National History Day 2012 Ms. Nehill 2.9.

12 Annotated Bibliography Brendan Chin, Drew Reidy, Cam Migdol Primary Sources Affonço, Denise. To the End of Hell. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Excerpt from To the End of Hell. N.p.: Reportage Press, 2007. PDF file. This source was important to our research, as it allowed us to gain a perspective on what the Khmer’s actions were within Cambodia. In the source it gives the author’s perspective of when she was being evacuated from the cities by the Khmer Rouge. This is important because the Khmer Rouge was censoring the information that left the country. This makes a primary, first hand source the most reliable source during the time period, because first hand accounts were able to be passed down and written without censorship. The author is not an expert on genocide, but her first hand accounts make this source reliable. However, there may be some exaggeration because of a feeling of resentment against the Khmer Rouge because of her experiences. Associated Press. “Prosecutor: Defendants Share Blame with Pol Pot.” Trib Today. N.p., 22 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.tribtoday.com/‌page/‌content.detail/‌id/‌152167/‌Prosecutor-Defendants-share-blame-with-Pol-Pot-.html?isap=1&nav=5030>. This news article provides detailed information on the UN-backed trial of former Khmer Rouge leaders. The article provides statistics, facts,

events, as well as quotes from prosecutors and defendants in court. We learned about the trial and evidence, as well as the Khmer Rouge’s justification and defense from this article, and we are able to use the prosecutor’s and the defendants’ words as quotations. The source has reliable information that is similar to the information of other articles on the same trial. The author is sharing information on the trial, including the defense’s and prosecutor’s claims and evidence. By sharing information from both sides of the trial, the author is unbiased. Brouwer, Andy. “Vann Nath - His Pictures.” Andy Brouwer’s Cambodia Tales. N.p., 3 Feb. 2002. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. Although this source provided brief information about S-21 prison, we only used the images of Vann Nath’s paintings from this website. Vann Nath’s paintings depict the horrors of S-21, such as starvation, torture, interrogation, abuse, and execution. We used the website’s images of the original paintings in our website to depict the horrors witnessed in the prison. The scenes are mainly reliable as Vann Nath witnessed such abuse, however, his account of the situations may be exaggerated due to a bias against the cruel Khmer Rouge. Also Nath’s memory of every scene may be slightly inaccurate as time had passed before he painted each scene. Chan, Youkimny. “One Spoon of Rice.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 20-25. Print. This source is about one of the survivors of the killing fields. He is reflecting back on his time in Cambodia in his account. We

use this source to tell a lot about what life was like in the killing fields. The source was written to let people know about what happened by giving them a first hand account of what actually happened there. This source while not written by an expert, was written by someone who actually went through the killing fields so it is for the most part reliable. There will obviously be some bias because he will be writing against the Khmer Rouge soldiers, but for the most part what he is saying is historically accurate and important because he actually experienced the fields. “Former Senior Khmer Rouge Figure Defends Action Before UN-Backed Trial.” UN News Centre. N.p., 22 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.un.org/‌apps/‌news/‌story.asp? NewsID=40489&Cr=cambodia&Cr1=>. This source provides information about the trial of Nuon Chea. This is an important piece of information for our project because a large part of our analysis was based upon testimonies at the trial. This is important because the testimonies can help us see multiple sides of the Cambodian Genocide, including the side of the leaders, which is expressed in this article. The purpose of this source, is to inform the public of what is happening during the trail.The author of this article is a European news outlet. This may not be an expert source, but it is not an analytically source, and purely states facts. This is why I believe that this source is reliable. It is from a reliable news source, and only facts are given, and little

opinion is shown so there is little chance of bias being shown. “Francois Ponchaud.” Cambodia: Year Zero. Trans. Nancy Amphoux. New York: Holts Rinehart and Winston, 1978. 67, 6970. Internet Source Books. Web. 16 Dec. 2011. <http://www.fordham.edu/‌Halsall/‌mod/‌1978cambodia.asp>. This source is about a teacher, a physician, and a store clerk’s time in the Cambodian Killing Fields when they were evacuating the cities. It talks about the process of sorting the city dwellers into various groups to fish out the “undesireables.” We used the source in our project to help in the Education section of our site because the educated people of the time were considered bad and they were sorted out from the rest and the teacher’s account was perfect for this. The source is primary and the goal was just to track what was going on in Cambodia at the time. It is most likely a journal entry of a Frenchmen who was staying in Cambodia. The source is from the Internet Sourcebook Fordham Halsall. This is written by just a French colonist or priest who was staying there at the time so it is probably not reliable because it only provides three accounts, and does not provide the Khmer government perspective on the evacuation day. Him, Chanrithy. “When the Owl Cries.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 147, 150. Print. This source is about Chanrithy Him’s life while in the killing fields. She is looking back on her experiences. This source was

used in our project to discuss the poor health conditions in the killing fields and how it affected Him. She had a foot infection at the time and she talks a lot about this infection. This is a primary source account of what happened, and while she is not an expert, she has written other works and accounts of what happened in Cambodia. It is reliable because she actually experienced what happened; because she was in Cambodia, she is credible. The source is also notable because the author writes about a particular instance when she was alone with a Khmer soldier tied to a tree and he actually spared her life. This depicts a side of the Khmer soldiers we do not usually see, therefore the source provides two perspectives. “Khmer Rouge Leaders Accused of ‘Brutality that Defies Belief’ as Trial Begins.” The Telegraph. N.p., 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. This source is a news article on the Khmer Rouge leaders’ trial. The article focuses specifically on the claims made by the prosecution against the Khmer leaders. The article is unbiased and provides information on both the Khmer Rouge’s history, as well as quotes and thoughts from the trial. We were able to use quotes and ideas to understand the trial, and also to provide a page on the trial on our website. The information in the article is supported by other articles on the same trial. The purpose of the article is to inform the reader on the events and news from the trials of the Khmer Rouge officials. The article also provides a first-hand video of the courtroom. This is a good, reliable, informative

source. The Kingdom of Cambodia. Constitutional Assembly. “Chapter III The Rights and Obligations of Khmer Citizens.” Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia (Annotated). Royal Cambodian Embassy. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. This source contained primary source information about what rights the people of Cambodia were granted by the Khmer Rouge during their rule. This was important for us because it gave us an insight to the government policies of Khmer. This source was published to keep on record what the former policies of the Cambodian government were. The author of this source is the Cambodian Government, and it was published with the goal of preserving the history. This is why the source is reliable. However the government (modern day Cambodian government) may have altered the information to make the Khmer Rouge regime seem worse because of wide spread hatred of the Khmer Rouge. In conclusion, the slight possibility of biased is not enough to discount this source; it can be considered reliable. Kline, David. “Kampuchea.” LIberator Press (Apr. 1978): n. pag. Print. This source provides information about how the people of Cambodia thought about the government. This was important to our project because it allowed us to see a different side of the genocide, the side where people truly supported their government. The purpose of this source was to show the American Public the other side of the story.

The author of this source is a reporter from the United States, who wrote the initial captions. I do not believe that this is an entirely reliable source. This is because the Khmer Rouge was still in power when this was published, and they were censoring all of the information leaving the country so the information may not be completely accurate. But, we still must consider the information that is provided in the source because it could be valid and it is an opinion that doesn’t think that the Khmer were committing genocide. Kozlovski, Mary. “No Buddhism ban: Nuon Chea.” Phnom Penh Post. N.p., 16 Dec. 2011. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. <http://www.phnompenhpost.com/‌index.php/‌2011121653454/‌National -news/‌no-buddhism-ban-nuon-chea.html>. This article provides quotes, claims, statements, and facts from the trial of the Khmer Rouge. The article specifically focuses on the investigation of the Khmer Rouge’s attempt to destroy religion. The article provides information and quotes on both the claims by the defense and the prosecutors. The information is reliable and is supported by articles on the same trial which contain similar information. The article is unbiased, reciting claims and evidence of both sides. We used the quotes by a Cambodian monk who lived under the Khmer Rouge rule, who claims they specifically tried to destroy Buddhism and other religions. Ly, Moly. “Witnessing the Horror.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997.

58, 59. Print. This source is a memoir about Ly’s time spent in the Killing Fields of Cambodia. The source was used in our project in the daily life section and talks a lot about what he was forced to do on a daily based work related and how he suffered from pain and hunger along the way. The source is a primary source because he was a first hand witness to the horrors of the Killing Fields and while he is not an expert in the subject, this is a reliable source because the broad subject of poor conditions, backbreaking labor, and hunger matches up with other information that we found. The only difference is that Ly’s account provides more in-depth and detailed analysis of the information and is important to understand because it highlights the true hell that existed in the Killing Fields. Mam, Teeda Butt. “Worms from Our Skin.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 12, 14-16. Print. This source is about Mam’s time in the Killing Fields of Cambodia. It is a primary source in our project that selects more in depth and telling analysis on the civilians view on the Khmer governmental policies. The source is not written by an expert, but should be taken into account because so many of the people who experienced the Genocide died, so the few that have stories to tell are even more important. The source could be biased because she lost her family in the Genocide so she perhaps could exaggerate the stories to make the Khmer Rouge look even worse.

Mouth, Sophea. “Imprinting Compassion.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 179. Print. This source is about Mouth’s family in Cambodia and how his family died. His source is good for our project because it provides detailed accounts of time in the killing fields that he had. This is a primary source and Mouth is actually an expert. He has his doctorate degree in Buddhist studies and one day wants to be a professor. Knowing that, this is a credible source. Mydans, Seth. “Former Leader of Khmer Rouge Blames U.S. for Its Rise.” New York Times 24 Nov. 2011: A17. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. This news article reported on the trials of the Khmer leaders. This was important because it had direct quotes from the Khmer leaders. In these quotes the leaders put the blame of their rise to power and actions in power, onto the United States. This was extremely vital to our research because it showed an opposing viewpoint to what most of our research was showing. This source was created to inform the general public of the Khmer trials and show what the leaders had to say for themselves, which was that they were innocent men. Even though it is known that they are guilty, their alternative perspective is rare and important. The author of this source is a writer and reporter for the New York Times, and he is not an expert on the genocide. However, even thought the author is not an expert on the Cambodian Genocide, he doesn’t have to be, because he is purely

reporting facts from the trials. This is why this source is reliable, because no opinion is shown, and that leaves little reason for the author to misconstrue information. - - -. “Prosecutors Describe Khmer Rouge Leaders’ ‘Organized and Systematic’ Atrocities.” The New York Times. N.p., 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. This new source is an informative, factual, and reliable article on the Khmer Rouge’s trial in Cambodia. The article provies an informative background, as well as information on the trial. The source contains direct quotes and explanations of claims by both prosecutors and the defense. We were able to provide information and quotes in the trial section of our website. The information is realiable, as it is supported by other articles on the trial, and the New York Times is a reputable news source. The article was created to inform readers on the events of the trial, which is trying the Khmer Rouge officials for crimes against humanity. “Nuon Chea Defends Actions in Khmer Rouge Genocide Trial.” BBC. N.p., 22 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/‌news/‌world-asia15835319>. This news article informs the reader on Nuon Chea’s defense during his trial as a leader of the Khmer Rouge. The article focuses specifically on Nuon Chea and his defense, provided quotes and claims from his statement. The article also provides background information on the Khmer Rouge’s rule, and the genocide they are now on trial for. The article’s information is supported by other articles and

sources on the same trial. The article is unbiased, informative, and accurate. We were able to use the quotes and the overall information to provide evidence, quotes, and information on our website’s page on the trial. Penn, Savuth. “The Dark Years of My Life.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 46-48. Print. This source is a memoir about Savuth Penn’s time in Cambodia. The source was utilized in our project for information on what the evacuations of the large cities were like. This is where a lot of the people died, and the Genocide began, a significant turning point in history, so Penn’s knowledge and experience of it was very important. In addition, he talks a lot about how it effected his day to day life. The soure is a primary source because it is a memoir by a first hand witness and survivor. The source though does have bias because he was a victim and does not like the regime for many reasons. Overall, the source is reliable because Dith Pran, the compiler of the anthology of memoirs that this account appears in, selected some of the most telling stories, that in addition match up with background knowledge from reputable secondary sources. Piersath, Chath. “A Letter to my Mother.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 7. Print. This source is another memoir about a survivor in The Killing Fields. The source is used in our project to talk about the

liberation part of the genocide. Piersath was liberated to a Thairegfugee camp in 1979 after the Vietnamese liberated Cambodia from genocide. This source is a primary source because it is a memoir reflecting back from a first hand witness of The KIlling Fields Genocide. The source is written by a reputable source because Piersath served on the American National Development Organization that deals with human rights. Also, he experienced the genocide so he knows what really happened there. However, since this is a memory and it did happen a long time ago, it could be slightly unreliable because memories of things can change. Overall though, the source is reliable and reputable for information regarding the liberation.

Prak, Sarom. “The Unfortunate Cambodia.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 69, 70. Print. This source is a first hand account memoir of the Killing Fields. We did not end up using this source in our final website because we don’t talk a lot about the time in the refugee camps, only the time in the actual fields. The source though is great for addressing refugee camps and liberation. The source was written to increase awareness about the serious subject and make it known what really happened. The source is a primary source written by Sarom Prak, and while he is not an expert the source is reliable because of the anthology that it is in (Pran put together many good sources) and also

because this first hand account tells a lot about what time was like in the refugee camps. Reuters. “Khmer Rouge prison chief ‘Duch’ found guilty.” France 24. N.p., 26 July 2010. Web. 8 Feb. 2012. This is a photo of Duch testifying during his trial in the Cambodian Tribunal. We put this picture on the page about trials. Short, Philip. “Pol Pot: The History of a Nightmare.” FACTBOX. Reuters, 19 Sept. 2007. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. This news article provides information specifically on events in the news regarding Nuon Chea. The article discusses the events and actions carried out by Chea during the rule of the Khmer Rouge. The article also provides insight regarding Chea’s recent actions in the news, as he has been prosecuted for crimes against humanity. The author is strictly factual, taking no standpoints, opinions, analysis, or conclusion on the situation. The aritcle is from Reuters, a reputable and reliable news source. The article was created to inform the reader on the recent actions taken against Nuon Chea for his crimes of genocide. “3 top Khmer Rouge leaders go on trial in Cambodia.” CNN U.S. N.p., 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. This source is a news article, which was created to inform the reader on the Khmer Rouge leaders’ trial. The article provides thorough information on both the events of the Cambodian genocide of the 1970s as well as the events and claims during the trials today. The article, however, does not provide quotes

from the trial, thus leaving out a complete understanding of the trial. We were able to better understand the ideas and accusations of the trial, and we were able to provide information on a trial page on our website. The information is supported by many other articles on the same trial. The article is unbiased, reliable, accurate, and informative. Tun, Sarah P. “A Four-Year-Old’s View of the Khmer Rouge.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 83, 87. Print. The Sarah P. Tun entry of the anthology is a source about her first hand witnessing of the genocide. We used the source in the liberation page as the primary source there to tell the story. I think that a common misconception of the liberation would be that it was a nice thing, and that people were now saved. However, in reality, what really happened was that people still died right up until they left Cambodia. Because the source provides this alternative perspective to the liberation, it is both nonbiased about the subject and it is also important to understand. The source overall is reliable because it provides multiple perspectives. Ung, Loung. First They Killed My Father. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc, 2000. Print. This book tells the story of a girl and her family living under the Khmer Rouge. It provides specific events and stories that the author personally experienced. The information is reliable and is supported by information in other sources. The author is slightly biased against the Khmer Rouge, and may also be slightly inacurate in

the recollections of events as she was young at the time of the Khmer Rouge’s rule, and her memory may not recall the events perfectly. The source shares her first hand accounts of daily life, rules, situations, and events under the Khmer Rouge. We were able to use many primary source quotes from this book. Yan, Arn. “My Mother’s Courage.” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields. Comp. Dith Pran. Ed. Kim DePaul. Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1997. 136, 141. Print. This source is a witness account about working in the harvesting parts of the rice fields in the collective farming system. Yan notes specific times in the fields making it detailed. This is a primary source. The source is reliable because he was a first hand witness of the killing fields. Secondary Sources Abuza, Zachary. “Khmer Rouge.” Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. 357-359. Gale World History in Context. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source is about the Khmer Rouge Rule. It is a secondary source encyclopedia that focuses on the history of modern Asia. This source provided us with background information as to what happened in Cambodia. The author is credible because he is a professor at Simmons College in Boston and an expert in the topic who has other various publications. This source is reliable because it is background, thus just a matter of fact. Abuza does not take much of a position

when writing the section on Cambodia of this encyclopedia, he mainly just addresses facts of what happened. “AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT OF CAMBODIA CONCERNING THE PROSECUTION UNDER CAMBODIAN LAW OF CRIMES COMMITTED DURING THE PERIOD OF DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA.” N.d. PDF file. This source was important to our research because it gave us an insight about how the trials were actually working. This source is the official document in which the UN and the Cambodian government agree to hold the trials of the Khmer rouge. Purpose of this source was to begin a trial against the leaders of the Khmer Rouge for their role in the Cambodian genocide. The author of this source is the United Nations. I believe this source is reliable because it is published by the UN who is bringing the charges against the Rouge. Also there is no historical facts states, just the rundown of how the trials wil function. Bergin, Sean. Genocide in Modern Times: The Khmer Rouge and the Cambodian Genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. Print. Genocide in Modern Times. This source provides a brief, overlaying description of the Cambodian genocide, however, with little detail and specific information. The book does provide primary source images and experts from personal accounts of the genocide and the Khmer Rouge. We were able to find images taken during the time, as well as quotes and exerts of personal experiences of Cambodians during the

Khmer Rouge rule. The source is a secondary source, written to inform the reader with a brief description of the events and actions of the Khmer Rouge during the Cambodian genocide. The author does not portray a bias, but instead expresses nonpartisan facts and statements. The statements, facts, and conclusions are supported by many other sources on the same topic, and is therefore accurate and reliable. “Biography.” Vann Nath. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. <http://www.vannnath.com/‌bio/>. This source is the biography page on Vann Nath’s official website. The biography explains specific events and situations in Vann Nath’s life, as well as his efforts in more recent years, including his work in art and documentaries. The source is was created to inform the reader on the life and background of Vann Nath. The source is unbiased and the content is supported by information in other sources. We were able to explain background information on Vann Nath in our website with this information. The source is reliable, as it is the official website of Vann Nath, however, it is not written by a well-known, reputable author. “Cambodia - The Killing Fields.” The Killing Fields Museum. The Killing Fields Museum, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. The content of this website consists of mostly background information about the genocide in Cambodia. This website was mostly used to lay a base of knowledge about the history of Cambodia. The purpose of this source is to create an

awareness of what really happend in Cambodia during the Khmer’s rule. The author of this website is a legitimate museum, which was assembled by people passionate about the topic, so while they may not be experts, they are knowledgeable. This is why I consider this to be a reliable source. This source was created to increase public awareness about the the genocide, and to honor the victims, not to change public opinions about the issue. Carvin, Andy. “S-21: The Horrors of Tuol Sleng.” From Sideshow To Genocide: Stories of the Cambodian Holocaust. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. <http://edwebproject.org/‌sideshow/‌khmeryears/‌s21.html>. The web page is a section of a website on the Cambodian Genocide. The section focuses specifically on S-21 prison. The source provides primary source images of the prison, historical context, and thorough information on the Khmer Rouge’s political prison. We used the information to create a brief description of S-21 prison in our website. The information is reliable and is supported by other sources on the same topic. The author is unbiased, citing nonpartisan facts without drawing conclusions to or against a specific side. The source was created to inform the reader on the facts and events of the Cambodian genocide and the rule of the Khmer Rouge. Chandler, David P. Brother Number One: A Political Biography of Pol Pot. Summertown, Oxford: Westview Press, Inc., 1992. Print. This resource is about the Cambodian leader Pol Pot who took over the country. It is

not just about his takeover though, it is about his whole life. We used the source in our project for some background information on Pol Pot but also for information on why he did some of the things he did. For example, why his view was communist; we were able to find in the book that he was influenced because his time in Paris. The source is secondary source biography about Pol Pot’s life. The author tells the story in depth of Saroth Sar, Pol Pot’s original name. The source was written to teach people about what it is that Pol Pot did and why he did those things. The author is named David P. Chandler. He is a very reliable source because he worked as a U.S. Foreign Services Officer and spend two years in Phnom Penh. He also spent a brief amount of time teaching at Monash University in Melbourne Austrailia on the history of Southeast Asia. He has published many other sources and because of this is an expert in Southeast Asian studies, thus the Cambodian Genocide. The author might have some kind of bias, as most do when writing of a man like Pol Pot. The source though is reliable because it is based on many interviews that he did and because Chandler is an expert in the topic. Dieu, Nguyen Thi. “Pol Pot.” World Book Advanced. World Book Inc., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2011. This source contained mostly vague background information about the topic. This was used to help us have a better base understanding of what happend in Cambodia, however there was no information specific enough for us to use on our website. The

purpose of this source was to educate a modern audience about what happened during the Khmer rule. The authority of this author is fairly high, because he has researched the topic and is published in a credited encyclopedia. This is why I believe this is a reliable source, because the information matches up with other sources and the author is credible. Etcheson, Craig. “Khmer Rouge Victim Numbers, Estimating.” Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L Shelton. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 615-617. Gale World History in Context. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source is about the numerical statistics of people that were killed in Cambodia during the genocide. We have used the information in our project when referring to numbers regarding the death toll, or in the S-21 prison, which specific prisoners were killed. The source is a secondary source written to give the reader a general sense of how many people died in the genocide. It is written by Craig Etcheson, who was the program manager in 1997 of the Yale University Cambodian Genocide Project. The goal of the entire project, which received grants totaling $500,000, is to teach people about the genocide. Another goal is to gather all the information and a third is to make this information available to the court system for the trials of the Khmer Rouge leaders, and to make sense of this information for people to read. The author is reliable because he is the director of the major program, which has his doctorate and he is an

expert in this field. He works closely with Ben Kiernan who is a credible professor at Yale, and is also working on the project. The source will demonstrate some bias, as will most secondary sources, because they need to take some perspective or stand. However, this particular section of the source, published in the Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, will be biased because it is focused specifically on statistics, which can be manipulated, especially when people are trying to take a stand against the Khmer Rouge regime or something of the like. In addition it might be biased in the way by which the source calculated their numbers; it is very hard to calculate the number of people in a mass grave, and the deaths of many Camdoians who were never documented by the Khmer Rouge. “Genocide.” Merriam Webster’s Online Dictionary. Merriam Webster, n.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2012. This is a definition that was used to enhance our policies page. “Genocide in Cambodia.” Holocaust Museum Houston. Holocaust Museum Houston, n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. This source contained mostly widely found information about the background of the Cambodian Genocide. However, it had an important role in our research. It contained a lot of specific information about the education during the Khmer Rouge’s rule, and how they treated the educated Cambodians. This source was created to bring an awareness to the reader about genocide and the tools governments use to create genocide. It was not created to

change opinions or to prove a thesis about the Khmer Rouge. The author of this source is a reputable scholar from a museum, and the people who complied the website can be considered to be knowledgeable. The source is from a reputable author and its information matches up with other sources we have. Heder, Steve. “Cambodia.” Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L Shelton, et al. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference USA-Thompson Gale, 2005. 141-145. Print. 3 vols. This source provides background information on the Khmer Rouge’s rise to power, policies as rulers, and the actions taken towards creating a genocide. We gained a knowledgeable background on the topic, which we used to explain the historical context of the time period on our website. The source is unbiased, informational, and is supported by other sources. The source was created as an example of genocide in an encyclopedia of many genocides. This reference source is accurate and specific to genocide, and the author is most likely an expert on genocide. Hinton, Alexander Laban. “Why Did You Kill?: The Cambodian Genocide and the Dark Side of Face and Honor.” The Journal of Asian Studies 57.1 (1998): 93-122. JSTOR. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source is an excerpt from a book called Why Did They Kill? by Alexander Laban Hinton. It was used in our project as a secondary source because it interviews some of the rulers of the Khmer Rouge and he gives valuable insight as

to why the regime committed such crimes against humanity. This source was written by an expert; Hinton is the Director of the Center for the Study of Genocide and Human Rights at Rutgers University, so he is an expert and is a credible author. This is an accurate source because other secondary sources verifty the historical information and the author also uses quotes from the actual rulers to support his points regarding why they committed genocide and other inhumane crimes. Overall, this is a very reliable and informative source that shows both perspectives of the issue. “Khmer Rouge.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 262-263. Gale World History in Context. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source contained information about the social impacts of the Khmer’s rule in Cambodia. This source was important for our research because it gave us an insight into the Khmer ideals, which shed light on why the Khmer would do specific things, as well as why their polices were so strict. It is a secondary source created to educate the modern public about the Khmer era in Cambodia. It was not created to prove a specific opinion or conclusion about the Khmer Rouge. The source is a published reference that is specialized in the social aspect of history. The source was not created to prove a point and comes from an author that can be trusted, and therefore, the source is reliable. Kiernan, Ben. “Documenting ‘Year Zero’: The Yale Cambodian Genocide

Project.” POV. Pbs, 22 July 2003. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source contains information about how the trials of the Khmer officials are currently progressing, and how research is still being done on the Cambodian Genocide. It is a secondary source interview with an expert on the Cambodian Genocide. This source was created not to prove a point, but to raise awareness about the Yale Cambodian Genocide Project. The expert being interviewed on the genocide is the head of the Cambodian Genocide project and has done extensive research on the topic. The author is an expert and there is no opinion being addressed, thus, the source is reliable. - - -. The Pol Pot Regime. Binghamton: Vail- Ballou Press, 1996. Print. The novel The Pol Pot Regime is a source about the Khmer rouge strategy and methodology in their reign. We used it in our website for an expert opinion on why the Khmer Rouge did certain things to most effectively run their regime. The source is a secondary source written about the subject matter, but features expert opinion from the reputable Ben Kiernan, a Yale Genocidal Studies professor. The source is credible because the professor himself is very acclaimed and renowned and is an expert in the topic. As with any secondary source, the book has biased but makes a nice attempt at showing both sides, as it features leader claims that they are innocent and that they were doing what was best for the people at the time, while still managing to balance that evidence out with quotes of victims proving how devastating the

regime was. Maguire, Peter. “Cambodia Genocide: Memories From Tuol Sleng Prison.” Fathom: the Source for Online Learning. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. <http://www.fathom.com/‌feature/‌35706/>. The source provides factual information, quotes from Cambodian peasants and leaders, and primary source photos regarding Tuol Sleng (S-21) Prison. The article focuses on both the events and actions which occurred within the prison, as well as the evidence of the prison that is used in the trial of the Khmer Rouge leadership today. The article is slightly biased against the Khmer Rouge, acknowledging that their actions were gruesome, cruel, and inhumane. The source was created to inform the reader on the actions of the Khmer Rouge within Tuol Sleng Prison. We were able to use facts from the source to describe and provide information on the prison in our website. The source is reliable and its content is supported by information in other sources about the prison. McFadden, Robert D. “DEATH OF POL POT: THE WITNESS; Survivor of Killing Fields Is Resolute in Quest for Justice.” New York Times 17 Apr. 1998: n. pag. Rpt. in New York Times. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Gale World History in Context. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source is about the beginning of the trials in Cambodia for the Khmer Rouge rulers who were responsible for over 1 million deaths. We used the source for some of the comments that the Cambodian citizens like Dith Pran said;

they were happy and relieved that they will finally see justice for the genocide that occurred in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. The source is a New York Times article, written by a journalist who is from the United States. Knowing this, it is not the most reliable source because someone being from America might have bias against the Khmer Rouge due to their war related interactions with the United States during the Vietnam War. This source, though, is reliable for only the quotes given by Dith Pran and other Cambodians because their opinion regarding justice with the trials. Newton, Matthew. “Eve of Destruction.” Matthew Newton. Swindle, 2005. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This source provided us with both background information and primary source information. This was important to our research because it allowed us to see what people were experiencing and expand our knowledge of the topic in general. It contained very specific information about evacuation day. This source was created to show people the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. The author of this source is an expert in the topic, and has researched and written extensively on the topic. This is why this source is reliable. The author is an expert on the topic and it includes primary source evidence to back it up. One thing we considered when using this source was that the author was trying to show the worst side of the Khmer rule, so he may have left out positive details. “Pol Pot.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale

Biography in Context. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This source contained mostly background information about the Cambodian Genocide, specifically about Pol Pot. This was important to our research because it allowed us to see some of the influences that affected Pol Pot during his life. This source was created to educate the modern public about Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. This is from a reference source that states mostly general facts and information. Therefore, the source is reliable. The information is inline with our other research and there is no opinion shown, so there is little reason to believe that the information would be false. Power, Samantha. America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. Print. This resource is a book about genocides in history. The source was used in our website to talk a lot about US foreign policy with Cambodia at the time, and what role the Untied States played in the genocide. The book is a secondary source written by Samantha Power, a foreign policy columnist for Time Magazine who has received awards for her outstanding writing. The source is written by an expert because she is knowledgable in foreign policy. The source does have bias because it is written by a US citizen about US policy so she will have a little bias because of this. Overall though, the source is reliable because of Power’s expertise in the subject matter and the level of analysis into the topic. Tully, John. A Short History of Cambodia: From Empire to Survival. N.p.: Allen

& Unwin, 2005. Print. This source provided mostly background information about the take over by the Khmer Rouge. This was a useful source for us however, because it gave us an insight on Cambodia both before the Khmer rule and after the Khmer rule. This allowed us to compare Cambodia when the Khmer was ruling, and when the Khmer was not ruling. This allowed us a great ability to make analysis of the Khmer rule. The purpose of this source is to educate a modern audience about the history of Cambodia. It was not written to change peoples opinions about the genocide or country. The author of this book is a historian educated on the history of Cambodia. He may not be an expert in research of the genocide, but he is an expert on the history of Cambodia.This is why I believe this is a reliable source. It’s information is accurate with other sources, and it was not created to prove a point, just to educate on history. “Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocidal Crimes.” Memory and Justice. International Center for Transitional Justice, 2012. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. This website is a page within the website “Memory and Justice”. The project includes many pages on specific genocides and crimes against humanity throughout history and throughout the world. This specific page focuses on Tuol Sleng prison. The website provides statistics and facts about the website that are supported by other sources. The author is unbiased. The website also provides many pictures from the prison, which we used to depict the horrible scenes of the prison on our

website. Yale Univeristy Cambodian Genocide Program. Yale University, 2010. Web. 22 Dec. 2011. This source contained information about the genocide, and many primary source documents. It also contained victim pictures from the S-21 prison. This source was created to raise awareness and educate the public about the Khmer’s atrocities. The author of this source was a group of students and faculty at Yale University. All of these people were well educated in the subject, and complied this website to raise awareness. This is why I consider this to be a reliable source, because it’s information was largely based on primary documents and was created by a reliable author. Audiovisual- Pictures and Multimedia Andrew Cayley and Chea Leang. 1 Feb. 2010. Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodian. Flickr, 1 Feb. 2010. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. This picture is of the two main prosecutors in the Cambodian trials. This was put on the trials page in our website. Bathrooms. N.d. Ravenna. Creative Commons, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. This source contained a picture of the bathrooms at the S21 Picture. It can be found on the S21 page. “Cambodian Genocide Sites (1975-1979).” Map. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. This was a map of the places in Cambodia where the most killing was done. It is located on the home page and provides an insight to the Khmer era. Cambodians Evacuating the Cities. N.d. The Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot’s Regime. N.p.,

11 May 2005. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This picture is of the Cambodian citizens being forced out of the cities. This can be found on the Evacuation Day page, because that is one of the experiences that the citizens had. Cambodians Protesting. N.d. Nguyen Tan Hung. N.p., 20 Jan. 2012. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of Cambodians protesting the Khmer Government. This helped us before it help to confirm that the people were not happy with the Khmer government. Cambodia’s Killing Fields 30 Years On. N.d. Mirror News. N.p., 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of Cambodia over time. This is was used in the timeline background slide show on our website. Child Soldier. N.d. Eve of Destruction. Evil Monito, 1 Mar. 2009. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of a small boy aiming a gun in a trench. This is located in the Life in the Killing Fields section of our website. Ear, Sophal. Sophal Ear: Escaping the Khmer Rouge. TED Talks. N.p., Feb. 2009. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This resource is a video about a man named Sophal Ear. He a child during the Genocide and escaped with his family in 1977 to neighboring Vietnam. We used it in our project for background information in a video regarding the Khmer Rouge’s agenda and goals. There was a part of the video that was background, that is the part that we used because it is very informative. The source is a secondary source because it seems as if it is a snippet of a documentary that was placed into the TED talk Sophal Ear video. Sophal Ear is an expert in the topic because he often speaks about the issue and lived through it actually. This particular source is very reputable because it matches up well with

the other information that we found while conducting our research. All in all, the author might have some type of biased towards a Vietnamese and international perspective on the issue because he was not raised in Cambodia for the entire genocide. Exhumation at Choeung Ek. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2012. This is a photo of bones from a mass grave in the killing fields of Cambodia. It is evidence of the genocide. It is on our main page about the Killing Fields and collective farms. “French Protectorate of Cambodia 1863–1887, 1953.” Map. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Historical Flags of Our Ancestors. Web. 31 Jan. 2012. This picture is of the the Cambodian territory during the Khmer rule. It is located on the home page. Gen. Lon Nol. 2007. Cambodia Psyop. Herbert A. Friedman, n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of the Cambodian general Lon Nol. This picture was useful because it helps us to put a face to the name for the reader. Haing S. Ngor Captured in Movie Version, Escaped Cambodia in Real Life. N.d. Wyolife. N.p., 2010. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of the Movie portrayal of Haing S. Ngor. We used this source to try to put a face to the mane for the reader. The Hand Executing the Khmer Rouge. N.d. The Disjoined Wolrd. Wordpress, 2012. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. Instruments of Torture. N.d. Ravenna. Creative Commons, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. This is a picture of the tools used by Khmer soldiers to torture the Cambodian Prisoners. This helped to show how inhumane the actions of the Khmer were. Kaing Guek Eav at Trial. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. This is a picture of Kaing Guek Eav at trial. This picture was placed in our Trials section.

Kek Lew, Kang. New Tang Dynasty Television. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This source contained information on the trials of the Cambodian leaders. This was an important source for our research because it allowed us to see how the leaders of the genocide had been reformed. This is important because it allowed us to see what the leaders were feeling after the events of the genocide. This source was created for news purposes and not to make a point. The author of this source is an online news network that reports on news from all of Asia. I believe that this source is reliable because it uses actually video from the trials and no opinion is shown, just what Duch stated is shown and that is why it can be trusted that it is true. Khmer Rouge arrive in Phnom Penh. N.d. Voices Education. Wordpress, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2012. This is a picture of the Khmer soldiers arriving in the cities on evacuation day. This can be found on the evacuation day page. Khmer Rouge Canal. N.d. Khmer- Story of the Khmer Rouge. KhmerBlogspot, 6 July 2011. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This photo is evidence of the labor forced upon Cambodian peasants. We used this photo on our page about the Khmer Rouge, and how they ruled over the Cambodians. Khmer Rouge Education. N.d. Cambodian Genocide Program. Yale University, 2010. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of the notes taken by a Khmer student. This was to show how little education was given to citizens. This is on the Educated people page. The Khmer Rouge flag is in the descent. 16 Apr. 1998. BBC News South Asia. BBC News, 16 Apr. 1998. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. This is a photo of the Khmer Rouge’s flag. We used this on the main page about the Khmer Rouge and their rule over

the Cambodians. Khmer Rouge guerrillas in the jungle of western Cambodia. N.d. Condescending Saviors. Wordpress, n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a photo of Khmer Rouge soldiers hidden in a desolate jungle. The Khmer Rouge executed Cambodians in the jungles, away from the public and foreign media. We used this photo on the page regarding the Khmer Rouge’s policies and methods of ruling. Khmer Rouge Soldiers. N.d. Essential Local Knowledge to Cambodian Holidays. Holidays in Cambodia, n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This primary source photo of young Khmer Rouge soldiers. The picture was used on the page about the Khmer Rouge’s policies. Khmer Soldiers Walk a Victim. N.d. Time Newsfeed. CNN, 26 July 2010. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is the picture of the Khmer soldiers carrying a victim. This can be found on the Life in the Killing Fields page. Khmer Soldier Waves Gun. N.d. Orange County for Darfur. Wordpress, n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This photograph of an aggressive Khmer Rouge soldier waving his gun was used on the page about the Khmer Rouge’s background and rise to power. The image represents the brutality of the soldiers, and their abuse towards the Cambodian peasants. Killing Tree Against Which Executioners Beat Children. N.d. Flikr. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a photo of a notorious tree, which a sign labels, “Killing Tree Against Which Executioners Beat Children.” We used this picture on a page about experiences in the Killing Fields, as this photo demonstrates the brutality with which the Cambodians were treated.

Koh, Kenneth. S21 Prison Bed. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of a bed at the modern day S-21 prison, which is now a museum. This picture was put on the S-21 page. Map of Cambodia. Map. World Atlas. Graphic Maps, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This is a map of the world, but, it focuses on Cambodia and Southeast Asia. We used this picture in our introductory slideshow to explain where Cambodia is geographically located. Map of Indochina and Southeast Asia. Map. The Form Of Money. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This picture is a map of Indochina and Southeast Asia. This was placed on the main page to give the reader an idea of the geographic location of Cambodia. “Map of US carpet bombing of Cambodia.” Map. N.p.: n.p., 2007. Freedom and Reason: June 2007. Web. 31 Jan. 2012. This is a picture of the areas of Cambodia that were carpet bombed by the United States. This was put in the background slide show along with information about the bombing. Mass Graves Exhumed. N.d. Ravenna. Creative Commons, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. This is a photo of skulls recovered from mass graves in Cambodia. It is evidence of the mass killings committed by the Khmer Rouge. We used this picture on a page describing the Killing Fields, as it depicts the substantial number of Cambodians killed. Nuon Chea in the Dock at the ECCC, 2010. 2010. Center for Justice and Accountability. N.p., 2010. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. This is a photo of the Khmer Rouge leader Nuon Chea testifying in the Cambodian Tribunal. We put this photo on the trial page of our website.

Photograph of “Duch” speaking. N.d. CBC. Brendan Brady, 25 Nov. 2009. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a photograph of “Duch” a Khmer leader, speaking at his trial. This was put on the trials page. Photograph of Vann Nath. N.d. Vann Nath. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This is a picture of Vann Nath, a artist during the Khmer rule. This can be found on the Vann Nath page. Pol, Pol. Interview. Cambodia: Pol Pot the Interview and Confession. Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. This was a very important, helpful, and informative source for us. It provided information about how Pol Pot personally viewed his role in the Khmer Rouge’s rule of Cambodia. The purpose of this source was for Pol Pot to be able tell his own side of the story, after he was heavily blamed for the genocide. The author of this source is a Cambodian news source. They were reporting the interview to an english-speaking public. This source may not be entirely reliable. Pol Pot may simply be using the interview as an opportunity to defend himself; he may be attempting to justify his actions. However, it is still necessary to acknowledge and use such claims, as it is still a primary source from the lesser-heard side of the situation. Pol Pot. N.d. Espresso Stalinist. Wordpress, n.d. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a primary source photo of Pol Pot speaking. This is on the page about the life and philosophy of Pol Pot. Portrait of Pol Pot. N.d. Listal. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. This is a primary source portrait of Pol Pot. It is adjacent to the description of Pol Pot, his life, philosophies, and studies.

Prince Sihanouk. N.d. Cambodia Psyop. Herbert A. Friedman, 2007. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a primary source photo of Cambodia’s prince, Shianouk. This photo is on the slide about Shianouk in the timeline of Cambodia’s history. Prisoners. c. 1976. Photograph. Tuol Sleng Musuem of Genocidal Crime, Tuol Sleng. This is an image of the compiled head shots of the prisoners from Tuol Sleng Prison. The collection of the numerous images gives an undertsanding of how devastating the prison was, and how many deaths the prison itself was responsible for, therefore, we used the image in the slideshow of images on the Tuol Sleng Prison page. Rice farmers working at a communal farm outside Phnom Penh. 1975-1979. Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. This is primary source photo of a Cambodian collective rice farm. This photo is evidence of the labor forced upon the peasants in Cambodia. We used this photo on our page about the experiences in the Killing Fields. Security Prison 21 Outside View (S21). N.d. Ravenna. Creative Commons, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. This is a picture of the out side of the S21 prison. We placed this picture on our S-21 page. Security Regulations at S21. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of a sign that was translated into english, with all of the rules of the S21 prison. This picture was put in the S-21 picture slideshow.

Uniform of the Khmer Rouge (red cambodians). N.d. You, Me, and A HD. Roseash Pty Limited, 2010. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. This is a photo of a Khmer Rouge uniform. The photo is used on the Khmer Rouge’s policy pages. The Victim’s Grave. N.d. The Victims Grave at S21. TravelPod, n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of a sign that describes the death of 14 Cambodians. This was placed on the working conditions page because it relates to the working conditions that surrounded their deaths. Victims Lying Down. N.d. Khmerization. Associated Press, 5 Aug. 2010. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a picture of the victims of a Khmer assault being ordered by soliders. This source was put on the Life in the Killing Fields page, because it showed how the people were treated by the soliders. Vietnamese Liberation. N.d. Vietnamese soldiers side by side with Cambodian. Vietnam Net, 14 Jan. 2012. Web. 7 Feb. 2012. This is a photo of Vietnamese soldiers after invading Cambodia, liberating the people from the Khmer Rouge’s rule. The photo was used to depict the end of the Khmer Rouge’s reign, and thus it was used in the page about liberation.