/HIV o STD’s continue to rise rapidly in teenagers Highest incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis are in the 15-19 year group o Researchers predict that HIV will increasingly be found in the adolescent population Family reactions to adolescent pregnancy o Shock, anger, shame, guilt, sorrow The pregnant adolescent o Incidence of: LBW infants Infant mortality Abortion o Poor compliance with meds—Vit/Fe o Children taking care of children
High Risk Newborn
High risk newborns are at an increased risk for illness or death due to: • • • • Prematurity Gestational age problems Physical problems Birth complications
Assessing gestational age • • • • • • Preterm: 0-37 completed weeks Term: 38-41 completed weeks Post term: greater than 42 weeks SGA: Small for gestational age AGA: average for gestational age LGA: large for gestational age
Ballard exam (for gestational age)
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Two components: o Physical maturity o Neurologic and/or neuromuscular development evaluations A score is given in each area Added up = gestational age Other assessments needed o Weight o Head circumference o Length
The preterm infant • • • Born before the end of 37 weeks Weight less than 2500 grams (5 lbs, 8 oz) Maternal causes: o Age o Smoking o Poor nutrition o Placental problems o Preeclampsia/eclampsia Fetal causes: o Multiple babies o Infections Other: o Socioeconomic status o Exposure to harmful substances Severity of problems o Related to baby’s age o Great chance of complication the earlier the infant is born Major complications: o Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) o Temperature regulation o Conserving energy o Infection o Hemorrhage
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Assessment/Interventions • Respiratory system o Alveoli begin to form at 26-28 weeks; therefore lungs are poorly developed. o Not enough surfactant Respiratory distress syndrome Chronic bronchopulmonary dysplasia Respiratory distress syndrome- RDS o “Hyaline Membrane disease” o Due to decreased surfactant
Overtime, alveoli rub against each other, scar tissue develops in the lungs hyaline membrane Hyaline: a glassy appearance/cartilage Symptoms: RR >60 Retractions Grunting Cyanosis Nasal flaring Hypoxia lactic acid production Increased CO2 acidosis Hemoglobin unable to carry O2 molecule X-ray’s show “white out” of the lungs Increasing central cyanosis Increased HR Hypothermia Decreased activity level
Medical management • Prevent preterm birth o Aggressive treatment of premature labor o Bethmethasone (steroid) to mom Enhances fetal lung development Needs to be given within 24 hours of birth Surfactant replacement therapy o Administer surfactant via E-T tube at birth for all preemies Must establish ventilation and administer oxygen o Ventilator via ET tube
Thermal regulation • Poor thermal stability in preemie o Large surface area in comparison to body weight o Reduced muscle and fat deposits Brown fat begins after 28 weeks o Poor glycogen and lipid stores o Limited ability to shiver o Usually less active Posture is flaccid increasing surface area exposed Increase in insensible fluid loss dehydration Respiratory distress fosters more work of breathing Delivery rooms 62-68* F Cold stress results in: o Hypoxia o Metabolic acidosis o Hypoglycemia
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Interventions for cold stress: Isolette or warmer Minimize drafts Prewarm all surfaces Bathing: keep covered; water warm Knitted caps and booties If oxygen is used, warm and moisturize it Keep isolette covered—light is a stimulus
Nutritional Status • Digestive system o Small stomach o Poor muscle tone – cardiac sphincter Can cause vomiting o Gag and cough reflexes are poor Aspiration is a problem o Decreased absorption of fat o Limited ability to convert glucose to glycogen o Lacks sucking until 32-34 weeks o Gavage feedings may be necessary until sucking reflex occurs o Give baby a soft preemie nipple to stimulate sucking as they are receiving gavage feedings.
Skin • • • Decreased subcutaneous fat Reddened Translucent
Immature liver • • • • Cannot conjugate bilirubin: Jaundice. o Treatment is phototherapy Cannot store or release glucose hypoglycemia Decrease in hemoglobin and production of blood Does not make or store vitamin K hemorrhage
Immature kidneys • • Increased Na excretion hyponatremia Decreased ability to concentrate urine dehydration
Infections • Immature immune system and other reasons
Neuromuscular • • • Poor muscle tone Weak reflexes Weak, feeble cry
Developmental considerations • • • • • Encourage bonding with parents Encourage visiting with parents and siblings Kangaroo care o Skin-to-skin touch Twin co-bedding Positioning
Small for gestational age (SGA) • Less that 10% on the newborn classification chart.
Causes: • Due to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)
Two types: • • Symetric o Infant looks normal but is very small o Usually problem happens during first trimester (infections) Asymmetric o Later in pregnancy o Long arms/legs; looks like a “skinny old man” o Usually weight <10%; length and HC >10%
Factors contributing to SGA: • Maternal causes: o Poor nutrition (especially in last trimester) o Advanced diabetes Vessels are constricted in mom; not enough blood/nutrients going to fetus. o PIH o Smoking and drug (cocaine) use. o Age over 35 Due to physiological changes in mom Placental causes: o Partial placental separation o Malfunction Unable to obtain or transport nutrients for baby (Decreased blood flow) Fetal causes: o Intrauterine infection o Chromosomal abnormalities and malformations
Assessment findings for SGA (mostly asymmetrical) • Skin o Loose and dry o Little fat o Little muscle mass Small body o Skull appears larger Sunken abdomen o Thin, dry umbilical cord Little scalp hair Wide scalp sutures Respiratory distress Hypoglycemic Tremors Weak cry Lethargic
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Interventions for SGA: • Similar to those of the preterm infant
Large for gestational age; LGA
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Neonate whose birth weight is above the 90th percentile on the newborn classification chart. Subject to overproduction of growth hormone in utero. (Insulin, if mom was diabetic) May be preterm, term, or post-term
Causes of LGA: • • • • Mother with poorly controlled diabetes Multiparity Infant with transposition of the great vessels (unknown cause) Genetic predisposition
Problems associated with LGA: • • • • • May require C-section Higher incidence of birth trauma with vaginal delivery o Fractured clavicle, brachial plexus palsies, depressed skull fractures, cephalhematomas Fetal distress during prolonged difficult second stage labor (respiratory distress) Hypoglycemia Polycythemia look for hyperbilirubinemia
Physical findings in LGA infant • • • • • • • Weight greater than 4000 grams (8lb, 14.5 oz) Caput succedaneum (goes over suture) o Edema on top of head where it is pushed against cervix during labor (fluid). Cephalhematoma (does not go over suture) o Blood collection due to rupturing during birth Facial nerve damage o Unsymmetrical face (mostly seen while crying) Infant at risk for pre and postnatal complications Hypoglycemia is a major problem (serum glucose <40 mg/dl) Other symptoms: o Jitteriness and tremors, brain depends on glucose o Lethargy: flaccid, doesn’t want to eat o Tachypnea, irregular respirations o Hyperbilirubinemia (>12) o Feeding difficulties
Interventions for the LGA infant: • Monitor glucose levels o At birth o Every 2 hours for the first 8 hours o Every 4 hours for 24 hours or until stable Offer glucose, breast milk, or formula before 4 hours of age o Gavage if respirations >60 o Glucose infusion if necessary Has to be done in the NICU
Beta-hemolytic, Group B Strept • • • • • • Major cause of infection in newborns Natural inhabitant of female genital tract Check culture results from mom prenatally. o Will check infant’s CBC if GBS is unknown In mother Treat: o Wash your hands to prevent epidemic in nursery o Ampicillin IV at 28 weeks and during delivery Pneumonia in infant 20% die within 24 hours Meningitis 2-4 weeks of age. 50% are brain damaged.
Maternal Infections- TORCHS • • Group of maternal infectious diseases o Systemic, active diseases Can lead to serious complications in embryo, fetus, and neonate o T: Toxoplasmosis o O: Other, Hep. B, HIV o R: Rubella o C: CMV (Cytomegalovirus) o H: Herpes o S: syphilis
Toxoplasmosis • • Transmitted to fetus via mother’s contact with contaminated cat box filler Therapeutic abortion recommended if diagnosis is made before 20th week o These fetus’ often spontaneously abort
Effects: Stillbirths, neonatal deaths, severe congenital anomalies, retinochoroiditis (inflammation of the retina and choroid), seizures, coma.
Rubella • • • Greatest risk in the first trimester Effects: Congenital heart disease, IUGR, cataracts, mental retardation, hearing impairments, microcephaly, extensive fetal malformations. Treatment: Therapeutic abortion if in 1st trimester
CMV: Cytomegalovirus • • • • • Member of the herpes virus group transmitted via placenta or cervix during delivery. Most frequent cause of viral infections in the fetus. o Brain, liver, and blood damage. CMV: Common cause of mental retardation Other effects: o Hearing defects o SGA infant Antiviral drugs cannot prevent CMV or treat the neonate.
Herpes Virus Type II • • • Fetus is exposed from: o Placenta during pregnancy, or genital tissues from delivery May be asymptomatic 2-12 days o Then develops jaundice, seizures, fever, vesicular lesions, stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth). Treatment: o C-section delivery protects the fetus from infection during active phases o Acyclovir 21 days to infant Healthcare workers with active lesions cannot care for babies.
Syphilis • • Congenital syphilis diagnosed with serology tests at 3 and 6 months Symptoms: o Vesicular lesions on soles, palms; irritability o SGA, failure to thrive, rhinitis, red rash at mouth and anus, copper rash on face, soles, palms.
Treatment: o Penicillin, isolation o Cover baby’s hands to prevent skin trauma from scratching.
Other: • Hepatitis B: o Babies are routinely vaccinated at birth o Babies with positive mothers are given immunoglobin to decrease infection possibility. HIV: o Babies born with HIV status Gonorrhea and Chlamydia o Eye infection/blindness. Treat with eye ointment erythromycin within one hour of birth.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn • • Occurs when blood group of mother and infant are different Most common: o Rh factor o ABO incompatibility
Rh incompatibility • • • • Isoimmunization or Rh sensitization 10-15% Caucasian couples 5% African American couples Rh- mom has Rh+ fetus: o If mom is Rh- and baby is Rh-, no danger o If mom is Rh+ and baby is Rh-, no danger o Only Rh+ offspring of an Rh- mother is at risk
Pathology of Rh factor: • • • • • Formation of blood cells begins by 8th week of gestation In up to 40% of pregnancies, these cells pass through placenta into mother’s circulation When the fetus is Rh+ and the mom is Rh-, the mother forms antibodies against the fetal blood cells. Always ask… what is the baby’s blood type? Sensitization can occur during:
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o Pregnancy o Birth o Abortion/miscarriage o Amniocentesis Usually happens during the first pregnancy with Rh+ fetus; does not produce enough antibodies to cause harm to fetal blood cells. Problems occur with the next pregnancies as more antigens form Causes destruction of fetal blood cells. Fetus compensates for this destruction by producing large numbers of immature erythrocytes (RBC’s) to replace the destroyed ones. o Causes Erythroblastosis fetalis (immature new RBC cannot compensate or replace older, more mature RBC). Continued RBC destruction and anemia jaundice and marked fetal edema (hydrops fetalis) congestive heart failure. Breakdown of RBC’s releases bilirubin jaundice o Can lead to kernicterus (yellow staining on the brain) neurological damage.
Assessment and prevention of Rh Isoimmunization • All pregnant women are assessed for: o Blood group o Rh factor o Routine antibody screening o Note history of: Previous miscarriage Blood transfusions Infants experiencing jaundice If client is Rh-, test father Rh- mother and Rh- father = Rh- fetus Indirect Coombs test (on mother): o To determine if Rh- mom has developed antibodies to Rh antigen Direct Coombs test (on baby’s blood) to identify maternal antibodies attached to fetal RBC’s. o If the direct Coombs test is positive, this is when problems occur. Watch baby closely for signs of jaundice. Rh immune globulin within 72 hours after birth prevents sensitization in Rhwoman who has had a fetomaternal transfusion of Rh+ fetal RBC’s. Suppresses antibody formation in mom Also given at 28 weeks gestation as prophylaxis o Rhogam is NOT long lasting 300 ug (1 vial) of Rh immune globulin usually enough (given IM) If large fetomaternal transfusion is suspected, a Kleihauer-Betke test is done (detects the amount of fetal blood in maternal circulation).
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More common than Rh incompatibility Causes less severe problems Mom’s blood is O, fetus blood is A, B, or AB o Naturally occurring anti-A and anti-B antibodies transfer across placenta to fetus. Baby may show weak positive Coombs test result May result is hyperbilirubinemia that can be treated with phototherapy. Rarely does this incompatibility lead to the severe anemia of Rh incompatibility. First time infant will have the most issues that other children.
Goals for mom and family: • • • • To To To To understand changes taking place in mom’s body (vag/c-section) know how to care for infant know how to care for self know when to contact the healthcare system
Changes that occur during the postpartal period
Postpartal period: • • • • First 6 weeks after birth Begins with the delivery of the placenta Ends when body systems return to the pre-pregnant stage Also called “Puerperium”
Reproductive systems • Uterus: o Rapidly shrinks in size o Called involution of uterus o After the delivery, the uterus is the size of a grapefruit (2.4 lbs) o 1 week: 500 grams o 6 weeks: 50 grams o Uterus cannot typically be palpated after 10 days o Contractions after the baby is born causes the uterus to shrink
Muscle fibers shorten Wall of uterus thickens and gets smaller The uterus never returns to its prepregnant size Uterus (fundus) decreases at a predictable rate 2 cm below umbilicus a few minutes after birth 1 cm above umbilicus at 12 hours and then, descends one fingerbreath (1 cm) per day o No longer palpable by day 9 or 10 Subinvolution of the uterus: o This is a bad thing. o Uterus does not return to nonpregnant state. o Most common reasons: Retained placental fragments Infections Fundus should be midline. If not, it could be because mother has a full bladder. o Fundus should be firm, not boggy. If its boggy, it could indicate hemorrhage o o o o
Uterine contractions • • • • • Begin immediately after the placenta is delivered The hormones that control the contractions are: o Oxytocin (pituitary gland; strengthens and coordinates the contractions) During the first 1-2 hour PP, uterine contractions may decrease o Muscles are tired! Exogenous Oxytocin given after the delivery of the placenta o Pitocin: IV or IM Stimulates uterine smooth muscle contractions Breastfeeding is another strategy to increase contractions—releases oxytocin
Contractions and “afterpains” • Cramping with contractions o Does not usually occur in first time mothers: the more the body has been pregnant, the more the body has to work to shrink the stretched uterus. Usually occurs in: o Multigravida o Twins are large baby o Breastfeeding tends to increase afterpains o Last 2-3 days
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Large and open wound Blood vessels pinched off; thrombi form, seal the site Eventually endometrial tissue forms over the raw area Scar tissues does not typically form Contractions help constrict blood vessels to clot where the placenta was
Lochia: Postchildbirth uterine discharge
Classifications of Lochia: • Lochia Rubra: (1-3 days) o Consists almost entirely of blood with small particles of deciduas and mucus. o Small blood clots o For the first 2 hours after birth, amount is very similar to heavy menstrual flow. Lochia Serosa: (4-10 days) o Pink or reddish brown (old blood, leukocytes, tissue debris) o Watery o No clots o No odor to earthy like menses
Lochia o o o
Alba (at 10 days) Colorless to white (or yellow) Can last 2-6 weeks in some women After 6 weeks, it could signal a sign of infection
Amount of Lochia • • • Increases with breast feeding and BF (what in the hell is BF? If someone knows, please tell me) Tends to pool when in bed; may “gush” when first getting up in the a.m. If on pitocin, scant amounts
Estimating amount of lochia • Amount of staining on pad: o Scant: 1-2” stain 10ml o Light (small) 4” stain 10-25 ml o Moderate: 6” stain 25-50 ml
o Heavy: (large): saturated in one hour; >6” stain Time factor important o Pad that saturates in one hour vs. 8 hours
Watch for… • • • Bright red bleeding with firm uterus laceration Check underneath patient Saturation of a pad in less than one hour is an abnormally heavy flow
C-section Lochia • • Lesser amount, but still goes through 3 stages The nurse may see later stages since the c-section patient is in the hospital longer
Cervix • • • • Immediately after delivery: o Soft, edematous; partially open, can admit two fingers Within 24 hours, rapidly shortens, becomes firmer, thicker May look bruised with multiple small lacerations By 7 days, external os changes from a round opening to a slit-like opening; size of a pencil opening
Vagina • • • • • • Greatly stretched Increased edema Small lacerations Very few rugae Estrogen (with ovulation) causes return to normal BF moms; ovulation is postponed; may experience vaginal dryness
Perineum • • • • Muscles are torn and stretched, swollen and reddened Vulva is deep red, velvety appearance Lacerations, bruising around opening Hemorrhoids, commonly seen. Usually decrease after childbirth
Episiotomy • • • • • • Surgical cut, midline or mediolateral to the upper vaginal outlet Also to prevent laceration Prevents pressure on infant’s head Usually heals with little inflammatory reaction Remember—the more the degree (ex. 3rd degree), the larger/more advanced the cut. An alternative to an episiotomy is the massage of the vaginal opening (sounds pretty kinky to me!)
Perineal lacerations • • Occur when the head is being born Classification: o 1st degree: perineal skin, no muscle involvement o 2nd degree: laceration extends through muscles of perineal body o 3rd degree: continues through anal sphincter muscle o 4th degree: through anal sphincter and into rectum
Hematoma • May be present o Severe pain and rectal pressure o Can cause tissue necrosis
OUCH! • • All of these conditions cause discomfort Relief of perineal pain is a nursing priority. Control pain!
Pelvic Muscle Support • • • Pelvic floor muscles may require 6 months to regain tone Can lead to future problems Teach Kegel exercises
Human placental lactogen (hPL), estrogen, cortisol, and insulinase gone reverses diabetogenic effect. o Moms with type 1 diabetes require less insulin; their body is more sensitive to insulin. Decreased estrogen aids in the diuresis of fluids Decreased progesterone levels
Pituitary hormone and ovarian function—Prolactin • In lactating women: o Levels remain elevated o Suppresses ovulation for about 6 months o May have menses even if not ovulating Non-lactating women: o Prolactin levels decrease; reach pre-pregnant state in 3-4 weeks o Ovulation at 27 days to 10 weeks o 70% resume menses by 12 weeks
Prolactin and breastfeeding • Non-lactating women: o May still secrete colostrum for 2-3 days o Engorgement of breast tissue occurs on 3rd day, lasts 24-36 hours, usually resolves on own o Should wear tight bra to compress milk ducts; cold applications to reduce swelling. Lactating women: o High level of prolactin initiates milk production within 2-3 days o Continues to be produced by contact with nursing baby
Other hormones released • Oxytocin o Produced by hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary o Increases tone and mobility of uterine muscles o Breast response: Oxytocin stimulates release of milk into lactiferous ducts; increases flow, NOT VOLUME, called “let-down” relex
Cardiovascular system • Normal blood loss in delivery in a single infant is: o Vag: 500 ml
o C/S: 1000 ml Cardiac output: o Transient increase in blood volume after baby is born Increase in blood volume increases BP and lowers Pulse Bradycardia: 50-70 BPM. This is very normal due to all of the shifting of blood o Lasts about 48 hours or longer o Assess for LOC; dizziness, HA, confusion could indicate brain hypoxia Blood volume o Decreases due to: Diuresis urine output is 3000 ml the first few days Diaphoresis night sweats Blood clotting o During pregnancy increased fibrogen o Remains elevated until baby is born o Put mother’s at risk for DVT Blood values: o Greater loss of plasma than blood cells: Increased hemoglobin Increased hematocrit o WBC during first 10-12 days is 20-25,000. Could mask infection
Urinary system… 2 BIG problems • Urinary retention o Much pressure on bladder and urethra during vaginal delivery o Decreased bladder tone o Edema of urethra o Decreased sensation to void o If epidural or spinal, feels no sensation until effects wear off Bladder distention o Due to postpartal diuresis within 12 hours o Should try to void within 1-2 hours o Bladder distention can lead to a very sad, boggy uterus. Lactosuria (presence of lactose/milk sugar) may be seen in nursing moms Slight proteinuria for 1-2 days
Gastrointestinal system • • Appetite—usually very hungry Constipation o Decreased muscle tone in intestines o Muscles used for defecation stretched o May be delayed until 2-3 days PP o Fear of pain from episiotomy and hemorrhoids
Musculoskeletal system • • Muscles and joints o Fatigue first 2 days PP o Ligaments and cartilage return to normal Abdomen: first two weeks are relaxed o Soft and flabby; takes about 6 weeks to regain tone o Striae fade to silver-white, but never completely disappear o Diastasis of the recti muscle (separation due to reduced muscle tone)
Skin • • Mask of pregnancy, linea nigra usually disappear Striae do not disappear
Weight • • • 12-13 pounds lost at delivery 5-8 pounds following week from perspiration and diuresis) 19-22 pounds is the average weight loss
Major causes of maternal death in the postpartum period are infection and hemorrhage.
Assessment during the postpartal period • • • 4th stage—1 hour after placenta is delivered until stable o focus on preventing hemorrhage, rest; begin bonding with baby Postpartum period—4th stage to discharge o Prevent hemorrhage and infection; lactation; bonding; supervised care of baby; psychological stages, and teaching Vital signs: o Important to monitor VS of PP patient Vitals q15m x 1 hour, the q30m x 1 hour; q1h x 1 hour, q4h x 24 Temperature o May be up first 24 hours if exhausted or dehydrated Up to 100.4*F o 4th stage: taken in recovery room once should be normal or below due to hypothermia in L & D o PP period q4h
Temp of 100.4 or above on any two (after first 24 hours) of 1st ten PP days = febrile. Assess for infection. Lactating women will have a temp on 3rd or 4th day PP Only lasts 12 hours Teach to call M.D. if temp is over 100 at home
Pulse o o o Blood o
Transient Bradycardia of 50-70 BPM Tachycardia needs further assessment Pulse returns to normal within 1 week pressure 4th stage: slightly elevated from exhaustion, excitement a drop means hemorrhage check baseline from M.D.’s office o Postpartum Should remain consistent with prelabor An increase of 30 mmHg systolic or 15 mmHg diastolic or both could indicate PIH o Orthostatic hypotension when getting up Patient will appear dizzy, pale, or may faint o C-section Could be decreased due to anesthesia & greater blood loss
Breasts • Assess for (palpate): o Softness o Firmness o Filling, colostrum o Engorged o Cracks, fissures o Redness Clean, well fitting bra on at all times Very little change for 3-4 days; colostrum only Engorgement: o Acute discomfort for 24 hours o Empty breasts q2h—nurse/mechanical o May need to release milk before feeding o Ice packs or heat o May experience fever for 8-12 hours when engorged Cracked/Bleeding nipples: o Analgesics 30-60 minutes before nursing o Use least sore breast first, Plastic shells rarely used (some hospitals require consent form) NO plastic breast pads o Feed no longer than 5-15 minutes o Wash with water only; then air-dry o Lanolin, tea bags, vary the position o At discharge; teach breast self-exam
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GI/Abdomen • • • Listen for bowel sounds (especially C/S moms) For diastasis recti o Gradual exercise can resume immediately C-section o Not as moveable due to dressings and staples; painful
Fundal check • • • Empty bladder to avoid displacement Observe perineum while measuring fundus for clots and blood flow (Lochia, baby) If the fundus is soft and boggy, need to: o Check bladder o Check lochia amount, odor, quality Massage to expel clots and tissue o Put baby to breast (stimulates contractions) o Check with M.D. immediately. Medications for the fundus crap: o Methergine po- causes tonic contractions (not very painful) o Pitocin IV- causes clonic contractions (painful) o BP must be lower than 140/90 to administer Do not give IV and po simultaneously C-section: o Give analgesic before touching o Use only fingertips o Stays firm due to the pitocin in the IV
Education at discharge • • • • • Teach how to find fundus lying flat on bed Teach how to massage Teach progression of involution and when to call M.D. Contraception, ovulation Increase in activity increases bleeding
Afterpains • • Uterus contracting with involution (pitocin in IV or oral methergine) o Do not do fundal check; give analgesics and come back later Interventions:
o o o o
Empty bladder Lie prone Leg lifts: contracts abdominal muscles; stimulates circulation Analgesics 30-60 minutes before breastfeeding
Perineal Pain and assessment • • • Turn on side and lift buttocks, use pen light to see, wear gloves (duh) Episiotomy mediolateral most uncomfortable Check for edema and ecchymosis—REEDA o R: redness o E: edema o E: ecchymosis (bruising) o D: Discharge/drainage o A: approximation Perineal Varicosities = discomfort Hemorrhoids
Nursing interventions for perineal pain: • Prevent infection o Handwashing is #1 o Change pads from front to back, do not touch inside o Peri care after each elimination—wipe with tissue front to back Provide comfort o Analgesia q4h if ordered No aspirin! o Cold pack or ice in glove first 24 hours On 20 minutes, off 20 minutes o After 24 hours; heat to increase blood flow o Sitz bath, spray, cream, witch hazel pads (tucks) o Teach Kegel exercises (handout) Teach how to sit: o Uncushioned chair or firm cushion, pillow on chair (no inflated rings) o Approach directly and flat o Perineum and buttocks contracted o Sit upright in back of chair
And more teaching… • • • Teach peri care with peri bottle Inspect carefully; may use mirror at home Teach signs of complications and infections o REEDA
o o o
Temp over 100 Increased pain Pressure or fullness in vagina
Perineal care after C-section • • • Perineum normal unless labored for a long period of time Hemorrhoids are still a reality Still needs peri care; will have lochia
Lochia • • • • • • • • Assess color and amount Teach proper peri care 4th stage—use bedpan and peri bottle DO NOT touch inside of the pads Careful handwashing! Wipe front to back x 1 and discard, repeat until dry Teach stages of lochia DO NOT insert things into vagina
Lochia teaching at discharge • Teach for signs of deviations from normal and when to call M.D. o Foul odor with or without fever o Clots or tissue in lochia—distinguish between the two o Fever over 100 No tampons No sex while lochia persists Do not douche while lochia persists Prone position helps uterine descent and cramping
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Lower extremities • • • Assess for DVT Early ambulation Leg exercises in bed
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Early ambulation Regular high fiber diet, liquids; 8-10 glasses qd Exercise muscles (Check with M.D.) Stool softeners, supp., enema Sitz baths Peri products to lessen pain Should BM within 3 days
Urinary Elimination • Void within 6-8 hours (100-300 ml) to prevent: o Assess frequently for distention o Often, must catheterize
Nutrition • • • • Hungry and thirsty after delivery Dehydrated if no IV Regular high fiber diet for all moms except C-section May eat or drink except for (C-sectioned moms in particular): o N/V or general anesthesia o Flat in bed due to epidural o Sedated, drowsy, unconscious o Diabetic, cardiac, toxemic o Any special diet ordered by M.D. The main dietary concern immediately after delivery—increase fluids to replace fluids, electrolytes, blood volume from: o Diaphoresis o Exertion o Fluid loss during delivery o Fluids to help with voiding o Maintain normal temp o Maintain adequate nutrition o Take slowly to decrease nausea Intermediate care: o Encourage to eat adequate diet and fluids o 2000-2200 cal non-lactating o 2500-2700 cal lactating (500 more calories) C-section: o Post-op care, NPO, ice chips, clear liquids, soft diet o Progressive post-op diet Suppliments: o Prenatal vitamins until gone Check Hbg and Hct
Sleep and rest: • 4th stage: o exhausted from birth experience and frequent nursing checks o provide privacy for mom, dad, and baby o Encourage to sleep! PP to discharge: o After 1st 24 hours; ½ of time should be spent resting o Group your nursing activities Discharge: o Teach mom to sleep when baby sleep Sleep deprivation leads to PPD o Assess for plan for help at home o Alteration in lifestyle disrupts sleep habits o May need to limit visitors and well-meaning friends
Comfort/PP Chill: • • • • Occurs in 4th stage Due to sudden release of pressure on pelvic nerves Fetus to mother transfusion during placental separation Keep warm- blankets, warm liquids
Discharge teaching: • • • • Teach all aspects of self-care Stress importance of keeping follow-up appointments Contraception When to call M.D. o Temp over 100 o Pain: perineum, breast, abdomen, calf or leg o Persistent or reversal of lochia, clots, odor, tissue o Saturating more than one pad per hour o Depression lasting two weeks or longer o Uterus not descending o C-section- open, draining, or odor of incision o Burning on urination
Postpartum hemorrhage • • • Major cause of maternal death Definition: o Blood loss after delivery >500 to 1000 ml/24 hours Classification: o Mild = 750-1250 ml o Moderate = 1250-1750 ml o Severe = 2500 ml Early o Within the first 24 hours Late o Anytime after first 24 hours through 6 weeks
Conditions that increase risk for PP hemorrhage • Over distension of the uterus o Multiple births (triplets, etc) o Hydroamnios o Macrosomia Trauma r/t forceps, uterine manipulation Prolonged labor- tilted uterus Uterine infection Trauma removing placenta
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Causes of Postpartum hemorrhage • Uterine Atony: Uterus without tone o 90% of cases o uterine muscle unable to contract around blood vessels at placental site o Causes: Deep anesthesia >30 years old prolonged use of magnesium sulfate previous uterine surgery mom exhausted o Symptoms: May have 2” blood clots Blood may “gush” or come out slowly Is usually venous blood o Therapeutic interventions Massage uterus, then, Give oxytocin drugs (pitocin or methergine po), then, Bimanual compression (BY DOCTOR), then, Administer prostaglandins (causes uterine contractions) intramyometrium or IM, then,
Hysterectomy or surgical repair (last resort) Nursing interventions: Blood transfusion Fundal massage Have patient void q4h or Catheterize if too much blood lost If SOB, give oxygen at 4L/NC Frequent vital signs
Lacerations (large) o Cervical, vaginal, perineal o Causes by: Forceps Large baby o Symptoms- cervical If uterine artery; bright red blood gushes out Fundus is firm Occurs at delivery, can be sutured o Symptoms- vaginal Packing in place due to oozing of blood after repair Remove packing in 24-48 hours (risk of infection increases) Catheter in place o Symptoms- perineal Different degrees o Nursing interventions for perineal lacerations: 3rd and 4th degree perineal lacerations- fecal incontinence promote soft stools roughage stool softeners fluid activity NO enemas or suppositories
Retained placenta o Fragments of placenta remained in uterus o Retained placental fragments cause decreased contractions o Some causes: Massage prior to separation Pulling on cord Placenta “accrete” Placenta actually grows into uterus Cells of placenta (trophoblast) penetrate myometrium Difficult for placenta to detach o Symptoms: Large fragments
Patient bleeds immediately at delivery Uterus is boggy Small fragments Occurs at 6th – 10th day PP Can cause subinvolution Interventions: Remove fragments (D & C) Massage Manual exploration Observe placenta after birth
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) o Deficiency of clotting ability o Caused by injury to blood vessel o Oozing of blood from IV site, other orifices o Very critical situation
Perineal Hematoma o Collection of blood in subcutaneous layer of tissue in perineum o Symptoms: Bleeding is concealed; area of purplish discoloration/swelling on perineum Fundus firm Pain or pressure in perineum and rectum Unable to void May have signs of shock with firm uterus and no vaginal bleeding o Interventions: Ice Antibiotics May need to do incision and evacuation, then suture
General Assessment Findings: • • Baseline H/H and history Condition of fundus o Boggy indicates atony o Firm fundus rules out atony, but bleeding could come from cervical laceration Look for symptoms of shock: o Pulse- rapid, thready o Pallor, chills o Air hunger, rapid respirations
o o o o
Falling BP Restless Disturbed vision and hearing Confusion, combative
General Nursing interventions • • • • • • • • Identify patients at risk for conditions Monitor fundus frequently if bleeding occurs; when stable, every 15 minutes for 1-2 hours, then at usual intervals Monitor BP and pulse frequently Monitor character and amount of bleeding Administer medications, IV fluids as ordered Measure I & O Keep patient warm Monitor for signs of clotting defects with major loss (DIC) increased bleeding
Postpartum infection • • • • Infection of the reproductive tract associated with giving birth Usually occurs within 10 days of birth Another leading cause of maternal death Predisposing factors: o Prolonged rupture of membranes (>24 hours) o C-section o Trauma during birth process o Maternal anemia o Retained placental fragments Infection may be localized or systemic o Local = can spread to peritoneum (peritonitis) or circulatory (septic). o Fatal to woman already stressed with childbirth Assessment findings: o Temp of 100.4 for more than 2 consecutive days, excluding the first 24 hours. o Abdominal, perineal, or pelvic pain o Foul-smelling vaginal discharge o Burning sensation with urination o Chills, malaise o Rapid pulse and respirations o Elevated WBC, positive culture and sensitivity Remember, 20-25,000 is normal after delivery—MASKING infection. Nursing interventions o Force fluids; may need more than 3L/day o Administer antibiotics and other meds as ordered o Treat symptoms as they arise o Encourage high calorie, high protein diet
Position patient in a semi-Fowlers to promote drainage and prevent reflux higher into reproductive tract
Urinary tract infection • • May be caused postpartally by bacteria, coupled with bladder trauma during delivery, or break in technique during catherization. Assessment findings: o Pain in suprapubic area or at the lower costovertebral (between rib and vertebra) o Fever o Burning, urgency, frequency on urination o Increased WBC and hematuria o Urine culture positive for causative organism Nursing interventions o Check status of bladder frequently in PP patient o Encourage patient to void o Force fluids; may require 3L/day o Catheterize patient if ordered, using sterile technique o Administer meds as ordered o Continue to monitor labs
Perineal infection • • Infection at site of episiotomy Assessment: o Skin changes o Edema o Redness o Pain exudate Management: o Monitor site o Promote drainage o Provide clean environment o Include wash with peri bottle, sitz bath, exposure to air o Teach good personal hygiene
Endometritis • • Infection of endometrium involving superficial mucosal layer Signs: o Fundus does not descend o Fever and chills o Persistent foul lochia o Cramps
Management: o IV therapy
Peritonitis • • Inflammation of the perioneum o Thin membranous tissue that extends from the pelvic cavity and is continuous with abdominal cavity Assessment: o Elevated temperature o Shaking and chills o N/V o Oliguria o Abdominal distension Management: o Treatment focuses on maintaining adequate circulation and intravascular volumes o Antibiotic therapy
Thrombophlebitis • • Seen in veins of legs and pelvis Causes: o Injury o Infection o Normal increase in circulating clotting factors in pregnant and newly delivered woman Assessment findings o Pain/discomfort in area of thrombus o If in leg: Pain Edema Redness over affected area o Fever and chills o Peripheral pulses may be decreased. o Positive Homan’s sign o If in deep vein, leg may be cool and pale Nursing interventions: o Maintain bedrest with leg elevated on pillow. Do not raise knee gatch on bed. o Apply moist heat as ordered o Administer analgesics as ordered o Anticoagulant therapy (usually heparin or lovenox) Observe for bleeding o Observe for signs of pulmonary embolism SOB Dyspnea
Psychological changes in the postpartal period
Postpartal period: • • Time of change and adjustment to new role Reva Rubin, a nurse and pioneer in the field of maternal behavior
Process of becoming acquainted: • Bonding: o Initial attraction felt by parents toward their infant o Enhanced when able to touch and interact during the first 30-60 minutes after birth (touch and feel!). Attachment: o Process by which an enduring bond to an infant is developed over time o Different than bonding, more intense Mutual regulation: o A cueing system… each one sends out signals that can be read by the other. Both the infant and the mothers needs are met o Crying, cooing, smiling “signaling behaviors” Rooting, sucking, grasping; initiates and maintains contact with parents. Brings parents near. o Baby makes his needs known; a process that continues throughout childhood. Reciprocity: o Reciprocal- interaction style Pleasure and delight in each other develops Mutual development of love and growth Entrainment: appears to listen to voice and follow face; baby’s movements synchronized with rhythm of parent’s speech
Maternal role attainment • Process in which mother achieves confidence in her ability to care for infant
Phases of maternal role attainment: • • Maternal touch: Changes as mom get to know infant o Enface position: eye contact Fingertip exploration:
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o Discovery process o Attachment is started o May take minutes or hours Palmar touch: entire hand Enfolding: baby in arms, pressing him/her to body Identification: ID’s baby as her own; clarifies feelings—what he looks like and what he can do. Relating: Characteristics of baby related to familiar person (nose like grandpa’s) Interpreting: Gives meaning to baby’s actions—he’s going to be a big eater like Uncle Bob.
Process of Maternal Adaptation • Reva Rubin (1960’s) identified phases a mother goes through to: o Gain back energy lost during labor o Attain comfort in role of mother o Involves 3 phases: Taking in Taking hold Letting go Taking in: o Passive-dependent stage (after delivery) Time of reflection Is passive Wants others to meet her needs o Needs food, rest, in pain, very tired o Not a good phase for teaching Taking hold: o Dependent-independent stage (2nd day) o May be insecure, but want to be independent o Begins to initiate action o This is the best time for teaching o Although independent, still insecure about role as a mother o Needs praise and encouragement Letting go: o Interdependent stage (occurs at home) o Redefines her new role. Accepts: Physical separation of baby That she is no longer childless Dependency of the child o Suffers role strain: How to handle work and home Torn between the two o Needs anticipatory guidance by the nurse: Help at home Babysitter Time alone with companion
A word about fathers: • • Mom’s preoccupation with baby can lead to jealousy o Encourage parents to talk freely and listen o Father may center attention on baby and ignore mom Father may need to be reassured about his role in the family o Dad needs to spend time alone with infant too
Postpartum blues: • • • • • • • Adjustment disorder to a life event 50-75% of moms experience it; cries for no reason Patients go home so early, nurses don’t see it often. Expect to see 3-5 days postpartum Teach signs and symptoms Severity and symptoms vary with each individual Incidences seem to be decreasing. o Better OB care o Better preparation for new role—Lamaze, etc. o Allowing verbalization of feelings May be called the “Baby Blues”.
Symptoms of postpartum/baby blues: • • • • • • • • • Loss of energy and appetite Crying for no reason Anxiety and fear; feel overwhelmed Insomnia Concerned about her body Reads into what others say, especially husband Directs anger toward husband Irritable Self-absorbed
Why does Postpartum/baby blues occur? • • • • • • Stress of labor and birth Hormonal changes General physical adjustments to non-pregnant state Sex of child Dealing with reality of new baby Attention is shifted away from pregnant mom now to baby
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She may feel husband is placing her 2nd to baby Immaturity Family, social, economic problems No help at home Mother may verbalize: o Sensation of feeling unprotected o Feeling of emptiness; compares to amputation Symptoms usually last 48 hours Give guidance before going home Need support; get help with baby & housework if needed, so mom can sleep Describe behaviors in charting
Postpartum depression- PPD • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Usually occur by 4th week PP, near menses, or at weaning o May occur up to one year PP In a fog Increase in irritability and anxiousness Crying Insomnia Somatic complaints Seclusiveness Excessive sleeping (while holding baby, etc.) Avoid baby Apathy toward husband Persists longer than 10 days Deepens Interferes with ADL ’s Need professional consult Apparent within 3 months
Nursing responsibilities in PPD: • • • Recognize symptoms Report to doctor Frequently happens within first 6 weeks at home
Most likely candidates in PPD: • • • Mother with previous history of mental illness/instability Complicated pregnancy Stressful life situations o Abuse
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o More than 3 children o Single o Poverty o Drug dependence Feeling incompetent Cultural differences, etc. Poor mother/daughter relationship leading to rejection of reproductive role Lack of early support, attention, dependable relationship with either parent Own parent’s not available; negative or preoccupied
Nursing Implications of psychological factors: • Prime importance: strengthen maternal-child relationship o Encourage physical contact between mother and baby immediately after birth o Allow active participation in caring for child as soon as possible Assess factors influencing psychological adjustment Promote caring and supportive atmosphere so mother can freely express feelings and needs. o Allow mom to set own pace as to assuming responsibility of self-care and care of child. Encourage fathers to actively participate in care of infant Encourage both parents to discuss with each other and nurse their reactions to parenthood and feeling about assuming new role Council parents about possibility of postpartal blues occurring after discharge from the hospital If symptoms persist or get worse: o Contact doctor o Medication or counseling may be needed o Support groups are available o Mental health centers o Parenting groups o National “DAD” hotline o May need hospitalization if threatens suicide or harm to baby
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Preemies, children with deformities/disabilities, stillborn children: • Anomalies o Difficult situation o Allow parents to talk o Allow parents to grieve o Say things like: “This just isn’t fair” “This is a lousy thing to have happened” “You must be feeling very frightened” Premature baby:
Be sure parents see and touch baby as soon as possible Take parents to NICU ALWAYS keep them informed of what is happening If transferred away from hospitalized mom: Pictures are important Phone calls 24 hrs/day to NICU nursery at Children’s o They’re often not ready for baby at home Nursery, clothes may be needed Thrown off schedule with work, etc. Time, energy, money—long term effects o Explain to siblings o Do not forget the father in all of this o Don’t try to stop grief—allow her to express feelings o Encourage support groups Preemies often have health problems; parents need support. Stillborn child o Parents need to see, touch, wash, and dress baby o Get footprints, pictures, lock of hair, ID band, name the child and use the name often. o If they don’t see their baby; the parents often never face reality and stuck in the grieving process. o Again, encourage to hold, rock, and cuddle their baby. o Allow and encourage them to take photos of their angel. o o o o