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New TPM Implemenlatlon Program for Renovation of Production

10.1 Safety/Hygiene/Environnlental Management and
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10.1.1 What Is Safety Management?

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This chapter will explain how to establish setups for zero accidents and zero pollution, which are essential ~onditions for PM a,y~r?~llaHfi<:(lti()f1~)(<l.l"l"\lna,liQns. However, . explanation will not concern the implementation method of T~M with reference its. division into safe~y ?pd hygiene management and environrnel\t~l ~anagement; it will be related to'cornrnori and basic problems of individual management. rather This is

because the concept~n.dthe method of implementation regaftn~ ~~fety and hygiene management and environmental management have the same roots in most fundamental a reels. The irnplernenta tion method to be described hereafter will be centered on "Vv'hal should be d~)lle7" and "Why do il?" rather thim "How ahould;it be done?" The p6ir~t 0'( attention in introducing and implcmenti~1g rPM, and planning, executing, andmanaging TPM in the realms of safety and hygiene management, as well as environmental m;r~agelnent, is that real setups fC<!hi"rI;1g' ero ac(:id(~~itsand z zero pollution cannot be established merely by asking "How should it b~ done?" TIle important thing is first to un.der~tarn? th;.,j9~~ ,~.fT~~ a~d form ~ consensus: regarding "What should be d?ne?" and "Why do it?" thrbugh 1>~~cti~es base? on the participation
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of all members, ranging from the top manager to frontline workers. why. the basics of "safety and"hygie{16 management"
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Next.-letusconsider "envlronmental

and

managernent"

have the same roots. In his book "Desigm'hg Safety,"

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Jiro Abe: !def!.qe~ safety as a " peaceful condition free drtin-:. Hariger of a'~~~d!fnts, particularly danger leading to human death or casualties." I
To rephrase this in TPM terms, we would like to say: "Safety

d~p~~ce 9f mind."

is the maintenance

As shown in Fig. 10.1, the targets of management ?r its range are dif(~rcnt in "safety and hygiene management" and "environmental management," but they botl~ film to maintain peace of mind In its .cntire·ly. TI1e1to'1:',gct of both is overall technology pursuing peace of mind of "human beings.", B~sed on the above explanation, imple~entati0r management management." and environmental (. /. ,... the concept of TPM and the m~tl~p,d of Its

will be described. Unless specifically mentioned, saf~ty ,a~d.hygiene management will be collectively referrd<i to as "safety

10. Establishment

of Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Pollution

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Fig. 10.1 Alms of
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"Safety and Hygiene Management"
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and "Environmental r/

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of poaco of mind'

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<Effects> , Degree of social effects (great)

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<Range> Human beings who havo direct -~~-.--Interest In target objects (Manaqemont, empioyoos, And shareholders) <Range> ! '.' L\r 1 Human beings who do not havo direct Into rests In largot objects (nearby residents, goneral consumers, ole.)

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10.1.2 Problems Related to TPM in Safety Management
Relations between IJs'~fetyman~'gem.ent'~ and TPM are shown in P1g.JO.2. As described earlier, TPM represents activities to improve equipment efficiency, based on equipment management management" improvement, in the narrow sense of the term. The problem of TPM in "safety and to seek system, , , is to pursue safer work and the ideal st'ati{bllnrtte'cials, based on the management of equipment.

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This can berephrased as seeking the buildup of a safer .man-machine • .' 'r r \ 1/.' based on management that pursues zero accidents and pollution.
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(1) What kind of management Is needed to pursue zero accidents and pollution? \ r,..spreviously stated, TPM's philosophy is to thoroughly strive for zero accidents andpoll~tio_n. For orientation toward zero accidents and pollution, the basic \\ course of action is to seek "E~~,~~_t,~_~:~!~_~~,~~,~,se.II.1

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In common with safety management, TPM calls for committing to 1;ero accidents and po\lution, and adopts prevention as the fundamental Yet maI'\y cdmpanies have implemented enterprises that have introduced concept:
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"safety management"

activities.that are of

committed to zero accidents and pollution. Why are the safety achievements and implemented those of companies that implement "safety management"?

TPM so much better than

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New TPM Implementation

Program for Ronovation

of Production

FIg. 10,2 Relations between Safety Management and rPM
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Safety and health

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To this question, conditions
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PM awards

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actual

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goods, and, real
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The five basics of workshop management

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implemented. it is

By thoroughly implementing the Fiv~ basic's ~fv:J~k~i~~pmanagement, possible to uncover unsafe aspects.
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The ,I~.~elof zero accidents and zero defects was ,rlealir:,e~,extraordinarily lessening work yoIume'i ,~ By converti »s extT~ordinary work into ordinary work, training as s~andafd work became possible, : "!


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Operators' reactions in the event of abnormalities in equipment or p~ocessing conditions are quick. ' Through Jishu-Hozen and Kobetsu-Kaizen, (detcction-judgment-handling-countermeasures) have been cultivated. ,J Set rules are scrupulously observed. a series of capabili tics against abnormalitles ("
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Because operators themselves determine standards, slandards is dearly understood, and a consciousness

the meaning-of the of abiding by. them

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ff1M Safety . ( (2) Buildup of safer hurnan-rnachlne The outline of a human-machine systems in the manufacturing process . e '~':' The following . Thoroughness in practices is lacking.• .. POCDl. problems . effecting restoration and improvement.. and cooperation among the staff groups concerned Mutual understanding are insufficient. J depicted as in Fig. .10.anA indirect work is broken down into elemental actions. In this way Ute disparity from the ideal state and fluctu~tion are eliminated. .. means adding value. i Fig.3 Outline of a Man-Machine System Input I) ~~ Production eyetorn -~ .. conventional "safety management": . The top management problems are solved.10.••.3.•••• => Production oqulpmont Diroct work . When seen Irorn the view t I processing tat facilities. based on produclion 'I \>') t The first step to build up a safer man-machine system is to understand safety (5) assurance in the form of output. work can be divided into direct work and indirect work. Unless these the establishment of the foundation (of~)anagement committed to zero defects will be difficult. Output . \ ' . • lacks a strong will of enforccmen't.. • • The most important deficits of all are the following. Establishment of Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Pollution 503 These are all the basics of safety.. 10. . are evident !J in e "Fostering of operators" based on a long-term viewpoiAr (iii other words.--e- Indlroct work / \ \ . skill cultivation) is insufficient. at the level where dir~ct . system can be f products 0 .

. I . ' . 10.I .'. \.I . \ I Ffg. this gap and variation are not realized.504 New TPM Implementation Program for Honovation of Production The deviation from the ideal state and variation are shown in Fig. In rnany workshops. unng l1g rtening wor k may grow.~) I) . losses of matching diameters always 'arise from the viewpoint of the deviation from the ideal state. .10. but when they are used as linkage parts in ordinary work.i Gap e [Minor defect} . sat?l)' .assurance CD ---ci---------- . however.'1. monkey wrenches are used to connect bolts and nuts. In many workshops." .4 Gap and Dispersion from thn Ideal Stat() ( f [Ideal stale] rolatfve to Iho S. f The deviation and variation will be explained using a simple case. Certainly. monkey wrenches are universally useful and convenient tools.At this time. the danger of detachment duri '1' j\. Bec.8lise the variation in the form of backlash becomes greater. capabilities "malfunction to detect the deviation and variation J are referred to as detection capability skills" in TPM. /' II ~I .

it of its usc.. state of backlash I controlled. method Il1USt that it will be used in emergency be taught. It is possible however. Establishment of Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Pollution 505 We stress repeatedly that this example in the use method is based on the premise maintenance. system. Meanwhile. if the five basics are not taken seriously. . by oneself.: .' . gives an important This observation own. one's In brief. Kiyoshi work. necessary to study of both To build up a safer human-machine the condition direct and indirect Mr." is the five basics of in the production lrrpr. The correct I • ~ " variation of 'use must be minimized. C \. from the viewpoints Mori states in his book "High-Tech Society and Labor": II Machines' I.I management I. equipment signifies I sterns from the same viewpoint should be considered as the molto\"defending from the stnndp?int / (. it is considered in which a safer machine must exist.' -. and systems This sentence not harmonized with Irian have little chance of lasting long. that equipment it is added management. workshop of workshop that the basis of plant management including "safety management.." which is a guideline of TPM activities. of ordinary work. ~~ " . and the variation Even in such a case. the pursuit of efficiency will be fruitless. system.e<.tive of changes. r' .I i" ~ ~ t~~ . ~ ." hint in considering human-machine systems.10.

production systems inherently have factors that cause accidents and disasters at certain rates. In other words. I. What is interesting occurrence hampering " taking IH:.a'ssory countermeasures. and quality problems. even at workshops accidents to memories where the state of zero accidents is maintained. "safely management" As shown pollution must be considered the basis of production activities. and zero-pollution The abov~ 'thought is illustrated I . we hereby emphasize the necessity of efforts to resist the fading of .2 Basic Concepts of Zero Accidents Pollution and Zero 10. Certainly.6. in Pig. 10.506 New TPM Implementatlon Program for Renovation of Production 10. all people working for enterprises should al ways be aware that.1 Safety Management Is the Basls of Production Activities "Disaster difficulty strikes when you least expect it. with regard to the state of accident accidents occurred when malfunctions arose. lhere is always potential OCCUI'. the "Pyramid of Accident Occiirrence." ." is the saying that appropriately in preventing natural calamities. : ~ Fig.5 Safety Management and Production Activities TPM Safety managoment j . expresses the The same can be said with regard to "safely aimed at zero accidents and zbro management" in companies. such as failures This means that a single problem or failure may trigger a~cidents.5. serious the ordinary work flow. is that. and to regard accident cases of other companies . 10. lessons about latent possibilities. There are reports about accident cases in places in which TPM was implemented. 10. Daily zero-failure and zero-defect activities are highly effective steps to attain zero-accident activities.2. in Fig. to note in this connection common in these cases. of past accident experiences. for as Also.

Emerging slato -" L - . 10.~ state ." which are important key words for the understanding of TPM. (. : ..-!~~. 10. Leaving chronic lassos alone . . . . 10. Fig...~..~I~.:~~~-' .10. 10.. Level of accident's occurrence . 10.6 actually OcCUI~ grow. such as faifures and quality problems Leaving minor detects alono Pyramid of'own COIIiPilIlY' Im~_~__ An actualized case <!-------. .. and eventually caus~ a~cidents.7. with attent.alenl Pyramid of "other company" .6 Pyramid of Accident Occurrenco Countermeasures using another company's case as a lesson Countermeasures against the fading memories 01 accidents ~ Leaving alone chronic losses. . Establishment of Setups tor Zero Accidents and Zoro Pollution 507 Fig. the mechanism of accident occurrence in "safety management" is shown with the concept drawn in Fig. This is because the adoption of preventive measures at the stages of generation and growth of minor defects becomes possible by considering how such defects that exist at the bottom of Fig.8 can be drawn.:. w-""~J l.on paid to "minor defects..2.2 Mechanism of Accident Occurrence and Detection of Minor Defects The mechanism of accident occurrence will be outlined. . Generally. .~~~~-~.~~~~?~~~.... : . When particular attention is drawn to "minor defects" in the acciderit occurrence mechanism... I' .

I I----. --~~ sasters and celdents ~-- .. 10."..10. physical strongth.. . Knowled~e. consciousness...:sonnol factor actions) There are personnel difloroncos In tho easo of combination.~-.. disposition.8 Mechanlsn~ of AccIdent Occurrenc(~ In rPM 1 'il ii ~ Minor detects develop • lnsutllclent management • Occurrence at 5 S's of an unsafe state Soil that cultivates minor dofocts '" Lack of managament that Is committed 10 zoro accidents ... values.-~.-------------------------- 508 New TPM Implementation Program for Renovation of Production Fig.. --r Cornblnatlon . [ captltude.7 Mechanism of Accident Occurrence Mechanical aodlor environmental Iactor (unsafo state) 1~} [ ~saro -~ -$-- --~. Managerial factor (poor management) ... . sonsibllity Flg.

by tile lack of management Its physical (actor is tile leaving of minor defects of the human-machine 10. 'I . factor for the occurrence and growth of minor defects is skill committed to zero accidents and system. they are activities to eradicate factors that may trigger the occurrence of failures. to recognize unstable • Don't know are unable At this level. of total-member enhancing safety in the activity equipment. life cycle of manufacturing The aforementioned and "defensive a~d all-staff group cooperation. the human shortage. workers defects. The soil {or their growth is the absence of management committed to zero accidents and pollution. In short. but lack the ability to take suitable steps and countermeasures Don't do it despite having the knowledge and skills to detect minor defects! but do not 0::: Here. about minor defects '" Lack of . to reduce the occurrence of accidents to in terms of activity Offensive activities" are activities designed the utmost degree. and accidents. 10. These activities should be centered on fostering operators who can understand functions and structure of equi pment and processing cond itions. and become minor defects as minor only when minor . which is generated pollution.6. Establishment or Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Pollution 509 A factor that is the seed of minor defects is the Jack of skills. able to acknowledge them as defects defects grow into medium-scale iii defects and further despite recognize knowing into major defects. problems. . and who are skillful regarding safety.' is the same as that of the three T's in TPM. TIle lack of skills is seen in the following three conditions. To explain tile term using Fig.2.1 D. !11 defects when they are at the minor stage. workers take necessary have the knowledge countermeasures Shortage of morale. Being unable to do anything This is the level at which workers training. who ha ve the ski lis to detect minor d efects and effect their rectification and improvement.3 Overall Method of lncreaslnq The meaning represents participation activities" If Safety It area of "safety management" based on the cooperation in the entire of the term "overall" I . "safety management" activities" activities can be classified as "offensive orientation.

I Abnormalities ::. the degree of damage activities. lack of a suitable scale that can measure difficult. "defensive activities" are aimed at minimizlng should occur. it becomes completely occurrence different is extremely evident equipment is the target of both the offensive which is generally its nature can be learned.. with the:3 T's (total). in their forms low. 10.: Occurrenco of accidents ~ __ Normalltles . Here. which compared production in Fig. reliability. compared of occurrence.510 Now TPM Implementation Program for Renovation of Production Meanwhile. used as the indicator TIle characteristic is shown are the that and safety of production facilities Further. The and defensive overall safety may be one of the causes to seek level improvement starling make "safety management" in both aspects of offensive study of the scale is a task for the future. to raise safety in an overall manner it is necessary FlU...9. and that the frequency of their with that of failures and problems. that reliability and defense with the rate of plant operation. 10.9 Comparison of the Concepts of nate of Operation and Safety TBF "" limo between failures ITR '" time 10 repair I safety] -\ Degree of acctdent __ ~_. is of and the scope of effects even if an accident When safety. but and fixation activities.J-~- 1--- Range of effects .

10. are effective in preventing equipment disasters.3 Priority Measures in Safety Management and Their Step Implementation' 10.11. Establishment of Setups tor Zoro Accldonts nnd Zoro Pollution 511 . The relationship between the level of danger and the equipment level are shown in Fig. are shown in Fig.1 Priority Measures Priority measures for a man-machine system.~~~.. . Accordingly. regular prevention of sporadic occurrence will facilitate standardization and adoption of suitable steps. (1} Making equlprnent safe:::: Prevention of equlpmen. 10. and unstable conditions. lessening danger..---~-. Priority steps for the buildup of safer human-machine in two fields: " " Making the equipment safe "0 systems require approaches" I Preventing equipment disasters. such as minor stoppage in particular. 10. Sporadic occurrence increases the danger of disaster genera. and fostering personnel skillful in ensuring safety» Preventing motion disasters.3. quality problems.. based on management committed to zero losses.~--- 10.lion.-". disasters Promotion of the five pillars of TPM implementation and thorough eradication of losses that cause failures.10.

-.. regarding and pollution to allow the generation of a re d flama. ~_".. -"'~""""""'-'~'~~. • Not to spill red blood. rosa. water poIlullon. for zero accidents . • Confirmation 01 adopting tho concept of zero equipment accldenls • Early detection of abnormalities during oqutprncnt oporauon (Hoollh conuot of equlpmont dur1n9 Its operallon} • Evaluation OlYJ hnprovernent of salety. __ ~c"o ____ ".~~ ____ ~~.512 New TPM lmplomontatlon Program for Renovation of Production : F :?t1rtl Man-machIne (Actual silo. Naar-accidanl extraction • KYI< (Flxa\lon £IcllvJtlos of to predict dong or) w:. end stonch + eAttainment of zero accidents and pollution of previous ..J~-.. ~ not' activities related to the color red: technologies...-------~~ ..___-..~~~ (Working in a correct manner) .... etc...1onvlronmental malntenance sducatlon setup. volco-ralslnq' operation practices • Measuros agaInst the sources of human errors • Ensure safoly during shutdown and other work @Individuallluldance and traInIng based on OJT • Education on degree 01 danger of materials handled • Supportrng cooperative companies In preventing labor accidents • Thoroughly ensuring traffic safety. • Not 10 require rod fire eng1nes ..HviUo~ • Flxatlon of actlvltles to prevent erroneous oporalion • Fixation of 'finger· .... and skills zero accidents "j Three· • Not Sovon kinds of Iyplcal polJuUon: Nr pollution. poInting..I ~"'-'~"~~'~~"~""~- . Actual steps ----.and pollutlonprevention budget systems • EstablishIng problem Infonnatlon control 8)'~'9mS (Including outside comptalntnlormadon) • Establlshlll'J a safety system • Ensuring salety of new equIpment and products and establishlnq a advance evaluaUon system for polluUon. ~ Establishment of production technologies that Incorporate safety and environmental maintenanco I Conveyance and fixation knowledge... and InsUtuullO and cperatlnp dlsastar-prevention lochnology manuals • InstitutIng and oporatlng a safoty commendation system ®Iflslllutlnll and operating the top audil system• Instituting and operating safety meetings and other systems • Instituting satety.~~~- ..".~ ..-.---~-'~"-~ - • Extraction of environmental and equipment minor defocts • Safety and rnlnor-defect lrnprovornent actlvltlns .. vibration. security. etc. and zero pollution . assessment Self-dlaqnosls accidents regarding oxecution of Iypical of training pollution against and seven kinds Taking safety 1 and pollution-prevention steps l_-~l in advance Tho ® shows a pliorlty Itom.~""~"-'''~~-~~''~. l11stHvUngpromotion organl78t!oiH and methods concerned • Establishing Boloty onr..... and pollution' prevention lac!litias • Countermeasures for latont shortcornlnqs of equipment • Regular equlpmonl dragnosls ®Malntenan<:o technology ensuring zero forced deterioration • Development of system evaluation teclmologlos and adoption of necessary measures • Salety measures regarding robots • Simplification through U1e removal of unnecessary . tand subsldoncs. _ .... -. wfl pollution. actual squlprnant) Fostering personnel who skilUul in ensuring safety are system Managemont system (Supporting (Management system) sot up) Steps to prevent accidents ~motion-caused -.. equipment or unrequlred wiring ®Baslc corporate thfnklng about lY'lfely and health and environrnsntal rnalntenanca promotion. ___ Steady operation of management system Ihe (Preventing decline of functions) • (Showing leaders' eagerness) .~.

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12 Efficiency 01 "Finger-Pointing and Verbal Confirming" of Safety ~ "_ : ••••• -. (2) for the skill structure .. about recognition of the significance of the signal-a catalyst._. Fostering personnel who are skillful In ensurlnq safety . there is nothing more important of personnel. it will not show any lasting effect unless the person that uses it sufficiently recognizes its meaning..8 28 ~_~_"w •.~. TPM calls for the "changing of personnel. serving as countermeasures level of "Don't do it"? . The skill level of "Don't do it" is considered to arise in a management in which demands are imposed unilaterally..5 0.coo ••• ""_.._ 1XM?'lmIffl .0"' - Operation Occurrence method rate Do nothing Only !ingerpoInting Only verbal confirmrng 1. ! /" .514 New rPM Implementation Program for Renovation of Production '/'-1. When the step of "finger-pointing and voice-raising" is taken up as an example. i. conditions of ' Don't know" and "Being unable to do it" may be corrected through the improvement of education and training...." to be explained later. such actions are effective means. Certainly. Indox . J%%1lit .85% 100 1..0 - 2._~~~. ." / ! \' Fig. It should be considered that there are no quick remedies... ~:.. Here. A factor that brings.....~_." However..e.':$!l!W'IM:%:I!'hm*lllii! ~H!i .'E:':Jli?'%ffl!WVSXtr '...••• ~~._~. 2... this arises from repeated practice...._._. No matter how effective it may be. but there seems to be no immediate remedy for the shortage of morale.12. E1Z~..~. than the TPM's "dialogue" is composed of "step diagnosis.._~_~. _. then.. Because are the heart of these activities. In "safety management" "management personnel "changing" of TPM... "finger-pointing and voice-raising" can be mentioned as steps for that purpose. "1 1-'.._ •• 7 "K ... management of mutual understanding. changing people's awareness is important C. ...· Occurrence __ "_~_c.... However.a "w· Occurrence rats of error 3. as shown in Fig.•. such as "Don't do it." What. so to speak-is necessary. 10. so it requires much time.~ •• _.the steps that wiIllead to the changing of personnel. the three levels of skills should be remembered. of dialogue. .!:!.. are. 10. ..~_~ 53 44 .~".~~-:.:~ Prevention of motion-caused disasters To prevent motion disasters.." is desired to be used as a catalyst. TIle short-circuit thinking that "finger- pointing and voice-raising" practice is equal to the prevention of action disasters should not be adopted. ...25 Finger-pointing and verbal confirming ...cnc["ally..

In "safety management" activities.ient is shown in Fig. J[ also incorporates activities to prevent the recurrence of failures or other problems in line with the level upgrading of planned maintenance. in line with the steps of [ishu-Hozcn. Safety management includes activities to carry out operator skill development in tandem with equipment improvement. adopts the step formula as its method of activity. this step formula is highly useful. 10.and long-term execution by stages. This step-type implementation is composed of two subordinate implementation steps. their solution can be only learned during medium.3. Establishment of Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Pollution 515 10. which is one of the five pillars of TPM implementation. rather. This is because problems in conventional safety management are not of a type to be solved in a short period of time. and that the ideal state is realized by stages. Advantages of the step formula are that the aims of activities are set for each stage.2 Outline of Step Implementation [ishu-Hozen. . based on the usage of equipment-diagnostic technology.13. This is coupled with steps to establish predictive maintenance.10. TIle outline of the step implementation of safety manager.

" 516 New rPM Implementallon Program lor Renovallon of Production M .. c:i .. u: m .....

10.____ I . 0 L.( ~ o:J ~ o. 0 (.:.1. :<1! C r:: ! N (1) • 1\/\/\ I "(I t:..- (/) :5 OJ E OJ . C N [~ r ([) II) U -6 -2 a: '(i) :l C :p uS c OJ 0 ..IfF . . Establishment of Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Pollution 517 '0 (/) .: 0 <l) t: .) 2 'r.' iU > III III V) o:J ::J E ~ .

"..--. and few companies conduct case studies to determine how serious accidents will result (prediction of the effect family) and why such unsafe phenomena occurred (pursuit of the cause family). as [ishu-Hozen boards promotion tools.. activities) KYK (danger-prediction Activities bulletin boards • Iii One-point lessons One-step diagnosis stated that.... one-point lessons.._______ . the usc of meetings and bulletin boards is also important.. activities). "..js KYl' is introduced suggested as a promotion tool of step implementation.~ ---. It was earlier meetings...3 Promotion Tools of Step Implementation Use of the following aimed e promotional tools is the key point in effective step-implementation at zero accidents and zero pollution. actions safety within are detected. in many companies." W))eIl near-accident mostly end in the confirmation only). because This writer has had many occasions to view the practices arrangements activities phenomena within (perception of KYK in enterprises. of "safety and activities bulletin arc important enough to be called the "three key elements management.14 Utilization Method of Efu Tags Effect family Why Why Why What disaster will they develop into? Present minor defects Unsafe conditions = Factor family -rb.··. .~..-. ~. with meetings. ' -'".·_·_·_T····~·" .'.. and executed In connection dang~x::predidion c•• -.".._.~-·~"." for [ishu-Hozen. ~. of safety of unsafe work.·.518 Now TPM Implementation Program for Renovation of Production i 0. ~ 0 ~~ developed from KYT (kiken-yochi training..·.. 10..••.·. r+l l il ~ Why ~ Why ~ Why Why do Ihoy occur? . _ _--.--~'_.." In carrying out the step implementation replacing them with VYK (kiken-yochi _"": •• u c _ ".3.••• ·"'· _ .· . Fig. _H~. and it sometimes seems that insufficient attention is paid ..0 "incorporation work" and "securing for instance. .._· ••c~ pr~t:li~ti()l)Jrainlng). .-· katsuclq: ~O_m .... . danger_+-.".--···..

Jf diagnosis of "safely management" [lshu . 10. The flow of step diagnosis en.~~----------------- 5. the former should b<lsics of workshop management is enforced from the step diagnosis be carried out jointly with the diagnosj~3 in the five The flow is shown in rig.1 and 10.15.10.J Once per year (Plant manager) • Calculation of cleanliness Index Cleanliness index (Total score In 58's earned during six months x 0. Therefore. "Step diagnosis" is designed to judge if KYK.14..2. "cultivating an eye that sees malfunctions as is effected by stages.Hozen. and activities bulletin boards mentioned above are appropriately is the same as. the flow of [ishu-Hoz management" arc sometimes included utilized. Establishment of Sotups for Zoro AccIdents and Zero Pollullon . The me thou of using "efu's" in KYK is shown in Fig. l0.2 = + 6) . Diagnosis items and an example checklist nrc shown in 'l~lbtes 10. 10. ideas for adapting these tools to the "safety maintenance" of individual companies are necessary.. one-point lessons. Fig. based on the "sangen principle.19 In [ishu-Hozen malfunctions" activities.8 + (Overall evaluation points) x 0." with utilization of "efu's" added.15 Step Diagnosis Flow of Safety Malntenance Evaluation 01 tho dog roo 015 S'6 Safoty/Health and Overall evaluation Once per 6 months (Evaluallon members) • Plant manager and 4 other members Envlronmental Comrnittoe Reporting to Individual de artmenls and sections Evaluation 01 cleanliness Once per 6 months Commendation '-.. separately diagnosis items of "safely the step of in the step diagnosis of [ishu-Hozen.ln the case of one-point lessons and activities bulletin boards. KYK in TPM must be promoted..

purposes. of malfunctions these the use of KYT's 'i·round (41<. the locations measures where cleaning should and oiling cannot be executed and suitable entry into dangerous for these locations Step 3: Preparation of written temporary . etc. When dealing with areas should be adopted. (3) for sources of problems. This of functions liquid. by executing one-man . in the 1st step. safety and environmental are the purposes malfunctio: . basically the safety steps manner." and the rectification of activities in this step. is an important without point. for difficult spots. of each individual be implemented in the following (1) those Step 1: Initial cleaning (cleaning and Inspection) of The detection activities. standards. the arrangement of local covering. and defects. safely in the local the splashing by [ishu-Hozen. and inspection be first 111is is the step in which improvements detected In countermeasures which countermeasures identified. Ltd.4 Step Implementation of Safety Management 10. as in the case of Ogane Seisakusho. for the purpose KY.3 illustrates the case of implementing the I<YI'4R method under this step at the Tochigi Plant of Nissan Motor Co. to raise work quality in Table 10..4.)method Table 10. During is effective.Ilshu-Hozen step of [ishu-Hozen.524 New TPM Implementation Program for Renovalion of Production 10. to dearly out spots whose It is advisable. .. It is also necessary failures.Ilshu-Hozen standards as an important point point in the preparation inspection shown of written is required temporary for safety. of preventing accidents. gives consideration to safely.1 Safety Step Implementation In consideration in [ishu-Hozen of the purposes activities should In . of cut powder (2) and cutting Step 2: Countermeasures for sources of problems and difficult spots are implemented for the malfunctions under the KYr4R method. The staff of the plant is studying includes covering the addition functions required the ideal state of local position necessary for securing such as preventing covering.4.

equipment ties. Thus.. recurrence. TIle reason is that that cannot be forecast cannot be prevented.~· . and disaster prevention In preventing is to detect is of great significance.4. and conditions must occurrence Inspection" based on the past accident of equipment maintenance through" Autonomous to prevent cases. essential conditions for "safely management. diagnosis must crack-detection hook cracking of ceiling-traveling method cranes in the Tochigi Plant of Nissan be carried and out for .528 New TPM Implemontation Program for Renovation of Production (4) Step 4: Overall Inspection. of abnormalities. and the of symptoms must start by identifying i.16 shows the case of inspecting based on the supersonic Motor.' r. suitable steps for them. Step 7: Autonomous Management In these steps.e. the following two items of safety steps in planned (1) Utilization of equipment-diagnostic technology Production and disasters matters the forecast. lo mariufaclure With operator participation trial operation "equipment featuring in the establishment activities breeding. in Planned Maintenance maintenance." stages promoted. basic thinking abnormal facilities include a variety of abnormalities. made from the design- should 10.. phenomena at an early time and adopt Figure 10." of equipment L. potential Prevention of accidents abnormalities. identification of accident abnormalities. . Step 5: Autonomous Inspection In these steps.he double enhancing the ability purpose of reducing abnormali maintenance worker-hours to detect . excellent such as 55 and KYK. should be carried out. equipment development inspection" with planned the aim of fostering processing personnel who are extremely be achieved skillful through with skill "overall Further. it must be sought its lie-up (5) Step 6: Standardization.c .2 Safety Step Implementation In the implementation will be important. and through that reinforces that has strong potential accident of accident occurrence. ! '. which represent the mature stages of TPM actlvlties.

-. _ . _ gll~~~n_l(!~o W?~J)I~~ Raws end sell11ng should no! exlst... v' v' 12 5 1 3 PM OP V No chatter should occur. .."_ . visual InspoctJon .~u... 0: Every day.. No loosening should occur.--. -. Thoro should bo no WOBr Touching with a hand.V __ Touching VlsuallnsPQcl!on Tlghtonlng 5 . No loosening should occur. . No delonnatlon should occur. Keys: Dial gauges L bars 10 1 10 or rM visua I Inspe<:tfon TIghtening Hoarlng Touching by hand if PM 0 OP OP V V V 1 W: once a week.. __ 2__ SU or ~~_. . __ or _..o~ ~o.tl.__ __..~~ ._fl?~at. No dofonnatlon should occur. Establishment of Solups for Zero Accidents and Zoro Pollution 527 Standards Porson DurIng During ~loppag (month I In chargo operation No 011leakage shoutd occur. '_"~_.-~. There Should bo no boru sucuons.'~-~.1.. OP: Operator . . __ __ r'..... There should be no dlsperston. _ .----.---~---------------..n.• ---~-_. . . --.. 5 l bars 10 ~.. L bars Vlsual tnspoctton scatcs 10 w OP or OP or Moasurlng With dial gali{lo delonnauon. . OP __ ._.~~_~.~~_ ._ __ .sh{l~f~o~~~r:_.?.10. No abnormal heating should occur._10__ __ ..I~_~!_I~~ . PM: Matnlorlanal stall. _ _. .__ !~ 5 o I ~J__ or OP .I{l{)s~nll1t). flltlng bolls should not bo loosonod. Touchfng by haoo... ._v_~ V v v V v_ . No abnormal sound should attss...ug.~... SU: A! each setup.. _ ~I!..'. •.

and all parts WOrO Inspected based on the color-chocking method. or the hade-off is frequently widely different from the real state of workshops. and safety of systems in an overall manner under various restrictive However. maintainability. In addition. and reliability and economy. 10.16 Utlllzatlon of Equipment-Diagnostic Technology (Inspecting hook cracks of overhead travelling cranes by supersonic fiuw detecting) Boforo Improvement Color-checking method . Tho hook was disassembled. Even if such a trade-off is made. if equipment-diagnostic technology is assumed to be hardware for its promotion. The tradeoff between various attributes required of systems. Est~bllshment of Setups for Zero Accidents and Zero Polluli~~~. the grounds for it are often unclear. fragmentaril y. System evaluation conditions. and enhancement of roliabllity. 174 fllyear Effocts GrGat f(.1O. it is often used only for a single purpose. in many cases. such as reliability and maintainability. is taken up.~~~. Ultrasonlc exarnlnatlon 29 units Inspection manhours '" 3 parsons x 2 h x 29 units ~. is extremely insufficient. __ ~ __ 529 Fig. No. .duc\ion of lnspecuon manhcurs. system evaluation technology may be regarded as the software that operates that hardware. systems are evaluated only economy. such as reliability and maintainability.7 hfyoar (2) Development of system evaluation technology In establishing the planned maintenance system. must be involve studying in many cornpanics • the reliability. or hooks e Aftor Improvement. use conditions and the study range are unclear. 1/4 h/yoar --> 9. for instance. When the format for DR (Design Review).

who is an examination and means" at of PM awards. and the basic questions of what they are used for. i.e. the present situation SCOf)C the real state of clarifying the of the cOlnpany. In other cases. the use of such technologies has become the purpose. it is important to carry out analysis based on visual information. or why they are used. Meanwhile. FIA. FMEA.e. . Professor emeritus member Shizuo Senju of Kcio University. In developing and utilizing system evaluation technology. purposes and means are confused. and while the targds. in some cases the adopted technologies are not suitable for the companies concerned. i.530 New TPM Implementation Program for Renovation of Production The orientation of formation of the planned maintenance system in TPM is toward "complete visibility." Unless it is so arranged that necessary information can be visually learned by the necessary staff group when it is needed." purposes. while considering "workshops. are forgotten. and other reliability analysis technologies are utilized in "safety management. the value of information will decline. and the of study preconditions for the analysis. has pointed out this confusion of "purposes various places." However.

Kobetsu-Kaizen. to "essential beginning MP activities correspond design The latter means utilizing. they and regenerated as new systems given new [unctions from various and experience. obtained maintenance management.---~~-~~------------- 531 10. Q participate based on a broad viewpoint evaluation. • o Implementing step management Evaluating in executing and establishing production control a the state of actual goods in the initial-phase .5 Safety Management and MP Activities Production are scrapped viewpoints. is important. and planned in safety of [ishu-Hoz production en. technical guidelines for system and preparing with the scale Oil Thoroughly implementing of new facilities Having follow-up specialists system prior management in evaluation..gubtions . safety" During this process effective utilization of knowledge in individual enforced activities on existing of TPM facilities. the experience activities on existing production safety" design are as shown "safety Tllilnagement" The important promotion points of "essential positioning Prior managemeut Establishing manuals « Clearly MP design in internal evaluation. Establishment of Setups for Zoro Accldonts and Zoro Pollution -. who conducted at the design stage.. in accordance rc. below: I§ facilities undergo a cycle in which. of all members facilities. due to functional obsolescence.10.

" The concluding statement which connects both of them. who are versed in equipment and processing conditions. description has been made about TPM and "safely management. Also. enhancement activities of technology staff Reliability improvement of production facilities through systematic methods. to -control not forced by others Thus far.532 New TPM Implementation Program for Renovallon of Production 10. should be carried out by system evaluation of production facilities. can be summarized which is the basis for corporate as shown in fig. A workshop in which each person can work with peace of mind is not generated by a unilateral management structure. software. the ideal state of "safety of this chapter rcgnrding management" in TPM is that "hurnanware" will become firm assets of enterprises if successful experiences of individual workers are steadily accumulated." and here it is stressed agnln that not "How" but "Why" and "What" are important. based on the views that ensuring safety and a suitable environment is their work itself. irrespective of existing I (3) Implementation of regular diagnosis by the top officer The strong will of the top officer.6 Ideal State of Safety Management The thinking of reinforcing "safety management. Their steady routine activities to voluntarily strive for safety. will create a corporate basis for zero failures and zero pollution.17. (Shinotsuka) . based on attachment of importance workshops. maintenance and MP activities. (2) Reliability I I \ based on planned implementing or new facilities. (1) Dally safety activities by small workshop groups Safety is to be ensured by small operator groups. and that TPM is their work itself." continuation. will reinforce safety managcrnent and generate an atmosphere conducive to control based on mutual understanding but voluntarily enforced by the persons concerned." and the management should be a mere theory. which takes the form of production facilities. and "humanware. the basics are "people. which is an essential factor for moving hardware. It is necessary to place importance on hardware. 10.

uP ~ma!l: ~f~-po!n1ir. 10.J P{("{Bd t08:fnS "_'~~~_~ :PSE > ' -. • . . -poInt Df safety? . : _ .... 0( losses.m lor malntenanco and correctivo malnler'l3n<:e. '.. nil I)f tntur! ng 181ely) • Evalu8tInt. and slrMng for 'Pt'O~LlbI6 malnlenar'lCe' MAlntonanco akllf lOAn'lr". ..... h0w f..-----------} (Alms) • (Actlv1ty Itoms) • --··-·----·-~---l:.! : sale~f mect_i<"J$.. : • · " ."._ _. slandardizJl1<J.Hozcn Aeflooico (M3in1eflllf'«l) O!JI&lntl1<J corlllk:alloo Df &Qulpmont mtOOI~ tpodafisl «()pMBtlonl fl&--oducal'O'1 01 pcocesslnq cooduoos..~ KYX (mald.. safoly end ~ safety knov.agnOSIB): • [".lng r oeO-Mf"J {h<j~'l ll..tlle (VI1e-ly '."!-.....f!MIl$UJ8 Ililln!rYJ • -.O~ S1lJ<1y'b]''WfW ~nd .joJ01 at ff'iOf'/ day'S fN_XNr'oJ • fiB.:.'l Tta.••.l of operators.Co-Mo . •••• :41 ..~oc!lon 01 tal '*/ln!ooMlf-..lntoool1l:o Opo rutlon and mnlnt nnance skll! dovoloproonl trelnlll9 r-:: : Sklll dovolopmcnt 01 ITIAlntonanco sIn II ~ ma~~oMroC" !~JI • lkodorl.10.ElThlfQe<lC)' CO\Jnl(. • Exe~V1ioo 0( de~ ••• 11111. .~ •••• I... . : roo~L<!!_!Jl"...... I- I: •••• .!. ••••••••••••••.ililiY.. • Ii .W ~ sfabHshmont iJ~Ui.uS. (Targo!s) and (Philosophy) Achfavernonl 0/z6ro . HOlOn aolups r----------------" PlannIng rnafntenance 0' tho · : : thomsetves Sial!. ~~l~:M fUlMyols : : : :~-.J L- .lI1OC>:XIX>USITIAJnlonan<:6 al woti<shops (deatInQ up.. " '.L~8~~fc'f~~:~~1_11~~. ~ c.1 Sil.~ f ~~!... ••••••••••••••••..~_.l f!lc~~I<l_s__ .o.) Stata 01 project ihemo promotion Slalo 01 obIaln!fl<J I09al • QVafificallons '* II I..• 8 •••• ' •••••••• 16t. _. accidents . necessary fOf the 4th 51ep c4 Jisrn.. . ano::l Itr~W<Jmeni 01 &QV1~~ ano::l piocosses [~al slat 0) and the stt'3ta of th91r onforcoment : Stma of routine actMtles 10( safely • Stale 01 BXltaordnaf'/ work 0001(01 ..&fi ~ ij-lO MWsuy fi' LabO( :. 6agnos1lo::: locfy)ot<>w Eslab!lshmonl of tho ~ me. •• 1111••• 1.l!p ~ : d(Jfoc1s L~ __ .• : R Plant ... .. Equlpmenl desfgn lot lullOf :.. ~ · .. .. 8J..:. Ii: .Cl-Gartr. 1-.~: · zc + PM llf">OOf3lll/)(jf"l) 1!na~(Sls..{M".or. . : sy5tc.ea:g~~:d. ~dditi(>naj e.•.* •• .~. onental!on lowatd ro pmb!ems e!ricloncy r-E-S-I-Ob-!-IS-h-mo-n-1 o-. ~ Education and lral'rJf'tg plans "'111 lndivlduallmptove· nwnl lor cqulprnent Improvemont of J_ ~ulpm~t1t fmpfOVOmon1of overall ollkloncy.1 II..w' t .Sil. and on.. ••••••••••••••••••••••• ~_ •••••• f •••••••••••• I' ••••••••• •• •• I (Stopsa '0.t_. 00 MP d(l~: • ••••• ": --' • Sltxtl oIlCC. ..-::---~ ~'I~c::~~.oIJP c~~'0<l8d.J Il10lr own fadll!los by ~mportsnt pc.:..Operal"My study : . oryarlzln<J.~.x.Stala 01 e.qu?p(ner~cdl. • you :: : . t c. work safe!) --' • ...--._!··.'-. slandan:i1l..r~ tJ'j O(Q4ri.17 Example: Safely Control System of .JOlf"JIJ~"'tl\9 : suppl<lmantary ecorse.&-'JOOSficled~. I~~ -t- 01 &QV1jXM01. • as well as UlO Ira"... . systom proventille Op-otators ekillfuf with oqulpmonl.lO( Sa! uti f. ProloctlJ)(.EIimlnaIloo 01 ooat-mlss acdOOnls orvamltii).S5. • '\.::.:rc'h·tOo:tJTI«ii-t-uM Wj~!1"q.J U>_ ~fOO 01 lfT9Ortaoca of equlpomenl and as!aWshll1<J h Establishing s)"$te. ..--------- : ~~h~~~Y~-:" ~a.. (Speclnc up. j'PM' a: tmplementauon) : ~. ')btairll1<J necessary quafflCaliorls an llitlal-phasa control setup Eslablishment of scala prooudion l+ Irea from la~uros al slart.1.."J dangerov.%d ~ltJd'f of Uw (_~'B1l 01 dan..EstnbllShmen' 01 . Bcllvlly ltems) AOV1ioo safety sctroi1iBSi._~ croC~ ...YY. •••••••••• : .lrtY~~}: ! : • '--~ Pft'lJ(UilD0(]01 ()("""fo()tr~ sai(riY lessons : . •• 11 4" IIj I- w- • • -r oporntors' Jishu..I ocurlty SaIIJ£!! .l varbal cooflffl)!f>I] .•.~~~_~~:·~~~r--~:..11111 Ala SIrJ matters lInprodtdabla from the vlo . Establishment of Setups for Zoro Accidonts and Zoro Pollution 533 Fig....II '" • .l k..1s!oo 01 n/..b...oo .~rv8f>:Q PM rO'. otc..Ht"':$l<p-sd iiGfr<'l end W&IUB1.

' edited for Safety. of ringer-Pointing Diagnosis re." Safety. 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) NHK Citizen Broadcast Yuji Ilyama: University Course: "Civilization Publishing Association. of Equipment Industries). Haruo "TPM Shlm<1da: Manager "Economy Course Dictionary." Iwanarni Theory New Books series." . Supervised by Eiji Oshima: NTS." S('minar Te x}." IW." ]!PM. No. for Workshop Safety." 3) 4) [iro Kondo: "Designing Kiyoshl Bluebacks series.Hlami and Action-Voicing." NHK Vol. Publishing Morl: "High-Tech Society and Labor. Kod ansha Publishing Co. Prevention Association. 31. Leaders." by )IP}'1." JIPM. Prediction Publishing and Maintenance Co. Central Labor Accidt'nt Corona Co. "Effects and Application "Equipment of I lurnanwa Beings and Technology. Fuji Techno System. 10) Mitsuo Nagamachi: "A<:Iion Science "Guide u) Kenji Kitagawa: 10 !\c1i.534 New TPM Implomentation Program for Ronovatlon of Production Referenco Literature 1) 2) Ikuo Setoyama: "New TPM "Formation of Zero-Accident Kunia Shirose: "TPM Implementation Program (Volume and Zero Pollution Setups. Iwanami of Human Co. 12.bility Fnginccring.

11 Hi w_n 111m Tf!1m II~ r ti iti .

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