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Published by: Rahul Sosa on Feb 08, 2012
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Impact of privatization

The social damage caused due to privatization, as reported by a researcher, are:[6] 

There is dichotomy in the functions allocated by the vesting of powers with LDA to maintain only the water body and some part of the shore line while the shore and lands adjoining the lakes, which also play an important role in the overall maintenance and health of lakes, are with district bodies. This state of affairs creates a complex situation of not addressing the lake as a continuum with land. The lakes are being developed as stand alone water bodies without a linkage to other lakes Land use regulations are violated as the private developers of the two lakes have not sought permission for change in land use from the Bangalore Development Authority for converting the Nagavara and Hebbal Lakes for commercial use; a case of non compliance of the law. Fauna dependent on the lake, like birds, fish and others are disturbed by the excess and disturbing human activity Conversion of the lakes and their surrounding areas into exclusive resorts, with entry fee access to the lake areas. The private developers are in the real estate/hospitality business with profit motive Violation of land use regulations by the private organizations while implementing the scheme Proposed construction of a 223±room Hotel at the side of Hebbal Lake is indication that private developer has taken the lease purely for commercial and business purposes. Such a development would exclude access to the lake for the general public. Lakes are Common Property Resources, in which a group of people have co±user rights. The impact of the privatization scheme would, therefore, need to be addressed legally The socio±economic impacts or apprehensions of the people such as fishermen dependent on the lake for livelihood is that there could be restrictions on their fishing rights and washer±men (dhobis) also have similar apprehensions 




Origin Edwards states that The Economist coined the term in the 1930s in covering Nazi German economic policy. agency. functions like revenue collection.g.[1] The term "privatization" also has been used to describe two unrelated transactions. of all shares of apublic corporation or holding company's stock. and often described as private equity. Jrnl. law enforcement.[2] Privatisation generally is believed to improve the output. enterprise. privatizing a publicly traded stock. and prison management. The second is ademutualization of a mutual organization or cooperative to form a joint stock company. The first is a buyout.[4][5] The Oxford English Dictionary notes usage dating from 1942 in Econ. 52. 398. profits and efficiency of the organisations that are privatised. e. .Privatization Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of a business. public service or property from the public sector (the state or government) to the private sector (businesses that operate for a private profit) or to private non-profit organizations. by the majority owner. The term is also used in a quite different sense. to mean government out-sourcing of services to private firms.

the U. army supplies (military contractors). In more recent times. that privatization gained worldwide momentum. most of Europe was still by and large following the feudal economic model. This privatization. The rulers were counseled by the Taoist clergy that a strong ruler was virtually invisible. the Roman Empire also created state-owned enterprises²for example. John Major. However. spearheaded by Junichiro Koizumi. which had themselves overturned earlier policies in favor of more rigorous state control.[6] In the 1970s General Pinochet implemented a significant privatization program in Chile.[6] Perhaps one of the first ideological movements towards privatization came during China's golden age of the Han dynasty.[8] In Britain. it was in the 1980s under the leaderships of Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the USA. and West Germany's government embarked on large-scale privatization. Some scholars suggest that the cost of bureaucracy was one of the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire. when governments contracted out almost everything to the private sector.[6] In the Roman Republic private individuals and companies performed the majority of services including tax collection (tax farming). British Rail having been formed by prior nationalization of private rail companies.History A long history of privatization dates from Ancient Greece. The privatization process is expected[by whom?] to last until 2017. This was a reversal of the earlier Song dynasty policies. A major ongoing privatization. religious sacrifices and construction. literally [7] meaning "do nothing". Winston Churchill's government privatized the British steel industry in the 1950s. started in 2007 following generations of debate.S. In the UK this culminated in the 1993 privatization of British Rail under Thatcher's successor. . especially with regards to their manufacturing industries. and it advocated the laissez-faire principle of Wu wei ( ). that of Japan Post. Significant privatization of state owned enterprises in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union was undertaken in the 1990s with assistance from the World Bank. the privatization of common lands is referred to as enclosure (in Scotland as the Lowland Clearances and the Highland Clearances). the Ming dynasty in China began once more to practice privatization. During the Renaissance. much of the grain was eventually produced on estates owned by the Emperor. Taoism came into prominence for the first time at a state level. including selling its majority stake in Volkswagen to small investors in a public share offering in 1961. coincident with the industrial revolution in that country. However. the German Treuhand. Significant privatizations of this nature occurred from 1760 to 1820. and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations. By contrast. involves the Japanese post service and the largest bank in the world. Agency for International Development.

and Slovakia. Privatization from below is/has been an important type of economic growth in transition economies. 4. Asset sale privatization . A substantial benefit of share or asset-sale privatizations is that bidders compete to offer the highest price. many governments elect for listings in the more developed and liquid markets. asset sales occur more commonly in developing countries. New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. Voucher privatization . Share issue privatization (SIP) . Choice of sale method is influenced by the capital market. a market in vouchers could be created.Start-up of new private businesses in formerly socialist countries. political and firm-specific factors. and transaction costs (e. Voucher privatizations.selling an entire organization (or part of it) to a strategic investor. creating income for the state in addition to tax revenues. Voucher privatization has mainly occurred in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe.distributing shares of ownership to all citizens. usually by auction or by using the Treuhand model 3. Poland.g. Share issues can broaden and deepen domestic capital markets. and the London. creating a real sense of participation and inclusion.Types There are four main methods[citation needed] of privatization: 1. Additionally. underpricing required) may be higher. usually for free or at a very low price. the Czech Republic. As a result of higher political and currency risk deterring foreign investors. such as Russia. boosting liquidity and (potentially) economic growth. on the other hand. For this reason. If the transfer of vouchers is permitted. with companies offering to pay money for them. could be a genuine transfer of assets to the general population. but if the capital markets are insufficiently developed it may be difficult to find enough buyers. for example Euronext.selling shares on the stock market 2. . SIPs are more likely to be used when capital markets are less developed and there is lowerincome inequality. Privatization from below .

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