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Ren CONTENT. 1 Modelling English PART I THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH 2. The origins of English 3 Old English ‘© Exryborrowings8 «Runes _¢ The Old English corpus 10 ‘ Lierary tis 12__* The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 14 ‘+ Splling16 + Sounds 18 * Grammar20_ * Vocabulary22 Lace borrowings 24 Dialects 28 4 Middle English ‘French and English 30+ The ransition from Old English 32 The Middle English compus34 # Liverary texts 36 = Chaucer38. * Spelling40* Sounds42_* Grammar 44 Vocabulary 46 + Latin borrowings 48. * Dialers 50 ‘+ Middle Scots 52 _* The origins of Sandard English 54 5 Early Modern English © Caxron'56 * Transitional exes58_ * Renaissance English 60 ‘* Theinlthorn controversy 61 * Shakespeare 62 ‘© The King James Bible 64 © Spelling and regularization 66 ‘* Punctustion 68 * Sounds 69 * Grammar70 ‘TheAcademydebate73. * Johmioa74 ‘Modern English *Transition76 * Grammatical uends77 © Prestiptivism 78 ‘ American English 80 Breskingthe cules 84 * Variery awareness 86. Scientific language 87 Literary voices 88 Dickens89_* Recenttzends90 30 56 * Vocabutary72 76 7 World English ‘© TheNew World 92. + American dislecs 93 ‘Black English Vernacular 96» Australia 98 ‘* South Afica 100 * South Asia 101 + West Africa 102 + Ease Afica 103» Souch-Fase Asia and the South Pacific 104 * Aworld language 106 Numbersof speakers 108 Scandard English 110 © The future of English 112 + English threatened and as chrea: 114 + Canada 95 PART II ENGLISH VOCABULARY @ Thenature of the lexicon “+ Lexemet 118 ¢ Thesizeof the English ericon 119 «* Abbrevicions 120 © Proper names 122 # The size ofa person's lexicon 123 9 The sources of the lexicon. «Native vocabulary 124 + Foreign borrowings 126 4 Word-formation 128 © Unusual structures 130 «© Lexical eration 132. © Literary neologism 134 2 * New Zealand 99 6 us. 124 0 Etymology 136 * Lexical history 136 * Sewancicchange 138 + Follcesymology 139. * Place names140 + Surnames 148, ‘+ Ficsenames 150 * Nicknames 152.» Objectnames 154 * Eponyms 155 1 2 ‘The structure ofthe lexicon + Semantiestructure 156 Semancie elds 157 + Dictionaryand cheszurus 158+ Collocaions 160 + Lexical predicabilcy 162 * Klioms 163. * Synonyms 164 + Antonyns165.* Hyponyms 166 * Incompatibiliy 167 + Other sense rations 168 156 Lexical dimensions * Loaded vocabulary 170 * Taboo 172. * Swearing 173 170 ‘Jargon 174 Doublespesk 176 + Political correctness 177 + Catch phrases 178 * Vogue words 179 * Slogans 180 * Graffii 181 + Slang182 * Quotations 184 Proverbs 184 ‘ Achaisms 185. * Clichés 186 ¢ Lascwords 187 PART III ENGLISH GRAMMAR 188 18 Grammatical mythology 190 " 6 16 + The nature of grammar 190 ‘+ Kaowing veknowingabou 191. + Tradicional grammar 192 + Pesriptive grammar 194 * The 20dh-eneury legacy 196 +The za branches of grammar 197 The structure of words * Morphology 198. © Sufftation 198 * Nouns 200. * The spostrophe 203 + Verbs 204 198 + Adjectives 199 + Pronouns 203 Word classes ‘Pans of speech 206 * Traditional definitions 206 ‘+ Newdastes207. * Nouns 208 * Pronouns 210 ‘Adjectives 211 * Adverbs211_ © Verbe212 Preposiions 213 * Conjunctions213 + Incerjections 213 ‘The structure of sentences # Spokenand writen syntax214 + Types ofsenence 216 + Sentence structure 217 * Sencencefinetions 218 ** Clause elements and types 220 Phrases 222 + Nounphascs222 + Verb phrases 224 4+ Muliplesemences226 » Abbreition 228 «+ Disjunctsand commentdauses 229» Reporting speech 230 '* Sentence informacion 231 * Beyond the senrence 232 214 CONTENTS _ tPhoneesan phonology 296 + Vc organs236 Voweh237 * Conorans242 + Slates 246 Connected spcch 247 «Pes 248 | Seundeymbolsm 250 + Pomuciionin patie 54 The writing system 256 | Graphetics and graphology257 © Typography 257 alphabet 258» Properie oflerers 265 + Leerfiequency 265. * Leer distribution 266 Leversymbolism 268. * Analysing handwriting 269 Graphercvaciey 270 * Spelling 272 Sources ofiregulatity 274 # Spelling reform 276 Punctuation 278 © Thedevelopment ofthe writing systern 280 ART V USING ENGLISH 286 ‘of discourse 286 Structure ve use 286 * Pragmatic issues 286 The nature ofdiscoutse287 © Microlinguistic eadies 288, Textsand varieties 290+ Speech ve wricing 291 22 Personal variation 394 ‘Individual diferences 394 # Deviance 395 Word games 396 + Rule-breaking variries 400 + Theedges oflanguage 403 _* Jokes and puns 404 * Comicalphabers 407. * Varieryhumour 410 ‘Literary freedom 412 * Phonetic and phonology 414 = Grapheticsand graphology 416 © Grammarand lexicon 418 * Discourse and variery 420 * Stylomecry 423, PART VI LEARNING ABOUT ENGLISH a8 23 Learning English as a mother tongue 426 ‘Child linguage acquisition 426 Literacy 427 + Grammatical development 428 ‘*Earlywordsandsounds 430 Reading and writing 432 + Insufficient language 434 _# Language disbliy 434 24 New ways of studying English 436 * Technological revolution 436 * Corpusstudies 438 * National and international corpora 440. * Dictionaries 442 ‘Innovations 444 # Sources and resources 446 Sociolinguistic perspective 364 * Received Pronunciation 365, Prescripcveattinudes366 * Gender 368 * Occupation 370 + Religion37_ © Science 372 Law374 * Plain English 377 Politics 378 + News media380- * Journalism 382 Broadcasting 384 + Weather forecasting 385 * Sporescommencary 386. * Advertising 388 Restricted varieties 390» New varieties 392 ‘Mixed medium 292 * Monologue and dialogue 294 APPENDICES. 447 20. Regional variation 298 1 Glossary, 48 * Accent and dialect 298 * International and incranational 299 II Special symbols and abbreviations 461 + Adayin he lifeofthelangusge 300 I References 462 * Ampericon and Brish English 306 # Amesican dialects 312 IV Further reading 467 BridshdlecesS18 * Scotland 328 + Wales 334 V Ines of linguistic rems 470 ‘Ireland 336 * Canada 340 © Caribbean 344 VI Index of authors and personalities 472 + Pidginsand crcoles 346 * Awsuala 350 VI Index oftopice 5 + New Zeslnd 354 * South Africa356 * New Englishes 358 Acknowledgements 496 24 Social variation 364