Assembly Modeling Using ANSYS

Luc Pontoire Simon Mendy
ansys-support-france@ansys.com
15/10/09
© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Outline

• Overview • Connections – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Overview
• The CAE usage has completely changed over years. The CAE user used to realize calculations on simplified single parts. • Today , calculations on detailed complete assemblies or subassemblies are common , thanks to the increase of computational power and code efficiency. • It is now necessary to know the various possibilities of modeling interactions between these parts, in order to assess to best choice for the simulation

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Overview
• Contact detection allows easy setup linking of parts. • But do you do the best choice every time ?

• Contact detection on motor assembly

© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Proprietary . ( penalty contact ?) 1. Inc. All rights reserved.3 hours CPU Time Pin Base Frictionless Ear to Base Pin to Base Bonded Ear to Pin © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Ear 5 ANSYS.Overview • But do you the best choice every time ? • Let’s try to model a hinge….

Inc. Proprietary . Inc. All rights reserved. Ear New at R12 6 ANSYS.Overview • Take a deep breath … • There is maybe something more appropriate in this case 40 CPU Time Pin Base Revolute joint Ear to Base Pin to Base Fixed joint Ear to Pin © 2009 ANSYS.

All rights reserved. Proprietary . Inc. 7 ANSYS.Outline • Overview • Connections – Remote Point – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints © 2009 ANSYS. Inc.

moments © 2009 ANSYS. Proprietary . vertex of bodies Promote remote BCs to a remote point Benefits  Multiple boundary conditions scoped to a point Avoid over-constraint conditions Remote Points New at R12  Applications  Point mass. remote loads. edge. springs. joints. Inc. 8 ANSYS. Inc.Remote point New Remote Point Feature    Scoping mechanism for remote BCs Applied to face. All rights reserved.

Proprietary . Inc.Outline • Overview • Connections – Remote Point – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. 9 ANSYS.

. • Also. 10 ANSYS. – CE is a general form of coupling and allows you to write an equation such as UX1 + 3.5*UX2 = 10. their relationship is simply UX1 = UX2.Constraint Equations • A constraint equation (CE) defines a linear relationship between nodal degrees of freedom. a CE can have any number of nodes and any combination of DOFs. Its general form is: Coef1 * DOF1 + Coef2 * DOF2 + Coef3 * DOF3 + . = Constant © 2009 ANSYS. – If you couple two DOFs. All rights reserved.. Inc.0. Inc. Proprietary . • You can define any number of CEs in a model.

All rights reserved.Constraint Equations Common applications: • Connecting dissimilar meshes • Connecting dissimilar element types • Creating rigid regions • Providing Interference fits © 2009 ANSYS. 11 ANSYS. Proprietary . Inc. Inc.

you can create CEs to connect them. – Requires nodes from one mesh (usually the finer mesh) and elements from the other mesh to be selected first. Proprietary . All rights reserved. 2-D or 3-D.Constraint Equations Connecting dissimilar meshes • If two meshed objects meet at a surface but their node patterns are not the same. • Easiest way to do this is with the CEINTF command (Preprocessor > Coupling/Ceqn > Adjacent Regions). – Automatically calculates all necessary coefficients and constants. Inc. Inc. © 2009 ANSYS. – For solid elements to solid elements. 12 ANSYS.

• The CE command (Preprocessor > Coupling/Ceqn > Constraint Eqn) is typically used for such cases. Inc. 13 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved. Inc. © 2009 ANSYS. you may need to write CE’s to transfer loads from one to the other: – beams to solids or beams perpendicular to shells – shells to solids – etc.Constraint Equations Connecting dissimilar element types • If you need to connect element types with different DOF sets.

All rights reserved. Remark : WB doesn't CE but contact MPC to enforce rigid regions conditions (discussed later) © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary . Inc. • Applying the load to one node (the prime node) will transfer appropriate loads to all other nodes in the rigid region. • Use the CERIG command (or Preprocessor > Coupling/Ceqn > Rigid Region). 14 ANSYS.Constraint Equations Creating rigid regions • CEs are often used to “lump” together portions of the model into rigid regions.

All rights reserved. Inc.Constraint Equations Creating flexible regions • CEs are often used to “average” flexibility of portions of the model towards a master point or node. • Use the CERIG command (or Preprocessor > Coupling/Ceqn > Rigid Region). © 2009 ANSYS. 15 ANSYS. Proprietary . • Applying the load to one node (the prime node) will transfer appropriate loads to all other nodes in the “flexible” region. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. 16 ANSYS. Proprietary .1 constraint equations to model various joint/hinges  Easy idealization of complex boundary conditions © 2009 ANSYS.Constraint Equations New Constraint Equation Manager  Coupling of two or more remote points Applications  Use New at R12.

Outline • Overview • Connections – Remote Point – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints © 2009 ANSYS. 17 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary .

one degree of freedom). • If you couple nodes 1 and 2 in the UX direction. 18 ANSYS. but do not include the same DOF in more than one coupled set. Proprietary . Inc.e. All rights reserved. Inc. • You can define any number of coupled sets in a model.Coupling Equation • A coupled set is a group of nodes coupled in one direction (i.. © 2009 ANSYS. • A coupled equation is way of forcing degrees of freedom of a nodal group to have the same value. DOF1 = DOF2 = DOF3 = DOF4 = DOF5 . the solver will calculate UX for node 1 and simply assign the same UX value to node 2..

All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary .Coupling Equation Common applications: • Enforcing symmetry • Frictionless interfaces • Pin joints © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. 19 ANSYS.

Inc. Symmetry BC on this edge Couple these nodes in UX DOF © 2009 ANSYS. This ensures that plane sections remain plane. Inc. couple the nodes on one edge in the X direction. 20 ANSYS. Proprietary . For example: – To model one sector of a disc (cyclic symmetry). couple the node pairs on the two symmetry edges in all DOF.Coupling Equation Enforcing Symmetry • Coupled DOF are often used to enforce translational or rotational symmetry. All rights reserved. – To model a half “tooth” of a comb-type model (translational symmetry).

Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. couple each pair of coincident nodes in the normal direction. Couple each node pair in UY Y X © 2009 ANSYS. 21 ANSYS.Coupling Equation Frictionless interfaces • A contact surface can be simulated using coupled DOF if all of the following are true: – – – – The surfaces are known to remain in contact The analysis is geometrically linear (small deflections) Friction is to be neglected The node pattern is the same on both surfaces • To do this. Proprietary .

• CPCYC allows modelling of cyclic symmetry • CPCYC. KNONROT • By specifying a cylindrical coordinate system (KCN) and a wedge spacing (DY) in degrees. All rights reserved. DY. ANSYS will find your wedge boundaries and couple them for you! • Meshes have to match on both sides of the pattern © 2009 ANSYS. Proprietary . DX. Inc. TOLER. KCN. repetitive patterns) centered around an axis. Inc.Coupling Equation : CycloSymmetry Cyclic Symmetry • A component or assembly is cyclically symmetric if it has a correspondence in form or arrangement of parts (that is. 22 ANSYS. Lab. DZ.

. All rights reserved.0. Proprietary . Uθ.0 ! ALL allows to couple all 3 DDL : Ur.ALL. Uz EXEMPLE2 © 2009 ANSYS. Inc.20.Coupling Equation : CycloSymmetry • Considering the following sector with a wedge spacing of 20° around Z with solid elements CPCYC.1. Inc. 23 ANSYS.

Inc. Proprietary  Apply  For © 2009 ANSYS.Coupling in Workbench New Boundary Conditions Support  Coupling Coupling Constraint of two or more faces coordinates for displacement control for fixed rotation  Cylindrical  Directional Applications  Use New at R12 Fixed Rotation. Inc. . All rights reserved. Cylindrical Coordinates coupling to model various joint/hinges rotation as an applied displacement 2D modeling. more granular control for rotations 24 ANSYS.

Proprietary . All rights reserved. 25 ANSYS.Outline • Overview • Connections – Remote Point – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Inc.

• Occasionally spurious natural frequencies can occur in modal analysis.MPC Contact • Limitations of existing bonded or no-separation contact ( with penalty or augmented lagrangian): • Results depend on specified contact stiffness. Proprietary . • RBE3 only supports force constraints applied on the master node. All rights reserved. 26 ANSYS. MPC surface constraints calculate weighing factors automatically © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. • Only translational DOFs apply • Limitations of existing constraint tools (CERIG and RBE3) • Only suitable for small strain. • Multiple iterations are required to adjust penetration in order to satisfy equilibrium even for small deformation problems. not displacements • RBE3 requires manual definition of weighing factors. Inc.

Inc. 27 ANSYS. no iteration is needed in solving system equations – For large deformation problems.MPC Contact • MPC algorithm enforces compatibility at an interface using internally generated constraint equations • Degrees of freedom of the contact nodes are eliminated – No normal or tangential stiffness required – For small deformation problem. Proprietary . All rights reserved. Inc. the MPC equations are updated during each iteration – This method only applies to bonded or no-separation behaviors – Not applicable for symmetric contact pairs • MPC is not available with node-to-node contact © 2009 ANSYS.

Proprietary . 28 ANSYS. the MPC equations are updated during each iteration – This method only applies to bonded or no-separation behaviors – Not applicable for symmetric contact pairs • MPC is not available with node-to-node contact © 2009 ANSYS.MPC Contact • MPC algorithm enforces compatibility at an interface using internally generated constraint equations • Degrees of freedom of the contact nodes are eliminated – No normal or tangential stiffness required – For small deformation problem. Inc. Inc. no iteration is needed in solving system equations – For large deformation problems. All rights reserved.

Outline • Overview • Connections – Remote Point – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Proprietary . 29 ANSYS.

Inc. All rights reserved.Bolt Pretension • You have an assembly with bolts • You want to take in consideration the prestress of the model © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary . 30 ANSYS.

Bolt Pretension • Procedure to follow: – Model all the parts – Mesh it – Put the pretention bolt in 2 steps: • First step: preload by load or adjustment • Second step: fix the pretension – Put the other loads – Check the results © 2009 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved. 31 ANSYS. Inc. Inc.

All rights reserved. Proprietary . Inc. 32 ANSYS. Inc.Bolt Pretension • How does ANSYS Apply bolt pretention? – Mesh bolt part – Choice of the section © 2009 ANSYS.

Inc. 33 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. Proprietary .Bolt Pretension • Creation of PRETS179 element: – The goal of these elements is to create the prestress on the model by penetrate the two surfaces. © 2009 ANSYS.

Bolt Pretension • Check of the PRETS179 in our example: © 2009 ANSYS. 34 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved. Inc. Inc.

Inc. Inc. Proprietary .Bolt Pretension Input for the pretention First step: load Second step: we lock Result We can clearly see the penetration due to the PRETS179 element © 2009 ANSYS. 35 ANSYS. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. 36 ANSYS.Outline • Overview • Connections – Remote Point – CE (Constraint Equation) – CP (Coupling Equation) • Contact • Bolt Pretension • Joints © 2009 ANSYS. Proprietary . Inc. Inc.

Proprietary .Joints Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Slot © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. 37 ANSYS. Inc.

ROTY. ROTX. Definition of a translational joint © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. 38 ANSYS. Proprietary .Joints • The kinematic joints give the opportunity to directly impose kinematic constraints between bodies with MPC184 element. ROTZ . All rights reserved. Inc. UZ. • Example of a translational Joint: – The Constrained degrees of freedom are: UY.

Joints • Setup of a kinematic joint: – Creation of two pilot nodes – Constraint equation between pilot node and Interfaces – Creation of element MPC 184 • WB automatically setup this for you What the solver sees…. All rights reserved. Inc. © 2009 ANSYS. 39 ANSYS. Proprietary . Inc..

All rights reserved.Joints: Configure Tool • Used to define initial position of the parts • Can detect locking and redundancy • Help to assemble unassembled models • Defined with a prescribed value of angle or translational degree of freedom © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary . 40 ANSYS. Inc.

41 ANSYS. Proprietary . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.Joints • Benefits of joints – Easy to set up – Easy to model Engineer joints – Large deformations are supported – Advanced friction definition – Easy modification of bodies positions through configure tool – Faster in most cases than penalty équivalents © 2009 ANSYS.

Inc.used to store mechanical energy and regains original shape after force is removed • Types: – Longitudinal – Torsional • Inputs: – pre-load – stiffness – damping • Can be scoped to part and/or ground • No geometrical representation © 2009 ANSYS. Proprietary . All rights reserved. Inc.Springs • An elastic element . 42 ANSYS.

three translations and three rotations • Inputs: • Stiffness Coefficients • Dampening Coefficients • Equivalent to having 6 independent springs for six DOF • Used to introduce flexibilities to an over-constrained mechanism © 2009 ANSYS. Proprietary . 43 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc.Bushing Joint • Has six degrees of freedom.

Inc.com 15/10/09 © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary . 44 ANSYS. All rights reserved.Assembly Modeling Using ANSYS Companion Samples Luc Pontoire Simon Mendy ansys-support-france@ansys.

Rotor/Stator and various modeling strategies 45 ANSYS. Inc. Proprietary .Companion Samples Translational coupling cyclo symmetry Rigid regions versus flexible regions © 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.