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# Chapter 2 Questions and Solutions Question 1.

Explain what the terms centrifugal and centripetal mean with regard to a satellite in orbit around the earth. A satellite is in a circular orbit around the earth. The altitude of the satellite’s orbit above the surface of the earth is 1,400 km. (i) What are the centripetal and centrifugal accelerations acting on the satellite in its orbit? Give your answer in m/s2 . (ii) What is the velocity of the satellite in this orbit? Give your answer in km/s. (iii) What is the orbital period of the satellite in this orbit? Give your answer in hours, minutes, and seconds. Note: assume the average radius of the earth is 6,378.137 km and Kepler’s constant has the value 3.986004418 × 105 km3 /s2 Solution to question 1: In the case of a satellite orbiting the earth, the centrifugal force on the satellite is a force on the satellite that is directly away from the center of gravity of the earth (FOUT in Fig. 2.1) and the centripetal force is one directly towards the center of gravity of the earth (FIN in Fig. 2.1). The centrifugal force on a satellite will therefore try to fling the satellite away from the earth while the centripetal force will try to bring the satellite down towards the earth. (i) From equation (2.1) centripetal acceleration a = µ/r2 , where µ is Kepler’s constant. The value of r = 6,378.137 + 1,400 = 7,778.137 km, thus a = 3.986004418 × 105 / (7,778.137)2 = 0.0065885 km/s2 = 6.5885007 m/s2 . From equation (2.3), the centrifugal acceleration is given by a = v 2 /r, where v = the velocity of the satellite in a circular orbit.. From equation (2.5) v = (µ/r)1/2 = (3.986004418 × 105 / 7,778.137)1/2 = 7.1586494 km/s and so a = 0.0065885007 km/s2 = 6.5885007 m/s2 . NOTE: since the satellite was in stable orbit, the centrifugal acceleration must be equal to the centripetal acceleration, which we have found to be true here (but we needed only to calculate one of them). (ii) We have already found out the velocity of the satellite in orbit in part (i) (using equation (2.5)) to be 7.1586494 km/s (iii) From equation (2.6), the orbital period T = (2πr3/2 )/(µ1/2 ) = (2π7,778.1373/2 )/( 3.986004418 × 105 )1/2 = (4,310,158.598)/(631.3481146) = 6,826.912916 s = 1 hour 53 minutes 46.92 seconds

Question 2 A satellite is in a 322 km high circular orbit. Determine: a. The orbital angular velocity in radians per second; b. The orbital period in minutes; and

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921.378. (b) From eqn. Note: the frequency can be shifted both up and down.098.6).20236 radians = 0. (a) The orbital period from above is 5.458.e.037372 seconds. Note: assume the average radius of the earth is 6.137 = 42.370 km from the center of the earth. From above. Note: Include the earth’s rotation and be sure you consider the maximum possible Doppler shift for a 322 km circular orbit.445.713. giving the orbital angular velocity as 2π/5.97 minutes. 6.713066 km/s = 7. 2∆f).986004418 × 105 / 6700. (2.5). b. the orbital velocity v = (µ/r)1/2 = (3.3481146) = 5.700. (2. Determine the maximum frequency range over which the received signal would shift due to Doppler effects if received by a stationary observer suitably located in space. then calculating the period. the orbital velocity was 7. calculate the maximum Doppler shift that this station will observe.378. The same satellite in question 2 above (322 km circular orbit) carries a 300 MHz transmitter. If an earth station on the surface of the earth at mean sea level. This distance is equivalent to 2π radians and so 1 km is equivalent to 2π/42. Question 3. Solution to question 3 a.458.1373/2 )/( 3.137 km = 6700. a.986004418 × 105 km3 /s2 .137 km (c) From eqn.066 m/s.458.9672895 minutes = 90.986004418 × 105 )1/2 = (3. can receive the 300 MHz transmissions down to an elevation angle of 0o .20236 km). Solution to question 2: It is actually easier to answer the three parts of this question backwards.604)/(631.458.713066 km/s = 7.c. An alternative calculation procedure would calculate the distance traveled in one orbit (2πr = 2π6700.713066 × 0. T = (2πr3/2 )/(µ1/2 ) = (2π6. beginning with the orbital velocity. depending on whether the satellite is moving towards or away from the observer.098. First we will find the total radius of the orbit r = 322 + 6. Hence 2π radians are covered in 5.0001493 radians.037372 seconds = 90. The orbital velocity in meters per second. One revolution of the earth covers 360o or 2π radians.0011512 radians/s.0001493 radians/s = 0.137 km and Kepler’s constant has the value 3. You need to determine the maximum possible change in frequency due to Doppler (i.037372 radians/s = 0. and hence the orbital angular velocity.137)1/2 = 7. The highest Doppler shift would be observed in the plane of the satellite at the orbital height of the satellite: the satellite would be coming directly at the observer or directly 2- 2 .037372 seconds.0011512 radians/s.

where ∆f is the Doppler frequency.468928 Hz. f T is the frequency of the transmitter at rest. VT is the component of the transmitter’s velocity directed at the observer. The orbital velocity was calculated in question 2 as 7. the component of the transmitter’s velocity towards the observer is the actual velocity of the satellite. It is best to draw a diagram to see what the set up looks like. The maximum Doppler shift would therefore be the sum of these two values. Since the observer is at orbital height. Thus ∆f = (7.000. ∆f / f T = VT / vp . and hence (if the plane of the orbit takes the satellite directly over the earth station at zenith) the point where the Doppler shift is highest – either positive or negative.066 × 300.713. 2- 3 .436.468928 × 2 = 15.93786 Hz = 15. The important element in this part of the question is the component of the satellite’s velocity towards the earth station. The maximum Doppler shift therefore = 7. b. Using equation (2.436.000) / 2. A O E φE S φS Satellite in 322 km circular orbit B The Earth O = vector from the satellite to the earth station S = vector from the origin to the satellite E = vector from the origin to the earth station φ S = angular coordinate of the satellite φ E = angular coordinate of the earth station A and B are the points in the satellite’s orbit when the elevation angle at the earth station is zero.44a).94 Hz.718.away from the observer.713.9979 × 108 = 7.066 m/s. Below is a view from above the orbit of the satellite (orthogonal to the orbital plane).718. and v p is the phase velocity of light.

where n is the orbital angular velocity = 0.9519413) = 17. thus: 2O(dO/dt) = 2E(E + h)sin(φE – φS )(dφE/dt – dφS /dt) . we need to find (φE – φS ) when the elevation angle is 0o .137 +322) = 0.9519413 (φE – φS ) = cos-1 (0. h.137)/(6378.0011512 radians/s from question 2 part (a). Local horizon at earth station (elevation angle = 0o ) E ξ S In this figure ξ = (φE – φS ) cos ξ = E/S = E/(E + h) = (6378.8352236o 2- 4 . giving (dO/dt) = (E(E + h)sin(φE – φS )(dφE/dt – dφS /dt))/( E2 + S2 –2EScos(φE – φS ))1/2 dφE/dt is the earth’s rotational angular velocity = 2πradians/24hours = 7. The sign depends on whether the orbital motion and the earth’s rotation are in the same direction. This is drawn below for one of the geometries (the other being the mirror image on the other side). giving O2 = E2 + (E + h)2 – 2E(E + h)cos(φE – φS ) The component of the satellite’s velocity towards the earth station is dO/dt and we can obtain it by differentiating the above equation (remembering the E. term by term.2722052 × 10-5 radians/second dφS /dt = ±n. To find the maximum Doppler shift. and S may be assumed to be constant values). S = E + h.Using the law of cosines. O2 = E2 + S2 –2EScos(φE – φS ) For an orbital height of h.

Note: assume the average radius of the earth is 6.75 kHz 2.137 + 322) 2 − 2(6378.608. with the center of mass of the larger body as one of the two foci.378. 2. 3.7986757 km/s The satellite may be rotating in the same direction as the angular rotation of the earth or against it.152 km and a perigee of 500 km.7986757 × 10 3 × 300 × 10 6 2 ∆f = = 15. +16.9979 × 10 8 For the opposite direction rotation 2 ∆f = 2 × 6.752.835)) 1 / 2 = − 14.986004418 × 105 km3 /s2 .6 kHz 2.15 × 10 −3 ) = dt (( 6378.03935.8710394 × 10 3 × 300 × 10 6 = 13. Thus.137)(6378. 2.272 × 10 −5 m 1.5). 2- 5 .835)( 7. 2 × 7.8710394 or +7.096993 = -6.137 )( 6378. What is the orbital period of this satellite? Give your answer in hours.137 + 322) sin( 17.137 + 322) cos(17.137 km and Kepler’s constant has the value 3.137 ) 2 + ( 6378.27719 = 15.6389 2052. The square of the period of revolution of the smaller body about the larger body equals a constant multiplied by the third power of the semimajor axis of the orbital ellipse. The orbit of any smaller body about a larger body is always an ellipse.9979 × 10 8 Question 4 What are Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion? Give the mathematical formulation of Kepler’s third law of planetary motion. The orbit of the smaller body sweeps out equal areas in time (see Fig. for the same direction rotation.Thus dO (6378.003.100. Solution to question 4 Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion are (see page 22) 1. What do the terms perigee and apogee mean when used to describe the orbit of a satellite orbiting the earth? A satellite in an elliptical orbit around the earth has an apogee of 39.41469 = 13.