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Production Paper Revised 002

Production Paper Revised 002

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Sections

  • CHAPTER I Company Profile
  • CHAPTER II Product Design
  • CHAPTER III Process Design
  • CHAPTER IV Location and Facility Layout
  • CHAPTER V Supply Chain Management
  • CHAPTER VI Total Quality Management
  • CHAPTER VII Work System Design

CHAPTER I Company Profile

The Mission

G

RAFFITI is committed to creating a unique fashion environment that gives GRAFFITI clientele individuality. With the immense knowledge and exposure of

our buying staff and in-Store sales associates, GRAFFITI can create a wardrobe for the new millennium that encompasses the trends of the world market with keeping the needs of the individual in mind. GRAFFITI is constantly changing its look to stay in step with fashion trends of the world market with keeping the needs of the individual in mind. GRAFFITI will rapidly update its look to stay in step with fashion trends in Asia and to insure its clientele an exclusive look for their fast paced lifestyle. We are dedicated to superb customer service that keeps each client on the cutting edge of fashion. GRAFFITI also aimed to cater more job opportunity with in the Philippines. The company will be opening doors to young and mature, for the company believes that every people is special in different ways.

The Vision

G

raffiti’s vision is to be the best tailored clothing company in the world. This means satisfying our customers in a distinctly superior manner, providing

quality products with the highest price-to-value ratio, reaching company financial goals, and fully developing our most important resource: our people Get to know Graffiti… Our vision can help you see the world.

Core Values
Authenticity. We are a group of genuine, passionate people. We are true to the
participation, progression and lifestyle of the sports and style we represent and at a deeper level we are committed to being ourselves.

Balanced Ambition. At Graffiti, we are committed to balance. While extremely
challenging, balancing professional ambitions and life outside of work is core to this company's success.

Credibility. We are working hard to earn respect from our core customer. Style. We are dedicated to creatively exceeding our customer’s and partner’s
expectations in a style that can only be called “Graffiti Style”.

Leadership. At Graffiti we lead by example, we are not afraid to take risks and
learn from our failures. We strive to be leaders as individuals and as a company to ultimately change things for the better.

Respect. Graffiti is focused on being respectful to all individuals, the industries
and communities we live and play in.

Communication. Graffiti promotes a culture of respectful communication
throughout the company; communication is central to building and nurturing strong, trusting relationships. Communication is an obligation.

G

RAFFITI Company is composed of 5 individual departments and on top of it was the president, the owner of the company. These departments contribute

to the company’s growth, each of which is a necessity for the organization to work. The Fashion Designer Department gives the impression to what is the upcoming range clothing collection, while the Design Department makes this impression a reality. One of the focused departments is the Chief of Operation Department. This department is the bulk producer of the clothing collection, and in due time this finished collections will be distributed on stores to sell, the distribution of the collection will be handled by the Sales and Marketing Manager Department. And

what is now left, the payroll, financial, and accounting matters these things are carefully managed by the Financial Controller Department.

CHAPTER II Product Design

Significance of the Product

Fig. 2.1 Boys T-shirt

Fig. 2.2 Girls T-shirt

G

RAFFITI’s first design of t-shirt for boys and girls, the clothes is made of cotton fabrics to give the clientele the feeling of comfort while wearing it. The studs

are perfectly fastened on the outside of the clothes to secure the clientele safety of accidentally puncturing them with the studs while wearing these clothes.

Fig.3 Exploded view of a shirt Fig.4 Parts of a T-shirt . 2. 2.

” This strip of fabric appears on the inside of the neck. Sleeve: The upper corner of the t-shirt has two extra fabrics that are mainly used to cover the upper arm of a person it is called sleeves. Hem: You will see the term “double needle stitched” used occasionally. while others have self-fabric cuffs. Neckband: In fabric terms. while making it more comfortable by covering the seam between the collar and the shirt. “tape” is a narrow.Anatomy of a T-Shirt Cuff: The end of the sleeve is known as the cuff. and hence two rows of thread. This means that the hem is stitched with a double row of needles. There is often tape along the inner side vents as well. . A double needle stitched hem is less likely to unravel. and also give the shirt a more finished look. woven piece of fabric. to help keep the shirt from coming un-tucked. It also helps to absorb perspiration. Some t-shirt has rib knit cuffs. Some t-shirt manufacturer produces different lengths of sleeves depending on the type of t-shirt purpose. The best tshirts have a “fully taped neck. helping to maintain the structure of the shirt. running parallel to each other.

2.9 Special Vinyl Transfer Paper Fig.7 Cotton Threads . 2.Materials Fig. 2. 2.5 Cotton Fabrics Fig.8 Colored Buttons Fig.6 Studs Fig. 2.

reduced consumer confidence. Women tend to buy at a constant rate. briefly stated these consumers group. The impact of the economic slowdown is felt differently by various sub-sectors of the fashion industry.5% and 3. the apparel market is positive due to the immensity and strength of the industry. with some being more greatly affected than others. women spend about 80% of all money that goes for sportswear. . and increase their visibility by taking part in trade shows and other activities.Demand Analysis T he recent economic slowdown combined with the tragic events within the year 2011. dominated the Philippine apparel sales market. Industry specialists strongly advise using specialized brokers to increase one's chances of success.1% and accounted for 31% of total apparel sales. GRAFFITI intends to target men and women in the Tri-State Area who require competitively priced. whereas men's apparel sales have been growing.8%. manufacturers who want to enter the market will have to be extra-prudent and prepared to make greater investments in promotions and resources to do observation visits. Women's apparel sales growth was 3. there are no color barriers and customers have diverse backgrounds.7% and represented 52% of all apparel sales. a constant consumer Within all groups. branded clothing. such as the men's wear industry. 93% of those spent on children's. conduct preliminary market tests. but individuals aged 45 and older accounted for 25% of the market in 1999. In general. Girl's and boy's apparel rose 0. which led to declining sales in the apparel industry as a whole. Individuals under the age of 20 wear about 43% of sports apparel. whereas men's apparel growth was 4. the women's consumer segment. According to the NPD. respectively. range between 15 and 59 years of age. in which the demand is more elastic than in the women's wear industry. They control 96% of the dollars spent on their own clothes. However. and 60% of those spent for men's sports apparel. During 1999.

71 9 209.26 1.404 225.056.00% 1.42 8 95.25 287.679 210.The Market Analysis table and chart.00% 60.462 93.07 5 98.26 5 211.432 97. as well as potential Internet sales.857 13.45% .007.37 3 4.99% 0.789 62.35 4.24 7 100. Fig.15 1 99.00% 0.503 102.577 61.53 963.652 887.45% 6 0 2 5 Fig 2.66 923.730 208. below.831 213.69 3 207.180 61.99% 1.30 13% 0 0 3 324.859 204. 2.11 Market Analysis Table 366.638 63.00% 1.10 Market Analysis (Pie Chart) Market Analysis Year 1 Potential Customers Men (20 to 49 Years) Women (20 to 49 Years) Boys (5 to 19 Years) Girls (5 to 19 Years) Infants & Toddlers (0 to 4 Years) Internet Total Growth 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 202.364 101.00 254.440 94.025 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 CAGR 1. show potential customers in the TriState Area by gender and age groups.790 206.425 96.918 215.

bleach. cleaners. Processing . energy 7. plastics.12 Life Cycle of a T-Shirt 1.energy. Manufacturing . Raw Materials . Use . Transport – energy 6. water 2. or Reuse (go back to 6).energy. Either one of . water.paper. Packaging .Disposal (landfill). energy. detergents. dyes 3.fertilizer. waste 5. or recycle (go back to 1) . waste 4.Life Cycle Management Fig 2.

both understanding the complex interactions between energy and material throughout the life of a product. We base the product lines that we carry on their reputation and quality as t-shirt apparel. Strategic Product Marketing Marketing Strategy Our marketing strategy will focus heavily on sales promotion. We will also utilize the standard practice of key stoning as well. This will allow us to focus directly on our target customer while still being conservative with our advertising peso. Our promotions will always stay in tune with our company mission statement. This kit will include a press release. color postcard/flyer. and a business card. • • • 5. 1 Pricing Strategy GRAFFITI will maintain a flexible pricing strategy. • A press release kit will be sent to all major media outlets in Metro Manila.000 4x5 color flyers/postcards will be distributed throughout the. A direct mail program that will further focus on and target the top 50% customer base with special in-house sales and promotions. niche positioning in the market and customer service with loyalty and retention in sales. • • The marketing budget will not exceed 5% of our gross annual sales. pictures of the interior space. .A Lifecycle approach helps us to engage in whole systems thinking . Most of our lines come with a suggested retail price that we will follow. Spot radio advertisements on local FM radio stations. and thinking in the long term about the impacts these interactions will have on the environment and society. 2 Promotion Strategy GRAFFITI will follow an aggressive yet creative promotional plan. PH highlighting the grand opening of the first Filipino owned t-shirt apparel retailer in the city.

bplans. 4 Marketing Programs Our marketing programs will consist of the distribution of 5. Read more: http://www.3 Distribution Strategy Our retail location will be the foundation of building our customer base.000 color flyers two weeks prior to our grand opening event. 5 Positioning Statement For the more full-bodied individual seeking t-shirt apparel.com/clothing_retail_business_plan/strategy_and_implementation_ summary_fc. GRAFFITI will offer name brand t-shirt in a larger assortment of styles and sizes that aren't always readily available in the mass t-shirt apparel retailers.php#ixzz1fwd5M8tx . We will also manage a direct mail program that will focus on our top 50% customers spotlighting any in-house sales and promotions.

CHAPTER III Process Design Production Management Fig. 3.1 Process Design .

Care must be taken to avoid a needle cutting the yarn of the fabric." the unseamed sleeve is set into place. Alternative hem styles include a combination of edge finishing stitches. They are joined at the seam lines to form a simple. superimposed seam and stitched together using an over edge stitch. forming the hem and stitching. Assembling the sleeves • The hems of sleeves are generally finished before they are fitted into the garment. Cutting • The T-shirt sections are cut to the dimensions of the patterns. The band may be attached as a superimposed seam or folded over the edge as binding. Stitching the hem • The garment hem is commonly sewn with an over edge stitch. which can lead to tears in the garment. resulting in a flexible hem. or by applying a band. Alternatively. perhaps pockets. An automated system moves the sleeves to the sewing head by conveyor. The edge may be finished by folding it over. if the T-shirt is "cut and sewn. sleeves. The tension of the stitch should be loose enough to allow stretching the garment without tearing the fabric. and trim. or separate front and back sections. the sleeve and side seams are sewn in one action. and then set into the garment. • If the T-shirt body is tubular. the sleeve material is first sewn together. .Styling • The T-shirt style is designed and the dimensions are transferred to patterns. Later during the final stage of sewing the shirt. since it is easier to hem the fabric while it is flat. narrow. The pieces consist of a tubed body. Assembling the front and back • For fabric that is not tubed. the separate pieces for the front and back sections must be stitched together at the sides. Adjustments are made for size differences and stylistic preferences.

A mitered seam is more complex. Finishing the neckline • Necklines with superimposed seams may be taped. the shoulder seams must first be closed. and aligned with the neckline. seams are visible on the neckband. The superimposed seam is stitched with an over edge stitch. requiring an operator to overlap the band accurately and stitch the band at center front.Stitching the shoulder seams • Generally. if a tubular neckband is to be applied. For instance. the neckband must be stretched just the right amount to prevent bulging. wrong sides together. Bound seams are finished with a cover stitch and are easy to achieve. Thus when the shoulder seams are stitched. the seams at the shoulder may be completed before or after the neckband is attached. An easier method for a V-neck look is to attach the band to the neckline and then sew a tuck to form a V. stretched slightly. Tubular neckbands are applied manually. Some neckbands on lower-priced shirts are attached separately to the front and back necklines of the garment. the neck edge should be slightly shorter in circumference than the outer edge where it is attached to the garment. In the former process. Depending on the style of the T-shirt. Higher quality T-shirt manufacturers may reinforce seams with tape or elastic. Bound seams may be used on a variety of neckline styles. shoulder seams require a simple superimposed seam. Attaching the neckband • For crew neck shirts. so that the shirt is stronger and more comfortable. The bands are folded. Thus. Tape may be extended across the back and . The process entails feeding ribbed fabric through machines which fold the fabric and apply tension to it. V-necks require the extra step of either lapping or mitering the neckband. one side is folded over the other.

size. Label setting • One or more labels are usually attached at the back of the neckline. usually of clear plastic. 1 large. Special T-shirts for infants have larger openings at the head. The seam is then cover stitched or top stitched. and 1 extra large size of t-shirts. product. Read more: How t-shirt is made . so that they maintain their shape during shipping and on the shelf. fabric content. Finally. and washing instructions. . dimensions. stitching. industry. 1 medium. Each set is composed of 1 small.material. the shirts are folded and packaged in preprinted bags. The Manufacturing Process of t-shirt http://www. Labels provide information about the manufacturer. they are placed into boxes by the dozen or half-dozen. production process. Packaging depends on the type of T-shirt and the intended distribution outlet. Finishing operations • • T-shirts are inspected for flaws in the fabric. manufacture.html#ixzz1fweTXp00 Capacity Requirements G RAFFITI Company can produce 420 sets of t-shirt per day within 7 working hours. Raw Materials. The shoulder seams are left open near the neck. making. For underwear. or folded around a piece of cardboard. that list information about the product. High-quality T-shirts may be pressed through steam tunnels before they are packaged. Shirts may be boarded. Optional features • Some T-shirts will have trim or screen prints added for decorative purposes.com/Volume-2/T-Shirt.over the shoulder seams to reinforce this area as well and to flatten the seam.madehow. and buttons or other fasteners are attached. used. A total of 1680 t-shirts can be produced within the day. and thread.

Fig. rhinestuds fabric. . The company will be using 4 machines and 2 machines in reserve. As a company that is involved in community centered application the company is able to give jobs to community with a competitive salary. The Machine Ultrasonic It is Hot-Fix used for Setting setting on Machine FYD-365 rhinestones. 3. Unison Feed Lockstitch Machine With its larger needle bar stroke. leather. and etc material. higher presser foot lift.2 Ultrasonic Hot-Fix Setting Machine FYD-365 1-Needle. the machine offers excellent sewing capabilities and responsiveness! The company will be using 120 sewing machines and 10 machines for reserve. and newly adopted double-tension mechanism.Process Mapping G RAFFITI use a minimal machine to give people the chance to have a job within the company.

hospitals. Unison Feed Lockstitch Machine HYS-58 Gravity Feed Bottle Iron It is specially designed for use in garment factories. Fig. The company will need 5 diesel generator and 2 generators for reserve. Fig.4 HYS-58 Gravity Feed Bottle Iron Industrial Diesel Generator It is a combination of a large diesel engine. etc. laundry and dry cleaners. boutiques. department stores. The company will be using 56 machines and 5 machines for reserve. 3.5 Industrial Diesel Generator .Fig. hotels. 3. an electric motor that is used to generate electricity. apparel and alteration stores.3 1-Needle. 3.

( Bancnet. You may pay online through ATM. Payment Options We have tied up with Kaban to facilitate payments. Megalink. Visa. 3. Mastercard.Cycle Time and Processing Analysis Quantit y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Process Cutting of fabric Sewing front and back Stitching hem Stitching shoulder Attaching neckband Label setting Stud setting Optional features Ironing Measurement checking Time 10 min 10 min min min 10 min min 20 min min 10 min Peopl e 40 40 16 16 40 8 40 16 40 8 4 4 1 4 2 min Attaching price code and hangtag 1 20 sec 4 Packaging 1 1 min 40 Fig.5 Process and Cycle Time Analysis Delivery Time (Processing Time + Warehouse Time + Shipping Time)  Processing Time (1-3 days depending on the quantity of t-shirts ordered)  Warehouse time (1-3 days)  Shipment time (3-5 days) Determining Order Status Tracking number will be emailed once the order has been shipped. G-Cash and Credit card. Globe G-Cash) Shipping & Handling Charges .

Shipping charges are converted to Pesos Customs. which are levied once a shipment reaches your country. The recipient of an international shipment may be subject to such Import Fees. . When customs clearance procedures are required. we have no control over these charges and cannot predict what they may be. Customs policies vary widely from country to country. and Taxes Orders that are shipped to countries outside of the Philippines may be subject to import taxes. customs duties and fees levied by the destination country ("Import Fees"). Duties. you should contact your local customs office for further information. Additional charges for customs clearance must be borne by the recipient. it can cause delays beyond our original delivery estimates.

All the materials are fairly close enough within the . The taxes are also at minimal cost. Cavite to grab the possible resources present on the place and opportunities available on the land. Cavite using Google Map The building will be presiding somewhere in Kawit. 4. Since the land is actually a provincial place the rate for workers are on the minimum.CHAPTER IV Location and Facility Layout Strategic Location Fig.1 Captured image of Kawit.

2 Factory Layout . Fig.place therefore we can buy the raw materials as soon as possible without further delays and at a minimum cost also for bulk orders. 4.

and presenting information based on the building owner or manager’s requirements.3 Construction Table We plan to build the factory within the month of July 2012 until September 2012. These months clothing sales are low. It involves gathering. and indoor air quality (IAQ) . comfort.Construction Time Table 4. So after September the company will start producing clothing to be sold on the store on the month of December. Operation Maintenance An O&M site assessment is a systematic method for identifying ways to optimize the performance of an existing building. Owners generally perform an O&M assessment for the following reasons: • To identify low-cost O&M solutions for improving energy efficiency. analyzing. but at the start of December people tends to buy clothing for themselves.

Retro commissioning is applied to buildings that have not previously been commissioned. The systematic retro commissioning process optimizes how equipment and systems operate. The goal of the assessment is to gain an understanding of how building systems and equipment are currently operated and maintained. An O&M assessment can take from a few days to several weeks to complete depending on the objectives and scope of the project. and what the most significant problems are for building staff and occupants. building operators and maintenance service contractors who are responsible for the administration and implementation of the O&M program.• • • To reduce premature equipment failure To insure optimal equipment performance To obtain an understanding of current O&M and PM practices and O&M documentation O&M assessments may be performed as a stand-alone activity that results in a set of O&M recommendations or as part of retro commissioning (a larger more holistic approach to improving existing-building performance). why these O&M strategies were chosen. The assessment identifies the best opportunities for optimizing the energy-using systems and improving O&M practices. This flow chart shows the steps in the retro commissioning process. Sample assessment forms are presented in Appendix A. . Retro commissioning applies a four-phase process for improving or optimizing an existing building's operation and maintenance procedures. and how the systems function together. Implementing O&M changes without fully understanding the owner’s operational needs can have disappointing and even disastrous effects. This instrument includes a detailed interview with the facility manager. O&M tune-up activities and diagnostic monitoring and testing are primarily used to optimize the building systems. Depending on the scope of the project it may also include an in-depth site survey of equipment condition and gathering of nameplate information. This booklet covers the Planning and Investigation Phases. Most projects require the development of a formal assessment instrument in order to obtain all the necessary O&M information. It provides the starting point for evaluating the present O&M program and a basis for understanding which O&M improvements are most cost effective to implement.

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storage and disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes Survey and release of site for unrestricted use .treatment.4 Decommissioning Plan The decommissioning plan will help us to figure out what to do when the life span of the factory had been reached. Decommissioning .principal steps • • • • • • Final shut down Removal of radioactive sources including liquids Decontamination. dismantling and clean-out Immediate or deferred dismantling of structures Waste management . 4.Decommissioning Phase Fig.

. • Of this. yarn and non-woven. 5.CHAPTER V Supply Chain Management Information and Material Flow Fig. half (52%) is imported as textile products.1 Material Flow Major material and product mass balance findings From the flowchart it can be seen that: • 3.9 million tons.25 million tons of textiles flow through the UK each year – approximately 55kg per person. 25% as ‘intermediate products’ mainly fabric. The total import of textile materials and products is about 2. The rest is imported fiber and fiber created in the UK – about 10% each.

• The combined waste from clothing and textiles in the UK is about 2.”.35 million tons (0. .7% of UK total B4).4% of the UK total). recycling and final waste disposal abroad. fabric and some completed products (mainly clothing and carpets). • • About one kg of solid waste arises per kg of output (about 0.” and “T-shirt etc. “Pullovers etc.6kg of oil equivalent primary energy is used in the industry per kg of output (about 0. Combined these three clothing categories represent about half of the total consumption by mass.5% of UK total). The difference is lost as evaporation during textile wet processes (e. The major clothing product categories (both by value and mass) are “Trousers (woven) etc. About half of the UK consumption of products is clothing (about one million tons).”. This includes about 200 thousand tons of products for reuse. dyeing).4% of the UK total). 13% to incineration and 74% (1. • The total UK consumption of textile products is approximately 2.5% of UK total) and about 45kg of waste water is discharged per kg of output. comprising fibers.g.• The UK exports 1.8 million tons) to landfill.15 million tons of clothing and textiles each year. • Approximately 60kg of water is used (about 0. The average consumer expenditure can therefore be estimated to be around £20 per kg. The UK clothing and textile sector and industry Several key indicators and findings for the sector and the industry can be extracted from the figure to the right B4 B5 B6: • About 0. 13% going to material recovery (about 300 thousand tons).15 million tons equivalent to approximately 35kg per UK capita. • About two kilograms of CO2 equivalent is emitted to air per kg output (about 0.

. • Total employment in the industry amounted to 182 thousand people in 2004 (47% in textiles and 53% in clothing). (Cited: Uk_Textiles. the rest is of natural origin (primarily cotton and wool – about 15% and 10% respectively). and delivering those products – or outputs . This is equivalent to a productivity of about £50 thousand of sales per employee. and the producer's suppliers. • About two-thirds of the UK import of basic textile materials (fibers. Of this about one third is carpet alone. yarns and fabrics) by mass to the industry is man-made.• One fifth of the UK’s annual consumption by weight of clothing and textile products is manufactured in the UK (about 0.2 Supply Chain Management A supply chain consists of three types of entities: customers.pdf) Supply Management Fig. converting those inputs into a finished product (production).to customers (fulfillment). 5. Supply chain management oversees and optimizes the processes of acquiring inputs from suppliers (purchasing). The extended supply chain includes customers’ customers and suppliers’ suppliers.4 million tons). a producer.

Some examples include: • • • ATM transactions such as deposits. high performance.Transactions Systems Transaction systems must be able to support a high number of concurrent users and transaction types. and transfers Supermarket payments with debit or credit cards Buying merchandise over the Internet. withdrawals. Online transactions are familiar to many people. These are mission-critical applications. with immediate response time required for each interaction. One of the main characteristics of a transaction or online system is that the interactions between the user and the system are very brief. Most transactions are executed in short time periods--one second. The user will perform a complete business transaction through short interactions. inquiries. . continuous availability. it requires: • • • • Immediate response time Continuous availability of the transaction interface to the end user Security Data integrity. and data protection and integrity are required. therefore. in some cases. Online transaction processing (OLTP) is transaction processing that occurs interactively.

Supply Chain Planning . an online system has many of the characteristics of an operating system: • • • • • Managing and dispatching tasks Controlling user access authority to system resources Managing the use of memory Managing and controlling simultaneous access to data files Providing device independence.In fact.

3. w1 represents the weightage of criteria (SWOT) elements.Fig. Thus we get the inner . W2 represents the effect of inner dependence at criteria level. the elements are considered as independent and their inner dependence is not taken into account. Once the hierarchical relationship between decision elements was established. The inner dependence model for our decision problem is presented in figure 5.3. 5.3 Supply Chain Planning Then a hierarchical structure was developed for the relationship between decision elements and prioritizing them within different levels and sublevels in those groups. In the super matrix. Till now. The final weightage is given to the decision alternatives at the lowest level. This structure is presented in figure 5. the process of assigning priorities was done and then the effect of the inner dependence was included.

Thus wsub-factor (global) = W3 * Wfactors. (2010). The final results achieved are presented in table 5.dependent criteria weightage from Wfactors = W2*w1. Finally the ultimate priorities of decision alternatives are established by multiplying the priorities of alternatives calculated with respect to sub-factors (W4) and global priorities of sub-factors (wsub-factor (global)). Do: Implement the process developed.3 Once again the details of this study are covered by Hussain et al. . CHAPTER VI Total Quality Management Quality Assurance The four quality assurance steps within the PDCA model stand for: • • Plan: Establish objectives and processes required to deliver the desired results. W3 represents the local priorities for the sub-factors of criteria which are converted into global priorities by multiplying with Wfactors.

Unfortunately. In addition. The goal to exceed customer expectations in a measurable and accountable process is provided by quality assurance. or other marketing vehicles to determine if customer needs are being exceeded and why they are or are not. PDCA is an effective method for monitoring quality assurance because it analyzes existing conditions and methods used to provide the product or service customers. some people view an SLA as a complaint-stifling mechanism or a . Acting could mean a total revision in the manufacturing process in order to correct a technical or cosmetic flaw. Service Level Agreement The starting point Although an SLA is an excellent expectations-managing mechanism. with the highest standards. it's important to manage your own expectations of what it can realistically accomplish. Quality assurance verifies that any customer offering. The Checking step could include customer feedback.• • Check: Monitor and evaluate the implemented process by testing the results against the predetermined objectives Act: Apply actions necessary for improvement if the results require changes. could include investigation into the quality of the raw materials used in manufacturing. Planning. or the inspection processes used. regardless if it is new or evolved is produced and offered with the best possible materials. in the most comprehensive way. surveys. it helps improve internal company efficiency. The goal is to ensure that excellence is inherent in every component of the process. if the PDCA cycle is repeated throughout the lifetime of the product or service. Quality assurance demands a degree of detail in order to be fully implemented at every step. for example. Competition to provide specialized products and services results in breakthroughs as well as long-term growth and change. Quality assurance also helps determine whether the steps used to provide the product or services are appropriate for the time and conditions. the actual assembly.

the very process of establishing an SLA helps to open up communications. think of an SLA as: • A communications tool. Instead. On a predetermined frequency. • A living document. a service level agreement must incorporate two sets of elements: service elements and management elements. using it for such purpose creates more problems than it solves. • A conflict-prevention tool. • An objective basis for gauging service effectiveness. The value of an agreement is not just in the final product. The service elements clarify services by communicating such things as: • • • • • • the services provided (and perhaps certain services not provided. Service elements To be effective. if customers might reasonably assume the availability of such services) conditions of service availability service standards. This is one of its most important benefits. An agreement helps to avoid or alleviate disputes by providing a shared understanding of needs and priorities. The agreement isn't a dead-end document consigned to the Forget Forever file. the parties to the SLA review the agreement to assess service adequacy and negotiate adjustments. such as the timeframes within which services will be provided the responsibilities of both parties cost vs. And if conflicts do occur. however.quick fix to a troubled relationship. An SLA ensures that both parties use the same criteria to evaluate service quality. they tend to be resolved more readily and with less gnashing of teeth. service tradeoffs escalation procedures Management elements The management elements focus on such things as: .

industry.html#ixzz1fwhh8RhQ Continual Improvement Continual improvement of the organization's overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization. types of stitches. and the number of stitches per inch. Raw Materials. product. There are standards that apply specifically to the T-shirt industry. The Manufacturing Process of t-shirt http://www. The neckline should also recover properly after being slightly stretched. production process. appropriate needles and seams. manufacture. which should rest flat against the body. which include proper sizing and fit.madehow. making.material. dimensions.com/Volume-2/T-Shirt.• • • • how service effectiveness will be tracked how information about service effectiveness will be reported and addressed how service-related disagreements will be resolved how the parties will review and revise the agreement Quality Control System Most of the operations in manufacturing clothing are regulated by federal and international guidelines. . Stitches must be loose enough to allow the garment to stretch without breaking the seam. Manufacturers may also set guidelines for the company. T-shirts must also be inspected for proper application of neck-lines. Hems must be flat and wide enough to prevent curling. Read more: How t-shirt is made . used.

Flexibility to react quickly to opportunities. Alignment of improvement activities at all levels to an organization's strategic intent.Key benefits: • • • Performance advantage through improved organizational capabilities. processes and systems an objective for every individual in the organization. Recognizing and acknowledging improvements. . and measures to track. Applying the principle of continual improvement typically leads to: • • • • • Employing a consistent organization-wide approach to continual improvement of the organization's performance. Providing people with training in the methods and tools of continual improvement. Making continual improvement of products. Establishing goals to guide. continual improvement.

Probably the most important task a manager will face when dealing with the people under his direction is that of bringing out the best in them. New personnel must provide the organization with the best talent available that meets the needs of the business. and providing ongoing support and direction for the employees of an organization. wellness. Some of the roles that an employee who is not being . benefits. also known as human resource management (HRM). Getting the most out of an employee means a business has consistent policies and practices in place to provide its people with appropriate training and development. a manager must focus on both hiring the right people and then getting the most out of these people. safety. performance management. communication. administration. organization development. These tasks can include the following: compensation. Employees are involved as "partners" in the business. The organization must look ahead to how a new employee can be used to their fullest.CHAPTER VII Work System Design People Management People management. When managing the people within an organization. and training. employee motivation. When an employee's talents are not channeled correctly. encompasses the tasks of recruitment. management. their behavior can seriously compromise the success of an organization. hiring. Unlocking people potential is often seen as the key to any business's success.

Clarify their responsibilities and goals. martyr. Employees cannot be blamed for an organization's inefficiency if they are not provided with the equipment necessary to perform adequately. Discuss taking responsibility for the ineffective behavior. involve each employee in making decisions which affect their area of expertise. backstabber. bully. If positive change is to occur. a manager needs to stay involved and committed to the process of change. address the employee immediately. If this does not occur. First. stonewalled. curmudgeon. how the behavior manifests itself.used to his potential can take on are as follows: procrastinator. draw up a performance improvement contract in which he or she agrees to specific actions to change his or her ineffective behavior. One employee's toxic behavior can quickly spread throughout an organization if it is not dealt with quickly and efficiently. Next. This will result in the employee feeling that they "have a say" in what goes on in the organization and he or she will feel a sense of ownership. and predator. teach him or her how the principles of achievement: * cooperation * respect * self-motivation * trust * self-discipline Now that the employee has alternatives to their current behavior. black hole. Finally. give the employee alternatives to his current behavior. a deer in the headlights. When evaluating an organization's workforce. He or she cannot assume that the problem will be automatically fixed now that it has been brought to light. let's look as some ways to encourage effective behavior at work. a termination meeting must be scheduled quickly. After a problem behavior has been identified. Instead of dealing with employees that develop defense mechanisms to mask their dissatisfaction with their work situation. Next. there are several areas that must be addressed. Also. and the effect the behavior is having on the organization. gossip. The employee will require praise and reinforcement of any progress that they are able to make. manipulator. get to know each employee as an individual and make sure that they are aware of their specific role within the organization. it will be evident soon after the initial confrontation. the staff must have the tools and resources that they need to do their jobs effectively. In other words. . After the contract is signed. narcissist.

The process involves: . Authority. finding passive candidates. and targeted functional searches Selection: • • The process used to choose the best talent to make the best fit with the organization. Includes traditional techniques like advertisements. congratulated. accountability. job fairs and postings Also includes techniques like social networking. and rewarded for their commitment to problem solving. This can be successful only when employees are recognized. People Empowerment can be a very effective tool within the field of people management. and responsibility are delegated to the employees for improving the processes which are under their control without first having to obtain permission from management before making changes. This technique can be used to involve employees in any improvement program within an organization. Talent Acquisition Sourcing • • • • • Determining the most effective places to find the talent needed Includes internal and external sources The process includes announcing the job’s availability to the market and identifying and attracting qualified candidates to apply.make sure that employees have an opportunity to have fun with their coworkers at appropriate times.

and the work buddy/mentor as the primary points of contact • Initiates the process for the employee’s workstation. skills and abilities needed to succeed in the job and work environment and to source candidates that meet the competencies Program Satisfaction. and extending an employment offer Common Types of Interviews: Behavioral – based upon the premise that past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior Situational – based upon hypothetical situations and the candidates’ responses Traditional – basic questions usually centered around education. Percentage of new hires that were the organization’s top choice Quality of Candidates. skills… Technical – focused on specific skill and knowledge needs for a particular function or field Pre-Boarding is the process of beginning the integration of a new hire into the new organization and work team. measuring applicants on those characteristics. equipment. experience. supplies. The ability of the organization to define the knowledge. human resources. • • Begins as soon as the employee is offered and accepts the position Should immediately connect the employee to the agency via the supervisor.• • • Interviewing to reveal certain desired characteristics. technology and online access Talent Acquisition Operational Work flow: Requisition Process > Sourcing > Application Process > Screening and Interviewing > Employment Offers & Notification of Non-selection How to measure the success of talent acquisition strategies: Quality of Hire. Hiring manager satisfaction with the recruitment and hiring process and quality of candidates .

.Time-to-Hire. The percentage of new hires in key jobs that were terminated or asked to leave New Hire Retention Rate. Create efficiencies in recruitment processes and workflows. The number of new hires who remain on the job for the first 12 to 18 months New Hire Failure Rate. Obtain input from hiring managers. social networking sites) to reach passive candidates and targeted groups.. The number of new hires who remain on the job for the first 12 to 18 months Performance Ratings of “Contributor” or “Extraordinary Contributor”. if applicable. positive morale and retention? Answers are here. What creates motivated. Explore new marketing outlets using Internet-based technologies (i. when the need arises. Solicit new hire feedback. Whether top candidates meet or exceed expectations on performance reviews Talent Acquisition Strategies Best Practices: • • • • • • • • • • Proactively build and expand the pool of candidates. Enhance employer brand and reputation in the recruiting market place. contributing people? How do you maintain high employee morale when people work long hours? How does your reward and recognition system contribute to or deflate employee motivation. Emphasize strategic workforce planning beyond 18-months. Employee Motivation Employee motivation. The time it takes to hire a candidate to fill a position from job open until the position is offered and accepted New Hire Retention Rate.e. Improve candidates’ pre-screening process. Seek to fill positions internally. Scale back or freeze talent acquisition efforts. positive employee morale. rewards and recognition are explored in these resources.

Employee Retention 4. Employee Surveys Appraisal and Development Plan .1. Managers and Motivation 5. Employee Engagement 2. Employee Recognition 3.

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(Cited: g9_form.pdf) .

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