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American Policies in the Philippines

TOWARDS THE FULL INDEPENDENCE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Insular Government
y The Americans do not know how will they

administer the Philippines since they have no idea how to deal with the Filipinos. y With the establishment of a Philippine civil administration , it was placed under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs. y During the early years of territorial administration, the Americans were reluctant to delegate authority to the Filipinos.

Schurman Commission
y Jan. 20, 1899  Headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University.  This commission studied the existing conditions in the Philippines and to give recommendation to the President.  According to the commission, they acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it.

Recommendation of the Schurman Commission


y Establishment of civilian government as

rapidly as possible (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor). y Establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels. y A system of free public elementary schools.

Taft Commission
y March 16, 1901  Headed by William H. Taft, a lawyer from Ohio.  President McKinley gave him executive and legislative powers as a commissioner.  Their primary goal is to establish a civil government in the Philippines.  With the success of the commission, Taft became the first Civil-Governor of the Philippines.

Recommendations of the Taft Commission


y Establishment of a judicial system including a

y y y y

Supreme Court. This was to replace antiquated Spanish ordinances and organized a civil service. Establishment and modification of laws to replace Spanish laws in the Philippines. An establishment of a public school system through Education Act of 1901. The settle the issues of friar estates. To give importance to the natural resources in the Philippines.

Spooner Amendment
y Originally

sponsored by Senator John Coit Spooner, it is a congressional amendment to the Army Appropriations Act of 1901 that called for the end of the U.S. military government in the Philippines by the terms of the Treaty of Paris. y It was believed in the United States that their resistance was due to the harshness of military government.

y The Spooner Amendment authorized Pres.

William McKinley to supplant military rule with civilian government, which was inaugurated in July 1901. y The passage of the Spooner amendment was a significant milestone in the development of U.S.Philippine policy because it allowed the President to govern the Philippines by authority of Congress and not by his wartime authority as Commander in Chief.

Cooper Law
y Philippine Organic Act of 1902 y This law was passed by Senator Henry A. Cooper

of Wisconsin. y This law will establish a Philippine Assembly and the foundation of the Insular Government of the Philippines. y Also, the law gave Filipinos all the civil liberties like the Americans. y This law also gave provisions to have Filipino representation in the Congress but without voting powers.

The passing of the Cooper Law


y According to Cooper, the Senate branded

the Filipinos as pirates, savages, barbarians, and incapable of a civilization. y Cooper was disgusted by this and recited the Mi Ultimo Adios by Jose Rizal. y His speech was applauded and the law was passed.

Pirates! Barbarians! Savages! Incapable of civilization. How many of the civilized, Caucasian slanderers of his race could ever be capable of thoughts like these, which on the awful night, as he sat alone amidst silence unbroken save by the rustling of the black plumes of the death angel at his side, poured from the soul of the martyred Filipino? Search the long and bloody roll of the worlds martyred dead, and whereon what soil, under what skydid Tyranny ever claim a nobler victim? - Henry A. Cooper

Philippine Assembly

Sedition Law
y Enacted in 1901. y Any

forms of aggressive or passive resistance to the American rule in the Philippines are forbidden. y The scope of the law was not just limited to the following: speech, play, publications etc. y Any violation of this law will be punished with either exile or death.

Brigandage Act
y Enacted in 1902.

was enacted with the help of the Philippine Commission. y A law forbidding Filipinos to establish a nationalist movement. y Any form of resistance against the Americans will be branded as a bandit or traitor.
y It

Flag Law
y Enacted in 1907 y This law forbids the

display of the Philippine Flag. y In response, Gregorio Aglipay had a habit sewn in the design of the Philippine Flag.

Jones Law
 Philippine Autonomy Act  Enacted on August 29,

 

Senator William A. Virginia. This law guaranteed Philippine Independence provided there is a functioning and well-formed government in the Philippines. This law also created the House of Representatives and the Philippine Senate. This law extends the Bill of Rights to the Filipinos. Also, the law abolished all existing laws against Philippine Nationalism such as the Sedition Law and the Flag Law.

1916 Jones

by of

Philippine Independence Missions


 Its objective was to send a representative to have

dialogues with American lawmakers in the matters of the exact date of Philippine independence.  The Philippine Congress funded the Filipino delegates in these independence missions.  Most of these independence missions ended up as failures since they were not successful in convincing American lawmakers to define the definite date of independence.  Years of the missions: 1919, 1922, 1923, 1930, 1931 1932

OsRox Mission
y 1931  Representatives Sergio Osmea and Manuel Roxas were sent as delegates in the Independence Mission.  They were successful in their mission and was able to bring home an independence law entitled HareHawes-Cutting Law.

Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law
y Dec. 1932


Authored by Representative Butler B. Hare, Senators Harry B. Hawes and Bronson M. Cutting. This law was vetoed by then President Herbert Hoover. His veto was overruled by the US Senate. The American High Commissioner in the Philippines and the Philippine Senate rejected to ratify the law since there are provisions that gave the U.S. president the right to maintain land and other properties reserved for military use.

Contents of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law


 Guaranteed Philippine Independence in 10

years.  The Foundation of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.  Establishment of military bases in Mindanao.  Imposition of tariffs and quota on all Philippine exports to the United States.

L-R: Congressman Butler B. Hare, Senators Harry B. Hawes and Bronson M. Cutting

Tydings-McDuffie Law
y Philippine Independence Act

of 1934 y Legislated by Senator Milliard Tydings and Representative John McDuffie. y Manuel Quezon personally headed this independence mission and was successful. y The law was ratified in the Philippine Senate and signed it into law on March 24, 1934 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Contents of the Tydings-McDuffie Law


y This law has little or no different from

the original Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law. y This was simply a political machination of Quezon to further strengthen and solidify his political ambitions to become a president.

L-R: Senator Milliard Tydings and Representative John McDuffie

Sakdalista
y A movement was founded in 1930 by a right wing leader,

Benigno Ramos, a writer and discontented former government clerk. y It draws strength from illiterate, landless peasants, the movement advocated a drastic reduction of taxes on the poor and a radical land reform, including a breakup of the large estates. y It also opposed the policy of the dominant Nacionalista Party of accepting gradual independence from the United States, demanding instead immediate severance of all Philippine-American ties.

y Sakdal voiced its opposition to Tydings-McDuffie

law, demanding that the Philippines be given "complete and absolute independence" on or before December 31, 1935. y May 1, 1935
  

Partially armed mobs seized municipal buildings in 14 towns such as Bulacan and Laguna. The uprising was crushed the next day, with the loss of about 100 lives. Ramos fled to Tokyo and the Sakdals were disbanded, but rural conditions remained a source of frustration and dissension and led to numerous other such peasant rebellions.

Economic Policies
y The Americans

tried to limit Philippine trade through tariffs and quota. y This was to prevent the influx of Philippine raw products to the United States since it might upset commerce and their market. y But the Americans are allowed to trade with the Philippines without tariffs and quota. y Later on, these economic restrictions were eased by different laws and called for the establishment of a national bank.

PayneAldrich Tariff Act


y Legislated by Sens. Sereno E. Payne and Nelson y y y y

W. Aldrich. A bill lowering certain tariffs on goods entering the United States. In this law, 650 tariff schedules were lowered, 220 raised, and 1,150 left unchanged. There are provisions that allowed free trade with the Philippines. For example, tobacco exports from the Philippines to America had annually increased as a result of the bill passing by 1915.

L-R: Senators Sereno E. Payne and Nelson W. Aldrich.

Underwood-Simmons Act
y Revenue Act of 1913 y Legislated by Rep. Oscar Underwood

and Sen. Furnifold McLendel Simmons. y It lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%. y It measures vastly increased the free list, adding wools, iron, steel, farm machinery and many raw materials and foodstuffs.

L-R: Rep. Oscar Underwood and Sen. Furnifold McLendel Simmons

Philippine National Bank


y Founded on July 22, 1916. y Opened at Escolta with Henry Parker Willis became the y

y y y y

first president of the bank. Its primary mandate was to provide financial services to Philippine industry and agriculture and support the government's economic development effort. PNB was authorized to grant short and long-term loans to agriculture and industry. Filipino farmers then could avail of loans with interest between 8% to 10% per annum. PNB was also authorized to receive deposits, open foreign credits and rediscount bills. It has also functioned as the de facto Central Bank of the Philippines until 1949.

The Philippine National Bank Logo


It featured what will be the coat-of-arms of the Philippines

5 Peso Bill
Featuring William McKinley

The Protestant Faith


y The dominance of the Catholic Church in the Philippines

and Protestant animosity towards Catholicism were prominent reasons for the start of Protestant missionary activity. y The Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist leaders met together in New York to discuss how to bring the Protestant message to the Filipinos. y To further discuss the comity agreement, these three specific major agenda items were given:
  

To organize the Evangelical Union Choose a common name for Protestant churches Delineate the geographical work allotments for each church.

y From 1898 to 1905 there were different Protestant

missions agencies joining the comity agreement, namely:


      

Methodists (1898, most of lowland Luzon and north of Manila); Presbyterians (1899, Bicol, Southern Tagalog area and some parts of Central and Western Visayas); Baptists (1900, Western Visayas); United Brethren (1901, Mountain Province and La Union); Disciples of Christ (1901, Ilocos, Abra, and Tagalog towns); Congregationalists (1902, Mindanao except for the western end); Christian and Missionary Alliance (1902, Western Mindanao and Sulu Archipelago).

y The Seventh-day Adventist Church and Episcopal

Church came in later because they wanted to go to all parts of the archipelago.

Roman Catholic Reaction


y Archbishop Jeremiah Harty, the first American Archbishop

y y

of Manila, decided to counter the rise of Protestantism and Filipino-based Christianity throughout the Philippines. He asked the Vatican to sent more Roman Catholic missionaries to the Philippines to replaced the Spanish clergies who left the Philippines. As a response, The Vatican sent missionaries from France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland and the United States. Like the Protestants, they vigorously do missionary works. This made the Filipinos remain as Roman Catholics. Archbishop Harty also called for the establishment of new Roman Catholic schools all over the Philippines to further strengthen the Roman Catholic faith.

Archbishop Jeremiah Harty The first American Archbishop of Manila

Education
y It is education that became one of the lasting legacy

of American rule in the Philippines. y U.S. Army soldiers had already began teaching Filipinos the English language thus in effect laying down the foundation of the Philippine public school system. y They introduced the public school system and the use of English as medium of instruction. y Also, the educational system was based on democratic traditions and practical application of laws and principles.

y For the first time, religion was not a compulsory

subject instead, it was made optional due to the separation of church and state. y Because of these educational policies, more than 100,000 Filipino children were enrolled in the primary level. y The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established as well.

Thomasites
y Derived from the transport vessel, the USS Thomas.

y y y y

They will become the pioneer teachers in the Philippines. 365 males and 165 females will become the first Thomasites upon their departure from San Francisco. They were deployed all throughout the Philippines even as far as Jolo. Many of them will die of tropical diseases or will became victims of native hostilities to foreigner. Nonetheless, their mission was a complete success in laying the foundation for a more modern and progressive education in the Philippines.

Thomasites Curriculum: 1902-1935


y The Thomasites taught the following subjects:  English  Agriculture  Reading  Grammar  Geography  Mathematics  General courses  Trade courses  Housekeeping and household arts  Manual trading  Mechanical drawing  Freehand drawing  Athletics (baseball, track and field, tennis, indoor baseball and basketball).

USS Thomas

Uncle Sam offering Education

Thomasites

Thomasites with their students

Pensionado
y They were called as such because the government

covered all their expenses. y They were sent to the U.S. to continue their studies and to become expert in their desired fields or professions. y In return, they were to teach or work in government offices after they finished their studies. y There were successful Filipino scholars like Judge Jose Abad Santos, Francisco Benitez, Dr. Honoria Sison, Tomas Mapua, Carlos Quirino, and Francisco Delgado.

Higher Education
y Many institution for higher education were established

during the American period, most of them were Normal Schools (teachers college). These are:
         

Philippine Normal School (1901, Philippine Normal University) Cebu Normal School (1915, Cebu Normal University) Iloilo Normal School (1902, West Visayas State University) Zamboanga Normal School (1904, Western Mindanao State University) National University (1901) Centro Escolar de Seoritas (1907, Centro Escolar University) University of Manila (1914) Philippine Women University (1919) Institute of Accountancy (1919, Far Eastern University) Mapua Institute of Technology (1925)

Philippine Normal School (1901, Philippine Normal University) Cebu Normal School (1915, Cebu Normal University)

Iloilo Normal School (1902, West Visayas State University) Zamboanga Normal School (1904, Western Mindanao State University)

National University(1901) Centro Escolar de Seoritas (1907, Centro Escolar University)

University of Manila (1914) Philippine Women University (1919)

Mapua Institute of Technology (1925) Far Eastern University (1919)

Vocational Schools
y Vocational schools were also established as part of

the American educational system in the Philippines. These are:




Philippine Nautical School (reopening the Academia Nautica Real; Philippine Merchant Marine Academy) Philippine School of Arts and Trades (1901, Technological University of the Philippines) Central Luzon Agriculture School (1907, Central Luzon State University)

Philippine Nautical School (Philippine Merchant Marine Academy) Philippine School of Arts and Trades (1901, Technological University of the Philippines) Central Luzon Agriculture School (1907, Central Luzon State University)

University of the Philippines


y Founded in 1908 through

Act No. 1870 of the first Philippine Legislature, known as the "University Act" by authority of the United States. y The act specified the function of the University, which is to provide advanced instruction in literature, philosophy, the sciences, and arts, and to give professional and technical training.

Protestant Institutions
y Because of the coming of Protestantism in the

Philippines, they also established their respective institutions of higher education in the Philippines. These are:
  

Silliman University (1901,Presbyterian) Central Philippine University (1901, Baptists) Adventist University of the Philippines (1917, Seventhday Adventists) Northern Luzon Adventist College (1923, Seventh-day Adventists

Silliman University (1901,Presbyterian) Central Philippine University (1901, Baptists) Adventist University of the Philippines (1917, Seventh-day Adventists)

Emergence of Roman Catholic Institutions


y As a response to the rise of Protestantism in the Philippines and the
San Beda College (1901, Benedictine) La Consolacion College (1902, Augustian Sisters) University of San Agustin (1904, Augustinian) Assumption College (1904, Religious of the Assumption) Saint Scholastica's College (1906, Benedictine Sisters) Saint Paul University Philippines (1907, Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres) De La Salle University (1911, Christian Brothers) St. Louis University (1911, Scheutists or CICM) St. Theresa's College (1915, Immaculate Heart of Mary (ICM) ) Maryknoll College (1925, Sisters of the Maryknoll Congregation; Miriam College) Adamson University (1932, Vincentian) San Sebastian College Recoletos de Manila (1941, Augustian Recollects)

formation of non-sectarian institutions, the Roman Catholic Church decided to expand their institutions of higher learning. These are:
           

San Beda College (1901, Benedictine) La Consolacion College (1902, Augustian Sisters)

University of San Agustin (1904, Augustinian) Assumption College (1904, Religious of the Assumption)

Saint Scholastica's College (1906, Benedictine Sisters) Saint Paul University Philippines (1907, Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres)

De La Salle University (1911, Christian Brothers) St. Louis University (1911, Scheutists or CICM)

St. Theresa's College (1915, Immaculate Heart of Mary (ICM) ) Maryknoll College (1925, Sisters of the Maryknoll Congregation; Miriam College)

Adamson University (1932, Vincentian) San Sebastian College Recoletos de Manila (1941, Augustian Recollects)