2011 Neeraj Milan

Sachin Kumar

SUBMITTED BY: 071114018 071114058 071114031 071114053 071114095 071114064

PROJECT REPORT ON

Anuvrat Chaturvedi Deepak Sharma Vijay Ahirwar Sumit Kumar

Simulation of a 2.3 GHz microstrip inset feed Patch Antenna with a slot using IE3D

MAULANA AZAD Guidance of Under the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL Dr. Sangeeta Nakhate
(Assistant Professor)

5/6/2011

MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHOPAL
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PROJECT REPORT ON

“Simulation of a 2.3 GHz microstrip inset feed Patch Antenna with a slot using IE3D”
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Bachelor of Engineering Degree of MANIT, Bhopal. SUBMITTED BY NEERAJ MILAN (071114018) ANUVRAT CHATURVEDI (071114031) SACHIN KUMAR (071114058) VIJAY AHIRWAR (071114095) DEEPAK SHARMA(071114053) SUMIT KUMAR(071114064) Final Year, Electronics and Communication Engineering,

Under The Guidance of
Dr. Sangeeta Nakhate (Assistant Professor)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to express thanks with deep sense of gratitude to our project guide Dr. Sangeeta Nakhate(Assistant Professor) for her expert guidance, valuable inspiration, constant encouragement, painstaking attention and constructive criticism and suggestion. She stood by us along the way to make our project a working reality. We sincerely thank Dr. S.C. Shrivastava (H.O.D EL&CE Department) for the technical support he provided. Last but not least, we express our thanks to the entire staff of El&CE Deptt. and to all those who extended their co-operation directly or indirectly in the completing this endeavor.

MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Neeraj Milan, Sachin Kumar, Anuvrat Chaturvedi, Deepak Sharma,Vijay Ahirwar, Sumit Kumar of B. Tech. Electronics and Communication Engineering has successfully completed their Major Project on “Simulation of a 2.3 GHz microstrip inset feed Patch Antenna with a slot using IE3D”, in partial completion of their Bachelor’s degree at Maulana Azad National Institute Of Technology. Under the guidance of Dr. Sangeeta Nakhate

(Assistant Professor)

Dr. S. C. Shrivastava (Head of department) Electronics and Communication Engineering

ABSTRACT
Communication between humans was first by sound through voice. With the desire for slightly more distance communication came, devices such as drums, then, visual methods such as signal flags and smoke signals were used. These optical communication devices, of course, utilized the light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been only very recent in human history that the electromagnetic spectrum, outside the visible region, has been employed for communication, through the use of radio. One of humankind’s greatest natural resources is the electromagnetic spectrum and the antenna has been instrumental in harnessing this resource. In this project we design a microstrip inset feed patch antenna at 2.3 MHz frequency, and simulate it with IE3D software and again simulate this antenna inserting a slot in between the patch and compare the characteristics of both the antennas such as Directivity, Gain, S-Parameters and its 2D and 3D current distribution. IE3D is a full-wave, method-of-moments based electromagnetic simulator solving the current distribution on 3D and multilayer structures of general shape. It has been widely used in the design of MMICs, RFICs, LTCC circuits, microwave/millimeterwave circuits, IC interconnects and packages, HTS circuits, patch antennas, wire antennas, and other RF/wireless antennas

Table of Contents
1. PROJECT OVERVIEW..............................................................................................................7 1.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................7 1.2 BACKGROUND..................................................................................................................7 1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................7 1.4 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................................8 2. THEORY.....................................................................................................................................8 2.1 ANTENNA...........................................................................................................................8 2.1.1 ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS..............................................................................8 2.1.1.a ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERNS........................................................................8 2.1.1.b ANTENNA GAIN........................................................................................................9 2.1.1.c DIRECTIVITY...........................................................................................................10 2.1.1.d POLARIZATION......................................................................................................11 2.1.1.e EFFICIENCY............................................................................................................11 2.1.1.f BANDWIDTH..........................................................................................................11 2.1.2 ANTENNA TYPES....................................................................................................12 2.1.2.a MICRO STRIP ANTENNA......................................................................................12 2.1.2.b PATCH ANTENNA...................................................................................................19 2.1.2.c SLOT ANTENNA.......................................................................................................20 2.1.2.d Dipole Antenna..........................................................................................................20 2.1.2.e DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA....................................................................................22 2.1.2.f HORN ANTENNA....................................................................................................22 2.1.2.g PARABOLIC ANTENNA.......................................................................................23 2.1.2.f OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNA..........................................................................25 2.2 IE3D...................................................................................................................................26 2.4.1 INTRODUTION..........................................................................................................26 2.2 IE3D FEATURES..........................................................................................................26 3. DESIGNING PROCESS...........................................................................................................28 3.1 GETTING STARTED WITH IE3D..................................................................................28 3.2 MICRO STRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITHOUT SLOT.................................................33 3.1 SIMULATION IN IE3D........................................................................................................39 CONCLUTION.................................................................................................................................39 REFERECNCES...............................................................................................................................39 REFERECNCES

1. PROJECT OVERVIEW 1.1 INTRODUCTION Satellite communication and Wireless communication has been developed rapidly in the past decades and it has already a dramatic impact on human life. In the last few years, the development of wireless local area networks (WLAN) represented one of the principal interests in the information and communication field. Thus, the current trend in commercial and government communication systems has been to develop low cost, minimal weight, low profile antennas that are capable of maintaining high performance over a large spectrum of frequencies. In this project we design a microstrip inset feed patch antenna at 2.3 MHz frequency, and simulate it with IE3D software and again simulate this antenna inserting a slot in between the patch and compare the characteristics of both the antennas such as Directivity, Gain, S-Parameters and its 2D and 3D current distribution. IE3D is a full-wave, method-of-moments based electromagnetic simulator solving the current distribution on 3D and multilayer structures of general shape. It has been widely used in the design of MMICs, RFICs, LTCC circuits, microwave/millimeterwave circuits, IC interconnects and packages, HTS circuits, patch antennas, wire antennas, and other RF/wireless antennas. We have designed the dipole antenna array using IE3D simulation for selection of an appropriate result for future development. 1.2 BACKGROUND

The invention generally relates to a microstrip patch antenna inserting a slot in the patch. A microstrip feed line patch antenna is designed for 2.3GHz center frequency have successfully been built and Measurement show that the half power beam width (HPBW) is 60 degree with VSWR lower than 1.5, and return losses equal to -33.6dB at center frequency.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This project aims for the better performance of the communication process, such as directivity pattern enhancement. It is an object of the invention to provide a slot in between the patch offers multiple operational frequencies and has a compact volume. And for increasing Directivity and Gain of the antenna. 1.4 METHODOLOGY

We first started off by gathering a thorough information about microstrip antenna, patch antenna and slot antenna and their uses. Then we design a microstrip inste feed patch antenna and providing a slot in between the patch which increases the Gain and Directivity of an antenna. 1. THEORY 2.1 ANTENNA

The antenna is mainly intended to be used for reception of a signal transmitted from an unmanned aircraft, and can be used in many applications in communication systems such as satellite technology and military applications. An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic. 2.1.1 ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS An antenna is a device that is made to efficiently radiate and receive radiated electromagnetic waves. There are several important antenna characteristics that should be considered when choosing an antenna for your application as follows: • Antenna radiation patterns • Antenna Gain • Directivity • Polarization • Efficiency • Bandwidth • Transmission and Reception

2.1.1.a ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERNS An antenna radiation pattern is a 3-D plot of its radiation far from the source. Antenna radiation patterns usually take two forms, the elevation pattern and the azimuth pattern. The elevation pattern is a graph of the energy radiated from the antenna looking at it from the side as can be seen in Figure3a .The azimuth pattern is a graph of the energy radiated from the antenna as if you were looking at it from directly above the antenna as illustrated in Figure 3b. When you combine the two graphs you have a 3-D representation of how energy is radiated from the antenna in Figure 3c.

Figure 3. (a) Generic Dipole Elevation Pattern (b) Generic Dipole Azimuth Pattern (c) 3-D Radiation Pattern. 2.1.1.b ANTENNA GAIN

Antenna gain is the ratio of surface power radiated by the antenna to the surface power radiated by a hypothetical isotropic antenna:This gain is most often referred to with the units of dBi, which is logarithmic gain relative to an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna has a perfect spherical radiation pattern and a linear gain of one.

The surface power carried by an electromagnetic wave is:

The surface power radiated by an isotropic antenna feed with the same power is:

Substituting values for the case of a short dipole, final result is:

= 1.5 = 1.76 dBi dBi simply means decibels gain, relative to an isotropic antenna.

2.1.1.c DIRECTIVITY The directive gain of an antenna is a measure of the concentration of the radiated power in a particular direction. It may be regarded as the ability of the antenna to

direct radiated power in a given direction. It is usually a ratio of radiation intensity in a given direction to the average radiation intensity. 2.1.1.d POLARIZATION

Polarization is the orientation of electromagnetic waves far from the source. There are several types of polarization that apply to antennas. They are Linear, which comprises, Vertical, Horizontal and Oblique, and circular, which comprises, Circular Right Hand (RHCP); Circular Left Hand (LHCP), Elliptical Right Hand and Elliptical Left Hand. Polarization is most important if you are trying to get the maximum performance from the antennas. For best performance you will need to match up the polarization of the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna. Note: Clockwise rotation of the Electromagnetic wave is right-hand polarization; counterclockwise rotation is left-hand polarization 2.1.1.e EFFICIENCY

In electromagnetic, antenna efficiency or radiation efficiency is a figure of merit for an antenna. It measures the electrical losses that occur throughout the antenna while it is operating at a given frequency, or averaged over its operation across a frequency band. It is expressed as a percentage, where 100% (or 1.0) is perfectly lossless and 0% (or 0.0) is perfectly lossy. Antenna efficiency is the ratio between its radiation resistance and its total resistance:

Antenna efficiency can also be expressed as the ratio between its input power and its radiated power:

2.1.1.f

BANDWIDTH

The range of frequencies within which the performance of the antenna, with respect to some characteristic, conforms to a specified standard. 2.1.2 ANTENNA TYPES

There are many different types of antennas. Antennas most relevant to designs at 2.3GHz that are further detailed are as follows: • • • • • • • • MICRO STRIP ANTENNA PATCH ANTENNA SLOT ANTENNA DIPOLE ANTENNA DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA HORN ANTENNA OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNA PARABOLIC ANTENNA MICRO STRIP ANTENNA

2.1.2.a

In its most basic form, a Microstrip patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side as shown in Figure 3.1. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any possible shape. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate.

Fig. Micro strip patch antenna In order to simplify analysis and performance prediction, the patch is generally square, rectangular, circular, triangular, elliptical or some other common shape as shown in Figure. For a rectangular patch, the length L of the patch is usually 0.3333λ < L < 0.5λ0 , where λ0 is the free-space wavelength. The patch is selected to be very thin such that t << λ0 (where t is the patch thickness). The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually 0.003 λ0 ≤ h ≤ 0.05λ0 . The dielectric constant of the substrate ( εr ) is typically in the range 2.2 ≤ εr ≤ 12.

Fig. Common shapes of Micro strip patch antennas Microstrip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground plane. For good antenna performance, a thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency, larger bandwidth and better radiation [5]. However, such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size. In order to design a compact Microstrip patch antenna, higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. Hence a compromise must be reached between antenna dimensions and antenna performance ADVANTAGES OF MICRO STRIP PATCH ANTENNAS • Light weight and low volume. • Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to host surface. • Low fabrication cost, hence can be manufactured in large quantities. • Supports both, linear as well as circular polarization. • Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs). • Capable of dual and triple frequency operations. • Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces. DISADVANTAGES OF MICRO STRIP ANTENNAS

Narrow bandwidth. Low efficiency. Low Gain. Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions. Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas. • Low power handling capacity. • Surface wave excitation.
• • • • •

FEED TECHNIQUES A. Micro Strip Feed line In this type of feed technique, a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the microstrip patch as shown in Figure 3.3. The conducting strip is smaller in width as compared to the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure.

Fig Micro strip feed line

The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the patch without the need for any additional matching element. This is achieved by properly controlling the inset position. Hence this is an easy feeding scheme, since it provides ease of Substrate Ground Plane Microstrip Feed.

B. Coaxial Feed The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding Microstrippatch antennas. As seen from Figure, the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane.

Fig Coaxial feed

C. Aperture Coupled Feed

In this type of feed technique, the radiating patch and the microstrip feed line are separated by the ground plane as shown in Figure 3.5. Coupling between the patch and the feed line is made through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane.

Fig aperture coupled feed D. Proximity Coupled Feed This type of feed technique is also called as the electromagnetic coupling scheme. As shown in Figure , two dielectric substrates are used such that the feed line is between the two substrates and the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate. The main advantage of this feed technique is that it eliminates spurious feed radiation and provides very high bandwidth (as high as 13%) , due to overall increase in the thickness of the microstrip patch antenna. This scheme also provides choices between two different dielectric media, one for the patch and one for the feed line to optimize the individual performances.

Comparing the different feed techniques

RADIATION MACHENISM The important characteristic of microstrip antennas is their inherent ability to radiate efficiently despite their low pro-file. The primary source of this radiation is the electric fringing fields between the edges of the conductor ele-ment and the groundplane behind it. Lewis first analysed this in the form of a transmission line discontinuity and he discovered that the Q (quality factor) of the dielectric cavity formed by two short circuit walls and four open circuit walls depended on several parameters. The parameters are dielectric constant (εr), height (h) of the substrate, the patch dimensions and the frequency. The results showed that at high frequency, radiation loss as opposed to conductive or dielectric loss is the main source of energy dissipation. The electric field patterns of a square patch antenna are shown in Figure.

Fig Rectangular microstrip patch antenna electric field patterns The E field is considered to be constant along W and var-ies sinusoidally with L. The fringing fields at the two edges add in phase in the far field on ‘boresight’ (the vector normal to the plane of patch) and cancel along the broadside. The radiation patterns for the TM mode are shown in Figure . For a/b = 1.5, εr = 2.32 and 9.8. These patterns are of par-ticular interest since they provide maximum radiation on bore sight. Looking at the radiation patterns it is clear that the effi-ciency of the patch antenna (ie the directivity) is poor. When designing these antennas, emphasis is placed on trying to maximize efficiency at the expense of gain or radiation pattern.

2.1.2.b

PATCH ANTENNA

A patch antenna (also known as a rectangular microstrip antenna) is a type of radio antenna with a low profile, which can be mounted on a flat surface. It consists of a flat rectangular sheet or "patch" of metal, mounted over a larger sheet of metal called a ground plane. The assembly is usually contained inside a plastic radome, which protects the antenna structure from damage. Patch antennas are simple to fabricate and easy to modify and customize. They are the original type of microstrip antenna described by Howell; the two metal sheets together form a resonant piece of microstrip transmission line with a length of approximately one-half wavelength of the radio waves. The radiation mechanism arises from discontinuities at each truncated edge of the microstrip transmission line.] The radiation at the edges causes the antenna to act slightly larger electrically than its physical dimensions, so in order for the antenna to be resonant, a length of microstrip transmission line slightly shorter than one-half a wavelength at the frequency is used. A patch antenna is

usually constructed on a dielectric substrate, using the same materials and lithography processes used to make printed circuit boards. 2.1.2.c SLOT ANTENNA A slot antenna consists of a metal surface, usually a flat plate, with a hole or slot cut out. When the plate is driven as an antenna by a driving frequency, the slot radiates electromagnetic waves in similar way to a dipole antenna. The shape and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. Often the radio waves are provided by a waveguide, and the antenna consists of slots in the waveguide. Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies instead of line antennas when greater control of the radiation pattern is required. Slot antennas are widely used in radar antennas, for the sector antennas used for cell phone base stations, and are often found in standard desktop microwave sources used for research purposes. A slot antenna's main advantages are its size, design simplicity, robustness, and convenient adaptation to mass production using PC board technology. The slot antenna was invented in 1938 by Alan Blumlein, while working for EMI. He invented it in order to produce a practical type of antenna for VHF television broadcasting that would have horizontal polarization, an omni-directional horizontal radiation pattern and a narrow vertical radiation pattern.

Fig Slot antenna

2.1.2.d

Dipole Antenna

A dipole antenna is a straight electrical conductor measuring 1/2 wavelength from end to end and connected at the center to a radio-frequency (RF) feed line. This antenna, also called a doublet, is one of the simplest types of antenna, and constitutes the main RF radiating and receiving element in various sophisticated types of antennas. The dipole is inherently a balanced antenna, because it is bilaterally symmetrical. Ideally, a dipole antenna is fed with a balanced, parallel-wire RF transmission line. However, this type of line is not common. An unbalanced feed line, such as coaxial cable, can be used, but to ensure optimum RF current distribution on the antenna element and in the feed line, an RF transformer called a balun (contraction of the words "balanced" and "unbalanced") should be inserted in the system at the point where the feed line joins the antenna. For best performance, a dipole antenna should be more than 1/2 wavelength above the ground, the surface of a body of water, or other horizontal, conducting medium such as sheet metal roofing. The element should also be at least several wavelengths away from electrically conducting obstructions such as supporting towers, utility wires, guy wires,and other antennas. Dipole antennas can be oriented horizontally, vertically, or at a slant. Thepolarization of the electromagnetic field (EM) radiated by a dipole transmitting antenna corresponds to the orientation of the element. When the antenna is used to receive RF signals, it is most sensitive to EM fields whose polarization is parallel to the orientation of the element. The RF current in a dipole is maximum at the center (the point where the feed line joins the element), and is minimum at the ends of the element. The RF voltage is maximum at the ends and is minimum at the center.

Fig. SIMPLE DIPOLE ANTENNA.

2.1.2.e

DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates greater power in one or more directions allowing for increased performance on transmit and receive and reduced interference from unwanted sources. Directional antennas like yagi antennas provide increased performance over dipole antennas when a greater concentration of radiation in a certain direction is desired. All practical antennas are at least somewhat directional, although usually only the direction in the plane parallel to the earth is considered, and practical antennas can easily be omnidirectional in one plane. The most common types are the yagi antenna, the log-periodic antenna, and the corner reflector, which are frequently combined and commercially sold as residential TV antennas. Cellular repeaters often make use of external directional antennas to give a far greater signal than can be obtained on a standard cell phone. Satellite Television receivers usually use parabolic antennas. For long and medium wavelength frequencies, tower arrays are used in most cases as directional antennas.

Fig directional antenna 2.1.2.f HORN ANTENNA

A horn antenna or microwave horn is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct the radio waves. Horns are widely used as

antennas at UHF and microwave frequencies, above 300 MHz.[1] They are used as feeders (called feed horns) for larger antenna structures such as parabolic antennas, as standard calibration antennas to measure the gain of other antennas, and as directive antennas for such devices as radar guns, automatic door openers, and microwave radiometers.[2] Their advantages are moderate directivity (gain), low SWR, broad bandwidth, and simple construction and adjustment.[3] One of the first horn antennas was constructed in 1897 by Indian radio researcher Jagadish Chandra Bose in his pioneering experiments with microwaves.[4] In the 1930s the first experimental research (Southworth and Barrow, 1936) and theoretical analysis (Barrow and Chu, 1939) of horns as antennas was done.[5] The development of radar in World War 2 stimulated horn research. The corrugated horn proposed by Kay in 1962 has become widely used as a feed horn for microwave antennas such as satellite dishes and radio telescopes.

Fig Horn antenna 2.1.2.g PARABOLIC ANTENNA

A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves. The most common form is shaped like a dish and is popularly called a dish antenna or parabolic dish. The main advantage of a parabolic antenna is that it is highly directive; it functions

analogously to a searchlight or flashlight reflector to direct the radio waves in a narrow beam, or receive radio waves from one particular direction only. Parabolic antennas have some of the highest gains, that is they can produce the narrowest beam width angles, of any antenna type. They are used as high-gain antennas for point-topoint radio, television and data communications, and also for radiolocation (radar), on the UHF and microwave (SHF) parts of the radio spectrum. The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic radiation at these frequencies allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the desired highly directional response. For a visual animation of how the propagation from a dish antenna occurs, see [1]. With the advent of TVRO and DBS satellite television dishes, parabolic antennas have become a ubiquitous feature of the modern landscape. They are also widely used for terrestrial microwave relay links, ground based and airborne radar antennas, wireless WAN/LAN links, satellite and spacecraft communication antennas, and radio telescopes.

Fig: parabolic antenna 2.1.2.f OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNA An omnidirectional antenna is an antenna which radiates power uniformly in all directions in one plane, with the radiated power decreasing with elevation angle

above or below the plane, dropping to zero on the antenna's axis. This radiation pattern is often described as "donut shaped". Note that this is different from an isotropic antenna, in which the gain is uniform in all directions ("spherical"). Omnidirectional antennas oriented vertically are widely used for nondirectional antennas on the surface of the Earth because they radiate equally in all horizontal directions, while the power radiated drops off with elevation angle so little radio energy is aimed into the sky or down toward the earth and wasted. Omnidirectional antennas are widely used for radio broadcasting antennas, and in mobile devices that use radio such as cell phones, FM radios, walkie-talkies, Wifi, cordless phones, GPS as well as for base stations that communicate with mobile radios, such as gpolice and taxi dispatchers and aircraft communications. Common types of low gain omnidirectional antennas are the whip antenna, "Rubber Ducky", ground plane antenna, vertically oriented dipole antenna, discone antenna, mast radiator and the horizontal loop antenna (or halo antenna) (Sometimes known colloquially as a 'circular aerial' because of the shape).Higher gain omnidirectional antennas can also be built. "Higher gain" in this case means that the antenna radiates less energy at higher and lower elevation angles and more in the horizontal directions. High gain omnidirectional antennas are generally realized using collinear dipole arrays. These arrays consist of half-wavelength dipoles with a phase shifting method between each element that ensures the current in each dipole is in phase. The Coaxial Colinear or COCO antenna uses transposed coaxial sections to produce in-phase half-wavelength radiatiors.

Fig: omnidirectional antenna 2.2 IE3D

2.4.1 INTRODUTION IE3D is a full-wave, method-of-moments based electromagnetic simulator solving the current distribution on 3D and multilayer structures of general shape. It has been widely used in the design of MMICs, RFICs, LTCC circuits, microwave/millimeterwave circuits, IC interconnects and packages, HTS circuits, patch antennas, wire antennas, and other RF/wireless antennas. IE3D is the right choice for accurate, efficient and economical tool for circuit or antenna designer 2.2 IE3D FEATURES
1. Modeling true 3D metallic structures in multiple dielectric layers in open,

closed or periodic boundary. There is no limitation on the shape and orientation of the metallic structures. IE3D can model true 3D structures such as conical vias, conical helix antennas, wire bonds and other 3D structures of general shape. IE3D can build and simulate a wide range of planar and 3D microwave and RF structures.

1

High efficiency, high accuracy and low cost electromagnetic simulation tool on PCs with Windows based graphic interface. Running on PCs, our simulator is faster than other field solvers on high end workstations. The MS-Windows based menu-driven graphic interface allows interactive construction of 3D and multilayer metallic structures as a set of polygons. Numerous editing capabilities are implemented to ease the construction and manipulation of polygons and vertices. Built-in library for construction of complicated structures, such as circles, rings, spheres, rectangular and circular spirals, cylindrical and conical vias, cylindrical and conical helices. You can build complicated 3D and multilayer structures in seconds or minutes. Automatic generation of non-uniform mesh with rectangular and triangular cells. Automatic Edge Cell feature makes IE3D yield expert results for novice users. Flexible de-embedding of circuit parameters. Modeling structures with finite ground planes and differential feed structures. Accurate modeling of true 3D metallic structures and metal thickness.

2

3

4 5 6 7 8

9

Electromagnetic optimization.

3. 3.1

DESIGNING PROCESS GETTING STARTED WITH IE3D
1. Run Zeland Program Manager. You will see a layout similar to that shown in Figure 3.1.

Fig 3.1 2. Run MGRID by clicking on the MGRID button

shown in Figure 3.1. MGRID is the main interface of IE3D, in which you can draw the layout of the circuit to be simulated. Notice that all the fields are empty.

3. Click the new button as shown in Figure 3.2

Fig 3.2

Fig 3.3
4. The basic parameter definition window pops up. You should

see something similar to Figure 3.3. In this window you can define basic parameters of the simulation such as the dielectric constant of different layers, the units and layout dimensions, and metal types among other parameters. In “Substrate Layer” section note that two layers are automatically defined. At z=0, the program automatically places an infinite ground plane (note the material conductivity at z = 0) and a second layer is defined at infinity with the dielectric constant of 1.

5. In the basic parameter definition window, click on “New Dielectric Layer” button as is shown in Figure 3.3. You will see a window similar to the one shown in Figure3.4

Fig 3.4

a) Top surface, Ztop: Enter the z dimension of the top surface. In this case,

it is 1.5 mm (around 60 mils) b) Dielectric Constant: This field represents the dielectric constant of the layer. Enter 2.3 here for the dielectric constant for the substrate layer c) Loss tangent: Enter 0.002 for the loss tangent in this field.

Fig 3.5

3.2 MICRO STRIP PATCH ANTENNA WITHOUT SLOT

The next step is to draw the antenna and the layout. In this case we will use a rectangular patch, fed with a simple microstrip line. The feeding microstrip line is a 50 Ω line and the impedance of the antenna is matched to 50 Ω by using an inset feed.We will draw the structure in multiple stages as follows in the following steps.
1)

2) First, we will draw a rectangle with the length of 60 mm and width of 40 mm.

We can draw the layout manually or use the available scripts to draw them. In this case, we will draw them using the scripts. Click on the rectangle script button shown in Figure 3.5. Enter 60 for Length and 40 for width as shown in Figure 3.6 and click OK. Now your layout should look like Figure3.7.

Fig 3.6

Fig 3.7
3) The next step is to draw the rest of the structure. Press Shift+A. The

“Keyboard Input Absolute Location” menu pops up. In this menu, you can place a vertex at an arbitrary location on the layout. Enter -30 for x and -20 for y values. 4) Press Shift+R. The “Keyboard Input Relative Location” menu pops up. Now that you have entered the absolute location of the first vertex, you can use that as a reference point and enter the location of additional vertices relative to the one entered previously.
5) Press Shift+R again and enter desired value in the Y-offset field. Press OK.

The figure 3.8 is desired figure.

6) Now select the small polygon by clicking on the polygon button, then select the polygon ang copy it and paste on the exact location as needed.

Fig 3.8

Fig 3.9

7) Now select the vertices for defining port as shown in figure 3.10 and design

the micro strip feed as required.

De-embedign arm length

Port no. 1

Fig 3.10 8) Figure 8.10 shows the final antenna design. 9) Figure 8.12 shows the final antenna design after meshing and figure 8.13 shows the automatic meshing window.

Fig 3.11

Fig 3.12

3.2.1 SIMULATION WITH IE3D 1) Start by pressing the simulation button again . This time, instead of simulating the structure from 1 GHz to 3 GHz, we will only simulate it at 2.4 GHz, which is the frequency of operation of the antenna. Enter 2.4 GHz as the frequency of simulation in the “Frequency Parameters” field. Also, increase the number of cells per wavelength to 70 from 30 and enter this new number in the “Meshing Parameters” field, as shown in Figure 24. Make sure that the “Current Distribution File” check box is checked and uncheck the “Adaptive Intelli-Fit” Check Box. Also make sure that the “Radiation Pattern File” check box is not checked. If you check this box, IE3D calculates the radiation pattern of the structure. However, we will first examine the current distribution on the surface of the antenna and then we will calculate the radiation patterns of the structure from the calculated current distribution of the antenna. Your simulation setup window should look like the one presented in Figure 24. Press OK to simulate the structure. Note that it will take a considerably longer time to simulate the structure compared to the last time where we had only 30 cells per wavelength. 2) After simulation we got the following characteristics.

Fig 3.13 db gain vs frequency

.

Fig 3.14 directivity vs frequency Fig 3.15 Dbi gain vs frequency

Fig 3.16 Azimuth pattern directivity Cartesian display

CONCLUSION

The printed dipole array antenna has been proposed. It has been shown that by proper dimensioning of the array antenna with good matching as well as good radiation characteristics can be achieved in the wide frequency range. It can be designed to maximize the impedance bandwidth near the half wavelength resonance. The properties of the radiator as an array element have also been investigated. Both simulation and measured results are highly matched. The printed dipole array antenna which is economic cost has been proposed and successfully implemented.

Our mentioned method has proven that higher gain of planar printed dipole array antenna can be reached by duplicating them and putting them together. In this study, the dipole three elements array antenna is only a typical one. We can reach higher number of elements if application is necessary. REFERECNCES • BOOKS  C.A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, 2nd Ed., John wiley & sons, inc., New York.1982
 [1] Antenna Theory, C.Balanis, Wiley, 2nd edition (1997), Chapter 14. ISBN 0-

471-59268-4.
 Duffley, B.G.; Morin, G.A.; Mikavica, M.; Antar, Y.M.M.; "A wideband

printed double-sided dipole array", Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions, vol. 52, Feb. 2004.
 Kin-Lu Wong; Fu-Ren Hsiao; Tzung-Wern Chiou; "Omnidirectional planar

dipole array antenna" Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions, vol. 52, Feb. 2004 p:624 - 628.
 Warren L. Stutzman, Gary A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, John Wiley

& Sons, 1998 p165-174.
 S. Cichos, J. Haberland, H. Reichl, “ Performance Analysis of Polymer based

Antenna-Coils of RFID”, Berlin, Germany, IEEE.
 Bing Yang, Quanyuan Feng, “A folded dipole antenna for RFID tag”, ChinA,

IEEE.

• WEBSITES http://www.yahoo.com (yahoo search engine) http://www.google.com (google search engine) http://www.fairchildsemi.com/pf/1N/1N4007.html

http://www.fairchildsemi.com/pf/1N/1N4148.html http://www.electronicprojects.com http://www.electronicsforu.com http://www.engnetbase.com. http://www.zeland.com.

GETTING STARTED WITH IE3D
1. Run Zeland Program Manager. You will see a layout similar to that shown in Figure1. 2) Run MGRID by clicking on the MGRID button ( ) shown in Figure 1. MGRID is the main interface of IE3D, in which you can draw the layout of the circuit to be simulated. Notice that all the fields are empty. 3) Click the new button as shown in Figure 2 4) The basic parameter definition window pops up. You should see something similar to Figure 3. In this window you can define basic parameters of the simulation such as the dielectric constant of different layers, the units and layout dimensions, and metal

types among other parameters. In “Substrate Layer” section note that two layers are automatically defined. At z=0, the program automatically places an infinite ground plane (note the material conductivity at z = 0) and a second layer is defined at infinity with the dielectric constant of 1. 5) In the basic parameter definition window, click on “New Dielectric Layer” button ( ) as is shown in Figure 3. You will see a window similar to the one shown in Figure 4. Enter the basic dielectric parameters in this window: a. Top surface, Ztop: Enter the z dimension of the top surface. In this case, it is 1.524 mm (60 mils) b. Dielectric Constant: This field represents the dielectric constant of the layer. Enter 3.4 here for the dielectric constant of the RO4003C substrate c. Loss tangent: Enter 0.002 for the loss tangent in this field. 6) The next step is to draw the antenna and the layout. In this case we will use a rectangular patch, fed with a simple microstrip line. The feeding microstrip line is a 50 Ω line and the impedance of the antenna is matched to 50 Ω by using an inset feed. We will draw the structure in multiple stages as follows in the following steps. 7) First, we will draw a rectangle with the length of 30 mm and width of 21 mm. We can draw the layout manually or use the available scripts to draw them. In this case, we will draw them using the scripts. Click on the rectangle script button shown in Figure 6 ( ). Enter 30 for Length and 21 for width as shown in Figure 6 and click OK. Now your layout should look like Figure 7 . 8) The next step is to draw the rest of the structure. Press Shift+A. The “Keyboard Input Absolute Location” menu pops up. In this menu, you can place a vertex at an arbitrary location on the layout. Enter -15 for x and -10.5 for y values. Your screen

should look like Figure 8. Click on OK button. The “Close Vertices” menu pops up. Click on YES to adjust this vertex to be connected to the one at (-15mm, -10.5 mm). This vertex will then be connected to the one on the lower left corner of the rectangle drawn in the previous step. 9) Press Shift+R. The “Keyboard Input Relative Location” menu pops up. Now that you have entered the absolute location of the first vertex, you can use that as a reference point and enter the location of additional vertices relative to the one entered previously. Enter 12.25 for the X-offset and -13 for the Y-offset values. Your screen should look like the one shown in Figure 9. Click on OK button and Click on YES button in the next menu that pops up. 10) Press Shift+R again and enter -13 in the Y-offset field. Press OK. 11) Press Shift+F. This short cut creates a rectangle using the three vertices that are entered already; the alternative method is to enter the 4th vertex and the 5th vertex, which is the same as the first one. Your screen should look like Figure 10 at this stage. If this is not the case, you have made a mistake. Please check the previous steps. Press the “Select Polygon” button shown in Figure 11 ( ). The shape of mouse cursor changes from the cross “+” to the ordinary mouse cursor ( ). 13) Move the mouse cursor on the smaller rectangle and click on it. It will be highlighted in black and this rectangle is selected; at this stage, you can copy this object, delete it, move it, etc. Our objective is to copy and paste this object to create a replica of that. 14) Press, Ctrl+C to copy the object and Ctrl+V to paste it. Your screen should look like Figure 12. The outline of the object to be pasted is drawn and as you move the mouse, it will move as well. You can move the cursor to the paste point coordinates and click on the left button. You can also click anywhere on the screen. The “Copy Object

Offset to Original” menu pops up. In this menu, you can enter the coordinates of the paste location. 15) Enter 17.75 in the X-offset field and 0 in the Y-offset field and press OK. Your screen should look like Figure 13. 16) Now that you know how to draw rectangles, draw the main feeding line. Start by drawing a small rectangle with the two opposing corners located at (-1.75 mm, -10.5 mm) and (1.75 mm, -12 mm). Your layout should now look like the one shown in Figure 14. This is the main microstrip line feeding the patch antenna. However, the length of the microstrip line is very small and we need to increase it. 17) Press the “Select Vertices” button ( ) as shown in Figure 15. Once again, the shape of the cursor changes to ( ). Move your mouse cursor close to the lower two vertices of the latest drawn rectangle and press the left mouse button. While the button is pressed, move the cursor and select the lower two vertices of the microstrip feed rectangle. After the vertices are selected you can move them or delete them to change the overall shape of the structure. 18) Now that the two vertices are selected, you can move them and change the length of the feeding microstrip. While the lower two vertices are selected, press the “Move Objects” button ( ) as it is shown in Fig. 16. 19) Enter 0 for the X-offset and -29 for the Y-offset values; this extends the length of the microstrip line. The layout should now look like the one shown in Figure 16 and the drawing stage is complete. 20) The next stage is to setup excitation. We are going to use a port to excite the microstrip line, which in turn feeds the patch. 21) Press the “Define Port Button” ( ). The menu shown in Figure 18 pops up. Choose “Advanced Extension” in the De-Embedding Scheme field. Leave the rest of the

fields unchanged at this stage and press the OK button. It seems that nothing has happened. However, we have entered the port definition mode. The next step is to move the mouse cursor to the lower edge of the microstrip line and click on it. It defines a port at that location. Note the number that is assigned to that port. We are still in the port selection menu. However, in this structure we only need one port and there is no need to define any additional port. Press the Esc key to exit this mode. The layout should look like the one shown in Figure19. 22) The next step is to run the simulation. However, before that, let us first mesh the structure; this mesh is used in the Method of Moment (MoM) calculation. Press the “Display Meshing” button ( ). The “Automatic Meshing Parameters” menu pops up. This menu is shown in Figure 20. 23) In this menu, you have to specify the highest frequency that the structure will be simulated at. Enter 3 in the “Highest Frequency” field. In this case, the operating frequency is 2.4 GHz. Therefore choosing 3 GHz as the maximum frequency should be OK. Enter 30 in the “Cells per Wavelength” field. The number of cells/wavelength determines the density of the mesh. In method of moment simulations, you should not use fewer than 10 cells per wavelength. The higher the number of cells per wavelength, the higher the accuracy of the simulation. However, increasing the number of cells increases the total simulation time and the memory required for simulating the structure. In many simulations using 20 to 30 cells per wavelength should provide enough accuracy. However, this cannot usually be generalized and is different in each problem; press OK, a new window pops up that shows the statistics of the mesh; press OK again and the structure will be meshed.

24) Note that in meshing this structure, we did not use edge cells. As seen in Figure 20, in the “Automatic Edge Cell Parameters” fields, the “AEC Layers” field shows “NO”. You can define edge cells to increase the accuracy of the simulations. In coupled structures or in structures where multiple trace lines are located in close proximity to each other, it is important to use edge cells. In this case, we will not use edge cells for this simulation. 25) Now it is time to simulate the structure. Press the “Run Simulation” button . The simulation setup window pops up. Here you can specify the simulation frequency points as well as the basic parameters of the mesh. Click on Enter button in the Frequency parameters field. Enter 1 in the “Start Freq (GHz)” field, 3 at the “End Freq (GHz)” field, and 201 in the “Number of Freq” field and click OK. The “Frequency Parameters” field is now filled with 201 evenly spaced frequency points between 1 GHz and 3 GHz range. Make sure that the “Adaptive Intelli-Fit” check box is checked as shown in Figure 22. When Adaptive Intelli-Fit is enabled, the program does not perform simulations at all of the specified frequency points. It automatically selects a number of frequency points and simulates the structure at these particular points and interpolates the response based on the simulated points. Depending on the number of resonances and the Q of the structure at each resonance, IE3D determines the number of frequency points that the actual simulation is performed at. 26) Press OK and the structure will be simulated. The simulation progress window shows the progress of the simulation. It will only take a couple of seconds for the simulation to finish. After the simulation is completed, IE3D automatically invoked MODUA and shows the S parameters of the simulated structure. MODUA is a separate program that comes with the IE3D package. This program is used to post process the

S-parameters of the simulated structure. Figure 23 shows the result of the simulation. You can check the marker selection check box and a marker appears on the S11 trace. Move the marker to the null in S11 trace and determine the exact frequency at which S11 is minimized. As seen from Figure 23, this frequency is 2.4 GHz. The antenna is well matched to 50 Ohms at 2.4 GHz. 27) In MODUA, you can examine the frequency response of the circuit in different formats. Press Ctrl+G and the “Display Parameters” window pops up. You can select the Z parameters, Y parameters, S parameters, etc. Now that we have simulated the structure and obtained its frequency response parameters, it is time to study the radiation parameters of the antenna. We will start by simulating the current distribution on the surface of the antenna and then use this to obtain its radiation pattern at the frequency of operation. 28) Start by pressing the simulation button again . This time, instead of simulating the structure from 1 GHz to 3 GHz, we will only simulate it at 2.4 GHz, which is the frequency of operation of the antenna. Enter 2.4 GHz as the frequency of simulation in the “Frequency Parameters” field. Also, increase the number of cells per wavelength to 70 from 30 and enter this new number in the “Meshing Parameters” field, as shown in Figure 24. Make sure that the “Current Distribution File” check box is checked and uncheck the “Adaptive Intelli-Fit” Check Box. Also make sure that the “Radiation Pattern File” check box is not checked. If you check this box, IE3D calculates the radiation pattern of the structure. However, we will first examine the current distribution on the surface of the antenna and then we will calculate the radiation patterns of the structure from the calculated current distribution of the antenna. Your simulation setup window should look like the one presented in Figure 24. Press OK to simulate the structure. Note that it will take a considerably longer

time to simulate the structure compared to the last time where we had only 30 cells per wavelength. 29) After the simulation is complete, IE3D invokes MODUA to display the Sparameters of the structure. Note that there is only one frequency point so no curve is depicted in MODUA. In this case, IE3D also invokes a secondary MGRID view window, which the meshed antenna structure is shown as a 3D view window in which a three dimensional version of the structure is shown. In these two windows, you can examine the current distribution of the structure (see Figure 25). 30) In the MGRID view window, go to the Process Menu and select the “Display Current Distribution” item. The “Current Distribution Display Parameters” window pops up. In this window, you can choose the type of current to be displayed, the frequency of the simulation, and change the excitation current amplitude and phase. Do not change anything and click OK. You can see the change in the Structure View Window. The average current density on the surface of the antenna is shown in different colors. This average current distribution is shown in Figure 26. Note the half-sinusoidal current distribution on the surface of the antenna. On the top edge, the current is zero, at the center it is maximum, and on the button edge, it is zero again. This indicates a resonance condition. Also note that generally the current density is much higher closer to the edges of the structure compared to other places. This is why it is important to use edge cells in certain problems. The strong edge current densities can significantly affect the response of structures with strong edge couplings (such as edge coupled bandpass micrsotrip filters). 31) In the view menu, select the “Set Graph Parameters” item. In the window that pops up, you can change a number of things such as the scale ratios, color scales, etc. Uncheck the Display Boundaries check box and click OK. The mesh outline disappears and you will see a smooth distribution of current on the surface

32) In the process menu of the MGRID view window, go to process menu and select the Display current distribution item. Select the “Vector Current Distribution” item from the drop down menu on the top and click OK. The vector current distribution is now shown instead of the average current density. Because of the increased number of cells, the vectors are small and not easy to see. Select “View->Set Graph Parameters”. Change the “Vector Size” to 2 and click OK. Now you can more easily see the vector electric current distribution on the surface of the antenna. This current distribution is shown in Figure 27. 33) In the MGRID View Window, Select “Process Pattern Calculation”. The “Pattern Calculation Info.” Window pops up. In this window, you can enter the pattern calculation information such as the number of angles, frequency, excitation sources, and terminations (if any). The software automatically uses 37 angle points for Phi and 37 angle points for Theta. Since we have only one frequency point, it is already selected and we don’t have to do anything else. Press OK and the software starts to calculate the radiation pattern. 34) After pattern calculation is complete, a new window pops up. Press “Define Excitation”. The pattern calculation information window pops up again and allows you to choose the excitation source or specify termination impedances for different ports if you are simulating a multiple port structure. In this case, none of these is the case, so simply press OK. The “Pattern View” software is invoked. In this software, you can plot the radiation patterns and examine different radiation parameters such as radiation efficiency, gain, etc. The Pattern View’s main window is shown in Figure 28. 35) Select the “Display 3D Pattern…” item. The “3D Pattern Selection” window pops

up. Select True 3D as the “Pattern Style” and dBi (Directivity) as the Scale Style as shown in Figure 29. Press OK and the 3D pattern will appear as shown in Figure 30; the 3D pattern shows the general shape of the pattern but you cannot easily see the co-pol and cross-pol components. That is why we will also plot the 2D patterns in the E- and H-planes. Also note that the antenna is radiating only in the upper hemisphere as seen from its 3D radiation pattern. This is caused as a result of the presence of the infinite ground plane underneath the patch that isolates the lower half space. 36) Select the “Display 2D Pattern…” item. The “2D Pattern Display” window pops up. In this window, you can choose the 2D plane, in which you want to plot the patterns. Furthermore, you can choose the type of plot (polar or Cartesian) as well as the type of the pattern (gain or directivity). Select the E-theta and E-phi components at Phi=0° and 90°. Choose “Polar Plot” as the plot style and dBi (Directivity) as the scale style and click OK (as shown in Figure 31). 37) The two-dimensional radiation pattern will be shown as seen from Figure 32. 38) You can see other parameters of the antenna such as gain, efficiency, etc. in this software. Select “Edit Pattern Properties” to view the summary of radiation parameters of the antenna such as gain, efficiency, 3dB beamwidth, directivity, and mismatch losses. Note that IE3D is using a different efficiency definition from the IEEE standard definition. IEEE standard definition of efficiency is the ratio of the radiated power to that of input power, whereas IE3D uses the ratio of radiated power to the incident power. In this case, mismatch loss is also considered as a factor that reduces the antenna efficiency, whereas the IEEE definition does not consider the mismatch loss as a source of inefficiency. If the antenna is well matched, these two

definitions yield the same final result.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful