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, 10(6) ; 715725, June 1979
CONVERGING CYLINDRICAL DETONATION WAVES IN MAGNETOGASDYNAMICS B. G.
Department
VERMA AND
J. P.
VISHWAKARMA
oj Mathematics,
University oj Gorakhpur, Gorakhpur
(Received I June 1978)
The problem of cylindrical magnetogasdynarnic detonation waves, convergent to the axis of symmetry through a gas with varying initial density, is studied. It is shown that the consideration of varying initial density affects the front velocity considerably. On the other hand, magnetic field has very small effect on the front velocity.
1. INTRODUCTION
The problem of imploding cylindrical or spherical shock front propagating into a uniform gas at rest is well known (Stanyukovich 1960). Nigmatulin (1967) has replaced the shock front by a contracting detonation front propagating into a uniform combustible gas. Here, we have considered the problem of converging cylindrical detonation waves in magnetogasdynamics. The electrical conductivity of the gas is supposed to be infinite and initial density of the gas varies as some power of distance measured from the axis of symmetry. The law of convergence is determined by the condition that the detonation wave is ChapmanJouguet front i.e. it travels with velocity of propagation of small disturbances relative to the burnt gas (Helliwell 1963). The expression for similarity exponent is determined and graphs are plotted for velocity of detonation front, flow velocity. pressure, density and magnetic field. It is shown that when we take the initial density to be varying, the front velocity and flow parameters change considerably. The magnetic field, however, has very small effect on the front velocity as well as on the flow parameters. 2.
BASIC EQUATIONS
Consider a cylindrically symmetric flow of a combustible gas with infinite electrical conductivity in which a strong detonation wave travels to the axis of symmetry. The origin of coordinates is taken on the axis of collapse. The time t is taken to be negative before the detonation front reaches the axis of symmetry and t = 0 is the instant of collapse. We assume that the undisturbed density Po and magnetic field ho ahead of the detonation wave are given respectively by
Po = Ao,Ie ... (2.la) ... (2.1b)
ho
=
Bor"
716
B. G. VERMA AND J. P. VISHWAKARMA
where Ao, Bo and k are positive constants and r is the distance measured from the axis of symmetry. The position of the detonation front is assumed to be given by ... (2.2) where a" and n( < 1) are constants. The basic equations governing the symmetric flow of a perfect, inviscid gas with infinite electrical conductivity in the Eulerian system are
OP
OP 01' +v+p+=O Of 'or Or
PI'
r
... (2.3)
~ .ot
oh
+
v~
or
+ _1 (oP + h oh
P
or
or )
0
=0
... (2.4) ... (2.5)
oh ot + v or + h ~ + hI' or r
=
OP OP at + v or + yp ~ + ypv or r
=
0 and magnetic field transverse
... (2.6) to the
where v, p, P, h are velocity, density, pressure flow, respectively, y is the ratio of specific heats.
From the conditions for the conservations of mass, momentum, energy and magnetic field at the strong magnetogasdynamic detonation wave, we have
1'2
= =
~D
... (2.7a) ... (2.7b) (3) ~) ... (2.7c) ... (2.7d)
pz
P2
= ~PID2
PliO 
h2 = hll(l where

1 {1 ~= _ y+1
+[
1  2(y 
l)(y
+
1) Q D2
]1/2} =1+1
ex
... (2.8)
and D is the velocity of the detonation front. The suffixes 2 and 1 refer to conditions just behind and just ahead of the detonation front respectively, Q is the heat release per unit mass of the gas. We introduce
1'=
a dimensionless i3DV('I'j)
variable
'I'j
= rlr2 and seek a solution of the form ... (2.9a) ... (2.9b)
P
P
=
=
(3plD2P('I'j)
[Pl/(l 
(3)] G('YJ)
.. ;(2.9c) ... (2.9d)
h
=
[{3pID2]l!2 H('YJ}
CONVERGING
CYLINDRICAL
DETONATION
WAVES IN MAGNETOGASDYNAMICS
717
At the detonation front, where 'rJ = I, the boundary functions V('rJ),P(YJ) and H(TJ) become
conditions
(2.7) for the reduced
V(l)
=
1,
pel)
=
1, G(I)
=
1 H(!) ,
=
M;:l (1  ~) ~1/2 wave given by
;;=:~
... (2.10)
where Mil is the Alfven Mach number of the detonation
Converting eqns. (2.3) to (2.6) to the dimensionless following system of four ordinary differential equations:
variables
in (2.9), we get the
+ ~V) + f3GV' + f3GV/'rJ+ kG GV'(YJ + f'V) + (1  ~) [P' + HH']
G'('Ij H'('Ij P'('rJ
=

0 GV(n ~) 1)/n
... (2.110)
=0
... (2.11b) ... (2.11c) ... (2.l1d)
+
~V)
+ ~HV' +
~HV/TJ 
(n 11 1 2
2
;)
H P
=0
=0
+ f3V) + y~PV' + y~PV/'TJ 
(11 ;;
1
where ~ is taken to be constant for the present but will be taken variable later. A quantity with dash represents the derivative of that quantity with respect to 7]. The determination of n will be examined in the next section. 3.
THE CONVERGENCE RULE
When the detonation front converges from infinity, the motion is defined by the parameters Q. Ao, r, t and y. From dimensional considerations the similarity exponent n must be equal to I, that is, the detonation front must travel with a constant velocity. But, a uniformly collapsing detonation cannot exist because as the detonation progresses its surface area diminishes, causing its velocity to increase towards the axis of symmetry, where it is infinite. Here, we do not intend to give a mathematical argument for the nonexistence of a uniformly collapsing detonation since the mathematical argument can be found in Nigmatulin (1967) in the case when
k
=
0 and
M;l
=
O.
In eqn. (2.8), ex. = 2 corresponds to a shock wave without the heat release i.e. Q = 0; ex. = 1 corresponds to the ChapmanJouguet detonation regime, where the wave travels along characteristics in the disturbed gas. We investigate the extreme case ex. = 1 in the convergence ensures the ChapmanJouguet condition and the detonation wave process, which travels along a
718
B. G. VERMA AND J. P. VISHWAKARMA
characteristic. In this way we will seek the law for the convergence of the front as a characteristic dividing the disturbed and undisturbed media. We use the equations of onedimensional motion in Lagrangian variables
Po = (1
+
Ur)
(
1
+ ~)
... (3.1a) ... (3.1b)
P p)" s:: ( ~
=,71;
( h )Y
... (3.Ie)
where u, =: ~~ and u is a displacement of a particle. The conditions on the magnetogasdynamic detonation wave in the ChapmanJouguet regime are
... (3.2a)
P1D2
pz = y pz =
+
Y
1
1)
... (3.2b) ... (3.2e) ...(3.2d)
Pl(Y
+ +
y
hz =
h1(y
1).
We now put eqn. (3.1b) in the form,
82u
812
=
2 u a(r, u, ur) 8r~
0
a + b(r,
±
adu,
U,
ur)
... (3.3)
so that the equations for the characteristics and the conditions on them are
dr
=±
adt, du, =
+ bdt
... (3.4)
where
u, = at·
au
Using eqn. (3.1a) and relations (3.2) in eqn. (3.Ie). we obtain, ( hZ ) P
+"2
=
Y
+1
1
(y
y
+1
)"
(1
+ Ur}Y
P1D2
(
1
+~
r(;2 yr
.•,{3.5)
h2j2
CONVERGING
CYLINDRICAL
DETONATION
WAVES IN MAGNETOGASDYNAMICS
719
Differentiating
eqn. (3.5) and substituting
into eqn. (3.1h), we get ... (3.6)
where
and L2
( Y
r
)'1'+1
1 (1
+
+ liT»' ..L!:_
r
(1 +
D2
~
r(~ rr
J
x{
(1 +
(rur

~ )r2'
u)
_ 2_
o
dDl
dr
Equating
(3.6) and (3.3) we obtain a2(r, b(r,
U,
u
T)
= (1
+
7)(:~ )L1
~ ) ( :: ) L2•
that the detonation
... (3.7) ... (3.8) wave travels along a charac... (3.9)
U,
uT) = ( 1 + assumed
Since
it has
been
above
teristic, we have a2
=
a [r, 0, ur2(r)]
=
D(r).
Hence eqn. (3.7) gives ... (3.10)
Case I Ur2
If we neglect M;I , 1 = _. y 1
+
720
B. G. VERMA AND J. P. VISHWAKARMA
Case II when a value of
If M;2
is not
neglected,
then
value
of Ur2 can be determined
only of
r is assigned.
In the calculation
that follows the numerical
value
Mil is taken to be 10.
For"{
=
2, that is, when p
Ur2
=
h2 (:;
),
==
0.3261. 0.2455.
For
r = 3,
Ur2
Also, from eqn. (3.8), we get b_
2
(_r_)'Y+l (1 + U 2)'Y' {Ur2 D2 +1
"'(
r
+
!5_ _ 2_ cl_IJ_}
r
r D dr
+
For the characteristic du or Substituting
(hi/Pl) {U,r2 (1 U,2)2
+
+
k, }.
... (3.11)
which bounds the quiescent gas, we have
=
U!2dt
+ ur2d, = 0
... (3.12) we have ... (3.13)
(3.12) into (3.4) and using the fact that Ur2 is constant,
=f ur2da2 = b2dt.
As a consequence of' eqns. (3.4), (3.9), (3.13) and (3.11), we obtain
... (3.14 )
where
m = (0.2247 and
m
0.6892k),
for
r =2 r = 3.
=
(O.2511 
1.0240k),
for
Integrating eqn. (3.14) and noting that the velocity, being directed towards the axis, is taken as negative, with the condition r2 = 0 at t = 0, we have
'2 =
an(

t)", n
=
m
+
1
l'
.•. (3.15)
Thus the law of the converging detonation front is obtained in the form which was assumed in section 2, and furthermore the similarity exponent n is determined in term of k, of course, for specific values of
r.
CONVERGING
CYLINDRICAL
DETONATION
WAVES IN MAGNETOGASDYNAMICS
721
Having determined n, one can solve the system (2.11) numerically with the boundary conditions (2.10). Here, again, we do not intend to solve the system (2.ll) but we are giving another approach for the solution to the present problem of converging detonation front. 4. Nigmatulin exponent where k (1967) has neglected
SOLUTIONS
the
effect of variation
of Q on the similarity we also, neglect rule), that is, Q is
= 0,
M~l = O.
Here,
in the present approach,
the effect of variation of Q on the similarity exponent (convergence taken to be constant in the convergence process. We assume that at a certain initial radius R, the detonation its own motion at the ChapmanJouguet velocity (IX = 1), D~
front has initiated ... (4.1)
= 2(y  1) (y
+
I) Qo'
From the eqn. (3.14), we get the following relation for the motion of the front:
=
Do
D
(R)'"

'2
.
... (4.2) into (2.8) and using eqns. (2.7), we obtain successively,
... (4.3a)
Substituting
the last expression
1X=1+
v2 v20
[ 1 (' ~ymJ/2
( IX
=
R
'2.
r
Y
... (4.3b)
P2 ( R ym Pzo = G
IX
... (4.3c)
~
Pzo

y
(IX y
1)
... (4.3d)
h2
h20
y
(IX 
I)
... (4.3e)
Here v20, P20, P20' hzo are the values of v, p, p and h in the ChapmanJouguet regime for the specified Qo' Equations (4.2)  (4.3) give the solution in terms of the radius of the front. 5.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For the velocity of detonation
front to increase towards the axis of symmetry we Hence the range of k depends on y and M~l
must have from (3.14) m to be positive. and for y
=
3 and M~l
=
0.1 it is 0 ~ k
< 0245.
722
B. G. VERMA AND J. P. VISHWAKARMA TABLE
I
Values of n for different values of "{, k and M~l
,,{=2
,,{=3
k M1
"

0
M~l
= 0.1
M~l= 0 0.8000 0.8333 0.8696 0.9091 0.9524
M~l
= 0.1
o
0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
0.8182 0.8411 0.8654 0.8911 0.9182
0.8165 0.8402 0.8652 0.8918 0.9201
0.7993 0.8334 0.8705 0.9112 0.9557
1.8
1.10
0/00
t
1.4
1.2
I.O~=~__:=:::==~:'==~~;;;;;;~_ o
0.2 04 0,6
1.0
rJR
FlO.
1.
In Table I values of n are given for different values of y. k and M~l. It is found that n increases considerably due to increase in k. This increase, however. is less for
't = 2 than that for "{ = 3. On the other hand. the effect of change of M~l (i.e. the
CONVERGING
CYLINDRICAL
DETONATION
WAVES IN MAGNETOGASDYNAMICS
723
2.0
.J..
t
'_r~
FIG. 2.
effect of magnetic field) on n is small. Also, for constant initial density (k = 0) effect of magnetic field is to decrease n (increase in front velocity) and for varying initial density (k 0) its effect is to increase n (decrease in front velocity). We have also plotted the graphs (Figs. 1,2,3,4 and 5) showing the variations of detonation front velocity, DIDo, a., flow velocity v2lv2o, pressure P2!P20' density P2!PZO and magnetic field
"*
h2/h20 in terms of front radius case k
=
r2/R
for "'(= 3, k
= 0, 0.2 and
M~l
= 0, 0.1. The
0, M~l
= 0 corresponds to detonation waves converging to the axis of
symmetry through a combustible gas of uniform initial density in ordinary gasdynamics (Nigmatulin 1967).
It is shown that, there is a remarkable change in the detonation front velocity, flow velocity, pressure and density, due to the consideration of varying initial density, except at initial point (r2 = R) and end point (r2 = 0). For k = 0.2, Fig. 1 indicates that the velocity of detonation front is almost constant, but near the
724
B. G. VERMA AND J. P. VISHWAKARMA
~~~.~~~.~~.~~~~.__JOO
~o
~
'"
o
rJ)
0
\P
0 L
.._'" ..; Ii:
ci
0
":
ci
'"
O~~~~o~.~L~O_~.O
,.;
~
o
'"
..:
CONVERGING
CYLINDRICAL
DETONATION
WAVES IN MAGNETOGASDYNAMICS
725
I.S
1.3
1.2
1.1
I.O,,
o
_..J' __
.......I.
...L....
.l. __
....::II_
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
FIG. 5.
instant of collapse it begins to increase rapidly. The constancy of front velocity arises as a result of varying initial density. On the other hand, the effeci:of magnetic field is very small on the front velocity and flow parameters just behind the detonation wave. This is possible due to the fact that we have considered a strong detonation wave.
REFERENCES
Helliwell, J. B. (1963). Magnetogasdynamic deflagration and detonation waves with ionization. J. Fluid Mech., 16 (2). 24361. Nigmatulin, R. I. (1967). Converging cylindrical and spherical detonation waves. J. appl. Math. Meeh .• 31 (I). 17177. Stanyukovich, K. P. (1960). Unsteady motion of continuous Pergamon Press, Oxford. media (translation edited by M. Holt).
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