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with Other Simplified Model Equations
HUIHUI
DAI
XIAOJUN FAN
Department of Mathematics. Hong Kong
City University of Hong Kong. 83 Iat Chee Avenue. Kowloon.
(Received 10 December 2002; accepted 1 February 2003)
Dedicated to R. W Ogden on the occasion of his 60th birthday.
Abstract: \\eakly nonlinear long waves in a cylindrical elastic rod composed of a compressible Mumaghan material are studied in this paper: Four types of model equations describing nonlinear dispersive waves are derived. two of which can satisfy the lateral boundary conditions asymptotically. The dispersion relations for these types of model equations are obtained and compared with the exact dispersion relation from the threedimensional elasticity. Solitary wave solutions of the farfield equations of these models are shown. By comparison of these four types of model, some conclusions about their advantages and disadvantages are drawn.
Key Words: .Model equations, nonlinear waves, elastic rods
1. INTRODUCfION A rod is a thin structure whose longitudinal dimension is much larger than its two lateral dimensions. Such structures are components of many objects, such as blood vessels in a human body and beams on a bridge, etc. Thus, it is important to study the deformations of elastic rods. Linear wave propagation in elastic rods has been used for the determination of material properties and flaw detections. Nonlinear waves (in particular, solitary waves) can still be detected after propagating for a long distance, since they can resist dissipative effects very well. So, more accurate results will be achieved if nonlinear waves are used. In particular, for a gas/oil pipeline, which is of a long distance, it is not realistic to use linear . waves to detect cracks, since they will be dissipated very quickly. On the other hand, solitary waves, which are localized and have a concentration of energy, can propagate for a very long distance without distortion. Thus, it is much more practical (as well as economical) to use solitary waves to locate cracks in a gas/oil pipeline. We point out that solitary waves in elastic rods have been generated in experiments; see [1].
Mathematics and Mechanics afSolids 9: 6179,2004 e 2004 Sage Publications
from the SAGE Social Science Collections. All Rights Reserved.
DOl: 10.1177/1081286503035199
62
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
For an elastic rod, it is reasonable to use a onedimensional model to describe its deformations. Usually, there are two ways to obtain rod theories. One is the socalled direct rod theory which models a rod as a directed curve which consists of a curve representing the rod axis and a bidirector field modeling the rod cross sections. Another is the socalled derived rod theory whose equations are derived from the threedimensional field equations by introducing a certain approximation which is based on the geometry of a rodlike body. Here, we shall use some derived rod theories to study nonlinear dispersive waves. To use onedimensional model equations to study nonlinear dispersive waves in elastic rods, it is necessary to introduce proper approximations. Two oftenused assumptions are (1) the NavierBernoulli hypothesis, which assumes that during the deformation the plane cross sections remain planar and normal to the rod axis, and (2) the Love hypothesis, which assumes that the radial strain is proportional to the radial strain. A drawback of the first assumption is that the boundary conditions on the lateral surface cannot be satisfied exactly or asymptotically. Nevertheless, since the main pulse is mainly a wave propagating along the longitudinal direction in the waveguide (rod) not a surface wave, such a drawback, while not desirable, is still acceptable. Many authors used to such an approximation to study both weakly nonlinear waves [24] and strongly nonlinear waves [1, 58] in elastic rods. However, using the Love hypothesis results in a single governing equation. Obviously, for the present problem there are two independent deformations in the radial and axial directions respectively and two governing equations are required. So, the second assumption may result in both qualitative and quantitative errors. In [911], both assumptions are used to derive the model equations. Without using the Love hypothesis, Cohen and Dai [12] derived two coupled equations of motion for the compressible rod and asymptotic solutions were obtained by the reductive perturbation procedure. Porubov et al. [13] proposed a refmed relation between the radial displacement and the axial one to replace the Love hypothesis and the NavierBernoulli hypothesis, but for this refined model the boundary conditions still cannot be completely satisfied even for linear terms. Samsonov et al. [14] and Porubov et al. [15] gave up both the above assumptions and derived the model equations for nonlinear dispersive waves by substituting some asymptotic expansions into the lateral boundary conditions. However, some serious algebraic errors in their derivations led the model equations to be unacceptable. Recently, Dai and Huo [16] derived the governing equations describing nonlinear dispersive waves in an incompressible elastic rod by introducing several asymptotic expansions for the axial and radial displacements. The boundary conditions can be well satisfied from the asymptotic point of view. In this paper, we consider nonlinear dispersive waves in a cylindrical elastic rod composed of a compressible Mumaghan material [17]. We shall derive four types of model equations. Firstly, without using any hypothesis, we derive the governing rod equations from the threedimensional elasticity by a reduction through both series expansions and asymptotic expansions. As a result, a system of five onedimensional differential equations is obtained. Secondly, a regular perturbation is used for these five equations, which leads to two simplified model equations. To make comparisons, thirdly we employ the NavierBernoulli hypothesis to our original problem and obtain two governing model equations. Finally, we adopt both the NavierBernoulli hypothesis and the Love hypothesis to derive a single governing equation. To examine these model equations, we compare the dispersion relations with that of linear waves in a threedimensional elastic cylinder. Finally, in the far field, the Kortewegde
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
63
Vries (KdV) equations for these four types of model equations are derived by the reductive perturbation procedure, and their solitary wave solutions are shown. In the last section, we draw our conclusions based on our discussions on these four types of model equations.
2. MODEL EQUATIONS DERIVED FROM TIlE TIlREEDIMENSIONAL ELASTICITY We consider axisymmetric motions of a nonlinear elastic rod composed of an isotropic homogeneous material. In an undisturbed reference configuration, the rod is a circular cylinder of radius a. Suppose (r, (J,z) are the cylindrical coordinates of a material point which has the coordinates (R, e,Z) in the reference configuration. (J = e because of the assumption ofaxisymmetry. The fmite radial and axial displacements, U(R, ~ T) and W(R, ~ T) can be expressed as follows: U(R, ~ T) = r(R, ~ T)  R, W(R, ~ T) = z(R, ~ T)  ~
(1)
where T is the time. We introduce the orthonormal bases associated with the cylindrical coordinates and denote these by ER, Ee, Ez and e,., eo, e, in the reference and current placements, respectively. The deformation gradient tensor F is given in these orthonormal bases by
F = (UR
+ l)e
r
0
+
WR ez 0
ER
+ Uy e; + (Wz + 1)ez
ER
0 Ez
+ (1 + U/R)eo
0 Ee
(2)
0 Ez·
Since here we are interested in weakly nonlinear waves, we shall consider the material nonlinearity up to the second order. For convenience, we take the Murnaghan material [1718] for consideration. For this material, the second PiolaKirchhoffstress tensor E is of the form
where E = (FTF  1)/2 is the Green strain tensor, .A_ and J1. are known as the Lame's coefficients, Vb V2, V3 and V 4 are other constitutive constants, Tr denotes the trace of a tensor, and the superscript T denotes the transpose of a tensor. We point out that here we only take the Murnaghan material as an example, the approaches can also be adopted to treat other materials with different constitutive relations (e.g. hyperelastic materials with constitutive relation as given by Ogden [19]). The first PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor S, which equals F:E, may now be computed. We find its nonzero physical components to be
SrR
= A. U/R
+ A. Wz + (.A_ + 2J1.)UR + (A/2 + VI + v2)(U/R)2 + (A/2 + J1.+ vd2 + V4/4)Ui + 2V2UWZ /R + (A/2 + VI + v2)Wi + (A + 2V2 + V3)UUR /R + (A + 2V2 + V3)UR Wz + (J1. + VI + v4/2)Uz + (3.A_/2 + 3J1.+ VI + V2 + V3 + V4)U; + (.A_/2 + J1.+ vd2 + V4/4)W;,
WR
(4a)
64
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
SrZ = J1.Uz
+ J1.WR + (A. + V3/2) (U/R) Uz + (A. + 2J1.+ V3/2 + v4/2)Uz + V4/2)Uz UR + (V3/2)(U/R)WR
WR
Wz
+ (A. + 2J1. + V3/2 + (J1. + V3/2
+ v4/2)Wz
+ (J1. + V3/2 + V4/2)WR UR,
(4b)
See = (A. +2J1.)U/R+A.Wz
+ (..1./2
+ vd2)U]
+ (3..1./2+ 3J1.+VI+V2+V3+V4)(U/R)2 + (A. + 2V2 + V3)UWZ /R + (..1./2 + VI + V2)W]
+A.UR
(4c)
+ (A. + 2V2
+ V3)UUR /R + (2V2)WZ UR + (..1./2 + VI+ V2)U;
SzR = J1.Uz
+ J1.WR + (V3/2)UUz
/R
/R
+ (J1. + V3/2 + v4/2)Uz
Wz Wz
(4d)
+ (J1. + V3/2
+ v4/2)UR Uz + (A. + 2J1.+ V3/2 + v4/2)WR + (A. + 2J1.+ V3/2 + V4/2)UR WR,
+ (A. + V3/2)UWR SzZ
= A.U/R + A.UR + (A. + 2J1.)Wz + (..1./2 + VI+ V2)U2 /R2
+ (..1./2
+ J1.+ vd2 + v4/4)U;
+ (A. + 2V2 + v3)(U/R)Wz
+ (2V2)(U/R)UR
WR.
(4e)
+ (3..1./2
+ 3J1. + VI+ V2 + V3 + V4)(Wi)
+ (..1./2 + J1.+ vd2 + v4/4)W;
+ (A. + 2V2
+ V3)WZ UR + (..1./2 + VI+ V2)U; + (J1. + VI+ v4/2)Uz
The first PiolaKirchhoff
stress tensor S satisfies the following dynamical equations:
(SrR )R
+ (SrZ
(SzR
}z
+ (SrR
 S(le) /R
= pUTT, = pWTT·
(5a) (5b)
h + (SzZ
}z + SzR /R
Substituting (4a}(4e) into the above two equations, we obtain
pUTT
 (A. + 2J1.)U/R2  (2..1. + 3J1.+
2VI+ 2V2 + V3 + V4)U2 /R3 + V3)UWZ /R2 + J1.Uzz
Uzz
+(..1. J1.+ V3/2 + V4/4)Ui +
+(..1. + V3/2)UUzz +(..1. + 2J1.+ V3/2 +(..1. + 2V2 /R
/R  (A. + 2V2
+ (A. + 2J1.+ V3/2 + v4/2)Wz
Wzz
+ v4/2)Uz
+ (A. + 2J1.)UR /R + (2VI V3)UUR /R2
WR /R
+ V3)WZ UR /R + (A. + 2J1.+ V3/2 + V4/2)UR Uzz
/R
+(2..1. 3J1. + 2V2 + 2V3 + V4)U; /R + (J1. + V3/2 + v4/2)Uz +
+(J1. +(2..1. +(2J1.
+ v4/4)W;
+ (J1. + V3/2 + V4/2)WR Wzz
/R
+ 4J1. + VI+ V3/2 + V4)UZ URZ + (2V2 + V3/2)UWRZ + Vl + V3/2 + V4)WR URZ + (A. + J1.)WRZ
WRZ
+(..1. J1.+ 2VI+ 2V2 + V3/2 + v4/2)Wz +
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMME
MODEL EQUATIONS
65
+(,1, + p. + 2V2 + 3V3/2 + V4/2)UR WRZ + (,1,+ 2V2 + V3)WZ URR +(,1, + 2V2 + V3)UURR /R + (3,1,+ 6p.+ 2VI + 2V2 + 2V3 + 2V4)UR URR +(p. + VI + v4/2)Uz WRR + (,1,+ 2p. )URR + (,1,+ 2p.+ VI + V4/2)WR WRR
pWTT
= 0, (6a)
+ (,1,+ p.)Uz /R + (,1,+ 2VI + 2V2)UUZ /R2 + (,1,+ 2p. + VI + v4/2)Uz Uzz
+(,1, + p. + 2V2 + 3V3/2 + v4/2)Uz Wz /R + (,1,+ 2p. )Wzz + (,1,+ 2V2 + V3)UWZZ /R +(3,1, + 6p. + 2VI + 2V2 + 2V3 + 2V4)WZ Wzz + (p. + 2V2 + V3 + V4/2)UR Uz /R +(,1,+ 2V2 + V3)UR Wzz + p.WR /R + (,1,+ 2p.+ V3/2 + V4/2)WR Wz /R + (,1,+ P. )URZ
+(p. +(A.
+ VI + v4/2)Uzz
WR
+ (2,1,+ 2p.+ V3 + V4/2)UR WR /R + (2V2 + V3/2)UURZ/R
+ p. + 2V2 + 3V3/2 + v4/2)Wz URZ + (A. + P. + 2VI + 2V2 + V3/2 + v4/2)UR URZ +(2p. + VI + V3/2 + V4)UZ WRZ + (2A. + 4p.+ VI + V3/2 + V4)WR WRZ + p.WRR
+(p.
+ V3/2 + v4/2)Uz URR + (,1,+ 2p.+ V3/2 + v4/2)WR URR + (,1,+ V3/2)UWRR/R +(A. + 2p.+ V3/2 + v4/2)Wz WRR + (,1,+ 2p.+ V3/2 + v4/2)UR WRR = O. (6b)
In addition to the above dynamical equations, we consider the boundary conditions as
imposed by the assumption that the lateral surface of the rod is free of traction. The stress components SrR and SzR should vanish on the lateral surface. Using (4a) and (4d) we have the following boundary conditions:
SrR = ,1,U/R+,1,Wz + (A./2
+(,1,+2p.)UR
+(A./2+VI+V2)(U/R)2+2v2UWZ/R
+ p. + vt/2 + v4/4)Ui
+ (A./2+ VI + v2)wi + (A. + 2V2 + V3)UR Wz
=0 (7a)
+ (A. + 2V2 + V3)UUR /R + (3A./2 + 3p.+ VI + V2 + V3 + V4)U; + (p. + VI + v4/2)Uz WR + (A./2 + P. + vt/2 + v4/4)W;
atR SzR
=
=
a, p.Uz +p.WR
+ (V3/2)UUz/R+
(p. +V3/2 + v4/2)Uz Wz
+ (p. + V3/2 + V4/2)UR Uz + (A. + 2p.+ V3/2 + V4/2)WR Wz + (A. + V3/2)UWR /R + (A. + 2p.+ V3/2 + V4/2)UR WR = 0 atR = a.
(7b)
We introduce a new set of dimensionless quantities through the following suitable scales: W=hw, U=hu,
R = lr, Z= lx,
T= (l/e)t,
where h is the characteristic axial displacement and I is the characteristic wave length, while e is the barwave speed (its value will be given later). Since we consider weakly nonlinear
66
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
waves, h// will be treated as a small parameter and is denoted bye. (6a,b) and (7a,b), we obtain
'2
Substituting (8) into
11.+ .u
(2 [
pc2
Ult 
2' + r
U
'1oUxx
u, +  + (1 
r
'1o)wrx
+ u.;
+e
U2 u2  '10 + 2'11 + 2'12 + 2'13 + 2'14) y3 + (1  '10+ '13 + '14/2) :
(1
2'10 + 2'12 + 2'13) U~x + (1
r
2'10 + '13) UU
UUr
xx
r
+ (1 + '13 +
'14)WxUxx )
+ ( 1 + '13 + '14) u; Wxx + +(1 + '13 + +('10 + '13 +
'14)UrUxx
( 2'11 
2'13) 2
r
+
(
1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2'13 2
u, Wx r
x
+ (2  '10 + 2'12 + 4'13 + 2'14) Ur + ('10 + '13 + '14) U
r
r
Wr
'14)Wr Wxx
+ ('10 + '14/2)
»? r
+ (2 + '11 + '13+
2'14)Ux Uxr
+(2'10 + '11 + '13 +
2'14)WrUxr
+ (2'12 + '13) UWrx + ('10 + '11 +
r
'14)Ux Wrr '14)Ur Wrx
+(1  '10 + 2'11 + 2'12 + '13 + +(1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2'13) UU + (3 + 2'11 + 2'12 + 4'13 + pc2
Ux
'14)Wx Wrx
+ (1  '10 + 2'12 + 3'13 +
2'13)WxUrr '14)Wr Wrr
rr
r
+ (1  2'10 + 2'12 + + (1 + '11 + w, + '10 +
4'14)UrUrr
1 = 0,
'1o)Urx
(9a)
'2
11.+ .u
[(1
Wit
+ (1  '10)
r
+
'1oWrr
r
Wxx
+ (1 
+e
2'10 + 2'11 + 2'12) U~x + (12'10 + 2'12 + 2'13) UW
xx
'10+ 2'12 + 3'13 + '14) Ux;x
4'14)Wx Wxx
+ (1 + '11+ + (1 + '13+
'14)Ux Uxx
+(1
r
+ (3 + 2'11+ 2'12 + 4'13 +
'14)WrUrr
+(2'10 +'11 +'13
+2'14)Ux
Wrx
+ (1'10 +2'11 +2'12 +'13 +
'14)U,.Urx
+ (1+'13
+'14)WxWrr
+(1  '10 + 2'12 + 3'13 + + ( 1  2'10 + '13) r'1oUx +e UWrr ]
'14)Wx
u.; + ('10 + '13 +
'14)Ux
u., + (1 + '13 +
'14)Ur Wrr
= 0,
(9b)
+ '10Wr
x
['13UU + ('10 + 113+
r
114)UxWx
+ (110+ 113 +
114)UrWr
+(1 + '13+
114)Wr Wx
+ (1 + 113+
1=
°
114)Ux u,
+ (1  2110+ 113) UW
r
r
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
67
at
r=
$,
(lOa)
at
r=
$,
____LL_
(lOb)
n 2(4+21')",4 ~
where ·,0  A+21',·,2  ~ n  _E_ n  A+21"',3 nW
2(A+2it)' s=~, x=x, t=t.
(11)
Now, we introduce a very important change of variables as follows:
=
w(x, s, t),
u=rv(x,s,t),
In the new components w(x, s, t) and v(x, s, conditions take the following forms:
t), the dynamical equations and the boundary
, VII +2p.
A
pc2
+ rJOV;u + 8vs + 2(1  '1o)wsx +
4svss
+f [16(2 '10 + 'II + 2'12 + 3'13 + 2'14)VVs + (1+ '13 + '14)Wx Vxx + (1+ '13 + '14)Vx Wxx +(3  '10 + 'II + 2'13 + 5'14/2)v~ + 8(1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2'13)Vs Wx + 2(1 '10 + '13 + '14)VVxx +2(1 + '13 + rJ4)SVs V;u + 2(2+ 2'10 + 2'11 + 3'14)W; + 2(1 '10 + 4'12 + 4'13 + rJ4)VWsx
+4(2'10
+ 1'/1 '13 + 21'/4)Vx Ws + 2(2 + 'II + '13 + 2'14)SVx Vsx + 2('10 + '13 + '14)Ws W;u +
+4(11  '10 + 61'/1 8'12 + 16'13 + 14'14)sv; + 4(1  '10 + 21'/2 3'13 + '14)SVs Wsx + + +2{1  '10 + 2'11 + 2'12 + '13 + '14)Wx Wsx + 8(2  '10 + 'II + 2'12 + 3'13 + 2'14)SVVss
+4{2'10
+ 1'/1 '13 + 2'14)SWs Vsx + 4('10 + 'II + '14)SVx Wss + 8{1+ 'II + '14)SWs Wss + +8(3 + 2'11 + 2'12 + 41'/3 41'/4)S2vs Vss + 4(1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2'13)SWx vss] = 0, (l2a) +
pc2
, Wit +2p.
A
+ 2(1  1'/o)vx + 4'1ows + 4'1oswss + Wxx + 2(1  '1o)svsx
+f [2(1 '10 + 2'11 + 4'12 + 2'13 + '14)VVx + 2(1  '10 + 2'12 + 3'13 + '14)Vx Wx +2(1 + 3'10 + 2'11 + 4'12 + 6'13 + 5'14)SVs Vx + 2(1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2rJ3)VWxx +(3 + 2'11 + 2'12 + 4'13 + 4'14)Wx Wxx + 2(1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2rJ3)SWxx vs +(1 + 'II + 1'/4)SVxVxx + 4(1 + '13 + '14)Wx Ws + 4{2 2'10 + 2'13 + rJ4)VWs
68
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
+4(6  21'/0+ 61'/3+ 51'/4)SVsw. + 2(1  1'/0+ 21'/1+ 41'/2+ 21'/3+ 1'/4)SVVsx +4(1  1'/0+ 2'11 + 2'12 + 1'/3+ '14)S2vs Vsx + 2(21'/0 + 1'/1+ '13 + 21'/4)SV. Wsx +2{'10 + 1'/1+ '14)SWs Vxx + 4{1'/0+ '13 + 'l4)S2vx Vss + 8(1 + 1'/3+ '14)S2ws vss +4{1 + 1'/3+ '14)SWx Wss + 8(1 + '13 + '14)S2vs Wss + 4(2  2'10 + 2'13 + '14)SVW ss +2{1  '10 + 21'/2+ 3'13 + '14)SWx Vsx + 4(2 + 'II + '13 + 2'14)SWs Wsx ] = 0, '10Vx + 2'10Ws +t [(1'/0+ 2'13 + '14)VVx + ('10 + 1'/3+ '14)Vx Wx + 2{1'/0+ 1'/3+ '14)SVx v, +2{2  21'/0+ 21'/3+ 1'/4)VWs +2(1 + '13 + '14)Ws Wx + 4{1 + '13 + 1'/4)SVs w.,] = 0
at
S
(12b)
= 15,
(13a)
2(1  '1o)v + (1  2'10)wx + 2svs +t [(3  31'/0+ 21'/1+ 4'12 + 4'13 + 2'14)V2 + (1/2) (1 + 'II + 'l4)SV~ +(1  21'/0+ 4'12 + 2'13)VWx + (1/2  '10 + 'II + '12)W; + 2('10 + 'II + '14)SVx Ws +4(2  1'/0+ 'II + 2'12 + 31'/3+ 2'14)SVV. + 2(1  2'10 + 2'12 + 2'13)SVs Wx +2(3 + 21'/1+ 2'12 + 41'/3+ 4'14)S2V; + 2(1 + 'II + '14)SW;] = 0
at
S=
15 •
(13b)
We notice that in (12a}{13b) rdoes not appear explicitly or implicitly in the form of ,fi. Thus, the importance of (11) is that now the unknowns become functions of s, x and t and we only need to work with s; there is no need to consider the oddpower terms of r. Here, we are considering long waves in the rod and the variable s is small. It can be seen from (12a,b) and (13a,b) that the whole problem depends on two small parameters e and 15, one small variable s and two other variables x and t. Assume that wand v have the following Taylor expansions in the neighborhood of s = 0: w(s, x, t; e, 15) = wo(x, t; e, 15) + SWI (x, t; e, 15) + S2W2(X, t; s, 15) + ... , v(s,x,t;t,J)
= vo(x,t;t,J) (14a) (14b)
+ SVl(X,tit,
c5) +S2V2(X,tie,J)
+....
Substituting (14a,b) into (12a,b), each equation will be a polynomial in the small variable
s. Setting the coefficients of each power of s to be zero, we obtain
p VOlt+ '1OVOxx 8Vl + 2(1  '10)Wlx +
+e (al v~ + a2 VoVaxx + a3 WOx VOxx+ a3 VOxWaxx + a4 VoVI + 405 VIWOx+ a6 VOx l W
(15a)
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
69
fJwOIl
+ 2(1 
l1o)VOx
+ 4110WI+ WOn
a5VOWOn
+e (allVOVOx
+ aI2vOxWOx +
24V2
+ aI3wOxWOxx +
4a3Wox
WI + a14VOWI) = 0, (I5b)
P VIII +
+e
110VIxx + +
+ 4(1  110)W2x + aI6VIVOxx+
a17V~ a3wOx
(al
5 VOxVb
a2vOvlxx
VIxx +
a3Wb
VOn +
aI9vOx
a3vOx
WIxx WI
+a3Vb
WOn + 3a4VOV2 + +
4a7W2WOxx
+ aI8vIWb + 12a5v2wOx +
2alOWOx
W2+
a20VIx
+2a7WIWln
+ a2IWIW2+
W2x+
alOW~x
+ 2a9VOW2x) = 0, (I5c)
PWltt + 4(1  110)VIx+ 1611oW2 Wlu +
+e
(2aUVOVlx +
a22VI VOx
+
a23VOx Wix
+ 2aI2Vb
WOx
+
a24vOx
VOxx
(I5d) Substituting the expansions (I4a,b) into the boundary conditions (I3a,b), we obtain
110 VOx
+ 2110 WI +
a7VOx WOx
+e (a28VOVOx
+ a14VOWI 2a3WI WOx) +
+110JVlx +
41fOJW2
+
2 0(e ,
es, 152) = 0,
(16a)
2(1  110)Vo (1 +
+e (a29v~
21f0)wox
+ a30vOwOx + a3Iw~x)
2110)JWIx+
2 0(e , eJ,
+2(2 110)JVI + (12
152) = 0,
(I6b)
where P = ;'+2/l' and a i (i = 1, 2, ... ,31) are constants related to material constants. The dynamical equations (I2a,b), together with the boundary conditions (13a,b), are now changed into a onedimensional system of differential equations (15a), (ISb), (I5d) and (I6a), (I6b) for the unknowns Wo, WI, W2, vo and VI if we neglect the higherorder terms of 0(e2, eJ, 152). The last two of these five nonlinear equations are simply the boundary conditions. Thus, using this system of five nonlinear equations as the model equations does not have the drawback that the boundary conditions cannot be satisfied. The onedimensional system of differential equations (I5a), (I5b), (15d), (I6a), (I6b) is very complex. For simplicity, following the procedure of regular perturbation, we can. express WI by Wo and Vofrom (I5b), then express VI also by Woand Voafter substituting WI into (15a). Similarly, we substitute WI and VI into (I5d) and obtain the expression ofw2 by the regular perturbation method. Substituting WI, VI and W2into (16a,b) yields the following two equations with only two unknowns, Woand Vo:
70
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
(17)
where the coefficients are related to material constants. These two equations are the second type of model equations for nonlinear dispersive waves, which also do not have the drawback that the boundary conditions cannot be satisfied. However, since they are obtained by a regular perturbation procedure, they are only valid up to 0(1), although they contain e and J terms. (Remark: It is standard in the singular perturbation theory (we expect that the present problem is a singular perturbation problem), to obtain O( 1) correct resultsone has to work up to O(e) terms.)
3. MODEL EQUATIONS BASED ON THE NAVIER BERNOULli
HYPOTHESIS
In this section, we apply the NavierBemoulli (NB) hypothesis in order to obtain simpler model equations than those above. By this hypothesis, the axial displacement is a function the axial spatial variable and the time only, and consistent with this it is also assumed that the radial displacement is linear in the radial variable. Thus, we write
U(R,Z, T) = Rr(Z, T)  R = R V(Z, T),
W(Z, T) = z(Z, T)  Z,
(19)
where U(Z, T) = R(r(Z, T)  1) is the radial displacement and W(Z, T) = z(Z, T)  Z is the axial displacement. The deformation gradient tensor F is expressed in the orthonormal basis by
In order to employ the Hamilton principle, we take the assumption that the Murnaghan material is hyperelastic. Based on the analysis in [18] the following theorem holds.
Theorem 1. A Murnaghan material with the constitutive relation (3) is hyperelastic if and
only
if the equality
V3
= 2Vi holds; here
Vi
and
V3
are the constitutive constants in (3).
For the hyperelastic Murnaghan material with the constitutive relation (3), the strain energy function <I> has the form
The assumption of hyperelasticity results in a reduction (from 6 to 5) of the number of constitutive constants. By the expression (21), we can rewrite the strain energy function <I> as follows:
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
71
e
= 2 (,l. +,u) V
2
+ ~R2Vl + (~
+,u ) wl
+ 2,l. VWz + Kl V3
,
(22)
+ K2R2
m + K3Wz V2 + K4R2Wz vl
+ K5vwi + K6wi
The stored strain energy per unit length is then given by
'II
=
1 121<
a
q,dSRdR
= rra2
[2 (,l. +,u) V2
+ a:
vi
+
(~+,u
)Wi
+ 2,l. VWz
(23)
The kinetic energy per unit length is given by (24) By definition, the Lagrangian L is given by
By means of the Hamilton principle the EulerLagrangian
equations become
azawz + aTawr st. a et. a st. av ez sv; srsvpWrT
 (,l.
a aL
a st.
0,
=
(26a) (26b)
0.
Substituting (25) into the above two equations yields that
+ 2,u)
Wzz  2,l. Vz  2K3VVZ
(27a)
2K5VZ Wz  2K5VWZZ  6K6WZ Wzz = 0,
We introduce the set of dimensionless Substituting into (27a,b), we obtain
fJWtt 
quantities similar to (8) and set V = (h/l)v.
W.U  2 (1  2'10)
Vx 
2£
[Cl VVx
+ C2Vx W x + C2VWxx + 3C2Wx
Wxx
1=
0,
(28)
72
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
where C1 = 1 C2 = 1 :~ , C3 = 1 :~. These two coupled equations provide another type of model equations for nonlinear dispersive waves in elastic rods. Comparing (28) and (29) with (17) and (18), we notice that besides the differences in some coefficients the most important difference is that (17) contains a term with secondorder derivative in t and secondorder derivative in x (it is a dispersive term) while (28) does not have such a term. In the above derived model, the axial displacement and radial displacement are treated as two independent unknowns. However, several authors (see [911]) have further adopted the socalled Love hypothesis which assumes the axial displacement and radial displacement satisfy
:~I''
V= mWz,
(30)
where m = 2(11+1') is the Poisson ratio. If the dimensionless quantities are employed, the Love relation (30) is of the following form:
v = mwx.
(31)
Combining the NavierBernoulli hypothesis with Love's relation will lead to a single model equation for nonlinear dispersive waves. When Love's relation (30) is employed, the Lagrangian L becomes L = J  W = 7ra;p (2W;
+ a2m2WiT
)
7ra
2
[(
2 (A. +,u )m2  Um Wz
+ ~ +,u
)Wi
(32)
22 ,ua m + 4Wzz
2 + (K1m 3 +K3m 2 K5m+K6)
3]
.
Based on the Hamilton principle the single governing equation can be written as
2p VTT  4C4VZZ = [a2m2 (pVTT  ,uVzz )  6C5V2]ZZ '
where C4 = 2(A. + ,u)m2  2A.m + ~ +,u, C5 = K1m2 + "3m  K5 + K6/m. In the dimensionless form, this equation can be written as
VII 
(33)
bvxx
1 r5m = 2" [2
VII

(r5m2) P0
Vxx

Be d V 2]
xx'
(34)
where Po = pc2/,u, b = 2C4/(PO,u) and d = C5/(PO,u). This is the fourth type of model equation for nonlinear dispersive waves in elastic rods. Obviously, it is very different from' the previous three types of model equations obtained.
4. DISPERSION RELATIONS
To verify the validity of (15) and (16), we check the dispersive relation by comparing it with the one obtained from the complete threedimensional elasticity. With use of (12a,b)
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
73
and (13a,b) and the transformation (14a,b), the dimensionless equations for linear waves are listed below (we now keep terms up to O(cP)):
PVOtl + 110VUu+ 8VI + 2(1  110)Wlx= 0, PWOtl + 2(1  l1o)VOx 4110WI+ WUu = 0, + PVItl PWlt/
+ 110Vlxx + 24v2 + 4(1  110)W2x 0, = + 4(1  110)Vlx+ 1611oW2 WIn = 0, + + 6(1  l1o)V2x+ 3611oW3 W2;a = 0, +
(35a) (35b) (35c) (35d) (35e) (36a)
PW211
2(1  110)Vo (1  2110)WOx + 2(2  110)t5VI (1  2110)t5wlx + + +2(3  l1o)J2v2 + (1  211o)J2w2x = O. Then, Equations (35a)(35e), together with (35a,b), are the corresponding dimensional equations for the unknowns Wo,Wl, W2, W3, VA,VI and V2. To derive the dispersion relation, we consider traveling waves and set
Wn
(36b) one
=
An
exp[i(kx  wt)],
Vj
= B, exp[i(kx  wt)]
(n = 0,1,2,3;)
= 0, 1,2).
(37)
Substituting (36) into (35a)(35e) and (35a,b) yields that
Mil = 0,
where
(38)
iI =
(Ao, Bo,Al, Bl,A2, B2,A3)T,
0
and 8 0 0 0 0 0 24 0 0 0 0 0
pw2Tr
M= 0 0 0 0
pw211oTr 2ik(1110)
0 0 0
2ik(1110) pw2Tr
0 2 4110 0
pw211oTr 4ik(1110)
0
4ik(1110) pw2Tr
16110
6ik(1110)
ikJ2 2 215 (3110)
36110
ik 2110) 2(1110)
ik(l
iJk(12110)
415 215(2110) ikJ2(12110)
iJk
602 0 (39)
For nontrivial solutions to (38), we set det(M)
to be zero, which yields that
192 (3~116  4~11~  P 11~W2+ P 116(2) +2415 [6k4116  8k411~  6p ~11~W2 + 3p ~11~W2
+4P~11~W2
+ p2TfoW4 + p2Tf~W4 
p2Tf~W4]
+152 [19J('11~ 24/('11~  29P k4Tf~w2 +
lOp k4Tf~W2 + 24P k4Tf~W2
4p2~Tf~W4
(40)
+l1p2~Tfow4 _p3W6 
+ 16p2~11~W4  18p2~Tf~w4 5p311oW6 + p3Tf~W6] + 0 (153) = O.
74
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
This is the asymptotically valid algebraic equation to determine the dispersion relation for waves in the linear elastic rod. From the above equation, for small k and t5, we obtain the following relation with use of the regular perturbation method: =k
W
(1_
=
2 m t5 4
k? _ m2t52 (7  4m  29m2 + 4m3 + 21m4) k4
96 (1  m2)
+
o (t5 Jc6))
3
(41)
and the phase velocity corresponding to (41) is given by
vp =
k
w
2 1 _ m t5 4
k? _ m2t52 (7  4m  29m2 + 4m3 + 21m4) k4 + O(t53k6).
96 (1 m2)
(42)
In deriving the above expressions, use has been made of c =
I:!..
P
(3), +2/1)
).+11
'
which will be
discussed in the next section. For the incompressible rod, the equality m = 1/2 holds and the phase velocity can be obtained from the expression (42)
Vp
=
k
ta
= 1 16k
s
2
+ 4608k + 0 t5
7t5
2
4
( 3 6)
k
,
(43)
which is in agreement with the result in [16]. Derived from the threedimensional elasticity, the exact dispersion relation in a linear rod [20], known as the Pochhammer frequency equation, is given by
(2p/a) (q2 4PpqJ1
+ P) J1
(pa)J1 (qa)  (q2 =
P)2 Jo (pa)J1 (qa)
(44)
(pa)Jo (qa)
0,
k are the
where J; (.) is the Bessel function of the first kind of order i, a is the radius of the rod, OJ and wave frequency and the wave number, respectively, and
pw q2 =2
J1.
k2 .
(45)
For small
k and a, we
find the exact phase velocity
vp in a linear
rod can be expressed by
Here,
CT
= ~.
With use of the scales given by (8), Equation (46) takes the following
dimensionless form:
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
75
Comparing the phase velocity (42) with the exact one (47) obtained from the threedimensional elasticity, we can see that (42) can match with (47) exactly for the small values of kand J. This shows that the transformations (11) and the expansions (14) are rational from the point of view of keeping the dispersion relation. By the same procedure as above, we can obtain the dispersion relation for traveling waves described by (17) and (18), which has the same expression as (41). Meanwhile, we can also obtain the dispersion relations for traveling waves described by (28a,b) and (34), which take the following forms, respectively:
OJ
=k 
1 + 2m ] m2J . ( [ 21 +m ) Ji3 4
2
+ 0(J2P)
. . when adopting the NB hypothesis, When adopting both the NB hypothesis and the Love's relation.
(48) (49)
OJ
= k
[ 1 + 2m ] m J 2(I+m) 4
Ji3 + 0(J2P)
From the above expressions, we can see that using both the NB hypothesis and Love's relation gives the same dispersive relation as the one when only using the NB hypothesis, which yields an error at O( J Tel) by comparison with the exact one (41) derived from the threedimensional theory.
;:o;~)
5. FARFIELD EQUATIONS
It is known that Equation (34) has the exact solitary wave solution
v = a sech2 [(x ± nlt)/n2]
in which n2 1
,
(50)
=
b  2a de , n 2
Pg = mvJ(lboel) da I + 2J . P
Equations (15a,b,d) and (16a,b), (17) and (18) or (28a,b) have no solitary wave solutions with the above form, but in the far field, the asymptotically valid equation can be derived, which takes the form ofKdV equation and has the solitary wave solution. To derive the farfield equation, which balances nonlinearity and dispersion, we follow the procedure of the reductive perturbation method [21] and introduce the following transformations:
, =xIt is further assumed that expansions:
Wi Wi
t,
T
= et.
(51)
and
Vj
(i = 0,1, 2;j = 0,1) have the following perturbation
= WiO
+ eWil + "',
Vj
= VjO
+ e Vjl + ... (i
= 0,1,2;
j = 0,1).
(52)
Substituting (51), (51) into (15a,b,d) and (16a,b) yields the 0(1) equation as follows:
MoHo = 0,
(53)
76
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
('10  P)& 2(1  '10) :, Mo =
8
0
(1 
0
4(1  '10) :,
P) :,
2(1  '10) :, 4'10
0 0
16'10
(54)
0
'10
2(1  '10)
a,
a
0 0
0 0
1  2'10
(lP)&
2'10
0
0 0
seeking its
Equation (53) is a homogeneous system of linear algebraic equations, nontrivial solutions yields that det(Mo) 0, which leads to
=
p
c=
J1. (3A. + 2J1.). A. +J1.
(55)
The left eigenvector L, of the matrix Mo is given by
t,
From (53), we also obtain
=
(0,
1, 0, 2,
P 1 1  2'10
a) a, .
312'1g+14'154'18 64(1'10)2
h  210.=.!... _ (12'1g)(2'1~1) _ were a1  2(1'10)' a2 16(1'10)2 , a3 Proceeding as above, at O(e), we have
~ 4(1'10)'
a4 
_
M, HI + Q1WOO{T
+Q2W~0" + Q3Woo,Woom' + Q4WOO{WOO{,+ Q5WOO,Woo",.; (57)
+Q6WOO{';Woo", where HI =
(VOl,
+ Q7W~0'; + QswoO{.;.;, + Q9WOO,,'; = 0, and
Vll, WOl';, Wll, W21)T, Ql =
(2pa1 a~ , 2P, 2Pa4 a,
a2
2'
0,
0) T ,
0, 0, O)T, 0, o{ , 0, 0, 7T7{ , 0, 0, 7T9)T ,
7T4,
Q2 = (7Tl, 0, Q4 = (0, 7T3,
0, 0, o{ , Q3 = (7T2, 0, 0, 7T6, O)T, Q5 = (0, 0, Q6= (0, 0, 7T5, 0, o)" , Q7 = (0, 0, Qs = (0, 0, 0, 7Ts, O{ , Q9 = (0, 0,
the constants 7Tj (j = 1, 2, ... , 9) are relative to the material and geometric constants. To suppress the secular terms which might arise in (57), we multiply it from the left by the left eigenvector L, to obtain (58)
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
77
where
This is the asymptotically valid farfield equation, which is the wellknown KdV equation for woo.;. We can see that (2 is always positive and (1 can take the arbitrary value depending on the constitutive constants A, u, Vb V2, V3 and V4. The KdV equation (58) has the following solitary wave solution: (59) where ~ 0 is a constant phase shift,
sgnf) is the sign function, and
Y1 = From (56), we have
Y 12(;'
m
(60)
(61 ) It is obvious that if (1 > 0 (or (1 < 0), Voo < 0 (or Voo > 0), the solitary wave is a contraction (or expansion) one. By the procedure of the reductive perturbation method, we can obtain the farfield equation for nonlinear dispersive waves modeled by (17), (18), which has the same form as (58). Thus, the first type of model equations (15a), (15b), (15d), (16a) and (16b) is equivalent to the second type of model equations (17) and (18) up to 0(1) in the far field. Because of the simplicity of the second type it is the recommended type of model equations to use. Meanwhile, we can also obtain the farfield equations for nonlinear dispersive waves described by (28a,b) and (34), which take the following forms, respectively:
WO~T '\wo.;woo.;~ + (2Wo.;m = 0 (farfield equation for (28a,b», + WO~T+(lWO~WOO~~+2Wo~m = O. (farfield equation for (34». (
Here,
(62) (63)
r __
I:. 1 
3(1C1m3  1C3m2 + 1C5m + 1(5) 2 (1 + m)p ,
2 2m ] m J (2 = 2(1 m) 4e 2
 [1 ++
and
"ft __ 1:.1
3(1C1m3  1C3m2 + 1C5m  1(6) 2(I+m)p ,
(2
= [ 1 + 2m ] m J . 2(I+m) 4e
We notice that, comparing the above two equations with the farfield equation (58) originated from the first or second type of model equations, the coefficient of the dispersive term (2
78
H.H. DAI and X. FAN
has an error
&~2~m)
and, further, there is some difference in the nonlinear term coefficient.
Comparing the above two equations themselves the coefficients (1 and (1 of the nonlinear term WO~WOO~~ in (67) and (68) are somehow different. The reason is that Love's relation, V = m Wz (i.e. v = m wx), is a linear assumption, and this linear approximation results in the difference between (1 and (1.
6. CONCLUSIONS We have studied weakly nonlinear long waves in a cylindrical elastic rod composed of a compressible Managhan material. Four types of model equations are derived. The dispersion relations and the farfield equations have been derived for these types of model equations. From these results, we can come to the following conclusions: I. The first type of model equations is an exact one from the asymptotic point of view, and it will be quite suitable to study both boundary and/or initial value problems in the small or large time range. However, it is somehow complex. 2. For the purpose of simplicity, the second type of model equations is also a good choice for studying boundary and/or initial value problems, since it takes the same forms of the dispersion relation and the farfield equation as those for the first type of model equations. However, since it is valid only up to O( 1), if the disturbance is not small, there may be some errors. 3. For the third type of model equations obtained by using the NavierBernoulli hypothesis, it takes a slight simpler form than the second type. However, there are some differences in coefficients and one term is missing compared with the second type. Nevertheless, as it consists of two coupled equations (governing the radial and axial deformations respectively and their coupling effects) and the missing term is one of several terms representing dispersive effects, it can still be regarded as a good choice of model equations. 4. When both the NavierBernoulli and Love hypotheses are used, a single governing equation is obtained. As it is expected that there will be coupling effects between the radial deformation and axial one, such a model cannot take these into account. Further, Love's relation is a linear relation, while here nonlinear waves are studied. Thus, in general, we do not recommend use of the fourth type of model equation to study nonlinear dispersive waves in elastic rods. 5. If one is only interested in solitary waves in the far field, all four types of model equations can give the qualitatively same results although the last two (in particular, the fourth type) may yield some quantitative errors.
Acknowledgment. The work described in this paper was folly supported by a grant from CityU (project No. 7001145).
ASMPTOTICALLY APPROXIMATE MODEL EQUATIONS
79
REFERENCFS
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Samsonov, A. M.: Nonlinear strain waves in elastic waveguides, in Nonlinear fftrves in Solids, ed. A. Jeffrey & 1. Engelbreght, Springer, Vienna, 1994.
[12] Cohen, H., Dai, H.H.: Nonlinear axisymmetric waves in compressible hyperelastic rods: long finite amplitude waves. Acta Mech., 100,223239 (1993). [13] Porubov, A. V, Samsonov, A. M.: Refinement of the model for the propagation oflongitudinal with nonlinear elasticity. Iech. Phys. Lett., 19, 365366 (1993). strain waves in a rod
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